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Sample records for serum ldl cholesterol

  1. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

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    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  2. Association of Serum LDL Cholesterol Level with Periodontitis among Patients Visiting a Tertiary-care Hospital

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    S Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, some evidence has been presented that periodontitis,an infectious inflammatory condition of the periodontium, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To further elucidate this association, we have studied the levels of LDL cholesterol, a known risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in a periodontally-diseased group. Methods: The levels of serum LDL cholesterol in 47 subjects with mild to severe (clinical attachment loss equal to or greater than 1 mm chronic generalized (at least 30% of teeth affected periodontitis with the mean age of 42.21 ± 1.46 years were measured and compared with those obtained from 42 age (39.83 ± 0.94 and sex matched controls. Both groups were free from systemic illnesses. Results: The mean serum LDL cholesterol in periodontitis patients was found to be signifi cantly higher (P < 0.001 as compared to that of the controls. The mean clinical attachment loss was positively correlated with serum LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01 and gingival index (P<0.05. The frequency of persons with pathologic values of LDL cholesterol was signifi cantly higher in periodontitis patients compared with that of the controls. Conclusions: These results showed that high serum LDL cholesterol may be associated with periodontitis in healthy people. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis causes an increase in the levels of serum LDL or an increased LDL is a risk factor for both periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, LDL cholesterol, periodontitis.

  3. The effect of indigestible dextrin and phytosterol on serum LDL-cholesterol level on hypercholesterolemic subjects

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    Anna H. Then

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and phytosterol 2x0.6g/day provided for 6 weeks in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol levels amongs hypercholesterolemic subjects.Methods A randomized clinical trial, two pararel groups, double blinded and randomly assigned to each different group was done in 16 subjects per-group.Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol level in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24% with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterol level among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21% with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterol level between the two groups did not show any significant difference.Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9Key words: indigestible dextrin, phytosterol, cholesterol

  4. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

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    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  5. Differential reactivities of four homogeneous assays for LDL-cholesterol in serum to intermediate-density lipoproteins and small dense LDL: comparisons with the Friedewald equation.

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    Yamashita, Shizuya; Kawase, Ryota; Nakaoka, Hajime; Nakatani, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Miwako; Yuasa-Kawase, Miyako; Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Kazumi; Sandoval, Jose C; Masuda, Daisaku; Ohama, Tohru; Nakagawa-Toyama, Yumiko; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Nishida, Makoto; Ishigami, Masato

    2009-12-01

    In routine clinical laboratory testing and numerous epidemiological studies, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been estimated commonly using the Friedewald equation. We investigated the relationship between the Friedewald equation and 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C. LDL-C was determined by 4 homogeneous assays [liquid selective detergent method: LDL-C (L), selective solubilization method: LDL-C (S), elimination method: LDL-C (E), and enzyme selective protecting method: LDL-C (P)]. Samples with discrepancies between the Friedewald equation and the 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the beta-quantification method. The correlations between the Friedewald equation and the 4 homogeneous LDL-C assays were as follows: LDL-C (L) (r=0.962), LDL-C (S) (r=0.986), LDL-C (E) (r=0.946) and LDL-C (P) (r=0.963). Discrepancies were observed in sera from type III hyperlipoproteinemia patients and in sera containing large amounts of midband and small dense LDL on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. LDL-C (S) was most strongly correlated with the beta-quantification method even in sera from patients with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Of the 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C, LDL-C (S) exhibited the closest correlation with the Friedewald equation and the beta-quantification method, thus reflecting the current clinical databases for coronary heart disease.

  6. Circulating PCSK9 affects serum LDL and cholesterol levels more than SREBP-2 expression.

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    Mohammadi, Asghar; Shabani, Mohamad; Naseri, Faezeh; Hosseni, Bita; Soltanmohammadi, Elham; Piran, Sadegh; Najafi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is dependent upon the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) regulatory system and the functioning of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Many studies have also reported that low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cellular membranes are related to the functioning of these proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lipid profiles with circulating PCSK9 protein values and SREBP-2 expression levels in normal subjects. The study involved 120 randomly chosen healthy subjects. Their lipid profiles were measured using routine laboratory techniques, and the plasma PCSK9 protein and SREBP-2 expression levels were determined by ELISA and real time quantitative PCR methods, respectively. A statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between total cholesterol and PCSK9 (3.54 ± 1.31 ng/mL), as well as between total cholesterol and SREBP-2 (0.1-35.38) (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses showed strict correlations between PCSK9 and cholesterol-related parameters especially the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (β = 3.53, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between circulating PCSK9 and SREBP-2 expression levels (r = 1.2, p = 0.3). The study results revealed that serum cholesterol-related parameters are strictly associated with plasma PCSK9 values, suggesting that PCSK9 function has a greater effect on serum total cholesterol levels than SREBP-2 expression does. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator for evaluating PCSK9 level than total cholesterol.

  7. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

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    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  8. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.

    2006-01-01

    level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed......Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... abnormal or racial differences in serum lipid profiles seem to modulate the extent of complement activation and associated adverse responses. In accordance with our earlier observations, cholesterol-rich (45 mol% cholesterol) liposomes activated human complement, as reflected by a significant rise in serum...

  9. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

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    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (p<0.05). There was no dietary cholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (p<0.05). These results indicate that the hepatic mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and of 7alpha-hydroxylase depended on the dietary combination of cholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  10. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

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    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  11. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

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    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  12. LDL cholesterol lowering beyond statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdim, F.

    2010-01-01

    Fatima Akdim beschrijft drie nieuwe LDL-cholesterolverlagende medicijnen die elk via een ander mechanisme hun doel bereiken: mipomersen (een antisense-remmer), ezetemibe (een cholesterolabsorbtieremmer) en implitapide (een middel dat de transfer van triglyceridetransferproteines (MTP) remt).

  13. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product.

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    Bhardwaj, P K; Dasgupta, D J; Prashar, B S; Kaushal, S S

    1994-03-01

    A herbal powder containing guar gum, methi, tundika and meshasringi was administered to 30 control and 30 type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus patients for a month. Total serum cholesterol and its fractions eg, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and serum triglyceride were determined before and after the trial period. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols were reduced significantly after the therapy. There were no significant changes in high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) or triglyceride levels. Side-effects eg, mild flatulence and looseness of bowel were noticed in less than 40% cases.

  14. LDL cholesterol estimation in patients with the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gazi, Irene; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Saougos, Vasilios G; Bairaktari, Eleni T; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Friedewald formula (LDL-F) for the estimation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations is the most often used formula in clinical trials and clinical practice. However, much concern has been raised as to whether this formula is applicable in all patient populations such as the presence of chylomicronaemia and/or hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate various LDL cholesterol calculation formulas as well as LDL cholesterol ...

  15. Relationship among IL-6, LDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation.

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    Lubrano, Valter; Gabriele, Morena; Puntoni, Maria Rita; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies evidenced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels during an episode of acute inflammation. The aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of a regulatory role of cytokines through an in vitro model that simulates a situation of vascular inflammation and high levels of LDL or lipoperoxides. Human microvascular endothelial cells-1 were used in all experiments. The cells were exposed for 24 h to increasing doses of LDL, oxidized lipoprotein, and 8-isoprostane (in the absence or presence of SQ29.548, a TXA2 receptor antagonist). Moreover, LDL receptor and oxidized lipoprotein receptor expression analyzed after endothelial cells' incubation with increasing doses of interleukin-6. The ELISA test and quantitative real-time PCR were performed. Endothelial cells showed a significant increase in interleukin-6 medium levels associated with LDL, oxidized LDL and with the degree of oxidation (absence or presence of SQ29.548), while 8-isoprostane did not. Treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells-1 for 24 h with increasing doses of interleukin-6 significantly enhanced LDL receptor and oxidized lipoprotein receptor-1 mRNA expression. Our data suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism. The induction of a significant increase of IL-6 does not seem to be caused by the presence of the biological activity of 8-isoprostane.

  16. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS...

  17. The comparison of the effects of standard 20 mg atorvastatin daily and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day on serum LDL-cholesterol and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels.

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    Keleş, Telat; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Kayhan, Tuğba; Canbay, Alper; Sahin, Deniz; Durmaz, Tahir; Ozdemir, Ozcan; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Diker, Erdem

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of standard once daily 20 mg atorvastatin treatment with that of atorvastatin 20 mg administered every other day on serum lipids and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Sixty-one patients with serum total cholesterol levels of above 200 mg/dl and low density lipoprotein (LDL)--cholesterol levels of above 130 mg/dl were included in this prospective, randomized study. The patients were randomized into daily treatment of 20 mg atorvastatin (standard treatment) and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day (every other day treatment) groups. Before the treatment and at each visit, serum lipids and hs-CRP levels of all the patients were measured. Statistical analyses were performed Chi-square, unpaired t and two-way repeated measurements ANOVA tests. In the every other day treatment group, there was a 36.1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels by the end of first month (p0.05). The LDL cholesterol levels of the group receiving 20 mg atorvastatin every day was reduced by %41 by the end of 1 month (pevery other day, there was a 21% decrease in hs-CRP levels compared to the basal measurements at the end of first month (pevery day the decrease in hs-CRP levels at the end of one month was more striking (37%, p0.05). Alternate-day dosing of atorvastatin causes a significant lipid-lowering and antiinflammatory effects similar to that of daily administration and yet may provide some cost savings.

  18. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  19. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

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    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  20. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

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    ... Are Cholesterol-Lowering Medications? How Statins Work Medication Tracker Personal ... or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  1. Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Lewis, David; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily...... or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared...... with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD....

  2. The Success Story of LDL Cholesterol Lowering.

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    Pedersen, Terje R

    2016-02-19

    We can look back at >100 years of cholesterol research that has brought medicine to a stage where people at risk of severe or fatal coronary heart disease have a much better prognosis than before. This progress has not come about without resistance. Perhaps one of the most debated topics in medicine, the cholesterol controversy, could only be brought to rest through the development of new clinical research methods that were capable of taking advantage of the amazing achievements in basic and pharmacological science after the second World War. It was only after understanding the biochemistry and physiology of cholesterol synthesis, transport and clearance from the blood that medicine could take advantage of drugs and diets to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. This review points to the highlights of the history of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering, with the discovery of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and its physiology and not only the development of statins as the stellar moments but also the development of clinical trial methodology as an effective tool to provide scientifically convincing evidence. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Dose-dependent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect by plant stanol ester consumption: clinical evidence

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    Laitinen Kirsi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elevated serum lipids are linked to cardiovascular diseases calling for effective therapeutic means to reduce particularly LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Plant stanols reduce levels of LDL-C by partly blocking cholesterol absorption. Accordingly the consumption of foods with added plant stanols, typically esterified with vegetable oil fatty acids in commercial food products, are recommended for lowering serum cholesterol levels. A daily intake of 1.5 to 2.4 g of plant stanols has been scientifically evaluated to lower LDL-C by 7 to 10% in different populations, ages and with different diseases. Based on earlier studies, a general understanding is that no further reduction may be achieved in intakes in excess of approximately 2.5 g/day. Recent studies however suggest that plant stanols show a continuous dose–response effect in serum LDL-C lowering. This review discusses the evidence for a dose-effect relationship between plant stanol ester consumption and reduction of LDL-C concentrations with daily intakes of plant stanols of 4 g/day or more. We identified five such studies and the overall data demonstrate a linear dose-effect relationship with the most pertinent LDL-Cholesterol lowering outcome, 18%, achieved by a daily intake of 9 to 10 g of plant stanols. Along with reduction in LDL-C, the studies demonstrated a decrease in cholesterol absorption markers, the serum plant sterol to cholesterol ratios, by increasing the dose of plant stanol intake. None of the studies with daily intakes up to 10 g of plant stanols reported adverse clinical or biochemical effects from plant stanols. In a like manner, the magnitude of decrease in serum antioxidant vitamins was not related to the dose of plant stanols consumed and the differences between plant stanol ester consumers and controls were minor and insignificant or nonexisting. Consumption of plant stanols in high doses is feasible as a range of food products are commercially available for

  4. LDL cholesterol goals and cardiovascular risk during statin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how...

  5. Description of Discordance Between LDL Cholesterol, Non-HDL Cholesterol, and LDL Particle Number Among Patients of a Lipid Clinic

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    Joshua W Gaborcik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While LDL cholesterol measures the cholesterol content within an LDL particle (LDL-P, it may not reflect LDL-P concentrations. If discordance exists, LDL-P may better predict cardiovascular events compared to LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C. In primary prevention patients, discordance has been associated with diabetes, ethnicity, gender, metabolic syndrome, and smoking history. Objective: To describe discordance in patients of a lipid clinic by exploring associations between patient characteristics and discordance among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, or LDL-P. Secondarily to compare proportion of patients with baseline concordance versus discordance who have ASCVD events, diagnoses of new onset diabetes or death. Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study at a large academic medical center was conducted. Patients establishing care from January 2009 through December 2012 with complete initial labs were included. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between discordance and patient characteristics. Results: Of 603 patients screened, the final cohort included 166 patients with 104 (62.7% discordant. LDL-P was the most common discordant value. Discordance was associated with gender, smoking status, use of lipid lowering medications, and achieving patient specific LDL-C goals. In terms of any event observed after initial measurements, no significant differences were detected between discordant and concordant groups. Conclusion: Within a lipid clinic population, discordance was associated with male gender, smoking status, lipid-lowering therapy, and being at patient specific LDL-C goal. While associations were found in our population, clinicians should consider measuring LDL-P to fully assess presence or extent of discordance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the

  6. The association between adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and α1-antitrypsin-LDL in female subjects without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-12-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may act as an atheroprotective (anti-atherosclerotic) agent under some conditions. While the α1-antitrypsin (AT)-LDL complex is considered a type of oxidized LDL, its clinical relevance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between AT-LDL and anti-atherosclerotic variables such as HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In asymptomatic females (n = 194; mean age, 54 years) who were divided into non-MetS (n = 108) and MetS groups (n = 86), the fasting levels of serum AT-LDL, adiponectin and glucose/lipid panels were measured, in addition to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The MetS group showed significantly higher BMI, blood pressure, glucose and triglyceride levels as well as significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin than the non-MetS group. A multivariate-adjusted analysis revealed that in the non-MetS group, AT-LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with adiponectin (β = 0.297, P cholesterol (β = 0.217, P LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol only (β = 0.342, P LDL may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects in female subjects without MetS. More studies are required to clarify the clinical roles of AT-LDL in relation to the pathophysiology of MetS.

  7. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  8. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  9. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  10. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  11. miRNA regulation of LDL-cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedeke, Leigh; Wagschal, Alexandre; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Näär, Anders M

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of circulating levels of lipoproteins. Specifically, recent work has uncovered the role of miRNAs in controlling the levels of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein LDL (LDL)-cholesterol by post-transcriptionally regulating genes involved in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) expression. Interestingly, several of these miRNAs are located in genomic loci associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. These findings reinforce the interest of targeting this subset of non-coding RNAs as potential therapeutic avenues for regulating plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) levels. In this review, we will discuss how these new miRNAs represent potential pre-disposition factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and putative therapeutic targets in patients with cardiometabolic disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MicroRNAs and lipid/energy metabolism and related diseases edited by Carlos Fernández-Hernando and Yajaira Suárez. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  13. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  14. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    absorption inhibition with STAEST. Serum plant sterol concentrations decrease dose-dependently in response to plant stanols suggesting that the higher the plant stanol dose, the more cholesterol absorption is inhibited and the greater the reduction in LDL cholesterol level is that can be achieved. Clinical Trials Register # NCT00698256 [Eur J Nutr 2010, 49:111-117].

  15. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  17. Targeting LDL Cholesterol: Beyond Absolute Goals Toward Personalized Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Morton; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Basu, Sanjay; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk. Population-based risk models serve as the basis for statin initiation in primary prevention. Reviews of current population risk models for primary prevention show moderate ability to discriminate [with c-statistics ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 (95% CIs from 0.62 to 0.83) for men and women] with poor calibration and overestimation of risk. Individual clinical trial data are not compelling to support specific LDL-C targets and percent reductions in secondary prevention. Increasing utilization of electronic health records and data analytics will enable the development of individualized treatment goals in both primary and secondary prevention.

  18. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were used for haematological and parasitological analyses and determination of serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). All animals in the infected group showed parasitaemia by day ...

  19. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  20. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  1. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited. Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol. Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period. Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no

  2. 2013 Cholesterol Guidelines Revisited: Percent LDL Cholesterol Reduction or Attained LDL Cholesterol Level or Both for Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Kastelein, John J.; Laskey, Rachel; Amarenco, Pierre; Demicco, David A.; Waters, David D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends moderate- to high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but departs from the traditional treat-to-target approach. Whether

  3. Oxidative stress and hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct in renal patients with different LDL phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Milica; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Gojkovic, Tamara; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Milan; Simic-Ogrizovic, Sanja; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2016-10-01

    Unfavorable lipid profile is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal pathology. In this study, we compared chronic renal patients and healthy controls with different LDL phenotypes (A or B) in respect of various biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense parameters [thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), total oxidative status (TOS), total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total protein sulfhydryl (-SH) groups], as well as red blood cell cholesterol distribution were assessed in 40 renal patients and 40 control subjects by standardized assays. LDL particle diameters were determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. LDL particles are subdivided according to their size into large LDL A phenotype (diameter >25.5 nm) and small LDL B phenotype (diameter ≤25.5 nm). Renal patients with LDL A phenotype had increased oxidative stress (TOS: p LDL phenotype. A notable decrease in hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct was detected in patients with LDL A phenotype (p LDL B phenotype (p LDL B phenotype was characterized with increased TBARS (p LDL A phenotype in control group. Increased oxidative stress, decreased anti-oxidative defense followed with unfavorable changes in hemoglobin-cholesterol binding capacity, could have important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients regardless of LDL phenotype.

  4. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  5. Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces cardiovascular risk independently of presence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Benjamin C; Staplin, Natalie; Haynes, Richard

    2018-01-01

    in patients with chronic kidney disease. To evaluate this, we used data from the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) to assess associations between circulating CRP and LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of vascular and non-vascular outcomes. Major vascular events were defined as nonfatal myocardial...... LDL cholesterol and non-vascular events (0.96, 0.92-0.99). The efficacy of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin/ezetimibe on major vascular events, in the randomized comparison, was similar irrespective of CRP concentration at baseline. Thus, decisions to offer statin-based therapy to patients...

  6. Mechanism of transfer of LDL-derived free cholesterol to HDL subfractions in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miida, T.; Fielding, C.J.; Fielding, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The transfer of [ 3 H]cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to different high-density lipoprotein (HDL) species in native human plasma was determined by using nondenaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis. Transfer from LDL had a t 1/2 at 37 degree C of 51 ± 8 min and an activation energy of 18.0 kCal mol -1 . There was unexpected specificity among HDL species as acceptors of LDL-derived labeled cholesterol. The largest fraction of the major α-migrating class (HDL 2b ) was the major initial acceptor of LDL-derived cholesterol. Kinetic analysis indicated a rapid secondary transfer from HDL 2b to smaller αHDL (particularly HDL 3 ) driven enzymatically by the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. Rates of transfer among αHDL were most rapid from the largest αHDL fraction (HDL 2b ), suggesting possible protein-mediated facilitation. Simultaneous measurements of the transport of LDL-derived and cell-derived isotopic cholesterol indicated that the former preferably utilized the αHDL pathyway, with little label in pre-βHDL. The same experiments confirmed earlier data that cell-derived cholesterol is preferentially channeled through pre-βHDL. The authors suggest that the functional heterogeneity of HDL demonstrated here includes the ability to independently process cell- and LDL-derived free cholesterol

  7. Influence of Chitosan Treatment on Surrogate Serum Markers of Cholesterol Metabolism in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Lütjohann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol, synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol, and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols. Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28.1–38.9 kg/m2 were studied under chitosan (n = 61 and placebo treatments (n = 55. The participants were briefly educated regarding improvement of nutrition quality and energy expenditure. Daily chitosan intake was 3200 mg. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly more (p = 0.0252 under chitosan (−8.67 ± 18.18 mg/dL, 5.6% than under placebo treatment (−1.00 ± 24.22 mg/dL, 0.9%. This reduction was not associated with the expected greater decreases in markers of cholesterol absorption under chitosan treatment. Also, increases in markers of cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis under chitosan treatment were not any greater than under placebo treatment. In conclusion, a significant selective reduction of serum LDL cholesterol under chitosan treatment is neither associated with a reduction of serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption, nor with increases of markers for cholesterol and bile acid synthesis.

  8. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (PLDL-cholesterol (Pcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  9. Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Svarrer, Eva Martha Madsen; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.......Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis....

  10. The effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Techakriengkrai1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg is a major source of dietary cholesterol. The serum lipid response to egg shows marked individual variation, beingpartly genetically determined, and influence by ethnic groups and the overall diet response. In the present investigation, weinvestigated the effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemicwomen. Forty hypercholesterolemic women volunteers on a cholesterol-lowering diet (CLD divided into 2 groups ina randomized controlled cross-over study of one egg per day (CLD + 1 egg for 4-week and three eggs per day (CLD + 3 eggsfor 4-week, separated by 4-week period egg-free. The body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles and LDL oxidationwere measured at 4-week intervals. Cholesterol-lowering diet was applied throughout the study by a dietitian using a foodexchange program and 3-day dietary recall every 4 weeks. Compared to the values obtained at baseline, the mean serum totalcholesterol and LDL cholesterol of CLD + 3 eggs was not significantly different from baseline whereas of those of 4-week ofegg-free period and CLD + 1 egg were significantly decreased (238.3±2.9 mg/dL and 228.3±4.7 mg/dL compared to thebaseline (252.2±5.9 mg/dL as was LDL cholesterol (161.2±3.0 mg/dL and 155.7±4.8 mg/dL compared to the baseline (177.5±6.0 mg/dL (p<0.05. The study showed there were no significantly difference the body weight, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol,triglycerides or LDL oxidation during the study. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1 or 3 eggsper day after 4-week of egg consumption was not significantly higher than the egg-free period. The study suggests that inhypercholesterolemic women who are on cholesterol-lowering diet, consuming one or three eggs per day did not raise serumcholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels at 4 weeks or result in any change in LDL oxidation.

  11. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kausik K; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P T; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L J; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R Scott; Kastelein, John J P

    2017-04-13

    In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial of inclisiran administered as a subcutaneous injection in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of placebo or 200, 300, or 500 mg of inclisiran or two doses (at days 1 and 90) of placebo or 100, 200, or 300 mg of inclisiran. The primary end point was the change from baseline in LDL cholesterol level at 180 days. Safety data were available through day 210, and data on LDL cholesterol and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels were available through day 240. A total of 501 patients underwent randomization. Patients who received inclisiran had dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels. At day 180, the least-squares mean reductions in LDL cholesterol levels were 27.9 to 41.9% after a single dose of inclisiran and 35.5 to 52.6% after two doses (PLDL cholesterol levels: 48% of the patients who received the regimen had an LDL cholesterol level below 50 mg per deciliter (1.3 mmol per liter) at day 180. At day 240, PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels remained significantly lower than at baseline in association with all inclisiran regimens. Serious adverse events occurred in 11% of the patients who received inclisiran and in 8% of the patients who received placebo. Injection-site reactions occurred in 5% of the patients who received injections of inclisiran. In our trial, inclisiran was found to lower PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels among patients at high cardiovascular risk who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. (Funded by the Medicines Company

  12. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  13. LDL-Cholesterol Increases the Transcytosis of Molecules through Endothelial Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Ana; Matias, Inês; Palmela, Inês; Brito, Maria Alexandra; Dias, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol has been identified as a causative factor in numerous pathologies including atherosclerosis and cancer. One of the frequent effects of elevated cholesterol levels in humans is the compromise of endothelial function due to activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. While the mechanisms involved in endothelial activation by cholesterol during an inflammatory response are well established, less is known about the mechanisms by which cholesterol may affect endothelial barrier function, which were the subject of the present study. Here we show that low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases the permeability of endothelial monolayers to high molecular weight dextrans in an LDL receptor and cholesterol-dependent manner. The increased permeability seen upon LDL treatment was not caused by disruption of cell-to-cell junctions as determined by a normal localization of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1 proteins, and no major alterations in transendothelial electrical resistance or permeability to fluorescein. We show instead that LDL increases the level of high molecular weight transcytosis and that this occurs in an LDL receptor, cholesterol and caveolae-dependent way. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the systemic pathological effects of elevated cholesterol and the transport of cargo through endothelial monolayers.

  14. Low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction levels in serum of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, J B; Patin, F; Piver, E; Bruno, C; Vasse, M; Vourc'h, P; Andres, C R; Corcia, P; Blasco, H

    2017-09-15

    Converging evidence highlights that lipid metabolism plays a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Dyslipidemia has been described in ALS patients and may be protective but peripheral lipoprotein subclasses have never been studied. We collected sera from 30 ALS patients and 30 gender and age-matched controls. We analyzed 11 distinct lipoprotein subclasses by linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix Corporation, USA). We also measured lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein E levels. ALS patients had significant higher total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels than controls (pALS patients than controls. Our preliminary work confirmed the association between ALS and dyslipidemia. The low IDL-B levels may explain the hepatic steatosis frequently reported in ALS. The high levels of the cholesterol-rich LDL-1 subfraction is consistent with previously reported hypercholesterolemia. This study describes, for the first time, the distribution of serum lipoproteins in ALS patients, with low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of LDL apheresis on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway in familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsoni, Alexina; Villard, Elise F.; Bruckert, Eric; Robillard, Paul; Carrie, Alain; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Chapman, M. John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that reduce their capacity to mediate the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of LDL apheresis

  16. LDL cholesterol counteracts the antitumour effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Sei; Makhov, Peter; Astsaturov, Igor; Golovine, Konstantin; Tulin, Alexei; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2017-04-25

    Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) significantly improves survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, about one-quarter of the RCC patients are primarily refractory to treatment with TKIs. We examined viability of RCC and endothelial cells treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and/or TKIs. Next, we validated the potential role of PI3K/AKT signalling in LDL-mediated TKI resistance. Finally, we examined the effect of a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet on the response of RCC xenograft tumours to sunitinib. The addition of LDL cholesterol increases activation of PI3K/AKT signalling and compromises the antitumour efficacy of TKIs against RCC and endothelial cells. Furthermore, RCC xenograft tumours resist TKIs in mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. The ability of renal tumours to maintain their cholesterol homoeostasis may be a critical component of TKI resistance in RCC patients.

  17. oxLDL induces endothelial cell proliferation via Rho/ROCK/Akt/p27kip1 signaling: opposite effects of oxLDL and cholesterol loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxu; Adamos, Crystal; Oh, Myung-Jin; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Ayee, Manuela A A; Mehta, Dolly; Wary, Kishore K; Levitan, Irena

    2017-09-01

    Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxLDL-mediated cellular behavior are not completely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper-oxidized LDL (Cu 2+ -oxLDL) and lipoxygenase-oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL), on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cu 2+ -oxLDL enhanced HAECs' proliferation in a dose- and degree of oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also enhanced HAEC proliferation. Mechanistically, both Cu 2+ -oxLDL and LPO-oxLDL enhance HAEC proliferation via activation of Rho, Akt phosphorylation, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 ). Both Cu 2+ -oxLDL or LPO-oxLDL significantly increased Akt phosphorylation, whereas an Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked oxLDL-induced increase in HAEC proliferation. Blocking Rho with C3 or its downstream target ROCK with Y27632 significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and proliferation mediated by both Cu 2+ - and LPO-oxLDL. Activation of RhoA was blocked by Rho-GDI-1, which also abrogated oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. In contrast, blocking Rac1 in these cells had no effect on oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Moreover, oxLDL-induced Rho/Akt signaling downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27 kip1 Preloading these cells with cholesterol, however, prevented oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. These findings provide a new understanding of the effects of oxLDL on endothelial proliferation, which is essential for developing new treatments against neovascularization and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  19. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-03-01

    Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2.4 (1.9-2.9) for remnant cholesterol of ≥1.5 mmol/L (58 mg/dL) (P for trend LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol of 3-3.99 mmol/L (115.8-154 mg/dL) to 2.3 (1.9-2.8) for LDL cholesterol of ≥5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) (P cholesterol (P LDL cholesterol (P cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with all-cause mortality ranging from hazard ratio 1.0 (0.9-1.1) to 1.6 (1.4-1.9) (P LDL cholesterol concentrations were associated with decreased all-cause mortality risk in a U-shaped pattern, with hazard ratios from 0.8 (0.7-0.8) to 0.9 (0.8-1.0) (P = 0.002). After mutual adjustment, LDL cholesterol best predicted MI, and remnant cholesterol best predicted all-cause mortality. Both lipoproteins were associated equally with risk of IHD and MI; however, only nonfasting remnant cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with increased all-cause mortality risk. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  1. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  2. [Lipids and cerebrovascular disease - New therapeutic options in lowering LDL-cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovadi, Emese; Csécsei, Péter; Lovig, Csenge; Karádi, Zsófia; Szapáry, László

    2016-12-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide following myocardial infaction and malignancies, furthermore, its functional outcome is the worst of all conditions. Cholesterol, especially LDL-cholesterol plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. It has been verified recently that escalating incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases are proportional to increased levels of LDL-cholesterol. Statin therapy undeniably reduces the risk of stroke, however other methods for decreasing lipid levels have not been proved significantly effective. Preventive effect of high-dose statin treatment is without doubt, although administration of such high dosage might require special precautions for patients with prior intracerebral hemorrhage and it also risks development of incident diabetes. The recently published IMPROVE-IT study is the first to prove that the addition of ezetimibe as a non-statin type drug, to statin treatment contributes to further reduction of LDL-cholesterol. The combination treatment results in additional decrease in the incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular events, without any expansion in the number or adverse effects. These results confirm the importance of any further reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels. Achieving target values with statin-ezetimibe combination allows administration of low to moderate dose of statin, which decreases risks of adverse effects related to high-dose statin therapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(52), 2059-2065.

  3. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  5. Purple perilla extracts with α-asarone enhance cholesterol efflux from oxidized LDL-exposed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The cellular accumulation of cholesterol is critical in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating the efflux of excess cholesterol. In the current study, we investigated whether purple Perilla frutescens extracts (PPE) at a non-toxic concentration of 1-10 µg/ml stimulate the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden J774A.1 murine macrophages exposed to 50 ng/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Purple perilla, an annual herb in the mint family and its constituents, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytostatic activity, as well as to exert anti-allergic effects. Our results revealed that treatment with oxidized LDL for 24 h led to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the macrophages. PPE suppressed the oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation by blocking the induction of scavenger receptor B1. However, PPE promoted the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and subsequently accelerated cholesterol efflux from the lipid-loaded macrophages. The liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO-091317, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, pioglitazone, increased ABCA1 expression and treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE further enhanced this effect. PPE did not induce LXRα and PPARγ expression per se, but enhanced their expression in the macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone was isolated from PPE and characterized as a major component enhancing the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone, but not β-asarone was effective in attenuating foam cell formation and enhancing cholesterol efflux, revealing an isomeric difference in their activity. The results from the present study demonstrate that PPE promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophages by activating the interaction of PPARγ-LXRα-ABC transporters.

  6. Interleukin-6 blockade raises LDL via reduced catabolism rather than via increased synthesis: a cytokine-specific mechanism for cholesterol changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jamie; Porter, Duncan; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J; Caslake, Muriel; McInnes, Iain; McCarey, David

    2017-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL. Serum total cholesterol (4.8 vs 5.7 mmol/L, p=0.003), LDL-c (2.9 vs 3.4 mmol/L, p=0.014) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.23 vs 1.52 mmol/L, p=0.006) increased following tocilizumab therapy. The LDL FCR fell from a state of hypercatabolism to a value approximating that of the normal population (0.53 vs 0.27 pools/day, p=0.006). Changes in FCR correlated tightly with changes in serum LDL-c and C-reactive protein but not Clinical Disease Activity Index. Patients with RA have low serum LDL-c due to hypercatabolism of LDL particles. IL-6 blockade normalises this catabolism in a manner associating with the acute phase response (and thus hepatic IL-6 signalling) but not with RA disease activity as measured clinically. We demonstrate that IL-6 is one of the key drivers of inflammation-driven dyslipidaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. HDL cholesterol, LDL receptor activity and response to dietary cholesterol *1 A reply to the letter of Cortese, Miller, Marenah and Lewis [2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the concentration of cholesterol in blood plasma is partly accounted for by differences in diet, age, sex and genetic constitution. No correlation between plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and the activity of the LDL receptor in white blood cells could be

  8. Continuous Dose-Response Response Relationship of the LDL-Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Phytosterol Intake 1,2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demonty, I.; Ras, R.T.; Knaap, van der H.C.M.; Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E.; Meijer, L.; Zock, P.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)¿lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C¿lowering efficacy of different

  9. Whole-exome sequencing identifies rare and low-frequency coding variants associated with LDL cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Lange (Leslie); Y. Hu (Youna); H. Zhang (He); C. Xue (Chenyi); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); Z.-Z. Tang (Zheng-Zheng); C. Bizon (Chris); E.M. Lange (Ethan); G.D. Smith; E.H. Turner (Emily); Y. Jun (Yang); H.M. Kang (Hyun Min); G.M. Peloso (Gina); P. Auer (Paul); K.-P. Li (Kuo-Ping); J. Flannick (Jason); J. Zhang (Ji); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); K. Gaulton (Kyle); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); A. Locke (Adam); A.K. Manning (Alisa); X. Sim (Xueling); M.A. Rivas (Manuel); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); Y. Lu (Yingchang); D. Ruderfer (Douglas); E.A. Stahl (Eli); Q. Duan (Qing); Y. Li (Yun); P. Durda (Peter); S. Jiao (Shuo); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.D. Correa; M.D. Griswold (Michael); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); G.D. Smith; P.J. Schreiner (Pamela); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Crosby; C.L. Wassel (Christina); R. Do (Ron); N. Franceschini (Nora); L.W. Martin (Lisa); J.G. Robinson (Jennifer); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); D.R. Crosslin (David); E.A. Rosenthal (Elisabeth); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); M. Rieder (Mark); D.N. Farlow (Deborah); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); T. Lumley (Thomas); E.R. Fox (Ervin); C.S. Carlson (Christopher); U. Peters (Ulrike); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D. Levy (Daniel); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); H.A. Taylor (Herman); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.S. Siscovick (David); M. Fornage (Myriam); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); C. Hayward (Caroline); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.E. Chen (Y. Eugene); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); P. Sætrom (Pål); K. Hveem (Kristian); M. Boehnke (Michael); L. Groop (Leif); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Ballantyne (Christie); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); K.E. North (Kari); A. Reiner (Alexander); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D. Altshuler (David); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); D.Y. Lin (Dan); G.P. Jarvik (Gail); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Kooperberg (Charles); J.G. Wilson (James); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); S.S. Rich (Stephen); R.P. Tracy (Russell); C.J. Willer (Cristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency

  10. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, Kausik K.; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P. T.; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R. Scott; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers.

  11. LDL cholesterol in CKD-to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massy, Ziad A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    In the majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are usually normal, with the exception of patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Moreover, epidemiological evidence shows that the link

  12. The effects of phytosterols present in natural food matrices on cholesterol metabolism and LDL-cholesterol: a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Racette, S B; Lefevre, M; Spearie, C A; Most, M; Ma, L; Ostlund, R E

    2010-12-01

    Extrinsic phytosterols supplemented to the diet reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. However, little is known about their effects on cholesterol metabolism when given in native, unpurified form and in amounts achievable in the diet. The objective of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that intrinsic phytosterols present in unmodified foods alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism. In all, 20 out of 24 subjects completed a randomized, crossover feeding trial wherein all meals were provided by a metabolic kitchen. Each subject consumed two diets for 4 weeks each. The diets differed in phytosterol content (phytosterol-poor diet, 126 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal; phytosterol-abundant diet, 449 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal), but were otherwise matched for nutrient content. Cholesterol absorption and excretion were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after oral administration of stable isotopic tracers. The phytosterol-abundant diet resulted in lower cholesterol absorption (54.2±2.2% (95% confidence interval 50.5%, 57.9%) vs 73.2±1.3% (69.5%, 76.9%), Pphytosterol-poor diet. Plasma lathosterol/cholesterol ratio rose by 82% (from 0.71±0.11 (0.41, 0.96) to 1.29±0.14 μg/mg (0.98, 1.53), Pphytosterols at levels present in a healthy diet are biologically active and have large effects on whole-body cholesterol metabolism not reflected in circulating LDL. More work is needed to assess the effects of phytosterol-mediated fecal cholesterol excretion on coronary heart disease risk in humans.

  13. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Imputation of Baseline LDL Cholesterol Concentration in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia on Statins or Ezetimibe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Isabelle; Aljenedil, Sumayah; Sadri, Iman; de Varennes, Émilie; Hegele, Robert A; Couture, Patrick; Bergeron, Jean; Wanneh, Eric; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Brunham, Liam R; Francis, Gordon A; Cermakova, Lubomira; Brophy, James M; Ryomoto, Arnold; Mancini, G B John; Genest, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR , PCSK9 , or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy. The concentration of baseline LDL-C (untreated) is essential for the diagnosis of FH but is often not available because the individual is already on statin therapy. To validate a new algorithm to impute baseline LDL-C, we examined 1297 patients. The baseline LDL-C was compared with the imputed baseline obtained within 18 months of the initiation of therapy. We compared the percent reduction in LDL-C on treatment from baseline with the published percent reductions. After eliminating individuals with missing data, nonstandard doses of statins, or medications other than statins or ezetimibe, we provide data on 951 patients. The mean ± SE baseline LDL-C was 243.0 (2.2) mg/dL [6.28 (0.06) mmol/L], and the mean ± SE imputed baseline LDL-C was 244.2 (2.6) mg/dL [6.31 (0.07) mmol/L] ( P = 0.48). There was no difference in response according to the patient's sex or in percent reduction between observed and expected for individual doses or types of statin or ezetimibe. We provide a validated estimation of baseline LDL-C for patients with FH that may help clinicians in making a diagnosis. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  15. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  16. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells by a serum factor(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, J.L.; Brown, C.; Cooper, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 by serum components was examined. Incubation of dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells with fresh medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FM) produced a time-dependent increase in LDL receptor activity. Uptake and degradation of 125I-LDL was stimulated two- to four-fold, as compared with that of Hep-G2 cells cultured in the same media in which they had been grown to confluence (CM); the maximal 125I-LDL uptake plus degradation increased from 0.2 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h to 0.8 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h. In addition, a two-fold increase in cell surface binding of 125I-LDL to Hep-G2 cells was observed when binding was measured at 4 degrees C. There was no change in the apparent Kd. The stimulation of LDL receptor activity was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of cholesterol, as LDL, to the cell medium. In contrast to the stimulation of LDL receptor activity, FM did not affect the uptake or degradation of 125I-asialoorosomucoid. Addition of FM increased the protein content per dish, and DNA synthesis was stimulated approximately five-fold, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; however, the cell number did not change. Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis was also stimulated by FM; [14C]acetate incorporation into unesterified and esterified cholesterol was increased approximately five-fold. Incubation of Hep-G2 cells with high-density lipoproteins (200 micrograms protein/ml) or albumin (8.0 mg/ml) in the absence of the serum factor did not significantly increase the total processed 125I-LDL. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity was dependent on a heat-stable, nondialyzable serum component that eluted in the inclusion volume of a Sephadex G-75 column

  17. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  18. Continuous dose-response relationship of the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonty, Isabelle; Ras, Rouyanne T; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Meijer, Linsie; Zock, Peter L; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Trautwein, Elke A

    2009-02-01

    Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of different phytosterol doses. Eighty-four trials including 141 trial arms were included. A nonlinear equation comprising 2 parameters (the maximal LDL-C lowering and an incremental dose step) was used to describe the dose-response curve. The overall pooled absolute (mmol/L) and relative (%) LDL-C-lowering effects of phytosterols were also assessed with a random effects model. The pooled LDL-C reduction was 0.34 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.36, -0.31) or 8.8% (95% CI: -9.4, -8.3) for a mean daily dose of 2.15 g phytosterols. The impacts of subject baseline characteristics, food formats, type of phytosterols, and study quality on the continuous dose-response curve were determined by regression or subgroup analyses. Higher baseline LDL-C concentrations resulted in greater absolute LDL-C reductions. No significant differences were found between dose-response curves established for plant sterols vs. stanols, fat-based vs. non fat-based food formats and dairy vs. nondairy foods. A larger effect was observed with solid foods than with liquid foods only at high phytosterol doses (>2 g/d). There was a strong tendency (P = 0.054) towards a slightly lower efficacy of single vs. multiple daily intakes of phytosterols. In conclusion, the dose-dependent LDL-C-lowering efficacy of phytosterols incorporated in various food formats was confirmed and equations of the continuous relationship were established to predict the effect of a given phytosterol dose. Further investigations are warranted to investigate the impact of solid vs. liquid food formats and frequency of intake on phytosterol efficacy.

  19. Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2018-01-01

    oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [Formula: see text] (LXR[Formula: see text] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[Formula: see text]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[Formula: see text] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[Formula: see text] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[Formula: see text] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent

  20. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  1. [Lack of association between LDL-cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elisa; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Ferro, Yvelise; De Bonis, Daniele; Gorgone, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the association between LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue using carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Women aged 35-79 years were consecutively enrolled in the study. They underwent a questionnaire to assess cardiovascular disease, a clinical examination to assess blood pressure and anthropometric variables, a biochemical evaluation of lipid profile and glucose, and an ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries. The study population was divided into two age groups (≤65 years and >65 years), and each group was then divided into two subgroups according to LDL-C level (normal and high). A Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between groups, and a chi square test was used to compare the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. A lack of association between LDL-C and carotid intima-media thickness was observed in subjects aged >65 years, with the intima-media thickness average being similar between those with and without high LDL-C. Conversely, a significant difference in carotid intima-media thickness was observed among adults with and without high LDL-C level. Our findings, similar to those obtained in other epidemiological studies, provide the rationale for revising the use of statins in elderly women without cardiovascular disease.

  2. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Rare and Low-Frequency Coding Variants Associated with LDL Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A.; Hu, Youna; Zhang, He; Xue, Chenyi; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Bizon, Chris; Lange, Ethan M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Turner, Emily H.; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Peloso, Gina; Auer, Paul; Li, Kuo-ping; Flannick, Jason; Zhang, Ji; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle; Lindgren, Cecilia; Locke, Adam; Manning, Alisa; Sim, Xueling; Rivas, Manuel A.; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Gottesman, Omri; Lu, Yingchang; Ruderfer, Douglas; Stahl, Eli A.; Duan, Qing; Li, Yun; Durda, Peter; Jiao, Shuo; Isaacs, Aaron; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Correa, Adolfo; Griswold, Michael E.; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Smith, Albert V.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Crosby, Jacy; Wassel, Christina L.; Do, Ron; Franceschini, Nora; Martin, Lisa W.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Crosslin, David R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Tsai, Michael; Rieder, Mark J.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lumley, Thomas; Fox, Ervin R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Peters, Ulrike; Jackson, Rebecca D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Levy, Daniel; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fornage, Myriam; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Chen, Y. Eugene; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Sætrom, Pål; Hveem, Kristian; Boehnke, Michael; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark; Meitinger, Thomas; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar; Lin, Dan-Yu; Jarvik, Gail P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Willer, Cristen J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Altshuler, David M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Allayee, Hooman; Cresci, Sharon; Daly, Mark J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; DePristo, Mark A.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Peter; Farlow, Deborah N.; Fennell, Tim; Garimella, Kiran; Hazen, Stanley L.; Hu, Youna; Jordan, Daniel M.; Jun, Goo; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kang, Hyun Min; Kiezun, Adam; Lettre, Guillaume; Li, Bingshan; Li, Mingyao; Newton-Cheh, Christopher H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peloso, Gina; Pulit, Sara; Rader, Daniel J.; Reich, David; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Schwartz, Steve; Scott, Laura; Siscovick, David S.; Spertus, John A.; Stitziel, Nathaniel O.; Stoletzki, Nina; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Willer, Cristen J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Atwood, Larry D.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Barbalic, Maja; Barr, R. Graham; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bis, Joshua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W.; Brody, Jennifer; Budoff, Matthew; Burke, Greg; Buxbaum, Sarah; Carr, Jeff; Chen, Donna T.; Chen, Ida Y.; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Pat; Crosby, Jacy; Cupples, L. Adrienne; D’Agostino, Ralph; DeStefano, Anita L.; Dreisbach, Albert; Dupuis, Josée; Durda, J. Peter; Ellis, Jaclyn; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fornage, Myriam; Fox, Caroline S.; Fox, Ervin; Funari, Vincent; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gardin, Julius; Goff, David; Gordon, Ora; Grody, Wayne; Gross, Myron; Guo, Xiuqing; Hall, Ira M.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heintz, Nicholas; Herrington, David M.; Hickson, DeMarc; Huang, Jie; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Jacobs, David R.; Jenny, Nancy S.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Johnson, Craig W.; Kawut, Steven; Kronmal, Richard; Kurz, Raluca; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Larson, Martin G.; Lawson, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Levy, Daniel; Li, Dalin; Lin, Honghuang; Liu, Chunyu; Liu, Jiankang; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yongmei; Longstreth, William T.; Loria, Cay; Lumley, Thomas; Lunetta, Kathryn; Mackey, Aaron J.; Mackey, Rachel; Manichaikul, Ani; Maxwell, Taylor; McKnight, Barbara; Meigs, James B.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; North, Kari; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; O’Leary, Daniel; Ong, Frank; Palmas, Walter; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan D.; Paul, Shom; Perez, Marco; Person, Sharina D.; Polak, Joseph; Post, Wendy S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sanders, Jill P.; Schreiner, Pamela; Seshadri, Sudha; Shea, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Silverstein, Kevin; Smith, Nicholas L.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Srinivasan, Asoke; Taylor, Herman A.; Taylor, Kent; Thomas, Fridtjof; Tracy, Russell P.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wassel, Chrstina L.; Watson, Karol; Wei, Gina; White, Wendy; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Wilson, Gregory; Wilson, James G.; Wolf, Phillip; Zakai, Neil A.; Hardy, John; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Worrall, Brad; Bamshad, Michael J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Accurso, Frank; Anbar, Ran; Beaty, Terri; Bigham, Abigail; Black, Phillip; Bleecker, Eugene; Buckingham, Kati; Cairns, Anne Marie; Caplan, Daniel; Chatfield, Barbara; Chidekel, Aaron; Cho, Michael; Christiani, David C.; Crapo, James D.; Crouch, Julia; Daley, Denise; Dang, Anthony; Dang, Hong; De Paula, Alicia; DeCelie-Germana, Joan; Drumm, Allen DozorMitch; Dyson, Maynard; Emerson, Julia; Emond, Mary J.; Ferkol, Thomas; Fink, Robert; Foster, Cassandra; Froh, Deborah; Gao, Li; Gershan, William; Gibson, Ronald L.; Godwin, Elizabeth; Gondor, Magdalen; Gutierrez, Hector; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Hiatt, Peter; Hokanson, John E.; Howenstine, Michelle; Hummer, Laura K.; Kanga, Jamshed; Kim, Yoonhee; Knowles, Michael R.; Konstan, Michael; Lahiri, Thomas; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Lin, Lin; Lin, Xihong; Louie, Tin L.; Lynch, David; Make, Barry; Martin, Thomas R.; Mathai, Steve C.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNamara, John; McNamara, Sharon; Meyers, Deborah; Millard, Susan; Mogayzel, Peter; Moss, Richard; Murray, Tanda; Nielson, Dennis; Noyes, Blakeslee; O’Neal, Wanda; Orenstein, David; O’Sullivan, Brian; Pace, Rhonda; Pare, Peter; Parker, H. Worth; Passero, Mary Ann; Perkett, Elizabeth; Prestridge, Adrienne; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Ramsey, Bonnie; Regan, Elizabeth; Ren, Clement; Retsch-Bogart, George; Rock, Michael; Rosen, Antony; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ruczinski, Ingo; Sanford, Andrew; Schaeffer, David; Sell, Cindy; Sheehan, Daniel; Silverman, Edwin K.; Sin, Don; Spencer, Terry; Stonebraker, Jackie; Tabor, Holly K.; Varlotta, Laurie; Vergara, Candelaria I.; Weiss, Robert; Wigley, Fred; Wise, Robert A.; Wright, Fred A.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Zanni, Robert; Zou, Fei; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rieder, Mark J.; Green, Phil; Shendure, Jay; Akey, Joshua M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Crosslin, David R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Fox, P. Keolu; Fu, Wenqing; Gordon, Adam; Gravel, Simon; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnsen, Jill M.; Kan, Mengyuan; Kenny, Eimear E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Lara-Garduno, Fremiet; Leal, Suzanne M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; McGee, Sean; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Paeper, Bryan; Robertson, Peggy D.; Smith, Joshua D.; Staples, Jeffrey C.; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Turner, Emily H.; Wang, Gao; Yi, Qian; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Carlson, Christopher S.; Anderson, Garnet; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Auer, Paul L.; Beresford, Shirley; Bizon, Chris; Black, Henry; Brunner, Robert; Brzyski, Robert; Burwen, Dale; Caan, Bette; Carty, Cara L.; Chlebowski, Rowan; Cummings, Steven; Curb, J. David; Eaton, Charles B.; Ford, Leslie; Franceschini, Nora; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Gass, Margery; Geller, Nancy; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Barbara V.; Hsu, Li; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ioannidis, John; Jiao, Shuo; Johnson, Karen C.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuller, Lewis; LaCroix, Andrea; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Lane, Dorothy; Lasser, Norman; LeBlanc, Erin; Li, Kuo-Ping; Limacher, Marian; Lin, Dan-Yu; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Ludlam, Shari; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolis, Karen; Martin, Lisa; McGowan, Joan; Monda, Keri L.; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Nathan, Lauren; Ockene, Judith; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Prentice, Ross L.; Robbins, John; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Sarto, Gloria E.; Shumaker, Sally; Simon, Michael S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Stein, Evan; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Kira C.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Van Horn, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wallace, Robert; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Zeng, Donglin; Applebaum-Bowden, Deborah; Feolo, Michael; Gan, Weiniu; Paltoo, Dina N.; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Sturcke, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency variants. To determine whether rare or low-frequency coding variants are associated with LDL-C, we exome sequenced 2,005 individuals, including 554 individuals selected for extreme LDL-C (>98th or <2nd percentile). Follow-up analyses included sequencing of 1,302 additional individuals and genotype-based analysis of 52,221 individuals. We observed significant evidence of association between LDL-C and the burden of rare or low-frequency variants in PNPLA5, encoding a phospholipase-domain-containing protein, and both known and previously unidentified variants in PCSK9, LDLR and APOB, three known lipid-related genes. The effect sizes for the burden of rare variants for each associated gene were substantially higher than those observed for individual SNPs identified from GWASs. We replicated the PNPLA5 signal in an independent large-scale sequencing study of 2,084 individuals. In conclusion, this large whole-exome-sequencing study for LDL-C identified a gene not known to be implicated in LDL-C and provides unique insight into the design and analysis of similar experiments. PMID:24507775

  3. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  4. MooPoong (Gye Young Jeong) increases HDL-cholesterol but decreases LDL cholesterol and body-weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan-Suck; Hong, Seung-Heon; Do, Keum-Rok; Rhee, Hyung-Koo; Jung, Sung-Ki; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-05-01

    MooPoong (MP, Gye Young Jeong), a Korean traditional wine, has been used as a prevention and treatment agent of blood circulatory trouble. To evaluate such an effect of MP, we analyzed whether the plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and body weight change after rats were fed on high fat diet with MP for 8 weeks. Plasma LDL cholesterol level decreased by 5.6% in 0.128% MP treated group and by 11.1% in 0.640% MP treated group. However, HDL cholesterol was increased by 6.7% in 0.128% MP diet group and 33.3% in 0.640% MP diet group. In addition, there was a significant weight loss in the MP treated group compared with the high-fat diet group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MP may contain compounds with actions which can treat blood circulatory trouble as well as overweight.

  5. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiet tinggi kolesterol ini akan meningkatkan kadar Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL sebagai penanda hiperlipidemia yang berdampak pada terjadinya aterosklerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β memiliki peranan dalam proses terjadinya aterosklerosis ini. Keterlibatannya dalam hiperlipidemia sebagai faktor risiko utama aterosklerosis belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh lama permberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan TGF-β pada tikus putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design yang dilakukan terhadap tikus Rattus novergicus jantan umur 3-4 bulan, berat 200-250 gram. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, A, B dan C. Selain kelompok kontrol, kelompok tikus diberi diet tinggi kolesterol berupa lemak kambing 10%, telur puyuh 5%, selama 10 hari untuk kelompok A, 20 hari untuk kelompok B dan 30 hari untuk kelompok C. Pada akhir percobaan darah tikus diambil dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan TGF-β serum. Hasil penelitian diolah secara bivariat. Analisis yang digunakan yaitu uji oneway Anova. Hasil penelitian diketahui terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap peningkatan kadar LDL serum tikus dengan p=0,01 (p<0,05. Terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap penurunan kadar TGF-β dimana p=0,04 (p>0,05. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan tikus putih Rattus novergicus strain Wistar.Kata kunci: diet tinggi kolesterol, LDL, TGF-β AbstractHigh-cholesterol diet will increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels which impact to atherosclerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β play a role in atherosclerosis process. But its involvement in hyperlipidemia as the main risk factor of atherosclerosis still unknown. The objective of this study was

  7. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina; Fonseca, Isabel; Dias, Sérgio; Mendes de Almeida, JC

    2014-01-01

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  8. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina [Gulbenkian Programme for Advanced Medical Education, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, Isabel [Department of Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Dias, Sérgio [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes de Almeida, JC [Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-02-26

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients.

  9. Treatment of hyperprolactinaemia reduces total cholesterol and LDL in patients with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Librizzi, Rosaria; Trummer, Christian; Theiler, Georg; Stiegler, Claudia; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Pilz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia might have adverse effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether dopamine agonist treatment with cabergoline has significant effects on blood lipids, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with micro- or macroprolactinoma. In this retrospective observational study the main outcome measures are changes in parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism compared at hyperprolactinaemia and after achievement of normoprolactinaemia by cabergoline treatment. We enrolled 53 study participants (22 females; median [interquartile range] age: 40.0 [27.5 to 50.0] years), 22 (41.5 %) with micro-, and 31 (58.5 %) with macroprolactinomas. After a median follow-up of 9 months, prolactin levels decreased from 220.6 (80.7-913.4) to 11.2 (3.5-18.7) ng/mL (p LDL) from 121.6 (±39.4) to 110.6 mg/dl (±37.6, p = 0.005) and total cholesterol from 191 (168.5-241) to 181 mg/dl (162-217, p cholesterol or LDL as dependent, and the change in prolactin, oestradiol, and testosterone as independent variables, no significant predictor of the change in total cholesterol or LDL was identified. In patients with prolactinomas, normalisation of elevated prolactin levels by cabergoline treatment was accompanied by significant reductions in LDL and total cholesterol. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to evaluate the clinical implications of lipid levels in the monitoring and treatment of patients with prolactinomas.

  10. Associations of serum LDL particle concentration with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Maryam; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Abbott, Robert D; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Sentaro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Sekikawa, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Horie, Minoru; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) has recently been found to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Whether LDL-P is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C, as well as other lipid measures has not been fully examined. We aimed to analyze LDL-P associations with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined 870 Japanese men randomly selected from Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, aged 40-79 years from 2006-2008, free of clinical CVD and not using lipid-lowering medication. Cross-sectional associations of lipid measures with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC; >0 Agatston score) were examined. LDL-P was significantly positively associated with cIMT and maintained this association after adjustments for LDL-C and other lipid measures. Although these lipid measures were positively associated with cIMT, model adjustment for LDL-P removed any significant relationships. Higher LDL-P was associated with a significantly higher odds ratio of CAC and further adjustment for LDL-C did not affect this relationship. In contrast, the LDL-C association with CAC was no longer significant after adjustment for LDL-P. Other lipid measures attenuated associations of LDL-P with CAC. Likewise, associations of these measures with CAC were attenuated when model adjustments for LDL-P were made. In a community-based sample of Japanese men, free of clinical CVD, LDL-P was a robust marker for subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C and other lipid measures. Associations of LDL-C and other lipid measures with either cIMT or CAC were generally not independent of LDL-P. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  12. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...

  13. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  14. Saikosaponin-a Attenuates Oxidized LDL Uptake and Prompts Cholesterol Efflux in THP-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Kuang; Wang, Lili; Liu, Pixu; Qu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Saikosaponins-a (Ssa) is a major bioactive extract of Radix Bupleuri which is a traditional Chinese medicine. The roles of inflammatory response and lipid transportation in the process of atherosclerosis have drawn increasing attention. We explored the regulation of lipid transportation and immune-inflammatory role of Ssa in early atherosclerosis. The antiatherogenic actions and possible molecular mechanisms of Ssa were texted in THP-1 cells. We examined the effect of Ssa on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced lipid uptake, cholesterol efflux, immune-inflammatory response. THP-1 macrophages were treated with Ssa followed by ox-LDL for 24 hours. Results from western blot showed that Ssa obviously reduced lipoprotein uptake to block foam cell formation and the expression of Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 and CD36. Ssa also significantly boosted cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassettetransporter A1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The results also indicated that Ssa inhibited ox-LDL-induced activation of AKT and nuclear factor-κB, assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of proinflammatory cytokines. It is suggested that the ability against immune inflammatory response of Ssa is due to modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into Ssa's molecular mechanism and its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  15. Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Humaira; Sultan, Fateh Ali Tipoo; Iqbal, Romaina; Gilani, Anwar Hassan

    2015-10-01

    More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial. A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol

  16. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of arterial intimal clearances of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits. Differences in intimal clearance explained by size differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordestgaard, B.G.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial intimal clearances of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (D-LDL) and LDL from nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (N-LDL) were compared. In six experiments, D-LDL and N-LDL were isolated from a diabetic and a nondiabetic rabbit, were iodinated with 125I and 131I, respectively, were mixed, and were reinjected into the same two rabbits as well as into a normal rabbit. Fractional catabolic rates for D-LDL and N-LDL in normal rabbits were 0.065 and 0.074 h-1 (p less than 0.05), respectively. For five of the six pairs of LDL, the D-LDL was smaller than N-LDL as determined by gel filtration. The arterial permeability to N-LDL, when normalized for differences in arterial cholesterol content, did not appear to differ between diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits. The relative arterial intimal clearance (D-LDL/N-LDL) in arteries from diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits was inversely related to the relative molecular weight (D-LDL/N-LDL). For example, when the molecular weight of D-LDL was as low as 60% of that of N-LDL (i.e., the diameter of D-LDL was reduced 16%), the intimal clearance of D-LDL was 40% larger than that of N-LDL. When, on the other hand, molecular weights and diameters of the two LDL were similar, the intimal clearance was also quite similar. These results suggest that arterial intimal clearance of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits is comparable unless the two types of LDL have a different size

  18. Is non-HDL-cholesterol a better predictor of long-term outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction compared to LDL-cholesterol? : a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Sutthiwutthichai, Satjatham; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-01-05

    It has recently been shown that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on known ethic differences in lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk prediction, we sought to study the predictability of attaining non-HDL-C target and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in Thai patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to attaining LDL-C target. We retrospectively obtained the data of all patients who were admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital due to AMI during 2006-2013. The mean non-HDL-C and LDL-C during long-term follow-up were used to predict MACE at each time point. The patients were classified as target attainment if non-HDL-C LDL-C LDL-C target and 21.2% experienced MACEs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C were directly compared in Cox regression model. Compared with non-HDL-C 130 mg/dl had higher incidence of MACEs (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.46-6.80, P = 0.003). Surprisingly, LDL-C >100 mg/dl was associated with reduced risk of MACE as compared to LDL LDL-C goal was not associated with the higher risk. Therefore, non-HDL-C may be a more suitable target of dyslipidemia treatment than LDL-C in patients after AMI.

  19. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  20. Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85; SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80. The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05. The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.

  1. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    CLI ’T i-ITI2N 20. IM~IA~iN OF ASIRACTj OF REPORT OF TIIlS PAGF OF ARrsWiIlACT i The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin therapy in patients...PRESENTATIONS/SEMINARS: Jun 1990 The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin in a subpopulation of patients with high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels...aggressive ndical treatment. 2 Gemfibrozil is known to increase HDL cholesterol, decrease VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower LDL

  2. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  3. LDL-C levels in older people: Cholesterol homeostasis and the free radical theory of ageing converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our

  4. Oriented immobilized anti-LDL antibody carrying poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for cholesterol removal from human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereli, Nilay; Sener, Guelsu; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major ingredient of the plaque that collects in the coronary arteries and causes coronary heart diseases. Among the methods used for the extracorporeal elimination of LDL from intravasal volume, immunoaffinity technique using anti-LDL antibody as a ligand offers superior selectivity and specificity. Proper orientation of the immobilized antibody is the main issue in immunoaffinity techniques. In this study, anti-human β-lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL antibody) molecules were immobilized and oriented through protein A onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel in order to remove LDL from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. PHEMA cryogel was prepared by free radical polymerization initiated with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED). PHEMA cryogel with a swelling degree of 8.89 g H 2 O/g and 67% macro-porosity was characterized by swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and blood compatibility tests. All the clotting times were increased when compared with control plasma. The maximum immobilized anti-LDL antibody amount was 63.2 mg/g in the case of random antibody immobilization and 19.6 mg/g in the case of oriented antibody immobilization (protein A loading was 57.0 mg/g). Random and oriented anti-LDL antibody immobilized PHEMA cryogels adsorbed 111 and 129 mg LDL/g cryogel from hypercholesterolemic human plasma, respectively. Up to 80% of the adsorbed LDL was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 6 times using the same cryogel. There was no significant loss of LDL adsorption capacity. - Research highlights: → LDL cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases. → Antibodies against LDL are used for the selective extracorporeal removal of LDL. → Protein A is used for the oriented immobilization of anti LDL onto PHEMA cryogel. → PHEMA cryogels are biocompatible, exhibit a low pressure drop, lack diffusion resistance and viscous samples can be

  5. Oriented immobilized anti-LDL antibody carrying poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for cholesterol removal from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereli, Nilay [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sener, Guelsu [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Yavuz, Handan, E-mail: handany@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-07-20

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major ingredient of the plaque that collects in the coronary arteries and causes coronary heart diseases. Among the methods used for the extracorporeal elimination of LDL from intravasal volume, immunoaffinity technique using anti-LDL antibody as a ligand offers superior selectivity and specificity. Proper orientation of the immobilized antibody is the main issue in immunoaffinity techniques. In this study, anti-human {beta}-lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL antibody) molecules were immobilized and oriented through protein A onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel in order to remove LDL from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. PHEMA cryogel was prepared by free radical polymerization initiated with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED). PHEMA cryogel with a swelling degree of 8.89 g H{sub 2}O/g and 67% macro-porosity was characterized by swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and blood compatibility tests. All the clotting times were increased when compared with control plasma. The maximum immobilized anti-LDL antibody amount was 63.2 mg/g in the case of random antibody immobilization and 19.6 mg/g in the case of oriented antibody immobilization (protein A loading was 57.0 mg/g). Random and oriented anti-LDL antibody immobilized PHEMA cryogels adsorbed 111 and 129 mg LDL/g cryogel from hypercholesterolemic human plasma, respectively. Up to 80% of the adsorbed LDL was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 6 times using the same cryogel. There was no significant loss of LDL adsorption capacity. - Research highlights: {yields} LDL cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases. {yields} Antibodies against LDL are used for the selective extracorporeal removal of LDL. {yields} Protein A is used for the oriented immobilization of anti LDL onto PHEMA cryogel. {yields} PHEMA cryogels are biocompatible, exhibit a low pressure drop, lack diffusion

  6. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Preston, Amy Griel; Karmally, Wahida; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2011-04-01

    Diet plays a seminal role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of tree nuts has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a primary target for coronary disease prevention, by 3-19%. Almonds have been found to have a consistent LDL-C-lowering effect in healthy individuals, and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes, in both controlled and free-living settings. Almonds are low in saturated fatty acids, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and contain fiber, phytosterols, and plant protein. Other cardioprotective nutrients unique to almonds include α-tocopherol, arginine, magnesium, copper, manganese, calcium, and potassium. Mechanisms responsible for the LDL-C reduction observed with almond consumption are likely associated with the nutrients almonds provide. Biologically active by nature, these nutrients target primary mechanistic routes of LDL-C reduction, including decreased (re)absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion, and increased LDL-C receptor activity. The nutrients present in almonds may regulate enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production. Research is needed to understand all mechanisms by which almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis gave a risk ratio for Alzheimer's disease of 0.24 (0.02 to 2.79) for 26 PCSK9 and HMGCR variants, and of 0.64 (0.52 to 0.79) for 380 variants of LDL cholesterol level lowering.Conclusion Low LDL cholesterol levels due to PCSK9 and HMGCR variants had no causal......Objective To test the hypothesis that low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol due to genetic variation in the genes responsible for LDL cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis(PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), respectively) is associated with a high risk of Alzheimer.......79), whereas the corresponding hazard ratios for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or any dementia did not differ from 1.0. PCSK9 and HMGCR variants combined were associated with a 9.3% lower LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios...

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  9. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantanee Kriengsinyos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c- lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study’s end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC, LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05. A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9% and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4% was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet.

  10. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  11. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

     Risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, all dementia, and Parkinson's disease.Results In observational analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for Parkinson's disease in participants with an LDL cholesterol level ....79), whereas the corresponding hazard ratios for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or any dementia did not differ from 1.0. PCSK9 and HMGCR variants combined were associated with a 9.3% lower LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios...... for a lifelong 1 mmol/L lower LDL cholesterol level were 0.57 (0.27 to 1.17) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.81 (0.34 to 1.89) for vascular dementia, 0.66 (0.34 to 1.26) for any dementia, and 1.02 (0.26 to 4.00) for Parkinson's disease. Summary level data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project using...

  12. Gly[14]-humanin inhibits ox-LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wa-Wa; Wang, Shu-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng; Xie, Ying; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Foam cell formation, which is caused by imbalanced cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages, plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Humanin (HN), a mitochondria-derived peptide, can prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and death of human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and has a protective effect on patients with in early atherosclerosis. However, the effects of HN on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in RAW 264.7 macrophages are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of [Gly14]-humanin (HNG) in lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging results showed that HNG reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. A similar result was obtained for lipid accumulation by measuring cellular cholesterol content. Western blot analysis showed that ox-LDL treatment upregulated not only the protein expression of CD36 and LOX-1, which mediate ox-LDL endocytosis, but also ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and ABCG1, which mediate ox-LDL exflux. HNG pretreatment inhibited the upregulation of CD36 and LOX-1 levels, prompting the upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 levels induced by ox-LDL. Therefore we concluded that HNG could inhibit ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation, which occurs because of a decrease in lipid uptake and an increase in cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  14. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-04-24

    Objective  To test the hypothesis that low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol due to genetic variation in the genes responsible for LDL cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis( PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( HMGCR ), respectively) is associated with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, any dementia, and Parkinson's disease in the general population. Design  Mendelian randomisation study. Setting  Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study. Participants  111 194 individuals from the Danish general population. Main outcome measures  Risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, all dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Results  In observational analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for Parkinson's disease in participants with an LDL cholesterol level LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios for a lifelong 1 mmol/L lower LDL cholesterol level were 0.57 (0.27 to 1.17) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.81 (0.34 to 1.89) for vascular dementia, 0.66 (0.34 to 1.26) for any dementia, and 1.02 (0.26 to 4.00) for Parkinson's disease. Summary level data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project using Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis gave a risk ratio for Alzheimer's disease of 0.24 (0.02 to 2.79) for 26 PCSK9 and HMGCR variants, and of 0.64 (0.52 to 0.79) for 380 variants of LDL cholesterol level lowering. Conclusion  Low LDL cholesterol levels due to PCSK9 and HMGCR variants had no causal effect on high risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, any dementia, or Parkinson's disease; however, low LDL cholesterol levels may have a causal effect in reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  17. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

  18. Novel natural food colourant G8000 benefits LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rogerio Correa; Gollücke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Soares, Clayton; Machado, Patricia; Viveiros Filho, Vitor; Rocha, Silvana; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic composition of a natural food colourant (G8000™) as well as its effects on plasma markers after 28-day consumption by healthy individuals at a dietary dose (70 g). Parameters of total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides and plasma enzymes biomarkers of muscle injury were measured. Major compounds identified in G8000™ by ESI-MS showed the presence of anthocyanins, organic acids, phenolic acids as well as monosaccharides. HDL levels significantly increased from 43 ± 10.2 mg/dL to 95 ± 16.9 mg/dL. LDL levels significantly decreased from 110 ± 40.9 mg/dL to 69 ± 39 mg/dL (p  0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL. After the intake, plasma enzyme CK-MB decreased from 20 ± 12.1 U/L to 10 ± 1.9 U/L while LDH levels increased from 275 ± 124.4 U/L to 317 ± 114.7 U/L (p natural colourant G8000™ was able to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis biomarkers.

  19. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  20. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E G; Vader, H L; Pop, V.J.

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  1. Low serum cholesterol, serotonin metabolism, and violent death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA high serum cholesterol level is a well documented risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Consequently, a low serum cholesterol has in general been viewed as beneficial. However, since the early 70s, results from several cohort studies and randomized trials have

  2. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half ofmouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Mathijs V; Baardman, Maria E; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Wisse, Lambertus J; Bloks, Vincent W; Berger, Rolf M F; DeRuiter, Marco C; Groen, Albert K; Plösch, Torsten

    AimLDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol

  3. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (L...

  4. Normal LDL-Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Absence of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Fuster, Valentín; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Oliva, Belén; García-Ruiz, José M; Mendiguren, José; Bueno, Héctor; Pocock, Stuart; Ibáñez, Borja; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Javier

    2017-12-19

    Absence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is traditionally considered low risk for atherosclerosis; however, individuals without CVRFs, as currently defined, still have events. This study sought to identify predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in CVRF-free individuals. Participants from the PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study (n = 4,184) without conventional CVRFs were evaluated (n = 1,779; 45.0 ± 4.1 years, 50.3% women). CVRF freedom was defined as no current smoking and untreated blood pressure cholesterol cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol ≥40 mg/dl. A subgroup with optimal CVRFs (n = 740) was also defined as having blood pressure cholesterol LDL-C was independently associated with atherosclerosis presence and extent, in both the CVRF-free and CVRF-optimal groups (odds ratio [×10 mg/dl]: 1.14 to 1.18; p LDL-C, even at levels currently considered normal, is independently associated with the presence and extent of early systemic atherosclerosis in the absence of major CVRFs. These findings support more effective LDL-C lowering for primordial prevention, even in individuals conventionally considered at optimal risk. (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis [PESA] Study; NCT01410318). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  6. Effect of LDL cholesterol and treatment with losartan on end-stage renal disease in the RENAAL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tershakovec, A.M.; Keane, W.F.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Renal pathology and dyslipidemia commonly coexist. Treatments that lower albuminuria/proteinuria may lower lipids, but it is not known whether lipid lowering independent of lessening albuminuria/proteinuria slows progression of kidney disease. We examined the association between LDL cholesterol...

  7. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  8. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  10. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  11. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  12. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  13. Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Demonstrating Serum Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of a Smoothie Drink with Added Plant Stanol Esters in an Indonesian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Lestiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesians have a high intake of saturated fats, a key contributing dietary factor to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the cholesterol lowering efficacy of a smoothie drink with 2 grams of plant stanols as esters to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic Indonesian adults. The double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel design study involved 99 subjects. Fifty subjects received control drink and dietary advice, and 49 subjects received intervention drink (Nutrive Benecol® and dietary advice. Baseline, midline (week 2, and endline (week 4 assessments were undertaken for clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables. Compared to control, the smoothie drink with plant stanols reduced serum LDL-cholesterol concentration by 7.6% (p<0.05 and 9.0% (p<0.05 in two and four weeks, respectively. Serum total cholesterol was reduced by 5.7% (p<0.05 compared to control in two weeks, and no further reduction was detected after four weeks (5.6%. Compared to baseline habitual diet, LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 9.3% (p<0.05 and 9.8% (p<0.05 in the plant stanol ester group in two and four weeks, respectively. We conclude that consumption of smoothie drink with added plant stanol esters effectively reduces serum total and LDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic Indonesian subjects already in two weeks. Trial is registered as NCT02316808.

  14. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm 3 H-acetate from 10 pm 3 H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37 0 C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states

  15. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  16. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cardiovascular Outcomes of PCSK9 Inhibitors: With Special Emphasis on Its Effect beyond LDL-Cholesterol Lowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C. Using PCSK9 inhibitors could lead to a substantial decrement in LDL-C plasma level ranging from 50% to 70%, either as a monotherapy or on top of statins. A large number of trials have shown robust reduction of LDL-C plasma level with the use of PCSK9 inhibitors as a monotherapy or in combination with statins in familial and nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, PCSK9 inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of hepatic and muscle-related side effects. PCSK9 inhibitors proved to be a highly potent and promising antihypercholesterolemic drug by decreasing LDL-R lysosomal degradation by PCSK9 protein. Statin drugs are known to have some pleiotropic effects. In this article, we are also focusing on the effects of PCSK9 inhibitor beyond LDL-C reduction like endothelial inflammation, atherosclerosis, its safety in patients with diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease, and its influence on neurocognition and stroke.

  18. LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of a new dietary supplement: an open label, controlled, randomized, cross-over clinical trial in patients with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, S; Ceccarini, G; Pelosini, C; Jaccheri, R; Vitti, J; Fierabracci, P; Salvetti, G; Airoldi, G; Minale, M; Saponati, G; Santini, F

    2018-05-24

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and requires specific intervention through an adequate lifestyle (diet and physical exercise) and, if necessary, an appropriate drug treatment. Lipid-lowering drugs, although generally efficacious, may sometimes cause adverse events. A growing attention has been devoted to the correction of dyslipidemias through the use of dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to assess the lipid-lowering activity and safety of a dietary supplement containing monacolin K, L-arginine, coenzyme Q10 and ascorbic acid, named Argicolina (A), compared to a commercially available product containing monacolin K and coenzyme Q10, Normolip 5 (N). This was a single center, controlled, randomized, open-label, cross-over clinical study enrolling 20 Caucasian outpatients aged 18-75 years with serum LDL-C between 130 and 180 mg/dL. Patients assumed two different dietary supplements (A and N) both containing monacolin K 10 mg for 8 weeks each, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Evaluated parameters were: Total cholesterol (Tot-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, brachial arterial pressure and heart rate, measured at the start and at the end of each treatment period. Safety was monitored through the study. LDL-C decreased by 23.3% during treatment with N (p ascorbic acid also produces a significant reduction of triglycerides without significant effects on HDL. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03425630 .

  19. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  20. [Prevalence of inapropriate LDL cholesterol levels in patients with coronary disease and/or type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Isla, L; Saltijeral Cerezo, A; Vitale, G; González Timón, B; Torres Do Rego, A; Alvarez-Sala Walther, L A

    2012-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend achieving concentrations of LDL cholesterol less than 100 mg/dl (and in some cases less than 70 mg/dl) in patients with coronary artery disease and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We have examined the compliance with these objectives in patients treated in Spain with these conditions. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Data were obtained during the visit of the study or, in their absence, based on data contained in the medical record by 874 doctors of the 17 autonomous communities in Spain. Demographic information, risk factors, cardiovascular and prescribed treatments were collected. In the final analysis 6.988 (62.7% male) patients were included. 2586 (37%) had coronary disease, 2654 (38%) DM2 and 1748 (25%) both conditions. 65% had metabolic syndrome. Vascular risk factors median number was 4. 57% and 86% showed a concentration of LDL cholesterol >100 and >70 mg/dl respectively. The proportion patients with LDL concentration >100 mg/dl was 4% greater in the DM2 (62.4%) than in coronary patients (57.1%; p0.0001). Concentration of triglycerides >150 mg/dl was higher in patients with DM2 (50.5%) than in coronary patients (43.5%; p0.0001). The proportion of patients with LDL>70 mg/dl was similar in the coronary group and in the DM2 Group (88.4% and 87.0%, respectively). More than half of patients with coronary heart disease (57.5%) or DM2 (55.7%) showed inadequate levels of HDL (women). More than a half of patients with diabetes mellitus and/or coronary artery disease enrolled in the CODIMET study do not achieve the recommended LDL cholesterol target for high cardiovascular risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Lysosomal regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in tuberous sclerosis complex is mediated via NPC1 and LDL-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakis, Harilaos; Alesi, Nicola; Ogorek, Barbara; Nijmeh, Julie; Khabibullin, Damir; Gutierrez, Catherine; Valvezan, Alexander J; Cunningham, James; Priolo, Carmen; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2017-06-13

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease associated with hyperactive mTORC1. The impact of TSC1/2 deficiency on lysosome-mediated processes is not fully understood. We report here that inhibition of lysosomal function using chloroquine (CQ) upregulates cholesterol homeostasis genes in TSC2-deficient cells. This TSC2-dependent transcriptional signature is associated with increased accumulation and intracellular levels of both total cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Unexpectedly, engaging this CQ-induced cholesterol uptake pathway together with inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis allows survival of TSC2-deficient, but not TSC2-expressing cells. The underlying mechanism of TSC2-deficient cell survival is dependent on exogenous cholesterol uptake via LDL-R, and endosomal trafficking mediated by Vps34. Simultaneous inhibition of lysosomal and endosomal trafficking inhibits uptake of esterified cholesterol and cell growth in TSC2-deficient, but not TSC2-expressing cells, highlighting the TSC-dependent lysosome-mediated regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and pointing toward the translational potential of these pathways for the therapy of TSC.

  2. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  3. Serum cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... levels to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, and high- density ... intestinal absorption of triglycerides and cholesterol, plus very low- ... These relationships are present across the age spectrum and in both sexes.

  4. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  5. Mitotic spindle defects and chromosome mis-segregation induced by LDL/cholesterol-implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoneta Granic

    Full Text Available Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease (AD and Atherosclerosis (CVD, suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy-in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1 high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis' first prediction, 2 Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3 oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4 LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5 cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6 ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol's aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol

  6. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  7. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  8. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (pfor age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  9. Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D, an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status ( 30 ng/mL were enrolled. Fasting concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, F2-isoprostane, and oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured. Results: The mean fasting serum concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with low vitamin D status were significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001. The mean concentrations of ox-LDL, F2-isoprostane, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly higher in patients with low vitamin D status than in controls. There was a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and F2-isoprostane (r = 0.647and P = 0.0001, LDL (r = -0.218 and P = 0.030, and ox-LDL (r = -0.637 and P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results of present study indicated that serum concentrations of 25-OH-D were inversely correlated with F2-isoprostane, LDL, and ox-LDL. Therefore, vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on the control of lipid profiles and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.

  10. Attainment of LDL Cholesterol Treatment Goals in Children and Adolescents With Familial Hypercholesterolemia. The SAFEHEART Follow-up Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltijeral, Adriana; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Alonso, Rodrigo; Muñiz, Ovidio; Díaz-Díaz, José Luis; Fuentes, Francisco; Mata, Nelva; de Andrés, Raimundo; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Pastor, José; Pinilla, José Miguel; Zambón, Daniel; Pinto, Xavier; Badimón, Lina; Mata, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of persons with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) younger than 18 years, the lipid-lowering therapy used in these patients, and the lipid goals reached in real life. Our aim was to evaluate the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in FH patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large national registry. We analyzed patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large ongoing registry of molecularly-defined patients with FH in Spain. The attainment of guideline-recommended plasma LDL-C goals at entry and follow-up was analyzed in relation to the use of lipid-lowering therapy. We enrolled 392 individuals younger than 18 years. Of these, 217 were molecularly-diagnosed FH patients and had a complete follow-up. The median follow-up time was 4.69 years (interquartile range, 2.48-6.38 years), 68.2% of FH patients were on statins, and 41.5% patients had LDL-C < 130mg/dL. Statin use was the only predictor of LDL-C goal attainment. This study shows that a high proportion of FH patients younger than 18 years have high LDL-C levels and fail to achieve recommended LDL-C targets. Statin use was the only independent predictor of LDL-C goal achievement. No safety concerns were detected during follow-up. These results indicate that many FH patients are not adequately controlled and that there is still room for treatment improvement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Asian patients with dyslipidemia in an urban population: Effect of ethnicity on their LDL-cholesterol treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Koh, Kim Hwee; Goh, Chin Chin; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Goh, Soo Chye Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for arthrosclerosis. It is the most common chronic disease among the multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Local national health survey has shown ethnic variability in achieving control of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients in primary care, who achieved their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol treatment goals, stratified by the local major ethnic groups. It also evaluated the factors that affected their dyslipidemia control, including diet, exercise and medication usage. Research assistants administered questionnaires on adult patients with physician-diagnosed dyslipidemia to determine their views on diet, exercise, and medications in this cross-sectional study in 2 local primary care clinics. Their lipid profiles were retrieved from their laboratory reports in their electronic health records. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for the categorical demographics and questionnaire variables, (P < .05: statistically significant). Logistic regression was performed using these significant variables to determine the adjusted odds of the ethnic groups. A total of 1093 eligible patients completed the questionnaires. The proportion of Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients who achieved LDL-cholesterol goals was 78.3%, 67.9%, and 68.5%, respectively. Among those who self-reported taking their favorite cholesterol-rich food occasionally when their cholesterol became controlled, 35.8% Indians failed to achieve treatment goals, compared to 20.1% Chinese and 30.9% Malay patients. Regular medication adherence was associated with 81.8% Chinese, 69.0% Malay, and 69.7% Indian reaching treatment goals. More Chinese met LDL-cholesterol treatment goals compared to Malays and Indians. Lipid-lowering medications enabled but smoking hindered their achievement of these treatment goals. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, Tamon; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m(2); 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it. Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD should be implemented to increase their achievement of the LDL-C goal.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  15. Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulcher R Gary

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other

  16. Mitofusin2 decreases intracellular cholesterol of oxidized LDL-induced foam cells from rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chen, Ying; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ming; Fan, Yu-jin; Guo, Xiao-mei

    2013-04-01

    Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the trafficking of intracellular cholesterol in the foam cells derived from rat VSMCs (rVSMCs) and also to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The rVSMCs were co-cultured with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL, 80 μg/mL) to produce foam cells and cholesterol accumulation in cells. Before oxidized LDL treatment, different titers (20, 40 and 60 pfu/cell) of recombinant adenovirus containing Mfn2 gene (Adv-Mfn2) were added into the culture medium for 24 h to transfect the Mfn2 gene into the rVSMCs. Then the cells were harvested for analyses. The protein expression of Mfn2 was significantly higher in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group than in untransfected group (PLDL treatment, rVSMCs became irregular and their nuclei became larger, and their plasma abounded with red lipid droplets. However, the number of red lipid droplets was significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group. At 48 h after oxidized LDL treatment, the intracellular cholesterol in rVSMCs was significantly increased (P0.05), the phosporylation levels of PPARγ were significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group (Pcholesterol in oxidized LDL-induced rVSMCs possibly by decreasing PPARγ phosporylation and then increasing protein expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which may be helpful to suppress the formation of foam cells.

  17. Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological Targeting of the Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Complex: The Next Frontier in CVD Prevention Beyond Lowering LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Hegele, Robert A; Lewis, Gary F

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the effectiveness of lowering LDL cholesterol, residual CVD risk remains in high-risk populations, including patients with diabetes, likely contributed to by non-LDL lipid abnormalities. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we emphasize that changing demographics and lifestyles over the past few decades have resulted in an epidemic of the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex," the main features of which include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, qualitative changes in LDL particles, accumulation of remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia. We briefly review the underlying pathophysiology of this form of dyslipidemia, in particular its association with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, and the marked atherogenicity of this condition. We explain the failure of existing classes of therapeutic agents such as fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors that are known to modify components of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. Finally, we discuss targeted repurposing of existing therapies and review promising new therapeutic strategies to modify the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. We postulate that targeting the central abnormality of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, the elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles, represents a new frontier in CVD prevention and is likely to prove the most effective strategy in correcting most aspects of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, thereby preventing CVD events. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. LXR regulates cholesterol uptake through Idol-dependent ubiquitination of the LDL receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelcer, Noam; Hong, Cynthia; Boyadjian, Rima; Tontonoz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Cellular cholesterol levels reflect a balance between uptake, efflux, and endogenous synthesis. Here we show that the sterol-responsive nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) helps maintain cholesterol homeostasis, not only through promotion of cholesterol efflux but also through suppression of low-density

  20. Gender difference of association between LDL cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease amongst Japanese: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H; Iso, H; Irie, F; Sairenchi, T; Ohtaka, E; Ohta, H

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether LDL cholesterol raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a population with low LDL-cholesterol levels. Population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993. Systematic mortality surveillance was performed through 2003 and 539 coronary heart disease deaths were identified. The mean values for LDL-cholesterol were 110.5 mg dL(-1) (2.86 mmol L(-1)) for men and 123.9 mg dL(-1) (3.20 mmol L(-1)) for women. Men with LDL-cholesterol > or =140 mg dL(-1) (> or =3.62 mmol L(-1)) had two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with LDL-cholesterol <80 mg dL(-1) (<2.06 mmol L(-1)), whereas no such association for women was found. The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest categories of LDL-cholesterol was 2.06 (95 percent confidence interval: 1.34 to 3.17) for men and 1.16 (0.64 to 2.12) for women. Higher concentrations of LDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women, in a low cholesterol population.

  1. Serum PCSK9 Levels Distinguish Individuals Who Do Not Respond to High-Dose Statin Therapy with the Expected Reduction in LDL-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present report was to examine whether proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 levels differ in individuals who do not exhibit expected reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C with statin therapy. Eighteen nonresponder subjects treated with 80 mg atorvastatin treatment for 6 months without substantial reductions in LDL-C (ΔLDL-C: 2.6 ± 11.4% were compared to age- and gender-matched atorvastatin responders (ΔLDL-C: 50.7 ± 8.5% and placebo-treated subjects (ΔLDL-C: 9.9 ± 21.5%. Free PCSK9 was marginally higher in nonresponders at baseline (P=0.07 and significantly higher in atorvastatin responders after 6 months of treatment (P=0.04. The change in free PCSK9 over 6 months with statin treatment was higher (P<0.01 in atorvastatin responders (134.2 ± 131.5 ng/mL post- versus prestudy than in either the nonresponders (39.9 ± 87.8 ng/mL or placebo subjects (27.8 ± 97.6 ng/mL. Drug compliance was not lower in the nonresponders as assessed by pill counts and poststudy plasma atorvastatin levels. Serum PCSK9 levels, both at baseline and in response to statin therapy, may differentiate individuals who do versus those who do not respond to statin treatment.

  2. Discordance Between Apolipoprotein B and LDL-Cholesterol in Young Adults Predicts Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, John T; Li, Ron C; Sniderman, Allan; Chan, Cheeling; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-01-19

    High levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults even in the context of low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). This study aimed to quantify the associations between apoB and the discordance between apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C in young adults and measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) in midlife. Data were derived from a multicenter cohort study of young adults recruited at ages 18 to 30 years. All participants with complete baseline CVD risk factor data, including apoB and year 25 (Y25) CAC score, were entered into this study. Presence of CAC was defined as having a positive, nonzero Agatston score as determined by computed tomography. Baseline apoB values were divided into tertiles of 4 mutually exclusive concordant/discordant groups, based on median apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C. Analysis included 2,794 participants (mean age: 25 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 24.5 ± 5 kg/m(2); and 44.4% male). Mean lipid values were as follows: total cholesterol: 177.3 ± 33.1 mg/dl; LDL-C: 109.9 ± 31.1 mg/dl; non-HDL-C: 124.0 ± 33.5 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 12.8 mg/dl; and apoB: 90.7 ± 24 mg/dl; median triglycerides were 61 mg/dl. Compared with the lowest apoB tertile, higher odds of developing Y25 CAC were seen in the middle (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53) and high (OR: 2.28) tertiles based on traditional risk factor-adjusted models. High apoB and low LDL-C or non-HDL-C discordance was also associated with Y25 CAC in adjusted models (OR: 1.55 and OR: 1.45, respectively). These data suggest a dose-response association between apoB in young adults and the presence of midlife CAC independent of baseline traditional CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Macrophage ABCA2 deletion modulates intracellular cholesterol deposition, affects macrophage apoptosis, and decreases early atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Zhao, Ying; de Graauw, Marjo; Ye, Dan; van Santbrink, Peter J; Mommaas, A Mieke; Foks, Amanda; Bot, Martine; Meurs, Illiana; Kuiper, Johan; Mack, Jody T; Van Eck, Miranda; Tew, Kenneth D; van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-08-01

    The ABCA2 transporter shares high structural homology to ABCA1, which is crucial for the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages and, by extension, in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that ABCA2 sequesters cholesterol inside the lysosomes, however, little is known of the macrophage-specific role of ABCA2 in regulating lipid homeostasis in vivo and in modulating susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA2 were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA2 knockout (KO) mice into irradiated LDL receptor (LDLr) KO mice. Interestingly, lack of ABCA2 in macrophages resulted in a diminished lesion size in the aortic root (-24.5%) and descending thoracic aorta (-36.6%) associated with a 3-fold increase in apoptotic cells, as measured by both caspase 3 and TUNEL. Upon oxidized LDL exposure, macrophages from wildtype (WT) transplanted animals developed filipin-positive droplets in lysosomal-like compartments, corresponding to free cholesterol (FC) accumulation. In contrast, ABCA2-deficient macrophages displayed an abnormal diffuse distribution of FC over peripheral regions. The accumulation of neutral sterols in lipid droplets was increased in ABCA2-deficient macrophages, but primarily in cytoplasmic clusters and not in lysosomes. Importantly, apoptosis of oxLDL loaded macrophages lacking ABCA2 was increased 2.7-fold, probably as a consequence of the broad cellular distribution of FC. Lack of functional ABCA2 generates abnormalities in intracellular lipid distribution/trafficking in macrophages consistent with its lysosomal sequestering role, leading to an increased susceptibility to apoptosis in response to oxidized lipids and reduced atherosclerotic lesion development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum cholesterol levels of Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C B; Allen, E S; Mikkelson, B; Kang-Jey, H

    1976-10-01

    Serum cholesterol levels and dietary habits were surveyed in 27 male and 34 female Seventh-day Adventist. All subjects studied were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and a few consumed some meat products. Their serum cholesterol levels, significantly lower than those of the United States general population, showed no sex difference but increased with age and were higher in overweight males. Their levels, however, were much higher than those of true vegetarians which was most likely attributable to their consumption, even though to a limited acount, of dairy foods.

  5. Statins usage and target achievement of LDL-C level in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease impacted by 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Qiong Wu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: No much change of clinical practice with regard to cholesterol management was found in Chinese patients with CAD, accompanied by very low achievement of LDL-C target, suggesting that there is a great room for the improvement of cholesterol control in Chinese patients with CAD.

  6. Intracellular trafficking of the free cholesterol derived from LDL cholesteryl ester is defective in vivo in Niemann-Pick C disease: insights on normal metabolism of HDL and LDL gained from the NP-C mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamburek, R D; Pentchev, P G; Zech, L A; Blanchette-Mackie, J; Carstea, E D; VandenBroek, J M; Cooper, P S; Neufeld, E B; Phair, R D; Brewer, H B; Brady, R O; Schwartz, C C

    1997-12-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a rare inborn error of metabolism with hepatic involvement and neurological sequelae that usually manifest in childhood. Although in vitro studies have shown that the lysosomal distribution of LDL-derived cholesterol is defective in cultured cells of NP-C subjects, no unusual characteristics mark the plasma lipoprotein profiles. We set out to determine whether anomalies exist in vivo in the cellular distribution of newly synthesized, HDL-derived or LDL-derived cholesterol under physiologic conditions in NP-C subjects. Three affected and three normal male subjects were administered [14C]mevalonate as a tracer of newly synthesized cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate in either HDL or LDL to trace the distribution of lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol. The rate of appearance of free [14C]- and free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane was detected indirectly by monitoring their appearance in plasma and bile. The plasma disappearance of [3H]cholesteryl linoleate was slightly faster in NP-C subjects regardless of its lipoprotein origin. Appearance of free [14C] cholesterol ill the plasma (and in bile) was essentially identical in normal and affected individuals as was the initial appearance of free [3H]cholesterol derived from HDL, observed before extensive exchange occurred of the [3H]cholesteryl linoleate among lipoproteins. In contrast, the rate of appearance of LDL-derived free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane of NP-C subjects, as detected in plasma and bile, was retarded to a similar extent that LDL cholesterol metabolism was defective in cultured fibroblasts of these affected subjects. These findings show that intracellular distribution of both newly synthesized and HDL-derived cholesterol are essentially unperturbed by the NP-C mutation, and therefore occur by lysosomal-independent paths. In contrast, in NP-C there is defective trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol to the plasma membrane in vivo as well as in vitro

  7. Status of non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol among subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Asif, Naveed; Ijaz, Aamir; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Niazi, Najumusaquib Khan; Fazal, Nadeem

    2018-04-01

    To to compare non-high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, glycation status and nephropathic changes. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out from Dec 21, 2015, to Nov 15, 2016, at the department of pathology and medicine PNS HAFEEZ and department of chemical pathology and clinical endocrinology (AFIP), and comprised patients of either gender visiting the out-patient department for routine screening. They were evaluated for anthropometric indices, blood pressure and sampled for lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Subjects were segregated based upon presence (Group1) or absence (Group2) of metabolic syndrome based upon criteria of National Cholesterol Education Programme and the International Diabetes Federation. Differences in high and low density lipoprotein cholesterols were calculated between the groups. Of the 229 subjects, 120(52.4%) were women and 109(47.6%) were men. Overall, there were 107(46.7%) subjects in Group 1, and 122(53.3%) in Group 2. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly different between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome as per both the study criteria (p<0.05 each). . Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Apolipoprotein B knockdown by AAV-delivered shRNA lowers plasma cholesterol in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Annemart; Maczuga, Piotr; van Logtenstein, Richard; Borel, Florie; Blits, Bas; Ritsema, Tita; van Deventer, Sander; Petry, Harald; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are proportionate to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In order to reduce serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in mice, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit expression of the structural protein of LDL-C,

  9. Reduction in C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular event rates after initiation of rosuvastatin: a prospective study of the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, Paul M; Danielson, Eleanor; Fonseca, Francisco Ah

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cholesterol concentrations, and hypothesis generating analyses suggest that clinical outcomes improve in patients given statins who achieve hsCRP concentrations less than 2 mg/L in addition to LDL cholesterol less than 1.......8 mmol/L (LDL cholesterol and hsCRP after the start of statin therapy is controversial. We prospectively tested this hypothesis. METHODS: In an analysis of 15 548 initially healthy men and women participating in the JUPITER trial (87% of full cohort), we...... to on-treatment concentrations of LDL cholesterol (>/=1.8 mmol/L or /=2 mg/L or

  10. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  11. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  12. SIRT6 reduces macrophage foam cell formation by inducing autophagy and cholesterol efflux under ox-LDL condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangping; Zhang, Guangya; Pang, Qi; Yu, Cong; Xiong, Jie; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Silencing the key autophagy initiation gene ATG5, reversed the autophagy-promoting effect of SIRT6 in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, as evidenced by an increase in foam cells. Cholesterol efflux assays indicated that SIRT6 overexpression in foam cells promoted cholesterol efflux, increased the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and reduced miR-33 levels. By transfecting miR-33 into cells overexpressing SIRT6, we observed that reduced foam cell formation and autophagy flux induction were largely reversed. These data imply that SIRT6 plays an essential role in protecting against atherosclerosis by reducing foam cell formation through an autophagy-dependent pathway. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of achieving very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab: a prespecified secondary analysis of the FOURIER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Robert P; Pedersen, Terje R; Park, Jeong-Gun; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Gaciong, Zbigniew A; Ceska, Richard; Toth, Kalman; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Schiele, François; Mach, François; Ott, Brian R; Kanevsky, Estella; Pineda, Armando Lira; Somaratne, Ransi; Wasserman, Scott M; Keech, Anthony C; Sever, Peter S; Sabatine, Marc S

    2017-10-28

    LDL cholesterol is a well established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. How much one should or safely can lower this risk factor remains debated. We aimed to explore the relationship between progressively lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations achieved at 4 weeks and clinical efficacy and safety in the FOURIER trial of evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In this prespecified secondary analysis of 25 982 patients from the randomised FOURIER trial, the relationship between achieved LDL-cholesterol concentration at 4 weeks and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes (primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularisation, or unstable angina; key secondary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and ten prespecified safety events of interest was examined over a median of 2·2 years of follow-up. We used multivariable modelling to adjust for baseline factors associated with achieved LDL cholesterol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01764633. Between Feb 8, 2013, and June 5, 2015, 27 564 patients were randomly assigned a treatment in the FOURIER study. 1025 (4%) patients did not have an LDL cholesterol measured at 4 weeks and 557 (2%) had already had a primary endpoint event or one of the ten prespecified safety events before the week-4 visit. From the remaining 25 982 patients (94% of those randomly assigned) 13 013 were assigned evolocumab and 12 969 were assigned placebo. 2669 (10%) of 25 982 patients achieved LDL-cholesterol concentrations of less than 0·5 mmol/L, 8003 (31%) patients achieved concentrations between 0·5 and less than 1·3 mmol/L, 3444 (13%) patients achieved concentrations between 1·3 and less than 1·8 mmol/L, 7471 (29%) patients achieved concentrations between 1·8 to less than 2·6 mmol/L, and 4395 (17%) patients achieved

  15. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kok, Wim Th.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  16. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wim Th., E-mail: W.Th.Kok@uva.nl [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoenmakers, Peter J. [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  17. Obeticholic acid raises LDL-cholesterol and reduces HDL-cholesterol in the Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Quinsat, Marjolaine; Burcelin, Rémy; Sulpice, Thierry

    2018-01-05

    The use of rat and mouse models limits the translation to humans for developing novel drugs targeting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) illustrates this limitation since its dyslipidemic effect in humans cannot be observed in these rodents. Conversely, Golden Syrian hamsters have a lipoprotein metabolism mimicking human dyslipidemia since it does express the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We therefore developed a Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model and evaluated the impact of OCA. Compared with chow fed controls, hamsters fed for 20 weeks with a free-choice (FC) diet, developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and NASH (microvesicular steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and perisinusoidal to bridging fibrosis). After 20 weeks of diet, FC fed hamsters were treated without or with obeticholic acid (15mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Although a non-significant trend towards higher dietary caloric intake was observed, OCA significantly lowered body weight after 5 weeks of treatment. OCA significantly increased CETP activity and LDL-C levels by 20% and 27%, and reduced HDL-C levels by 20%. OCA blunted hepatic gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 and reduced fecal bile acids mass excretion by 64% (P OCA showed a trend towards higher scavenger receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) and lower LDL-receptor hepatic protein expression. OCA reduced NAS score for inflammation (P OCA as observed in humans, and should be useful for evaluating novel drugs targeting NASH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang Vi Thanh; Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Sievenpiper, John L; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Duvnjak, Lea; Leiter, Lawrence; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Results: Twelve studies ( n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B. Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02068248. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Activating transcription factor 6 mediates oxidized LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages by up-regulating CHOP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shutong; Zong, Chuanlong; Zhang, Ying; Sang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Jiao, Peng; Fang, Yongqi; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    This study was to explore whether activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an important sensor to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, would mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)- induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in cultured macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Intracellular lipid droplets and total cholesterol levels were assayed by oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetry, respectively. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined using MTT assay and AnnexinV-FITC apoptosis detection kit, respectively. The nuclear translocation of ATF6 in cells was detected by immunofluorescence analysis. Protein and mRNA levels were examined by Western blot analysis and real time-PCR, respectively. ATF6 siRNA was transfected to RAW264.7 cells by lipofectamin. Exposure of cells to ox-LDL induced glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key-signaling component of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was up-regulated in ox-LDL-treated cells. ATF6, a factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was activated by ox-LDL in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The role of the ATF6-mediated ER stress pathway was further confirmed through the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF6, which attenuated ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP, cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages. In addition, the phosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), another factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was induced in the presence of ox-LDL, and PERK-specific siRNA also inhibited the ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP and apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells. These results demonstrate that ER stress-related proteins, particularly ATF6 and its downstream molecule CHOP, are involved in ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages.

  1. Upregulating reverse cholesterol transport with cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition requires combination with the LDL-lowering drug berberine in dyslipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Thieblemont, Quentin; Muzotte, Elodie; Sulpice, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition promotes in vivo reverse cholesterol transport in dyslipidemic hamsters. In vivo reverse cholesterol transport was measured after an intravenous injection of (3)H-cholesteryl-oleate-labeled/oxidized low density lipoprotein particles ((3)H-oxLDL), which are rapidly cleared from plasma by liver-resident macrophages for further (3)H-tracer egress in plasma, high density lipoprotein (HDL), liver, and feces. A first set of hamsters made dyslipidemic with a high-fat and high-fructose diet was treated with vehicle or torcetrapib 30 mg/kg (TOR) over 2 weeks. Compared with vehicle, TOR increased apolipoprotein E-rich HDL levels and significantly increased (3)H-tracer appearance in HDL by 30% over 72 hours after (3)H-oxLDL injection. However, TOR did not change (3)H-tracer recovery in liver and feces, suggesting that uptake and excretion of cholesterol deriving from apolipoprotein E-rich HDL is not stimulated. As apoE is a potent ligand for the LDL receptor, we next evaluated the effects of TOR in combination with the LDL-lowering drug berberine, which upregulates LDL receptor expression in dyslipidemic hamsters. Compared with TOR alone, treatment with TOR+berberine 150 mg/kg resulted in lower apolipoprotein E-rich HDL levels. After (3)H-oxLDL injection, TOR+berberine significantly increased (3)H-tracer appearance in fecal cholesterol by 109%. Our data suggest that cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition alone does not stimulate reverse cholesterol transport in dyslipidemic hamsters and that additional effects mediated by the LDL-lowering drug berberine are required to upregulate this process.

  2. CYP7A1-rs3808607 and APOE isoform associate with LDL cholesterol lowering after plant sterol consumption in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Dylan S; Eck, Peter K; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J; Jones, Peter Jh

    2015-10-01

    The benefits of plant sterols (PSs) for cholesterol lowering are hampered by large heterogeneity across individuals, potentially because of genetic polymorphisms. We investigated the impact of candidate genetic variations on cholesterol response to PSs in a trial that recruited individuals with high or low endogenous cholesterol synthesis, estimated by lathosterol to cholesterol (L:C) ratio. Mildly hypercholesterolemic adults preselected as possessing either high endogenous cholesterol synthesis (n = 24; mean ± SEM: L:C ratio = 2.03 ± 0.39 μmol/mmol) or low endogenous cholesterol synthesis (n = 39; mean ± SEM: L:C ratio = 0.99 ± 0.28 μmol/mmol) consumed 2 g PS/d or a placebo for 28 d by using a dual-center, single-blind, randomized crossover design. Cholesterol synthesis and change in cholesterol absorption were measured with stable isotopic tracers. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms and apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoform were assessed by TaqMan genotyping assay. The cholesterol fractional synthesis rate was higher (P cholesterol synthesis (mean ± SEM: placebo: 9.16% ± 0.47%; PSs: 9.74% ± 0.47%) than in participants with low endogenous cholesterol synthesis (mean ± SEM placebo: 5.72% ± 0.43%; PS: 7.10% ± 0.43%). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering in response to PSs was associated with individuals' genotypes. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1-rs3808607) T/T homozygotes showed no LDL cholesterol lowering (mean ± SEM: -0.05 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P = 0.9999, n = 20), whereas the presence of the G-allele associated with LDL cholesterol response in a dose-dependent fashion (mean ± SEM G/T: -0.22 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.0006, n = 35; G/G: -0.46 ± 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.0009, n = 8). Similarly, APOE ɛ3 carriers (mean ± SEM: -0.13 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.0370, n = 40) responded less than APOE ɛ4 carriers (mean ± SEM: -0.31 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P LDL cholesterol lowering. Cholesterol absorption decreased as a result of PS consumption, but this

  3. Effect of P/S ratio (0.5 vs 0.9) on hepatic LDL transport at three levels of dietary cholesterol in cynomolgus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.; Funk, G.M.; Turley, S.D.; Spady, D.K.; Dietschy, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction between dietary polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid ratio and cholesterol (C) was studied in 6 groups of male cynomolgus macaques fed diets (oleic acid constant) for 72 weeks as follows (C mg/Cal-P/S): (1), 0.06 - 0.5; (2), 0.06-0.9, (3), 0.28-0.5; (4), 0.28-0.9; (5), 2,35-0.5; (6), 2,35-0.9. Plasma C was proportional to dietary C and was affected significantly by P/S in 1 and 2 only. Mean plasma C (mg/dl) at 72 weeks was: (1) 158; (2) 117; (3) 320; (4) 284; (5) 602; (6) 601. LDL-C was significantly higher in (1) than in (2) (90 vs 65 mg/dl). In vivo LDL turnover studies showed that LDL clearance was suppressed by excess dietary C and by saturated fats in low C diets. Receptor-independent clearance was relatively constant. Hepatic LDL transport was determined after injection of 125I-cellobiose-LDL. Hepatic LDL-C uptake was greater in (2) than in (1). LDL-C synthesis was reduced in (4) and (6) compared to (3) and (5), respectively. The authors conclude that (i) hepatic LDL receptor activity is altered by degree of saturation in dietary triglycerides when dietary C is minimal and (ii) saturated triglycerides enhance LDL-C synthesis when dietary C is ample in this model

  4. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cholesterol is in this normal range. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. ... to 3.3 mmol/l) are desired. VLDL (Bad) Cholesterol VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. ...

  5. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  6. The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang V T; Sievenpiper, John L; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Jovanovski, Elena; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using the generic inverse-variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified by the I 2-statistic. In total, fifty-eight trials (n 3974) were included. A median dose of 3·5 g/d of oat β-glucan significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol (-0·19; 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14 mmol/l, Pcholesterol (-0·20; 95 % CI -0·26, -0·15 mmol/l, PLDL-cholesterol (I 2=79 %) and non-HDL-cholesterol (I 2=99 %). Pooled analyses showed that oat β-glucan has a lowering effect on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Inclusion of oat-containing foods may be a strategy for achieving targets in CVD reduction.

  7. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, A.E.

    2006-03-01

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  8. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussien, A E [Coordination Council of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-03-15

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  9. Comparison of soymilk and probiotic soymilk effects on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Babashahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soy milk (SM and its fermented products are identified as rich sources of bioactive compounds helping to manage and to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of SM and probiotic SM (PSM consumption on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS: Probiotic SM was prepared by fermentation of the plain SM with a native strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. 20 streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into two groups based on the type of administered SM (SM group and PSM group. The animals were fed with 1 ml/day of either soy or PSM for 21 days. The serum lipoprotein levels were analyzed at baseline and the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: HDL-C increased significantly in PSM group. Furthermore, this group showed more percent of change in increased HDL-C in compression with SM group (P < 0.050. Regarding LDL-C level, rats fed with SM was not significantly different from the PSM group (P < 0.050; though, this biomarker was reduced in both group. CONCLUSION: Probiotic SM could modulate blood lipoprotein levels. Thus, it may be considered in managing diabetes complications and atherosclerotic risks. 

  10. The role of serum non-cholesterol sterols as surrogate markers of absolute cholesterol synthesis and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, T A; Gylling, H; Nissinen, M J

    2011-10-01

    To study the whole-body cholesterol metabolism in man, cholesterol synthesis and absorption need to be measured. Because of the complicated methods of the measurements, new approaches were developed including the analysis of serum non-cholesterol sterols. In current lipidologic papers and even in intervention studies, serum non-cholesterol sterols are frequently used as surrogate markers of cholesterol metabolism without any validation to the absolute metabolic variables. The present review compares serum non-cholesterol sterols with absolute measurements of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in published papers to find out whether the serum markers are valid indicators of cholesterol metabolism in various conditions. During statin treatment, during interventions of dietary fat, and in type 2 diabetes the relative and absolute variables of cholesterol synthesis and absorption were frequently but not constantly correlated with each other. In some occasions, especially in subjects with apolipoprotein E3/4 and E4/4 phenotypes, the relative metabolic markers were even more sensitive than the absolute ones to reflect changes in cholesterol metabolism during dietary interventions. Even in general population at very high absorption the homeostasis of cholesterol metabolism is disturbed damaging the validity of the serum markers. It is worth using several instead of only one precursor and absorption sterol marker for making conclusions of altered synthesis or absorption of cholesterol, and even then the presence of at least some absolute measurement is valuable. During consumption of plant sterol-enriched diets and in situations of interfered cholesterol homeostasis the relative markers do not adequately reflect cholesterol metabolism. Accordingly, the validity of the relative markers of cholesterol metabolism should not be considered as self-evident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  12. Relationship between circulating microRNA-30c with total- and LDL-cholesterol, their circulatory transportation and effect of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Ravinder; Eastwood, Jarlath; Caslake, Muriel; Packard, Chris J; Denby, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs (miR) have important regulatory roles and are used as biomarkers of disease. We investigated the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, evaluated how they are transported in circulation and determined whether statins altered the circulating concentration of miR-30c. To determine the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, serum samples from 79 subjects recruited from a lipid clinic were evaluated. Ultracentrifugation and nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to evaluate the transportation of miR-30c in the circulation by lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles in three healthy volunteers. Using archived samples from previous studies, the effects of 40mg rosuvastatin (n=22) and 40mg pravastatin (n=24) on miR-30c expression was also examined. RNA extraction, reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out using standard procedures. When stratified according to total cholesterol concentration, there was increased miR-30c expression in the highest compared to the lowest tertile (p=0.035). There was significant positive correlation between miR-30c and total- (r=0.367; p=0.002) and LDL-cholesterol (r=0.391; p=0.001). We found that miR-30c was transported in both exosomes and on HDL3. There was a 3.8-fold increased expression of circulating miR-30c after pravastatin treatment for 1year (p=0.005) but no significant change with atorvastatin after 8weeks (p=0.145). This study shows for the first-time in humans that circulating miR-30c is significantly, positively correlated with total- and LDL-cholesterol implicating regulatory functions in lipid homeostasis. We show miR-30c is transported in both exosomes and on HDL3 and pravastatin therapy significantly increased circulating miR-30c expression adding to the pleiotropic dimensions of statins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotope dilution/mass spectrometry of serum cholesterol with [3,4-13C]cholesterol: proposed definitive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Wright, L.A.; Breckenridge, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a new gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) isotope-dilution method for determination of serum cholesterol. The method has been fully optimized and documented to provide the high accuracy and precision expected for a Definitive Method. In the presence of [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol, cholesteryl esters in serum are hydrolyzed under optimum conditions and the entire cholesterol pool is extracted and derivatized to silyl ethers. The cholesterol derivatives are resolved from other sterols by gas-liquid chromatography on a fused silica column, and selected ions characteristic of cholesterol and the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol are monitored with a GC/MS quandrupole system. We estimated the cholesterol content of samples by bracketing each sample with standards of comparable cholesterol concentration that also contained the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol. The procedure was highly reproducible (CV less than 0.5%), better accuracy and precision being obtained with [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol than with heptadeuterated cholesterol. Mean values per gram of dry serum for one serum pool assayed by this method and that of the National Bureau of Standards differed by 0.5%. We conclude that the method satisfies the criteria for a Definitive Method

  14. Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Serra, Mercè; Pérez-Heras, Ana; Cofán, Montserrat; Pintó, Xavier; Trautwein, Elke A; Ros, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    Plant sterol (PS)-supplemented foods are recommended to help in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have examined the efficacy of PS-enriched skimmed milk (SM) or semi-SM enriched with vegetable fat (PS-VFM). There is also insufficient information on factors predictive of LDL-C responses to PS. We examined the effects of PS-SM (0·1 % dairy fat) and PS-VFM (0·1 % dairy fat plus 1·5 % vegetable fat) on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, forty-three subjects with LDL-C>1300 mg/l were randomly assigned to three 4-week treatment periods: control SM, PS-SM and PS-VFM, with 500 ml milk with or without 3·4 g PS esters (2 g free PS). Serum concentrations of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols were measured. Compared to control, LDL-C decreased by 8·0 and 7·4 % (P synthesis and high cholesterol absorption predicted improved LDL-C responses to PS.

  15. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess...

  16. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess ...

  17. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  18. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half of mouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, M V; Baardman, M E; van Dijk, T H; Jurdzinski, A; Wisse, L J; Bloks, V W; Berger, R M F; DeRuiter, M C; Groen, A K; Plösch, T

    2017-08-01

    LDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol availability to maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol levels in utero in mice. Lrp2 +/- mice were mated heterozygously to yield fetuses of all three genotypes. Half of the dams received a 0.5% probucol-enriched diet during gestation to decrease maternal HDL cholesterol. At E13.5, the dams received an injection of D7-labelled cholesterol and were provided with 1- 13 C acetate-supplemented drinking water. At E16.5, fetal tissues were collected and maternal cholesterol transport and fetal synthesis quantified by isotope enrichments in fetal tissues by GC-MS. The Lrp2 genotype did not influence maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol. However, lowering of maternal plasma cholesterol levels by probucol significantly reduced maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. In the fetal liver, this was associated with increased cholesterol synthesis rates. No indications were found for an interaction between the Lrp2 genotype and maternal probucol treatment. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and endogenous fetal cholesterol synthesis depend on maternal cholesterol concentrations but do not involve LRP2 in the second half of murine pregnancy. Our results suggest that the mouse fetus can compensate for decreased maternal cholesterol levels. It remains a relevant question how the delicate system of cholesterol transport and synthesis is regulated in the human fetus and placenta. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  20. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages by suppressing ox-LDL uptake and promoting cholesterol efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yao, Qiying; Xu, Siwei; Wang, Hongyan; Qu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The activated NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to promote macrophage foam cell formation, but not all studies have obtained the same result, and how NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the formation of foam cells remains elusive. We used selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells to assess the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition on macrophage foam cell formation, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake, esterification, and cholesterol efflux, as well as the expression of associated proteins. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated foam cell formation, diminished ox-LDL uptake, and promoted cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, it downregulated CD36, acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 and neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase expression; upregulated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression; but had no effect on the expression of scavenger receptor class A and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1. Collectively, our findings show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome decreases foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages via suppression of ox-LDL uptake and enhancement of cholesterol efflux, which may be due to downregulation of CD36 expression and upregulation of ABCA1 and SR-BI expression, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Expected Cardiovascular Benefit of Plasma Cholesterol Lowering with or Without LDL-C Targets in Healthy Individuals at Higher Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.

  2. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan causes a transient increase in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterols and hs-CRP in ethnic obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakishun, Nalini; Blokhuis, Charlotte; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Weijer, Olivier; Heymans, Martijn; Beijnen, Jos; Brandjes, Dees; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    The radical change of lifestyle during Ramadan fast has shown to affect cardiometabolic risk variables in adults. In youth, however, no studies are available. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fast on Body Mass Index (BMI) and the cardiometabolic profile of obese adolescents. A prospective cohort study was conducted. We measured weight, height, body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels before, during the last week of and at 6 weeks after Ramadan. Twenty-five obese adolescents were included. BMI and glucose metabolism did not change after Ramadan or at 6 week after cessation of Ramadan. At the end of Ramadan, a significant decrease in body fat percentage was observed, while significant increases in heart rate, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP were found (all P < 0.05). Six weeks after Ramadan, all parameters returned to baseline levels. In this sample of 25 ethnic obese adolescents transient cardiometabolic changes were observed during Ramadan fasting. Since most of these changes were reversible within 6 weeks, there seems no harm or benefit for obese adolescents to participate in Ramadan.

  3. LDL-oxidation, serum uric acid, kidney function and pulse-wave velocity: Data from the Brisighella Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Kuwabara, Masanari; Johnson, Richard; Bove, Marilisa; Fogacci, Federica; Rosticci, Martina; Giovannini, Marina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2018-06-15

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be associated with arterial aging. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between SUA, oxLDL and arterial stiffness in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. From the database of the 2012 Brisighella Heart Study, we compared age-matched adult, non-smoker subjects without cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function (n = 205), subjects with stage II chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 118) and subjects with stage III CKD (n = 94). All subjects underwent a determination of the LDL oxidative susceptibility, oxLDL levels, SUA and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). By univariate analysis, PWV correlated with a large number of clinical, haemodynamic and metabolic parameters, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal renal function and in those with stage II or III CKD. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that in the presence of normal renal function or stage II CKD, the main predictors of PWV were age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), ox-LDL, apolipoprotein B and SUA (p function, but not in the subjects with more compromised eGFR. This study confirms the complex relationship of SUA with cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the patient with established renal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  5. Discriminative ability of LDL-cholesterol to identify patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study in 26,406 individuals tested for genetic FH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Roeland; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John J P

    2012-06-01

    Screening for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) within affected families is often based on cutoff values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the diagnostic accuracy of LDL-C levels is influenced by the magnitude of the LDL-C overlap between FH patients and unaffected relatives. The purpose of the current study was to assess to what extent this overlap is influenced by the severity of specific FH mutations. Individuals were eligible if they underwent family screening for FH between 2003 and 2010. The entire cohort was then compared with those who were investigated for the presence of the most severe mutations (class 1). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the sensitivity of the 90th percentile of LDL-C were calculated for both cohorts. We included 26 406 individuals, of whom 9169 (35%) carried an FH-causing mutation. In the entire cohort at baseline, mean LDL-C was 4.63 ± 1.44 mmol/L for FH carriers (n=5372) and 2.96 ± 0.96 mmol/L for unaffected relatives (n=15 148); P<0.001. The corresponding operating characteristics curve (95% CI) was 86.6% (85.9%-87.2%), and the cutoff level of LDL-C above the 90th percentile showed a sensitivity of 68.5%. The operating characteristics curve and sensitivity significantly improved when the 5933 individuals tested for class 1 mutations were assessed separately; 96.2% (95.3%-97.1%) and 91.3%, respectively. In summary, the overlap in terms of LDL-C levels between those with molecularly proven FH and unaffected relatives is to a large extent because of the high prevalence of modestly severe LDL-receptor mutations in the Netherlands.

  6. Phytosterol capsules and serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottestad, Inger; Ose, Leiv; Wennersberg, Marianne H; Granlund, Linda; Kirkhus, Bente; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2013-06-01

    Phytosterols are recommended in combination with diet therapy to reduce elevated LDL-cholesterol level. Meta-analyses indicate a 10% reduction in LDL-cholesterol from intake of approximately 2 g phytosterols/d incorporated into fat-based foods. However, the cholesterol lowering effect from capsules containing phytosterols is less documented. The pre-specified primary endpoint of the present study was to investigate the effect of capsules with phytosterols on circulating LDL-cholesterol in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 41 men and women were randomized into two four-weeks intervention periods with softgel capsules containing either phytosterols (2.0 g/d) or sunflower oil. There was a three-weeks washout period between the intervention periods. No significant difference in total- or LDL-cholesterol between the phytosterol and the placebo period were observed after four weeks intervention (0.0 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.3 to 0.2), P = 0.74 and -0.1 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.3 to 0.1), P = 0.32, respectively). Daily intake of capsules containing 2 g phytosterols did not reduce total- or LDL-cholesterol significantly in a highly relevant target group for the use of phytosterol products. The present results may emphasize the importance of choosing a suitable dosage-delivery system in order to achieve optimal cholesterol lowering effect. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, IDno:NCT00485095. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.

  8. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:23099443

  9. MicroRNA-27a decreases the level and efficiency of the LDL receptor and contributes to the dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Eddy, Elena; Done, Stefania C

    2015-10-01

    A strong risk factor for atherosclerosis- the leading cause of heart attacks and strokes- is the elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood. The LDL receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for LDL-C removal from circulation, and their levels are increased by statins -the main treatment for high blood LDL-C. However, statins have low efficiency because they also increase PCSK9 which targets LDLR for degradation. Since microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, our aim was to identify potential microRNA-based therapeutics to decrease blood LDL-C and prevent atherosclerosis. We over expressed and knocked down miR-27a in HepG2 cells to assess its effect on the expression of key players in the LDLR pathway using PCR Arrays, Elisas, and Western blots. We found that miR-27a decreases LDLR levels by 40% not only through a direct binding to its 3' untranslated region but also indirectly by inducing a 3-fold increase in PCSK9, which enhances LDLR degradation. Interestingly, miR-27a also directly decreases LRP6 and LDLRAP1, two other key players in the LDLR pathway that are required for efficient endocytosis of the LDLR-LDL-C complex in the liver. The inhibition of miR-27a using lock nucleic acids induced a 70% increase in LDLR levels and, therefore, it would be a more efficient treatment for hypercholesterolemia because of its desirable effects not only on LDLR but also on PCSK9. The results presented here provide evidence supporting the potential of miR-27a as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PCSK9 R46L Loss-of-Function Mutation Reduces Lipoprotein(a), LDL Cholesterol, and Risk of Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Novel, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors also lower lipoprotein(a) levels, but the effect on aortic valve stenosis and myocardial infarction is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the PCSK9 R46L...... individuals of Danish descent. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 103 083 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lipoprotein(a), LDL cholesterol, and PCSK9 R46L genotype and diagnoses of aortic...... P = .02). The corresponding values for LDL cholesterol levels were 124 (101-147) mg/dl, 104 (85-132) mg/dl, and 97 (85-128) mg/dl, respectively (trend P = 2 × 10(-52)). PCSK9 R46L carriers vs noncarriers had an age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio of 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.95) for aortic...

  11. Perbedaan Kadar Kolesterol Ldl dan Hdl antara Wanita Vegetarian Tipe Vegan dan Non-vegan

    OpenAIRE

    Edyanto, Ermia; Puruhita, Niken

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies which investigated different risk for cardiovascular disease in vegetarian reported that each vegetarian diet type had different lipid serum level. Elevated LDL cholesterol level and reduced HDL cholesterol level are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease. This study was aimed to compare levels on LDL and HDL cholesterol between vegetarian vegan and non-vegan.Methods: Two groups of vegetarian women, 23 people in each group of vegan and non-vegan, participated ...

  12. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Di-xian; Xia, Cheng-lai; Li, Jun-mu; Xiong, Yan; Yuan, Hao-yu; TANG, Zhen-Wang; Zeng, Yixin; Liao, Duan-fang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. → Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. → Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. → Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. → Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different static pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 ± 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 ± 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 ± 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 ± 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 ± 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 ± 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels were upregulated. Conclusion: Static

  13. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); First People' s Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Xia, Cheng-lai [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Third Affiliated Hospital Medical College of Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510150, Guangdong (China); Li, Jun-mu [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Xiong, Yan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Yuan, Hao-yu [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Lusong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhuzhou 412000, Hunan (China); TANG, Zhen-Wang; Zeng, Yixin [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Liao, Duan-fang, E-mail: dfliao66@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Department of Traditional Chinese Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 420108, Hunan (China)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. {yields} Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. {yields} Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different static pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 {+-} 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 {+-} 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 {+-} 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 {+-} 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 {+-} 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 {+-} 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels were

  14. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  15. Serum cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology of lipoproteins and lipoprotein particles as mediators of atherosclerosis has been documented extensively. Numerous prospective epidemiological studies have shown a robust relationship between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or particles bearing apolipoprotein B, and increased risk of coronary ...

  16. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  17. Treatment patterns and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients receiving high- or moderate-intensity statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M; Tai, Ming-Hui; Kostev, Karel; Hatz, Maximilian; Qian, Yi; Laufs, Ulrich

    2018-05-01

    European clinical guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of C goal attainment among atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) patients with various utilization patterns of moderate- or high-intensity statins in routine care. This retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records data from the QuintilesIMS® Disease Analyzer (> 2 million individuals annually) to identify ASCVD (coronary atherosclerosis, stable/unstable angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease) patients on moderate-/high-intensity statin in Germany. Proportion of patients with LDL-C C value for each patient (index) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, while on statin. Treatment patterns were assessed for patients with at least 1 year of post-index follow-up. Results were stratified by year and treatment pattern [no change, switch, dose up-/down-titration, discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap)]. In > 14,000 patients assessed in each year (mean age 71 years, 35% female, 8-12% taking high-intensity statins), approximately 80% had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL. Treatment patterns were assessed for most (88-93%) patients. Approximately 79-81% of patients made no change to statin regimens, 1% switched statins, 14-16% discontinued; 1% of moderate-intensity patients up-titrated, and 3% of all patients down-titrated. LDL-C goal attainment in these treatment pattern groups was 20, 16-24, 17, 11-14, and 17-19%, respectively. Majority of ASCVD patients had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL while on moderate-/high-intensity statins. Despite low LDL-C goal attainment, few patients changed their treatment regimens.

  18. Prognostic role of LDL cholesterol in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: Multicenter prospective study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Provenzano, Michele; Chiodini, Paolo; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Tripepi, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Conte, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Francesco; Zoccali, Carmine; Minutolo, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The prognostic role of LDL in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still undefined. We addressed this question in a multicenter prospective study including patients referred to nephrologist for management. 1306 patients with CKD stage III-V were studied at basal visit in 79 Italian nephrology clinics in 2004-2006, and then followed for survival analyses. Study endpoints were incident cardiovascular -CV events (fatal and major non-fatal) and renal events (start of renal replacement therapy or eGFR halving). Mean age was 67.6 ± 11.8 years, male 65%, diabetes 25%, CV disease 27%, and eGFR 35.8 ± 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). LDL was 119 ± 40 mg/dL, with high levels in 50.1% and 82.8% defined on the basis of the individual CV risk profile estimated according to ATPIII 2001 and ESC 2012 guidelines (LDL 100 to 160, and >70 or >100 mg/dL, respectively). Over a median follow up of 2.87 years, 178 CV and 181 renal events occurred. At multivariable Cox analyses, CV risk linearly increased with higher LDL (hazard ratio-HR per 40 mg/dL higher LDL: 1.20, 95% confidence intervals-CI 1.03-1.39); risk doubled when considering high LDL defined according to ESC 2012 (HR 2.37, 95%CI 1.39-4.03) while this association was not significant when considering the higher threshold levels of ATPIII 2001 (HR 1.10, 95%CI 0.82-1.49). No association emerged between LDL and renal risk. In non-dialysis CKD patients, CV risk increases linearly with higher LDL and is more than doubled when considering the lower threshold values currently indicated for defining optimal LDL level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency of significant three vessel coronary artery disease and left main stem disease in acute coronary syndrome patients having high LDL cholesterol level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.; Achakzai, A.S.; Zeb, J.; Zeb, R.; Adil, M.; Jan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the frequency of significant three-vessel coronary artery and left main stem disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome having high LDL cholesterol level. Methodology: This observational study was performed in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. All consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography admitted with acute coronary syndrome within past 30 days and having LDL cholesterol more than 130mg/dl were included in the study. Demographic data was noted. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16. Results: A total number of 206 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.25+-8.4 years. Of them, 139(67.5%) were male and 67(32.5%) female. Hypertension was found in 87(42.2%) patients, diabetes was found in 71(34.5%) patients, 56(27.2%) were smokers, family history of CAD was present in 39(18.9%) patients. The incidence of significant three vessel coronary artery disease was 52(25.2%) and left main stem disease were present in 15(7.2%). Out of 67(32.4%) with severe triple vessel and Left main stem disease, males were 51(76.1%) and females were 16(23.9%). Patients with significant three vessel and left main stem disease were more frequently males and younger. Conclusion: Patients having acute coronary syndrome with High LDL levels are more frequently have significant three vessel and Left main stem disease.

  20. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Destaillats, Frédéric; Dionisi, Fabiola; Krauss, Ronald M; Baer, David J

    2015-12-01

    Adverse effects of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) on the risk of coronary artery disease are well documented in the scientific literature; however, effects of naturally occurring trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), are less clear. Although animal and cell studies suggest that VA and c9,t11-CLA may be hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic, epidemiologic data comparing rTFAs and iTFAs are inconsistent, and human intervention studies have been limited, underpowered, and not well controlled. We determined the effects of VA, c9,t11-CLA, and iTFA, in the context of highly controlled diets (24 d each), on lipoprotein risk factors compared with a control diet. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover feeding trial in 106 healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 47 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.5 ± 4.0; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: 3.24 ± 0.63 mmol/L]. Diets were designed to have stearic acid replaced with the following TFA isomers (percentage of energy): 0.1% mixed isomers of TFA (control), ∼3% VA, ∼3% iTFA, or 1% c9,t11-CLA. Total dietary fat (34% of energy) and other macronutrients were matched. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lipoprotein(a), and apolipoprotein B were higher after VA than after iTFA; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI also were higher after VA. Compared with control, VA and iTFA both increased TC, LDL cholesterol, ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (2-6% change; P cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) (2-6% change; P < 0.05), whereas iTFA did not. c9,t11-CLA lowered triacylglycerol (P ≤ 0.01) and had no effect on other lipoprotein risk factors. With respect to risk of cardiovascular disease, these results are consistent with current nutrition labeling guidelines, with the requirement of VA, but

  1. A decrease in total bilirubin predicted hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum total bilirubin (TB) and LDL cholesterol. It is a retrospective observational study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia were investigated in a health screening population. Odds ratios (ORs) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 3,866 subjects, Spearman's correlation coefficients between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years were calculated in 1,735 subjects who did not use antihyperlipidemic drugs and hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 1,992 followed subjects. The ORs (p values) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 1.04 (0.998) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol and other confounders. Spearman's correlation coefficients (p values) between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years and changes in LDL cholesterol were -0.026 (0.271), -0.078 (0.001) and -0.062 (0.010), respectively. Among 1,992 followed subjects, 481 developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia during 4 years (60.4 per 1,000 person-years). The HRs (95% confidence intervals; p values) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 0.86 (0.77-0.96; 0.006) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol, body mass index, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and other confounders. The quintiles of TB were significantly associated with the incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia adjusted for the above covariates (p for trend = 0.008). A decrease in TB predicted incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  3. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  4. Treatment with ETC-1002 alone and in combination with ezetimibe lowers LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients with or without statin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul D; MacDougall, Diane E; Newton, Roger S; Margulies, Janice R; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Orloff, David G; McKenney, James M; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2016-01-01

    ETC-1002 is an oral, once-daily, first-in-class medication being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia. To compare 2 doses of ETC-1002, alone or combined with ezetimibe 10 mg (EZE), vs EZE monotherapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This phase 2b, multicenter, double-blind trial-evaluated hypercholesterolemic patients (LDL-C, 130 to 220 mg/dL) with (n = 177) or without (n = 171) muscle-related intolerance to ≥2 statins; 1 at lowest approved dose. Subjects were randomized to 12-week treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg or ETC-1002 180 mg alone, EZE alone, ETC-1002 120 mg plus EZE, or ETC-1002 180 mg plus EZE. EZE alone lowered LDL-C by 21%, whereas ETC-1002 monotherapy with 120 mg or 180 mg reduced LDL-C by 27% (P = .0008 vs EZE) and 30% (P statin-intolerant patients reported more muscle-related adverse events than did statin-tolerant patients. ETC-1002 was safe and well tolerated, and rates of muscle-related adverse events were similar in all treatment groups. In patients with and without statin intolerance, daily treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg and 180 mg alone or with EZE reduced LDL-C more than EZE alone and had a similar tolerability profile (NCT01941836). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  6. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  7. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  8. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  9. Lowering of cholesterol bioaccessibility and serum concentrations by saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Atanasov, Vasil; Pantcheva, Ivayla; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Using an in vitro digestion model, we studied the effect of six saponin extracts on the bioaccessibility of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In the absence of saponins, around 78% of the available cholesterol was solubilized in the simulated intestinal fluids. The addition of two

  10. Plasma-Serum Cholesterol Differences in Children and Use of Measurements from Different Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.; Wijga, A.H.; Rossem, van L.; Jongste, de J.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess absolute plasma-serum differences and differences in ranking of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and TC/HDLC ratio in children. Methods: We analysed data of 412 children participating in a Dutch birth cohort. TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC

  11. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Serum Cholesterol Levels and on Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... Myasnikova' was the first to show that vitamin Chad the ability to influence ~erum cholesterol levels of patients. She observed that the intravenous administration of high doses of vitamin C to patients with high levels of serum cholesterol resulted in a distinct decrease, whereas in patients with low values it ...

  12. Serum cholesterol, apolipoprotein E genotype and depressive symptoms in elderly European men: The FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Dortland, A.K.B.V.R.; Nissinen, A.; Giampaoli, S.; Veen, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Bots, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cohort and case-control studies found that lower serum total cholesterol is associated with depression. It is, however, unclear whether low cholesterol or its lipoprotein fractions are causally related to depression. Using a Mendelian randomization design, the potential association

  13. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  14. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application.

  15. Higher serum cholesterol is associated with intensified age-related neural network decoupling and cognitive decline in early- to mid-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sadeh, Naomi; Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Salat, David H

    2017-06-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease intensify normative trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. However, the neural mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. To understand the impact of cholesterol on brain networks, we applied graph theory to resting-state fMRI in a large sample of early- to mid-life Veterans (N = 206, Mean age  = 32). A network emerged (centered on the banks of the superior temporal sulcus) that evidenced age-related decoupling (i.e., decreased network connectivity with age), but only in participants with clinically-elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL). Crucially, decoupling in this network corresponded to greater day-to-day disability and mediated age-related declines in psychomotor speed. Finally, examination of network organization revealed a pattern of age-related dedifferentiation for the banks of the superior temporal sulcus, again present only with higher cholesterol. More specifically, age was related to decreasing within-module communication (indexed by Within-Module Degree Z-Score) and increasing between-module communication (indexed by Participation Coefficient), but only in participants with clinically-elevated cholesterol. Follow-up analyses indicated that all findings were driven by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, rather than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or triglycerides, which is interesting as LDL levels have been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas HDL levels appear inversely related to such disease. These findings provide novel insight into the deleterious effects of cholesterol on brain health and suggest that cholesterol accelerates the impact of age on neural trajectories by disrupting connectivity in circuits implicated in integrative processes and behavioral control. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3249-3261, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of treat-to-target strategy for LDL-cholesterol control in type 2 diabetes: post-hoc analysis of data from the MIND.IT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Diego; Vaccaro, Olga; Cavalot, Franco; Rivellese, Albarosa Angela; Franzini, Laura; Miccoli, Roberto; Patti, Lidia; Boemi, Massimo; Trovati, Mariella; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a post-hoc analysis of the intensity of dyslipidaemia care operated in the first 2 years of Multiple-Intervention-in-type-2-Diabetes.ITaly (MIND.IT) study. MIND.IT is a multicentric, randomized, two-parallel arm trial involving 1461 type 2 diabetic patients at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. The study compares the usual care (UC) of CV prevention with a multifactorial intensive care (IC) approach aiming at achieving target values for the main CV risk factors according to a step-wise treat-to-target approach. Proportion of patients on target for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was about 10% at baseline and increased significantly more with IC than UC (43 vs. 27%; p < 0.001). However, the majority (57%) of patients, in this intended intensively treated cohort, failed to achieve the proposed target. Average LDL-C decreased from 144 ± 35 to 108 ± 31 mg/dl with IC and from 142 ± 28 to 118 ± 32 with UC (p-for-interaction <0.0001). IC was associated with a significantly greater increase in statin prescription and lower withdrawal from treatment than UC (43 vs. 11% and 28 vs. 61%, respectively; both p < 0.001). However, the new treatments were characterized in both groups by the use of low starting doses (≤ 10 mg of atorvastatin, equivalent dose in more than 90% of patients) without increase in case of missed target. The application of a multifactorial treat-to-target intervention is associated with a significant improvement in LDL-C beyond usual practice. However, the change in LDL-C appears to be more related to an increased number of treated patients and a decreased treatment withdrawal than to a true treat-to-target approach.

  17. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  18. Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Jus Buah Sirsak (Annona muricata L. Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Kolesterol Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Dislipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Dwi Tia

    2014-09-01

    There was the effect of various doses of soursop juice to decrease LDL’s cholesterol levels in dyslipidemia white rat serum. The greater the dose of soursop juice given, the greater the reduction in LDL’s cholesterol levels in the serum of dyslipidemia white rat.

  19. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-08-24

    Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated

  20. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily MT; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas MS; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Methods: Adults aged 30–70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. Results: In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P < 0.001), neither HDS nor LDS had a significant effect on LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, −0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, −0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score

  1. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily Mt; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas Ms; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-12-01

    Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Adults aged 30-70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, -0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, -0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score. Consuming 12.5 or 25 g protein from defatted soy flour incorporated into muffins does not reduce LDL

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “L-tug lycopene” and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    claim related to “L-tug lycopene” and reduction of blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is L-tug lycopene (i.e. Lyc-O-Mato® embedded in fat-rich matrices by a manufacturing process claimed as proprietary and confidential by the applicant......). The Panel considers that the food constituent, L-tug lycopene, which is the subject of the claim, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. A reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations reduces...... the risk of CHD. The Panel notes that the unpublished studies submitted to support the claim were exploratory in nature and insufficient information was provided to allow the scientific evaluation of these studies. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between...

  3. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and leucocyte oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighello, Gabriel G; Inada, Natália M; Paim, Bruno A; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death worldwide. Beyond the classical cholesterol risk factor, other conditions such as oxidative stress are well documented to promote atherosclerosis. The Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) was reported to present antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of Vimang treatment on risk factors of the atherosclerosis prone model of familial hypercholesterolemia, the LDL receptor knockout mice. Mice were treated with Vimang during 2 weeks and were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet during the second week. The Vimang treated mice presented significantly reduced levels of plasma (15%) and liver (20%) cholesterol, increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (10%) and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by spleen mononuclear cells (50%), P Vimang treated mice. Therefore, in this study we demonstrated that Vimang has protective effects on systemic and tissue-specific risk factors, but it is not sufficient to promote a reduction in the initial steps of atherosclerosis development. In addition, we disclosed a new antioxidant target of Vimang, the spleen mononuclear cells that might be relevant for more advanced stages of atherosclerosis. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  6. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  7. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Rytter, Dorte [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Bech, Bodil Hammer [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Henriksen, Tine Brink [Pediatric Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Olsen, Sjurdur F. [Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: tih@hi.is [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  8. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  9. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  10. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  11. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  12. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LDL-cholesterol goal attainment under persistent lipid-lowering therapy in northeast China: Subgroup analysis of the dyslipidemia international study of China (DYSIS-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Bu, Xiang-Ting; Guo, Xin-Zhu; Hu, Da-Yi; Li, Zhan-Quan; Sun, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the efficacy of persistent treatment in a real-world setting may vary from regions. Routine lipid-lowering therapy in the region with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease may lead to more failures of goal attainment. We therefore performed a study to observe different lipid-lowering strategies in northeast (NE) China with respect to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainments.A cross-sectional study (DYSIS-China) was conducted in 2012, involving 25,317 patients from 122 centers across China who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months. Of these patients, 4559 (18.0%) were assigned to the NE group according to their residential zones.Patients in the NE group tended to be younger, female, overweight, and had more comorbidities and higher blood lipid levels than those in the non-NE group (P 24 kg/m, drinking alcohol, smoking, and being residence in NE China as independent predictors of LDL-C attainment.Despite having received persistent lipid-lowering treatments, the current situation of dyslipidemia patients in NE China is unsatisfactory. The main treatment gap might be related to the choice of statin and effective combination therapy and the control of comorbidities and obesity, especially for high-risk patients.

  15. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  16. Long Noncoding RNA HOXC-AS1 Suppresses Ox-LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation Through Promoting HOXC6 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Feng-Xia; Kang, Chun-Min; Lu, Jing-Bo; Xiu, Jian-Cheng; Sha, Yan-Hua; Gao, Ji-Juan; Wang, Yan-Chao; Li, Pan; Xu, Bang-Ming; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common pathological basis of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of mortality. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are newly studied non-protein-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, but how lncRNAs exert regulatory effect on atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we found that lncRNA HOXC cluster antisense RNA 1 (HOXC-AS1) and homeobox C6 (HOXC6) were downregulated in carotid atherosclerosis by performing microarray analysis. The results were verified in atherosclerotic plaques and normal arterial intima tissues by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HOXC-AS1 induced HOXC6 expression at mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 macrophages. Besides, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) decreased expression of HOXC-AS1 and HOXC6 in a time-dependent manner. Induction of cholesterol accumulation by Ox-LDL could be partly suppressed by overexpression of HOXC-AS1.

  17. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatis, S; Tsapogas, P; Chala, E; Dimosthenopoulos, C; Kyriakopoulos, K; Kapantais, E; Katsilambros, N

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the water-soluble dietary fibre betaglucan, a natural component of oats, reduces cholesterol and postprandial hyperglycaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaglucan-enriched bread consumption on the lipid profile and glucose homoeostasis of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in which 46 patients with T2D and LDL-C greater than 3.37 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) were randomized to incorporate into their diet, for 3 weeks, either bread enriched with betaglucan (providing 3g/day of betaglucan) or white bread without betaglucan. The consumption of bread containing betaglucan led to significant reductions (vs the control group) in LDL-C of 0.66 mmol/l (15.79%) versus 0.11 mmol/l (2.71%) (P=0.009), in total cholesterol of 0.80 mmol/l (12.80%) versus 0.12 mmol/l (1.88%) (P=0.006), in Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) of 3.23 microU/ml versus an increase of 3.77 microU/ml (P=0.03) and in Homa-IR (Homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) by 2.08 versus an increase of 1.33 (P=0.04). Betaglucan enriched bread may contribute to the improvement of the lipid profile and insulin resistance in patients with T2D.

  18. Serum cholesterol and depression: A puzzle never finished

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Budania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a state of sadness, hopelessness, and discouragement. Various studies have been conducted to uncover the etiological factors involved in depression. Serum folic acid is one such factor. Many researchers have reported an inverse association between serum folic acid and depression. We did an extensive computerized database searches on PubMed, Medline, and EBSCO and found that low serum folic acid are associated with depression, not only in adults, but also in elderly and diabetic patients. Further augmentation of folic acid with antidepressant treatment also improves the treatment outcome in depressed patients. Hence, considering the high benefits to the adverse effects ratio of serum folic acid, its supplementation should be done in "at risk" population whenever possible.

  19. Effects of daily almond consumption on cardiometabolic risk and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults with elevated LDL-cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A; Bordi, Peter L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-05

    Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled-feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie-matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. In a randomized, 2-period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled-feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL-C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol-lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non-HDL-C (-6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL-C (-5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL-C (-1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (-0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (-0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. Almonds reduced non-HDL-C, LDL-C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL-C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals. www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  1. DIETARY-CHOLESTEROL INDUCED DOWN-REGULATION OF INTESTINAL 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME-A REDUCTASE-ACTIVITY IS DIMINISHED IN RABBITS WITH HYPERRESPONSE OF SERUM-CHOLESTEROL TO DIETARY-CHOLESTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, GW; SMIT, MJ; VANDERPALEN, JGP; KUIPERS, F; VONK, RJ; VANZUTPHEN, BFM; BEYNEN, AC

    Key enzymes of cholesterol metabolism were studied in two inbred strains of rabbits with hyper- or hyporesponse of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol. Baseline 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)CoA reductase activity in liver was similar in hypo- and hyperresponders, but that in intestine was

  2. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  3. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Burke, David; Fasching, Peter; Banach, Maciej; Bruckert, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus ® ) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  4. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrios, Vivencio

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC\\/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  5. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  6. Relationship between XspI Site Polymorphisms of LDL-R Gene and Serum IL-2 and IL-10 in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Lu, Yamin; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Cuigai; Gao, Wei; Tie, Yanqing

    2016-11-01

    Relationship has been identified in sporadic reports between polymorphisms and hypercholesterolemia. However, the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and polymorphism of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in hypercholesterolemia is unclear. This study aimed to explore the relationship and significance between polymorphisms of LDL-R gene and serum Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10 in patients with hypercholesterolemia. PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing assay were employed to determine polymorphism of LDL-R gene in 900 patients with hypercholesterolemia and 400 healthy cases. ELISA was applied to assay serum concentration of IL-2 and IL-10. Blood lipid indexes were tested in all cases. Compared with the healthy controls, level of IL-2 increased significantly, while IL-10 decreased significantly (P hypercholesterolemia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of Physical Examination and Diet Consultation on Serum Cholesterol and Health-behavior in the Korean Pilots Employed in Commercial Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Yun Young; KIM, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the “B” airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35–5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation. PMID:24131872

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol; high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, following a request in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations in a large number of studies, the effective dose of plant sterols (as powder diluted in water) needed to achieve a given magnitude of effect in a given timeframe...

  9. Goal attainments and their discrepancies for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) in over 2,000 Chinese patients with known coronary artery disease or type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Ming; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Hai-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is primary treatment target for patients with dislipidemia. The apolipoprotein B (apo B), an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular risk prediction, appears to be superior to the LDL-C. However, little is known about goal attainments and their discrepancies for LDL-C and apo B in Chinese patients with known CAD or DM. A total of 2,172 hospitalized patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) or DM, aged >27 years of old, were enrolled. The success rates for apo B and LDL-C goal attainments were evaluated and compared by categorization and by sex. When the success rates for apo B were compared with the ones for LDL-C, the former was higher than the latter across all categorizations, with the statistically significant differences seen in all patients, CAD alone and DM alone (P<0.0001), but not in coexistence of CAD and DM (P=0.190). The trend toward to higher success rates for LDL-C and apo B goal attainments in men than in women were noteworthy across all categorizations although only in all patients and in DM alone patients were the statistically significant differences found (P<0.01). The LDL-C lags behind the apo B in goal attainments in Chinese patients. Whether these discrepancies are associated with the occurrence differences for CAD and for stroke between the East Asia and the Western countries warrants further study.

  10. Changes in cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipid in irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of whole body irradiation on the serum cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in rats was investigated. A change in the fatty acid composition of liver lipids was also observed. After 600 rad of irradiation, the cholesterol content increased, reached a maximum 3 days after irradiation, and then decreased. After irradiation, an increase in cholesterol content and a marked decrease in triglyceride content were observed, bringing about a change in the amount of total serum lipids. The fatty acid compositions of normal and irradiated rat sera were compared. The relative percentages of palmitic and oleic acids in total lipids decreased while those of stearic and arachidonic acids increased. Serum triglyceride had trace amounts of arachidonic acid and the unsaturated fatty acid component decreased after irradiation. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid in cholesterol ester increased after irradiation, while linoleic and arachidonic acids made up 29% and 22% in the controls and 17% and 61% after irradiation, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total liver lipids after irradiation showed a decrease in palmitic and oleic acids and an increase in stearic and arachidonic acids, the same trend as observed in serum lipid fatty acid. Liver cholesterol ester showed trace amounts of linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in short-chain fatty acid after irradiation. The major component of serum phospholipids was phosphatidylcholine while palmitostearyl lecithine and unsaturated fatty acid were minor components. Moreover, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major components of liver phospholipids, having highly unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in fatty acid composition were similar to the changes in total phospholipids. (J.P.N.)

  11. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  12. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  13. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) lowers LDL-cholesterol by 11.4 % (95% CI: 9.8 – 13.0), that the minimum duration required to achieve the maximum effect of plant stanol esters on LDL-cholesterol lowering is two to three weeks, and that while plant stanol esters added...... to foods such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products such as milk, yoghurts including low-fat yoghurts, and cheese have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels, the size of the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanols added to other food formats...

  15. Lactic-fermented egg white reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese men: a double-blind, parallel-arm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-30

    Lactic-fermented egg white (LE), produced by lactic acid fermentation of egg white, is an easy-to-consume form of egg white. Here we assessed the effect of daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. The study followed a double-blind, parallel-arm design and included 88 adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean ± standard error) serum TC levels, 229 ± 1.6 mg/dL; range, 204-259 mg/dL). The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, which consumed LE containing 4, 6, or 8 g of protein daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before starting LE consumption (baseline) and at 4 and 8 weeks to measure serum TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After 8 weeks of consumption, serum TC levels in the 8 g group decreased by 11.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, a significant decrease compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than for the 4 g group (3.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Serum LDL-C levels in the 8 g group decreased by 13.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, again a significant decrease compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than that for the 4 g group (2.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Consumption of LE for 8 weeks at a daily dose of 8 g of proteins reduced serum TC and LDL-C levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia, suggesting this may be effective in helping to prevent arteriosclerotic diseases. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, (JMA-IIA00279; registered on 13/03/2017; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/JMACTR/App/JMACTRE02_04/JMACTRE02_04.aspx?kbn=3&seqno=6530 ).

  16. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepúlveda-Varas

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum

  17. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  18. Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil

    Lipoprotein Cholesterol; LDL I, large buoyant LDL; LDL II, intermediate density LDL; LDL III, smaller dense LDL; .... triglycerides >_150 mg, high density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg/dl in men ... sion of phenotype B.4,12 For a given triglyceride level, women were .... that sdLDL /LDL ratio is a very strong predictor of CHD in men;.

  19. Effect of stress on serum cholestrol levels in nurses and housewives of Hyderabad - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, F.H.; Memon, M.S.; Memon, A.N.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Yaquib, M.; Watto, M.H.S.; Tirmizi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A cohort type study was designed to evaluate environmental, psychological and physiological stresses in nurses and housewives and to correlate with their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Total 160 females from middle socioeconomic groups (nurses, n=80 and housewives, n=80) aged between 25-45 years participated in this study and subjects were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured by CHOD-PAP method and triglyceride levels were measured by GPO method. Housewives were found to have high levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The HDL cholesterol were lower. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to the nurses. Highest level of environmental stress was observed in nonworking group i.e. housewives. A significant relation between serum cholesterol levels and three types of stresses was observed. (author)

  20. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  1. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol status in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Tabassum, H.; Shahzad, S.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the differences of lipids including total cholesterol and triglycerides among subjects with or without GDM. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out between Dec 2010 to Jun 2012 at the department of gynecology and obstetrics Pakistan Naval Ship (PNS) Shifa and department of pathology, PNS Rahat. Material and Methods: Pregnant women who presented in outpatient department of gynaecology between 24-34 weeks of gestation were randomly selected, and were requested to undergo 100 Gm oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 93 pregnant women were included in the study. Afterwards they were divided in 2 groups on basis of presence and absence of GDM. Later all the patients were analyzed for total cholesterol and triglycerides. Results of triglycerides and total cholesterol were compared among subjects with or without GDM. Results: The differences for serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were not found to be significant among subject with or without gestational diabetes mellitus, where 0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: There was no difference between serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels among subjects with or without gestational diabetes mellitus. (author)

  3. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  4. A phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of RG7652, a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Amos; Luca, Diana; Kahn, Robert S; Cowan, Kyra J; Leabman, Maya; Budha, Nageshwar R; Chiu, Cecilia P C; Wu, Yan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Peterson, Andrew; Davis, John C; Tingley, Whittemore G

    2017-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) downregulates low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, thereby leading to a rise in circulating LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). RG7652 is a fully human monoclonal antibody against PCSK9. This placebo-controlled, phase 1 ascending-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated the safety of RG7652 and its efficacy as a potential LDL-C-lowering drug. Anti-PCSK9 antibody therapy safely and effectively reduces LDL-C. Subjects (N = 80) were randomized into 10 cohorts. Six sequential single-dose cohorts received 10, 40, 150, 300, 600, or 800 mg of RG7652 via subcutaneous injection. Four multiple-dose cohorts received 40 or 150 mg of RG7652 once weekly for 4 weeks, either with or without statin therapy (atorvastatin). Adverse events (AEs) were generally mild; the most common AEs were temporary injection-site reactions. No serious AEs, severe AEs, AEs leading to study-drug discontinuation, or dose-limiting toxicities were reported. RG7652 monotherapy reduced mean LDL-C levels by up to 64% and as much as 100 mg/dL at week 2; the effect magnitude and duration increased with dose (≥57 days following a single RG7652 dose ≥300 mg). Exploratory analyses showed reduced oxidized LDL, lipoprotein(a), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 with RG7652. Antidrug antibody against RG7652 tested positive in 2 of 60 (3.3%) RG7652-treated and in 4 of 20 (20.0%) placebo-treated subjects. Simultaneous atorvastatin administration did not appear to impact the pharmacokinetic profile or lipid-lowering effects of RG7652. Overall, RG7652 elicited substantial and sustained dose-related LDL-C reductions with an acceptable safety profile and minimal immunogenicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Asato, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT 4 ), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT 4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  6. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  7. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat,

  8. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following

  9. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  10. HEMOGLOBIN A1C, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND LDL-CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AMONG HISPANIC/LATINO ADULTS WITH DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDY/STUDY OF LATINOS (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Corsino, Leonor; Daviglus, Martha L; Gallo, Linda C; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A; Llabre, Maria M; Reina, Samantha A; Savage, Peter J; Schneiderman, Neil; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics. Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The overall prevalence of A1c Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population. A1c = hemoglobin A1c; ABC = hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ADA = American Diabetes Association; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HCHS/SOL = Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; PAD = peripheral artery disease.

  11. LDL-cholesterol lowering activity of a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) in patients with hyperlipidaemia: a proof of concept, double blind, controlled, randomised parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad; Kerkar, Prafulla; Mishra, Nidheesh; Loke, Sanjita; Rege, N N; Marwaha-Jaspal, Ankita; Jainani, Kiran J

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as major health burden worldwide in recent times. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serves as the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases. Reports suggest that rice bran oil has antihyperlipidaemic properties. However, current evidence suggests that no single oil can provide the recommended dietary fat ratio. Hence the present study was undertaken in patients with hyperlipidaemia to study effects of substitution of the cooking oil with a blend of 80% rice bran oil and 20% safflower oil on LDL-C levels. The selected patients (n = 73) were randomly assigned either to the study oil group (blend under study) or control oil group (the oil which the patient was using before). The lipid profile was monitored monthly in these patients for 3 months during which they consumed the oil as per the randomisation. At each follow up, LDL-C levels showed a significant reduction from baseline in the study oil group and reduction was more than that observed in the control group. It was also observed that the percentage of the respondents was higher in the study oil group. At the end of the study period, 82% patients from this group had LDL levels less than 150 mg% as against 57% in the control group. Thus, the substitution of usual cooking oil with a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) was found to exert beneficial effects on the LDL-C levels shifting them to low-risk lipid category.

  12. Nitrate-rich beetroot juice selectively lowers ambulatory pressures and LDL cholesterol in uncontrolled but not controlled hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, C P; Dolan, E; Cormican, L

    2017-11-01

    Dietary nitrate has been shown to increase nitrate/nitrite levels in multiple populations, with potential blood pressure lowering effects. However, there are few reports among hypertensives. We aimed to assess the effect of daily nitrate in subjects with controlled hypertension vs. uncontrolled hypertension. On day 0, hypertensives wore an ambulatory BP monitor (ABPM) for 24 h and fasting blood was taken. Subjects then consumed concentrated beetroot juice (12.9 mmol nitrate) for 14 consecutive days. On day 14 subjects consumed their last nitrate dose after fasting blood was drawn and again had an ABPM for 24 h. According to baseline ABPM, 11 subjects had controlled BP while 8 had uncontrolled BP. There were similar, significant increases in serum nitrate/nitrite in both groups. We observed little change in BP variables among controlled hypertensives. However, there were reductions in BP variables in uncontrolled hypertensives where decreases in nighttime DBP (-6 ± 4.8 mmHg), arterial stiffness (-0.08 ± 0.03 ambulatory arterial stiffness index) and LDL (-0.36 ± 0.42 mmol/L) reached significance (p = 003, 0.05 and 0.046, respectively). Our results support the existing data suggesting an anti-hypertensive effect of nitrate-containing beetroot juice, but only among those with uncontrolled hypertension.

  13. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  14. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  15. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-05

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma-Purified VLDL, LDL, and HDL Fractions from Atherosclerotic Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy: Identification of Serum Amyloid A as a Potential Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Lepedda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoproteins are very heterogeneous protein family, implicated in plasma lipoprotein structural stabilization, lipid metabolism, inflammation, or immunity. Obtaining detailed information on apolipoprotein composition and structure may contribute to elucidating lipoprotein roles in atherogenesis and to developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lipoprotein-associated disorders. This study aimed at developing a comprehensive method for characterizing the apolipoprotein component of plasma VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with Mass Spectrometry analysis, useful for identifying potential markers of plaque presence and vulnerability. The adopted method allowed obtaining reproducible 2-DE maps of exchangeable apolipoproteins from VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Twenty-three protein isoforms were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. Differential proteomic analysis allowed for identifying increased levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A protein (AP SAA in all lipoprotein fractions, especially in LDL from atherosclerotic patients. Results have been confirmed by western blotting analysis on each lipoprotein fraction using apo AI levels for data normalization. The higher levels of AP SAA found in patients suggest a role of LDL as AP SAA carrier into the subendothelial space of artery wall, where AP SAA accumulates and may exert noxious effects.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant sterols/stanols and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    /2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) have a similar efficacy on blood LDL-cholesterol lowering, that plant sterols and stanol esters at a daily intake of 3 g (range 2.6 g to 3.4 g) plant sterols/stanols in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 lower LDL...

  18. The effects of coffee consumption on serum lipids and lipoprotein in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuegbu, A J; Agbedana, E O

    2001-01-01

    The changes in total serum cholestrol, serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after twenty eight (28) days of consumption of moderate quantity of a commercial coffee preparation (NESCAFE brand) were studied in 30 human subjects consisting of 20 male and 10 female healthy adults. Significant increases in the mean total serum cholesterol concentration (110.8-126.5 mg/100 mls) and LDL- cholesterol concentration (78.4-94.5 mg/100 ml) were observed in the subjects. No significant differences were obtained in the mean HDL cholesterol concentration and in the mean serum triglyceride levels. The differences observed in the mean total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the individual male and female groups studied were not statistically significant. The results from this study suggest that short-term consumption of coffee may increase the total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. It is therefore possible that long-term consumption of coffee may lead to clinically significant alterations in serum lipid profile and could be important in the aetiology of atherosclerotic vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease.

  19. Effect of aubergine (Solanum melongena on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of aubergine extract on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels in adult rats. Fisher rats were divided into three groups: the first one received a normolipidic diet and water , serving as a control; the other two received a hypercholesterolaemic diet with 30% vegetable oil and 1% cholesterol, one of these being given water while the other was given an aubergine extract. After 28 days the animals were sacrificed and serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels were assessed. The obtained results indicated that under the experimental conditions employed, the aubergine extract increased serum and decreased hepatic cholesterol and had little or no effect on both serum and hepatic triglycerides.A beringela (Solanum melongena tem sido apontada como possuidora da capacidade de reduzir o colesterol sérico. O chá do vegetal vem sendo utilizado com este propósito, devido ao interesse na descoberta de formas alternativas para o controle da hipercolesterolemia. No presente trabalho testou-se o efeito do chá de beringela nos níveis séricos e hepáticos de colesterol e triglicerídeos em ratos adultos. Ratos Fisher foram divididos em três grupos: o primeiro recebeu dieta normolipídica ad libitum e água para beber, funcionando como controle; os outros dois receberam dieta hipercolesterolêmica com 30% de óleo vegetal e 1% de colesterol, sendo dada a um destes grupos água para beber, enquanto que o outro recebeu apenas chá de beringela. Após 28 dias os animais foram sacrificados e dosaram-se os níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos séricos e hepáticos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, nas condições experimentais utilizadas, o chá de beringela eleva o colesterol sérico, reduz o hepático e tem pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre os triglicerídeos, tanto séricos quanto hepáticos.

  20. Quantification of Endogenous Cholesterol in Human Serum on Paper Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Li, Li-Hua; Hsu, Ren-Yu; Kao, Wei-Fong; Huang, Ying-Chen; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-06-06

    Blood testing for endogenous small metabolites to determine physiological and biochemical states is routine for laboratory analysis. Here we demonstrate that by combining the commercial direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source with an ion trap mass spectrometer, native cholesterol in its free alcohol form is readily detected from a few hundred nanoliters of human serum loaded onto chromatography paper. Deuterium-labeled cholesterol was used as the internal standard to obtain the absolute quantity of the endogenous cholesterol. The amount of the cholesterol measured by this paper-loaded DART mass spectrometry (pDART-MS) is statistically comparable with that obtained by using commercially available fluorometric-enzymatic assay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Furthermore, sera from 21 participants at three different time points in an ultramarathon were collected to obtain their cholesterol levels. The test requires only very minimal sample preparation, and the concentrations of cholesterol in each sample were acquired within a minute.

  1. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  2. Cholesterol Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart diseases . There are two main types of cholesterol. LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in ... 75 years old, you have diabetes, and your LDL cholesterol level is 70 mg/dL or higher You ...

  3. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  4. Cardiovascular risk assessment with oxidised LDL measurement in postmenopausal women receiving intranasal estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Yildirim, Mulazim; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Goktas, Bulent

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intranasal estrogen replacement therapy administered to postmenopausal women alone or in combination with progesterone on markers of cardiovascular risk. The study was conducted with 44 voluntary postmenopausal women. In group I (n = 15), the patients were treated with only intranasal estradiol (300 μg/day estradiol hemihydrate). In group II (n = 11), the patients received cyclic progesterone (200 mg/day micronized progesterone) for 12 days in each cycle in addition to continuous intranasal estradiol. Group III (n = 18) was the controls. Serum lipid profiles, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd month of the treatment. Lipid profile, LDL apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, homocysteine, oxidised LDL values and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were not observed to change after 3 months compared to baseline values within each group (p > 0.016). In comparison to changes between the groups after the treatment, only oxidised LDL levels and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratios of group II were increased compared to control group (p < 0.05). Intranasal estradiol alone did not appear to have an effect on markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the addition of cyclic oral micronized progesterone to intranasal estradiol influenced the markers of cardiovascular risk negatively in comparison to non-users in healthy postmenopausal women.

  5. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of shift work on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the "Healthy Heart project" at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

  7. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  8. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  9. Reversible mode of binding of serum proteins to DOTAP/cholesterol Lipoplexes: a possible explanation for intravenous lipofection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, Dmitri; Weiss, Aryeh; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2005-09-01

    There are many indications that interaction of serum proteins with intravenously injected cationic lipoplexes disturbs lipofection in vitro and in vivo. However, transfection with certain lipid compositions such as N-[1- (2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP)/cholesterol appears to be more resistant to serum and more efficacious. We investigated the mechanism of interaction between fluorescently labeled lipoplexes of the above composition and fluorescently labeled serum proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in vitro indicate that serum proteins interact instantly and closely with the DOTAP/cholesterol lipoplexes. In accord with this, preinjection of fluorescently labeled serum into mice before injection of lipoplexes showed an immediate association of proteins with lipoplexes. Serum proteins colocalized with the lipoplexes in the lung vasculature; however, they dissociated from the cationic lipid as soon as 1 hr postinjection, probably because of displacement of serum proteins from lipoplexes by extracellular proteoglycans. Indeed, this displacement was imitated by heparin, a typical glycosaminoglycan, and could be explained by the inability of weakly acidic serum proteins to neutralize the DOTAP/cholesterol electrical surface potential psi0. The stability of the cationic lipid psi0 in serum could be a key reason for the high lung association and transfection efficiency with this formulation.

  10. Yoghurt kedelai hitam (black soyghurt dapat menurunkan kadar LDL tikus hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Hypercholesterolemia is a main risk factor of cardiovascular disease that remains the higher cause of deaths in the world. Black soy bean containing protein, fiber, vitamin, isoflavon, and flavonoid can decrease serum cholesterol level. Yoghurt contains lactic acid bacteria that decrease total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and increase the HDL cholesterol. Processing of black soy bean into black soyghurt can increase its isoflavon’s activity by forming aglicone, which has higher activity to decrease cholesterol.Objectives: To know the effect of black soyghurt feeding to LDL, HDL, and HDL ratio of hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods: This research was true-experimental using post test only with control group design. Subjects were 20 male Sprague dawley rats, 2 months old, inducted hypercholesterolemia, given black soyghurt diet using 2 mL, 3 mL, and 4 mL dosage for 21 days. Serum lipid profile were measured by CHOD-PAPand GPO-PAP methods respectively. Normality of the data were tested by Shapiro Wilks test. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Anova continued by LSD test using computer program.Results: The study revealed that black soyghurt 4 mL/day decreased LDL (p=0.02 at the most significant level. The other doses did not significantly influence the levels of LDL (p>0.05 . There was also no effect of black soyghurt feeding on serum HDL cholesterol levels (p=0.11 and the ratio of LDL /HDL (p=0.087.Conclusions: The feeding of black soyghurt at the dosage of 4 mL/day to hypercholesterolemic rats could decrease the serum LDL, but could decrease the ratio of LDL / HDL significantly.KEYWORDS: black soyghurt, LDL/HDL ratio, hypercholesterolemicABSTRAKLatar belakang: Hiperkolesterolemia merupakan faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskuler yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama di dunia. Kedelai hitam mengandung protein, vitamin, serat, isoflavon, dan flavonoid yang mampu menurunkan kadar kolesterol. Yoghurt

  11. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1648, 1700) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    effect refers to maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two randomised controlled trials provided from......-cholesterol concentrations is well established and that the mechanism by which monacolin K can contribute to the claimed effect is well known. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of monacolin K from red yeast rice...

  13. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J H; Keevil, J G; Wiebe, D A; Aeschlimann, S; Folts, J D

    1999-09-07

    In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, PFMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.

  14. The effects of menopause on the serum lipid profile of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum total cholesterol and their subfractions- high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated using enzymatic and established mathematical methods. There was no significant difference in the total serum cholesterol and triglyceride ...

  15. Simvastatin promotes NPC1-mediated free cholesterol efflux from lysosomes through CYP7A1/LXRα signalling pathway in oxLDL-loaded macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aolin; Halquist, Matthew S; Yuan, Xinxu; Henderson, Scott C; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun; Zhang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are the first-line medications prescribed for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The efficacy of statins has been attributed not only to their systemic cholesterol-lowering actions but also to their pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction. These pleiotropic effects have been increasingly recognized as essential in statins therapy. This study was designed to investigate the pleiotropic actions of simvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed statins, on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis with a focus on lysosomal free cholesterol egression. With simultaneous nile red and filipin staining, analysis of confocal/multi-photon imaging demonstrated that simvastatin markedly attenuated unesterified (free) cholesterol buildup in macrophages loaded with oxidized low-density lipoprotein but had little effect in reducing the sizes of cholesteryl ester-containing lipid droplets; the reduction in free cholesterol was mainly attributed to decreases in lysosome-compartmentalized cholesterol. Functionally, the egression of free cholesterol from lysosomes attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. It was determined that the reduction of lysosomal free cholesterol buildup by simvastatin was due to the up-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal residing cholesterol transporter. Moreover, the enhanced enzymatic production of 7-hydroxycholesterol by cytochrome P450 7A1 and the subsequent activation of liver X receptor α underscored the up-regulation of NPC1. These findings reveal a novel pleiotropic effect of simvastatin in affecting lysosomal cholesterol efflux in macrophages and the associated significance in the treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Wroblewski, Joanne M; Noffsinger, Victoria P; Ji, Ailing; Meyer, Jason M; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; de Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO) were injected intraperitoneally with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. (3)H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of (3)H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P < 0.05) and 80% (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived (3)H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45% (P < 0.05). Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  17. CCQM K6.2 determination of total cholesterol in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Duewer, David L.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Welch, Michael J.; Pabello, Guiomar; Avila Caldero, Marco A.; Qinde, Liu; Kooi, Lee Tong; Rego, Eliane; Garrido, Bruno; Allegri, Gabriella; de La Cruz, Marcia; Barrabin, Juliana; Puglisi, Celia; Lopez, Eduardo; Lee, Hwashim; Kim, Byungjoo; Delatour, Vincent; Heuillet, Maud; Nammoonnoy, Jintana; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most frequently measured substances in human blood/serum to assist in assessing the health status of individuals. Because of its clinical significance, CCQM-K6 determination of cholesterol in serum was completed in 2000 as one of the first key comparison (KC) studies performed within the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The first subsequent KC for cholesterol, CCQM-K6.1, was completed in 2001. Measurements for this second subsequent, CCQM-K6.2, were completed in 2012. These subsequent comparisons were conducted to enable CCQM members that had not participated in earlier studies to demonstrate their capabilities to measure a nonpolar (pKow mass (100 g/mol to 500 g/mol) metabolite in human serum at relatively high concentrations (1 mg/g to 3 mg/g) found in normal populations. Successful participation in CCQM-K6.2 demonstrated capabilities in analysis of complex biological matrices including sample preparation (extraction, derivatization), LC or GC separation, and quantification using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach. Normally in a subsequent KC, no key comparison reference value (KCRV) would be established and assessment of performance would be via the deviation of participants' results to the anchor institute's results, adjusted to account for the anchor's performance in the original comparison versus its KCRV. Due to the very long-time period since the original key comparison, the OAWG decided that this did not represent the best approach to assess performance in what is a relatively complex measurement. Given the excellent agreement between the anchor institute's results and robust consensus summary of the participants' values, the reference value for this study was taken as the anchor institute's result and treated as a 'KCRV'. Seven of the nine participants demonstrated agreement with the reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears

  18. Bakery products enriched with phytosterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol and maintain plasma beta-carotene concentrations in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, Joan; Rafecas, Magda; Brufau, Gemma; García-Lorda, Pilar; Megías, Isabel; Bulló, Mònica; Ruiz, Joan A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2003-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of phytosterols have not been evaluated in bakery products, and the addition of liposoluble antioxidants to the carrier has never been tested. We investigated the effects of consuming croissants and magdalenas (Spanish muffins) enriched with sterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on plasma lipid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in normocholesterolemic, habitual consumers of bakery products following their usual diet and lifestyle. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the control (C) group (n = 29) received two pieces daily (standard croissant and muffin) and the sterol ester (SE) group (n = 28), the same products with sterol esters added (3.2 g/d) for 8 wk. Total and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the SE group by 0.24 mmol/L (P bakery products are excellent carriers for phytosterols, and their consumption is associated with a decrease in total and LDL-C concentrations, with no changes in alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. The ability of bakery products to include sufficient quantities of beta-carotene to compensate for a potential deficiency, and the fact that their efficacy was not associated with the time of day at which they were consumed, are interesting findings.

  19. Absorption and transport of cholesterol autoxidation derivatives in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.K.; Morin, R.J.; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneously autoxidized products of cholesterol have been demonstrated to be angiotoxic and possibly atherogenic. This study investigates the absorption and transport of these cholesterol oxidation derivatives (COD's) as compared to cholesterol. 14 C-labeled cholesterol autoxidized by incubation in a 60 0 C water bath for 5 weeks, then suspended in gelatin and given to New Zealand white rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were sacrificed 24 hours after treatment. COD's were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and radioactivities of each COD and cholesterol were measured. Percentages of each COD and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbits' serum after administration are almost identical, suggesting that the rates of absorption of COD's are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractionated by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each COD separated by TLC in each lipoprotein fraction showed that cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were predominantly present in VLDL (3 x serum concentration) and 25-hydroxycholesterol was predominantly in LDL (2.5 x serum concentration). HDL contained only minute amounts of COD's. The increased levels of COD's in VLDL and LDL may contribute to the atherogenicity of these lipoprotein

  20. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  1. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  2. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  3. LDL cholesterolemia as a novel risk factor for radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis: a single-center prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Jung Park

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia has been implicated in various musculoskeletal diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Evidence is emerging that there might be a pathogenic interaction among inflammation, dyslipidemia, and adipokines. We prospectively investigated the association of cumulative lipid levels with radiographic progression of RA. RA patients (n=242 underwent plasma cholesterol assessment at four visits. Disease activity parameters and X-rays of the hands and feet were also serially monitored in these patients. The cumulative inflammatory burden and lipid levels were estimated by time-integrated values. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. When patients were divided into three groups according to time-integrated lipid levels, as expected, patients with LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels in the third tertile had persistently higher ESR and CRP levels. In parallel, a more rapid radiographic progression over two years was observed in patients with higher LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. In multivariate analysis, time-integrated LDL cholesterol was independently associated with radiographic progression. Particularly, the risk of radiographic progression was 5.6-fold in a subgroup with both LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the third tertile. Moreover, LDL cholesterol synergistically increased the adjusted probability of radiographic progression in patients with high serum leptin levels but not in those without. These results demonstrate that LDL cholesterolemia is a novel serum marker that can be used to predict radiographic progression of RA, which seems to be related to circulatory leptin levels. We suggest that personalized and more aggressive anti-rheumatic therapy is required for dyslipidemic subgroups in RA patients.

  4. Comparison of serum lipid profile in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Sharif, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum lipid profile between patients of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Study Design: Cross sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to February 2005. Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 100 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes were included in the study while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from study. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan of brain was done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of lipid profile in two subgroups, using proportion test for any significant difference. Results: The mean age at presentation of patients with stroke was 64.2+-12 years with a male to female ratio of 3.6:1. In 100 ischaemic stroke patients, raised serum total cholesterol was seen in 42, triglyceride in 04, LDL-cholesterol in 05 and VLDL-cholesterol in 07 patients. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below the normal reference in 31 cases. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was raised in 05 patients each, LDL-cholesterol in 09 and VLDL-cholesterol in 03 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below normal in 04 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. On comparison, there were significantly greater number of patients with raised serum cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in ischaemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found on comparing serum values of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke patients had high serum total cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to

  5. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  6. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  7. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Simplified procedure for the in vitro assay of the initial linear rate of the reaction of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, V.; Soloff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple sensitive method for the determination of the initial rate of the reaction of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase by equilibrating [ 3 H]cholesterol with unesterified cholesterol of human serum is described. The resulting serum is incubated for various time periods at 37 degrees C and the increase of the label in the cholesterol ester fraction is measured. The labeling is effected by a fids at 37 degrees C and the increase of the label in the cholesterol ester fraction is measured. The labeling is effected by a filter paper method in which a paper strip containing the labeled cholesterol is placed in serum at 4 degrees C, thereby preventing the formation of labeled cholesterol esters by the action of the enzyme. The rate of the reaction was linear up to 30 min

  9. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P Consumption of cocoa power with milk modulates the lipid profile in high-risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Bremer, Andrew A; Medici, Valentina; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Ito, Yasuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Chen, Guoxia; Fong, Tak Hou; Lee, Vivien; Menorca, Roseanne I; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN AND SETTING, AND INTERVENTION: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m(2)) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing 55% E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25% E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25% E sugar-sweetened beverages/30% E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in

  11. Effect of ionising radiation and sal of cadmium on the changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Striskova, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  12. Serum oxidized low density lipoprotein levels in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, A; Yildirmak, S Turkmen; Mihmanli, V; Ayabakan, H; Cicek, Y G; Kalaslioglu, V; Doean, S; Cebeci, H Cerci

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/AIM: The aim of the study was to determine serum lipids and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels in preeclamptic pregnants and compare with those of normotensives. Ox-LDL levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); total cholesterol, hight density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay in 26 normotensive and 27 preeclamptic pregnants. LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula. Serum levels of Ox-LDL (U/L), total-cholesterol (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), triglyceride (mg/dL), and VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnants were found as 130±60 and 133±69; 248±49 and 248±81; 67±14 and 61±16; 147±61 and 135±59; 207±76 and 256±87; 41±15 and 50±17, respectively. Mean values of Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters were higher than the upper limits of their reference ranges in both of groups. However no significant differences were found in Ox-LDL, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels between two groups. However, the levels of triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia group. The present results suggest that the levels of serum Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters rise as a result of pregnancy rather than as a result of preeclampsia.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance...... of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect...... relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  14. Serum Lipid Concentrations in Croatian Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Comorbid with Major Depressive Disorder, or Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karlovi?, Dalibor; Buljan, Danijel; Martinac, Marko; Mar?inko, Darko

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eventual differences in serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio between veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) only or comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD), veterans with combat experiences with MDD, and healthy control group. PTSD and/ or MDD were diagnose according to structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV crite...

  15. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Dose-dependent dual effects of cholesterol and desmosterol on J774 macrophage proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Cueva, Paloma de la; Ferruelo, Antonio J.; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Lasuncion, Miguel A.; Martinez-Botas, Javier; Gomez-Coronado, Diego

    2008-01-01

    We addressed the ability of native, oxidized and acetylated low-density lipoproteins (nLDL, oxLDL and acLDL, respectively) and desmosterol to act as sources of sterol for the proliferation of J774A.1 macrophages. Treatment with 0.5 μM lovastatin and lipoprotein-deficient serum suppressed cell proliferation. This inhibition was effectively prevented by nLDL, but only to a lesser extent by oxLDL. AcLDL, despite its ability to deliver a higher amount of cholesterol to J774 macrophages than the other LDLs, was dependent on mevalonate supply to sustain cell proliferation. Similarly, exogenous desmosterol, which is not converted into cholesterol in J774 cells, required the simultaneous addition of mevalonate to support optimal cell growth. Expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA was potently down-regulated by acLDL and exogenous desmosterol, but the effect was weaker with other sterol sources. We conclude that nLDL is more efficient than modified LDL in sustaining macrophage proliferation. Despite the requirement of cholesterol or desmosterol for J774 cell proliferation, excessive provision of either sterol limits mevalonate availability, thus suppressing cell proliferation.

  17. Dose-dependent dual effects of cholesterol and desmosterol on J774 macrophage proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara [Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, km 9, 28034 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cueva, Paloma de la; Ferruelo, Antonio J; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos [Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, km 9, 28034 Madrid (Spain); Lasuncion, Miguel A [Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, km 9, 28034 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares (Spain); Martinez-Botas, Javier [Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, km 9, 28034 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Coronado, Diego [Servicio de Bioquimica-Investigacion, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, km 9, 28034 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: diego.gomez@hrc.es

    2008-12-12

    We addressed the ability of native, oxidized and acetylated low-density lipoproteins (nLDL, oxLDL and acLDL, respectively) and desmosterol to act as sources of sterol for the proliferation of J774A.1 macrophages. Treatment with 0.5 {mu}M lovastatin and lipoprotein-deficient serum suppressed cell proliferation. This inhibition was effectively prevented by nLDL, but only to a lesser extent by oxLDL. AcLDL, despite its ability to deliver a higher amount of cholesterol to J774 macrophages than the other LDLs, was dependent on mevalonate supply to sustain cell proliferation. Similarly, exogenous desmosterol, which is not converted into cholesterol in J774 cells, required the simultaneous addition of mevalonate to support optimal cell growth. Expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA was potently down-regulated by acLDL and exogenous desmosterol, but the effect was weaker with other sterol sources. We conclude that nLDL is more efficient than modified LDL in sustaining macrophage proliferation. Despite the requirement of cholesterol or desmosterol for J774 cell proliferation, excessive provision of either sterol limits mevalonate availability, thus suppressing cell proliferation.

  18. Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetti, Alberto; Liu, Lisheng; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco; Grassi, Guido; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Silani, Vincenzo; Bilo, Grzegorz; Corrao, Giovanni; Zambon, Antonella; Scotti, Lorenza; Zhang, Xinhua; Wang, HayYan; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhang, Xuezhong; Guan, Ting Rui; Berge, Eivind; Redon, Josep; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Dominiczak, Anna; Nilsson, Peter; Viigimaa, Margus; Laurent, Stéphane; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Wu, Zhaosu; Zhu, Dingliang; Rodicio, José Luis; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Pinto, Fernando; Schmieder, Roland E; Burnier, Michel; Banach, Maciej; Cifkova, Renata; Farsang, Csaba; Konradi, Alexandra; Lazareva, Irina; Sirenko, Yuriy; Dorobantu, Maria; Postadzhiyan, Arman; Accetto, Rok; Jelakovic, Bojan; Lovic, Dragan; Manolis, Athanasios J; Stylianou, Philippos; Erdine, Serap; Dicker, Dror; Wei, Gangzhi; Xu, Chengbin; Xie, Hengge; Coca, Antonio; O'Brien, John; Ford, Gary

    2014-09-01

    The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design. The European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment trial is a prospective multinational, randomized trial with a 3 × 2 factorial design comparing: three different SBP targets (1, hypertension and a stroke or transient ischaemic attack 1-6 months before randomization. Antihypertensive and statin treatments will be initiated or modified using suitable registered agents chosen by the investigators, in order to maintain patients within the randomized SBP and LDL-C windows. All patients will be followed up every 3 months for BP and every 6 months for LDL-C. Ambulatory BP will be measured yearly. Primary outcome is time to stroke (fatal and non-fatal). Important secondary outcomes are: time to first major cardiovascular event; cognitive decline (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and dementia. All major outcomes will be adjudicated by committees blind to randomized allocation. A Data and Safety Monitoring Board has open access to data and can recommend trial interruption for safety. It has been calculated that 925 patients would reach the primary

  19. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  20. No association between serum cholesterol and death by suicide in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Na, Riji; Lim, Ahyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-12-05

    Previous research on serum total cholesterol and suicidality has yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported a link between low serum total cholesterol and suicidality, whereas others have failed to replicate these findings, particularly in patients with major affective disorders. These discordant findings may reflect the fact that studies often do not distinguish between patients with bipolar and unipolar depression; moreover, definitions and classification schemes for suicide attempts in the literature vary widely. Subjects were patients with one of the three major psychiatric disorders commonly associated with suicide: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We compared serum lipid levels in patients who died by suicide (82 schizophrenia, 23 bipolar affective disorder, and 67 MDD) and non-suicide controls (200 schizophrenia, 49 bipolar affective disorder, and 175 MDD). Serum lipid profiles did not differ between patients who died by suicide and control patients in any diagnostic group. Our results do not support the use of biological indicators such as serum total cholesterol to predict suicide risk among patients with a major psychiatric disorder.

  1. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  2. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  3. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. de Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36%   (P<0.05 and 80%   (P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45%   (P<0.05. Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  4. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  5. Effects of Enriched Housing Design on Broiler Performance, Welfare, Chicken Meat Composition and Serum Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Gulcihan Simsek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enrichment housing design on performance, selected welfare indicators, chicken meat composition and serum cholesterol concentration of broiler chicken. For this purpose, 480 Ross-308 chicks were assigned to two groups, Control and Test, each with 4 replications. The pens of the Test Group were enriched with perches and sand bedding. At the end of the study, 8 males and 8 females whose live weights were close to the group average from each group were slaughtered. Their blood was collected and serum was separated. For chemical analysis of the chicken meat, whole carcasses of 4 males and 4 females, and half of the breast and left thigh from the remaining 4 males and 4 females were collected. In the carcass group, whole carcass with its bones was minced, whereas in the other groups breast and tight meat were separated from the bones and minced in a meat grinder, homogenized with an electronic mixer, then flash frozen (-40 °C, 8–10 h and stored (-20 °C, 3–4 weeks until analysed. There was no significant difference between the groups in body weight, daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and survivability. Litter moisture of the sand bedding was lower than that of the wood shavings. Contact dermatitis of hocks was reduced in the Test Group (P P P P < 0.05. In conclusion, it was found that housing enriched with perches and sand bedding in addition to wood shavings bedding improved broiler welfare and meat quality.

  6. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels.

  7. Novel genes in LDL metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole-exome sequencing of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 'exome chip' studies pointing to novel genes in LDL metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic loci for ATP-binding cassette......-exome sequencing and 'exome chip' studies have additionally suggested several novel genes in LDL metabolism including insulin-induced gene 2, signal transducing adaptor family member 1, lysosomal acid lipase A, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 5 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2. Most...... of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. SUMMARY: GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol...

  8. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  9. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  10. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  11. A Statistical Study of Serum Cholesterol Level by Gender and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharu, Bhikhari Prasad; Tsokos, Chris P

    2017-07-25

    Cholesterol level (CL) is growing concerned as health issue in human health since it is considered one of the causes in heart diseases. A study of cholesterol level can provide insight about its nature and characteristics. A cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANS) II was conducted on a probability sample of approximately 28,000 persons in the USA and cholesterol level is obtained from laboratory results. Samples were selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition. Study included 11,864 persons for CL cases with 9,602 males and 2,262 females with races: whites, blacks, and others. Non-parametric statistical tests and goodness of fit test have been used to identify probability distributions. The study concludes that the cholesterol level exhibits significant racial and gender differences in terms of probability distributions. The study has concluded that white people are relatively higher at risk than black people to have risk line and high risk cholesterol. The study clearly indicates that black males normally have higher cholesterol. Females have lower variation in cholesterol than males. There exists gender and racial discrepancies in cholesterol which has been identified as lognormal and gamma probability distributions. White individuals seem to be at a higher risk of having high risk cholesterol level than blacks. Females tend to have higher variation in cholesterol level than males.

  12. Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    Classes of lipid lowering drugs differ strongly with respect to the types of lipids or lipoproteins they predominantly affect. Statins inhibit the de-novo synthesis of cholesterol. Consequently, the liver produces less VLDL, and the serum concentration primarily of LDL cholesterol (but, to a lesser extent, also of triglycerides) is lowered. Further, statins somewhat increase HDL cholesterol. There is abundant evidence that statins lower the rate of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk reduction is the better, the lower the LDL cholesterol values achieved with statin therapy are. Some evidence is available that anion exchange resins which also decrease LDL cholesterol decrease vascular risk, too. This is not the case for the ezetimibe, which strongly lowers LDL cholesterol: its potential to decrease vascular risk remains to be proven. In contrast evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction through the mainly triglyceride lowering fibrates as well as for niacin is available. Niacin is the most potent HDL increasing drug currently available and besides increasing HDL cholesterol efficaciously lowers triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Large ongoing trials address the decisive question whether treatment with fibrates and niacin provides additional cardiovascular risk reduction when given in addition to statin treatment.

  13. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Serum Lipid Profile in Gallstone Patients and Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of serum lipid profile in gallstone formation. For this serum lipid profile such as total, free and bound cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids were determined in 109 gallstone patients and 100 controls (matched for age, sex and with negative personal or family history of gallstones) treated at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Comparison for serum lipid profile between different groups of gallstone patients and controls revealed no significant variation except for the triacylglycerols and total lipids, which were differed significantly between females of up to 45 and above 45 years age. Comparison for serum lipid profile between pure cholesterol and mixed composition gallstone formers showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. The serum lipid profile significantly varied between gallstone patients and controls except bound cholesterol level. Comparison of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids between gallstone patients and controls revealed that there was a significant difference between gallstone patients and controls for (a) females with or without gallstones, (b) females of up to 45 years age and (c) females having more than 3 children. HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in all the groups of gallstone patients as compared to controls, whereas, bound cholesterol remained non significant in all the groups of gallstone patients when compared with controls. In conclusion, elevated serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol seem to play major contributing role in the pathogenesis of gallstones in females of up to 45 years age with more than three children. (author)

  15. Determination of auto-antibodies to native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in serum of patients underwent coronariography in the Medical-Surgical Research Center (MSRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde CerdeiraI, Hector; Soto Lopez, Yosdel; Aroche Aportela, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is an important event in atherosclerosis development. The relationship between oxidized LDL (oxLDL) autoantibodies and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. IgM and IgG autoantibodies to oxLDL were measured in twenty patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography, and in ten young healthy volunteers from the Center of Molecular Immunology. The levels of IgM autoantibodies to oxLDL did not differ between no CAD patients and healthy subjects, but the levels of IgM autoantibodies to oxLDL of these two groups were higher compared with the one of CAD patient group. Our results, although preliminary, supports the hypothesis that this kind of Abs might be inversely associated with the presence of atherosclerosis

  16. Effect of stress on serum lipid levels in lady health visitors and housewives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattoo, F.H.; Memon, M.S.; Memon, A.N.; Wattoo, M.H.S.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of stress among lady health visitors and housewives in regard to their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The study was performed at the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan during the years 2003 to 2005. Seventy lady health visitor and housewives aged between 25-40 years participated in this study and were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to lady health visitors. A low level of HDL cholesterol was observed in housewives as compared to lady health visitors. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride were found higher in housewives than lady health visitors. Housewives are under more stress than lady health visitors. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride increases but HDL cholesterol decrease with stress. (author)

  17. Effect of maximal oxygen uptake and different forms of physical training on serum lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, A; Kindermann, W

    1982-01-01

    260 well trained male sportsmen between 17 and 30 years of age participating in a variety of events were examined for total serum cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol and compared with 37 moderately active leisure-time sportsmen and 20 sedentary controls of similar ages and sex. Lipoprotein cholesterol distribution was determined by quantitative electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol increased progressively from the mean of the sedentary control to the mean of the long-distance runners, indicating a graded effect of physical activity on HDL-cholesterol. In all sporting groups mean LDL-cholesterol tended to be lower than in the controls, no association between LDL-cholesterol and form of training being apparent. Except for the long-distance runners, all sporting groups tended to be lower in total cholesterol than the controls. The HDL-/total cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratios yielded a better discrimination between the physically active and inactive than the HDL-cholesterol alone. Significant positive correlations with maximal oxygen uptake and roentgenologically determined heart volume were found for HDL-cholesterol and HDL-/total cholesterol, and negative ones for LDL/HDL. Differences in the regressions among subsets made up of sporting groups under different physical demands suggest a positive relationship between lipoprotein distribution and the magnitude of the trained muscle mass.

  18. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  19. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (Phypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  20. Additional consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein plus zeaxanthin concentration and lowers oxidized low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Chie; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains antioxidative carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, but its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern, especially for individuals who have high serum cholesterol levels. We conducted this study to determine whether and how the daily additional consumption of one egg affects serum lipid profiles and parameters of LDL oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic males. Nineteen male Japanese adults (total cholesterol [TC]>5.2mmol/L) participated, consuming one soft boiled egg per day for 4weeks in addition to their habitual diet. Despite the significant increase in their intake of dietary cholesterol during the intervention period, the subjects' serum concentrations of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not increase. Their serum malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations were significantly decreased and their LDL oxidation lag times, reflecting the resistance of free-radical-induced LDL lipid peroxidation (ex vivo), was prolonged after 2 and 4weeks. At weeks 2 and 4, the subjects' serum lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly higher than their baseline values and showed both an inverse relation with MDA-LDL and a positive relationship with the LDL oxidation lag time. These data showed that in moderately hypercholesterolemic males, the additional consumption of one egg per day for 4weeks did not have adverse effects on serum TC or LDL-C, and it might reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation through an increase in the serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [LDL-cholesterol control in patients with genetic dyslipidemia followed up by Lipid and Vascular Risk Units of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Mostaza, José María; Pintó, Xavier; de la Cruz, Juan José; Banegas, José Ramón; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc) achieved in patients with genetic dyslipidemia treated during one year in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units (LVRU) of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SSA). Observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter national study that included consecutive patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred due to dyslipidemia to LVRU of the SSA. Information was collected from medical records corresponding to two visits in the lipid unit. A total of 527 patients (mean age 48 years, 60.0% men) diagnosed with genetic dyslipidemia (241 with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and 286 with familial combined hyperlipidemia) were included. The mean follow-up was 12.9 months. In the last visit, 94% were taking statins, one third combined with ezetimibe, although only 41% were taking a high-intensity hypolipidemic treatment. Overall, 28.5% of patients attained an LDLc level50%, and 53.8% achieved one of the two. Predictors of target LDLc levels in the multivariate analysis were age, smoking habit and the presence of vascular disease. Over half of the patients with genetic dyslipidemia followed up by LVRU of SSA achieve LDLc objectives after one year of follow-up. The use of high-intensity hypolipidemic treatment could improve these results. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level.

  3. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  4. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  6. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y; Vinson, J A; Etherton, T D; Proch, J; Lazarus, S A; Kris-Etherton, P M

    2001-11-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds of plant origin with antioxidant effects. Flavonoids inhibit LDL oxidation and reduce thrombotic tendency in vitro. Little is known about how cocoa powder and dark chocolate, rich sources of polyphenols, affect these cardiovascular disease risk factors. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in cocoa powder and dark chocolate (CP-DC diet) on LDL oxidative susceptibility, serum total antioxidant capacity, and urinary prostaglandin concentrations. We conducted a randomized, 2-period, crossover study in 23 healthy subjects fed 2 diets: an average American diet (AAD) controlled for fiber, caffeine, and theobromine and an AAD supplemented with 22 g cocoa powder and 16 g dark chocolate (CP-DC diet), providing approximately 466 mg procyanidins/d. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (P = 0.01) after the CP-DC diet than after the AAD. Serum total antioxidant capacity measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity was approximately 4% greater (P = 0.04) after the CP-DC diet than after the AAD and was positively correlated with LDL oxidation lag time (r = 0.32, P = 0.03). HDL cholesterol was 4% greater after the CP-DC diet (P = 0.02) than after the AAD; however, LDL-HDL ratios were not significantly different. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of thromboxane B(2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1)(alpha) and the ratio of the 2 compounds were not significantly different between the 2 diets. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility, increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and not adversely affecting prostaglandins.

  7. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Thyrotropin and Total and Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Prolonged Antarctic Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    II. Lipid metabolism in hypo- and hyperthyroid - 18-20,1991 (abstr 341) ism. Kin Wochenschr 62:49-55, 1984 7. Reed HI, Silverman ED, Shakir KMM, et...Tower 12 8901 Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20889-5606 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Reprinted from: Metabolism 1993 September; Vol.42 No.9 pp. 1159...that AR is associated with asymptomatic environmentally related thyroid alterations that correlate with metabolic markers (T-CHOL and LDL-C) of thyroid

  8. Studies with doxazosin on the saturable binding of 125I-LDL by liver in normocholesterolemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanjee, M.N.; Miller, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture studies have provided evidence that alpha 1-adrenergic receptor inhibition with doxazosin increases the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in human fibroblasts. A similar effect occurring in vivo might explain the reduction of plasma LDL concentration observed in some clinical trials of prazosin. In order to examine this question further, mice were given doxazosin 100 or 400 micrograms/kg/day by i.p. injection for 4 days, after which they were killed, blood was collected and livers were excised. Binding of 125 I-labelled human LDL to tissue homogenates, over the concentration range 30-120 micrograms LDL protein/ml, was measured at 37 degrees C in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled LDL. Woolf plots of the results for saturable binding were found to be compatible with a single class of binding site. In control animals Bmax for this receptor was 867 +/- 117 ng LDL protein/mg tissue protein, and the equilibrium dissociation constant was 32.7 +/- 6.6 micrograms LDL protein/ml (mean +/- SD, n = 5). Doxazosin treatment had no effect on either parameter of 125 I-LDL binding. A trend towards a decrease in liver triglyceride concentration with increasing doses of doxazosin was recorded, but there was no evidence for effects on liver cholesterol or serum lipid concentrations

  9. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  10. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, e-mail: eralves@ipen.br, e-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas.Central Lab. Division and Laboratories of Medical Investigation (LIM-03)], e-mail: dlc.bioquimica@hcnet.usp.br; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: jaluul@uol.com.br, wiljac@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  11. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  12. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  14. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  16. Treatment of young rats with cholestyramine or a hypercholesterolemic diet does not influence the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Bruijne, J.J. de; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Groups of 10 female Wistar rats (aged 4 weeks) were fed for 29 days either a low-cholesterol commercial diet, a commercial diet containing 2% (w/w) cholesterol, 0.5% cholate and 5% olive oil or a diet containing 2% cholestyramine. The rats were then fed the low-cholesterol commercial diet for the

  17. Exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacilli reduce serum cholesterol and modify enteric microbiota in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Lis E E; Kumar, Arun H S; Wall, Rebecca; Casey, Pat G; O'Sullivan, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Caplice, Noel M; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food Biotechnology Centre (NFBC) 338 expressing the glycosyltransferase (Gtf) gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (GTF), and naturally exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae Dairy Product Culture Collection (DPC) 6426 (DPC 6426) compared with the non-β-glucan-producing isogenic control strain Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (PNZ) and placebo (15% wt:vol trehalose). Second, we examined the effects on the gut microbiota of dietary administration of DPC 6426 compared with placebo. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains at 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/d per animal were administered to apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (60% fat)/high-cholesterol (2% wt:wt) diet for 12 wk. At the end of the study, aortic plaque development and serum, liver, and fecal variables involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and culture-independent microbial analyses of cecal content were performed. Total cholesterol was reduced in serum (P mice supplemented with GTF or DPC 6426 compared with the PNZ or placebo group, respectively. In addition, dietary intervention with GTF led to increased amounts of fecal cholesterol excretion (P mice. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is chitosan. The Panel considers that chitosan is sufficiently characterised....

  19. Delineation of molecular pathways that regulate hepatic PCSK9 and LDL receptor expression during fasting in normolipidemic hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minhao; Dong, Bin; Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Background PCSK9 has emerged as a key regulator of serum LDL-C metabolism by promoting the degradation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on serum PCSK9, LDL-C, and hepatic LDLR expression in hamsters and further delineated the molecular pathways involved in fasting-induced repression of PCSK9 transcription. Results Fasting had insignificant effects on serum total cholesterol and HDL-C levels, but reduced LDL-C, triglyceride and insulin levels. The decrease in serum LDL-C was accompanied by marked reductions of hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels with concomitant increases of hepatic LDLR protein amounts. Fasting produced a profound impact on SREBP1 expression and its transactivating activity, while having modest effects on mRNA expressions of SREBP2 target genes in hamster liver. Although PPARα mRNA levels in hamster liver were elevated by fasting, ligand-induced activation of PPARα with WY14643 compound in hamster primary hepatocytes did not affect PCSK9 mRNA or protein expressions. Further investigation on HNF1α, a critical transactivator of PCSK9, revealed that fasting did not alter its mRNA expression, however, the protein abundance of HNF1α in nuclear extracts of hamster liver was markedly reduced by prolonged fasting. Conclusion Fasting lowered serum LDL-C in hamsters by increasing hepatic LDLR protein amounts via reductions of serum PCSK9 levels. Importantly, our results suggest that attenuation of SREBP1 transactivating activity owing to decreased insulin levels during fasting is primarily responsible for compromised PCSK9 gene transcription, which was further suppressed after prolonged fasting by a reduction of nuclear HNF1α protein abundance. PMID:22954675

  20. Serum starvation of ARPE-19 changes the cellular distribution of cholesterol and Fibulin3 in patterns reminiscent of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Dinusha; Peterson, Katherine; Mishra, Sanghamitra; Wistow, Graeme

    2017-12-15

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has been implicated as key source of cholesterol-rich deposits at Bruch's membrane (BrM) and in drusen in aging human eye. We have shown that serum-deprivation of confluent RPE cells is associated with upregulation of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC). Here we investigate the cellular processes involved in this response. We compared the distribution and localization of UC and esterified cholesterol (EC); the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) associated EFEMP1/Fibulin3 (Fib3); and levels of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA): cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) ACAT1, ACAT2 and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in ARPE-19 cells cultured in serum-supplemented and serum-free media. The results were compared with distributions of these lipids and proteins in human donor eyes with AMD. Serum deprivation of ARPE-19 was associated with increased formation of FM dye-positive membrane vesicles, many of which co-labeled for UC. Additionally, UC colocalized with Fib3 in distinct granules. By day 5, serum-deprived cells grown on transwells secreted Fib3 basally into the matrix. While mRNA and protein levels of ACTA1 were constant over several days of serum-deprivation, ACAT2 levels increased significantly after serum-deprivation, suggesting increased formation of EC. The lower levels of intracellular EC observed under serum-deprivation were associated with increased formation and secretion of ApoB. The responses to serum-deprivation in RPE-derived cells: accumulation and secretion of lipids, lipoproteins, and Fib3 are very similar to patterns seen in human donor eyes with AMD and suggest that this model mimics processes relevant to disease progression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  2. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  3. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  4. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  5. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  6. The relation between serum visfatin levels and cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abir Naguib

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... HDL, high density lipoproteins; LDL, low density lipoproteins; RS, ... triglycerides and CACS (P = 0.014); however, there was no significant correlation of the CACS with the visfatin .... included total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipopro-. 118 ... None of the studied patients had elevated serum TG.

  7. Serum Lipid Profile: Fasting or Non-fasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Serum lipid profile has now become almost a routine test. It is usually done in fasting state due to certain limitations in non-fasting serum sample. In the recent past efforts have been made to simplify blood sampling by replacing fasting lipid profile with non-fasting lipid profile. However, fasting specimen is preferred if cardiovascular risk assessment is based on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol. A lot has yet to be done in this area. Till then we have to believe...

  8. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Methods Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Results Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels. PMID:18348715

  9. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  10. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Ptriglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  11. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Zhongchuan [Department of Anorectal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Wen, E-mail: wzhang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 {mu}M. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provided useful experimental

  12. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji; Wang Zhongchuan; Zhang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: ► A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. ► The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. ► We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. ► The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. ► It provided useful experimental evidences for diabetes-accelerate atherosclerosis. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for

  13. Lathosterol to cholesterol ratio in serum predicts cholesterol lowering response to plant sterol consumption in a dual center, randomized, single-blind placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are compromised by large variability in efficacy across individuals. High fractional cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation has been associated with non-response to PS consumption; however, prospective studies showing this as...

  14. Serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure levels in Japanese type 1 and 2 diabetic patients: BioBank Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multi-institutional data. The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  16. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a multivitamin preparation supplemented with phytosterol on serum lipids and infarct size in rats fed with normal and high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although complex multivitamin products are widely used as dietary supplements to maintain health or as special medical food in certain diseases, the effects of these products were not investigated in hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, here we investigated if a preparation developed for human use containing different vitamins, minerals and trace elements enriched with phytosterol (VMTP) affects the severity of experimental hyperlipidemia as well as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal or cholesterol-enriched (2% cholesterol + 0.25% cholate) diet for 12 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. From week 8, rats in both groups were fed with a VMTP preparation or placebo for 4 weeks. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured at week 0, 8 and 12. At week 12, hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion to measure infarct size. Results At week 8, cholesterol-fed rats showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level as compared to normal animals, however, serum triglyceride level did not change. VMTP treatment significantly decreased serum cholesterol level in the hyperlipidemic group by week 12 without affecting triglyceride levels. However, VMTP did not show beneficial effect on infarct size. The inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the antioxidant uric acid were also not significantly different. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that treatment of hyperlipidemic subjects with a VMTP preparation reduces serum cholesterol, the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it does not provide cardioprotection. PMID:24063587

  18. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol in Inuit of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Mortensen, S.A.; Rhode, M.

    1999-01-01

    impact. From a health survey we chose the subpopulation from the most remote area, where the traditional Greenlandic diet with high intake of sea mammals and fish predominates. The mean (SD) of S-CoQ10 in males was 1.495 (0.529) nmol/ml and 1.421 (0.629) nmol/ml in females, significantly higher (p ....001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  19. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  20. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  1. Plasma cholesterol and endogenous cholesterol synthesis during refeeding in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, F; Feillet-Coudray, C; Bard, J M; Parra, H J; Favre, E; Kabuth, B; Fruchart, J C; Vidailhet, M

    2000-04-01

    Normal or high levels of cholesterol have been measured in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Given that cholesterol intake in AN is usually very low, the reasons for this anomaly are not clearly understood. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles and endogenous cholesterol synthesis, estimated by serum lathosterol, in a population of 14 girls with AN, before and during a period of 30 days refeeding. The initial body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 13.41+/-1.62 kg/m(2). No changes were observed during refeeding in endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol and estradiol). At Day 0 the lipids data measured here showed normal levels of triglycerides, and total cholesterol at the upper limits of the normal range (5.44+/-1 mmol/l). At this time, total and LDL cholesterol were negatively correlated with transthyretin and BMI. Serum lathosterol (a precursor in cholesterol synthesis pathway) increased significantly (5.99+/-1.75 (Day 0) vs. 8.39+/-2.96 (Day 30); P=0.02) while there was a significant decrease in apo B (0.79+/-0.33 (Day 0) vs. 0. 60+/-0.17 g/l (Day 30), P=0.02) with refeeding. Thus, patients with initial high cholesterol levels have the worst nutritional status and high cholesterol levels are not related to a de novo synthesis. This profile returns to normal with refeeding. An increase of cellular cholesterol uptake may be responsible for this apparently paradoxical evolution with increase of cholesterol synthesis and decrease of apo B during renutrition.

  2. Comparison of the response of serum ceruloplasmin and cholesterol, and of tissue ascorbic acid, metallothionein, and nonprotein sulfhydryl in rats to the dietary level of cystine and cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B S; Yamazaki, M; Wan, Q; Kato, N

    1996-12-01

    The effects were compared of the addition of graded levels of L-cystine and of L-cysteine (0.3, 3, or 5%) to a 10% casein diet on several metabolic parameters in rats. The growth-promoting effect of cystine was equivalent to that of cysteine. Supplementation of these two amino acids elevated serum cholesterol, liver ascorbic acid, liver nonprotein sulfhydryl (SH) and kidney metallothionein, and reduced the activity of serum ceruloplasmin. The responses of serum cholesterol, liver nonprotein SH, and serum ceruloplasmin to cystine were greater than of those to cysteine. When the basal diet was supplemented with 0.3% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine supplementation was less than that by cysteine supplementation. However, when supplemented with 5% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine was greater than that by cysteine. There was no difference in the influence of cystine and cysteine on kidney metallothionein. This study demonstrates that dietary cystine and cysteine had the same influence on growth, but had a differential influence on such metabolic parameters as liver nonprotein SH, serum ceruloplasmin, serum cholesterol, and tissue ascorbic acid.

  3. [Beclobrate (Turec) in the treatment of primary hyperlipoproteinemia. I. Effect on cholesterol, lipid and apoprotein levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J; Idzior-Waluś, B; Zabiński, J; Wybrańska, I; Korzus, G; Iwanejko, J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a new fibric acid derivative--beclobrate (Turec, Zyma) on serum lipid and apoprotein concentrations in 63 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia were examined. Beclobrate was given in the evening, 100 mg, once daily. After 3 months of beclobrate treatment mean total cholesterol concentration in serum decreased from 9.35 to 7.73 mmol/l (17.3%), mean LDL-cholesterol concentration from 6.32 to 5.38 mmol/l (14.9%), mean HDL-cholesterol concentration increased by 0.21 mmol/l (15.3% of initial value). The greatest decrease was observed in triglyceride concentration--by 50% of the initial value. Apoprotein B concentration decreased by 19.7%, apoprotein A1 and A2 concentration increased by 20.3% and 26.8% respectively. Higher initial values of total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum were associated with greater concentration decrease after beclobrate treatment.

  4. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Broer, Jan; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Hulshof, Karin F. A. M.; May, Jo F.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  5. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  6. Homogeneity in the relationship of serum cholesterol to coronary deaths across different cultures: 40-year follow-up of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Kromhout, D.; Blackburn, H.; Jacobs, D.; Nissinen, A.; Dontas, A.; Kafatos, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Adachi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim was to investigate whether multivariate coefficients of serum cholesterol in the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths were similar across different cultures in a long-term follow-up. Design: Thirteen cohorts for a total of 10 157 men aged 40¿59 years at entry,

  7. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...

  8. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Tawfik, M.S.; Youssef, S.S.; Serry, Z.M.; Aboel magd, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  9. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of [ 14 C]acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 μM. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 μM acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the 3 H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  10. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  11. Effect of thyroid function on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, F; Pierdomenico, S D; De Cesare, D; De Remigis, P; Bucciarelli, T; Bittolo-Bon, G; Cazzolato, G; Nubile, G; Guagnano, M T; Sensi, S; Cuccurullo, F; Mezzetti, A

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the effect of different levels of thyroid hormone and metabolic activity on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. Thus, in 16 patients with hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy normolipidemic control subjects, the native LDL content in lipid peroxides, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene, as well as the susceptibility of these particles to undergo lipid peroxidation, was assessed. Hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher lipid peroxidation, as characterized by a higher native LDL content in lipid peroxides, a lower lag phase, and a higher oxidation rate than in the other two groups. This elevated lipid peroxidation was associated with a lower LDL antioxidant concentration. Interestingly, hypothyroid patients showed an intermediate behavior. In fact, in hypothyroidism, LDL oxidation was significantly lower than in hyperthyroidism but higher than in the control group. Hypothyroidism was also characterized by the highest beta-carotene LDL content, whereas vitamin E was significantly lower than in control subjects. In hyperthyroidism but not in the other two groups, LDL oxidation was strongly influenced by free thyroxine blood content. In fact in this group, the native LDL lipid peroxide content and the lag phase were directly and indirectly, respectively, related to free thyroxine blood levels. On the contrary, in hypothyroidism LDL oxidation was strongly and significantly related to serum lipids. In conclusion, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are characterized by higher levels of LDL oxidation when compared with normolipidemic control subjects. In hyperthyroid patients, the increased lipid peroxidation was strictly related to free thyroxine levels, whereas in hypothyroidism it was strongly influenced by serum lipids.

  12. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  13. Dietary fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport by altering LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J D; Cuthbert, J A; Spady, D K

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of LDL in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and the type of lipid in the diet. Recent studies in the hamster have shown that dietary fatty acids differentially affect circulating LDL levels primarily by altering receptor-dependent LDL uptake in the liver. To investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect, rates of receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver were correlated with LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels in hamsters fed safflower oil or coconut oil and varying amounts of cholesterol. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively). These fatty acid-induced changes in hepatic LDL receptor activity were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that dietary fatty acids regulate the LDL receptor pathway largely at the mRNA level. Images PMID:8349814

  14. Comparison of Friedewald Formula and Modified Friedewald Formula with Direct Homogeneous Assay for Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.; Khan, D. A.; Khan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the Friedewald and modified Friedewald formulae with direct homogeneous assay for serum lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels estimation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from June to December 2011. Methodology: Healthy subjects of either gender, from Rawalpindi, aged 18-75 years were included by consecutive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, those taking lipid lowering drugs and samples with triglyceride (TG) > 4.52 mmol/l were excluded from the study. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were measured on Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer (Roche). LDL-C levels were also calculated by Friedewald formula (FF) and Vujovic modified formula (VMF). Paired sample t-test and scatter plots were used for statistical analysis. Results: Although both calculated methods showed good correlation with direct assay (r > 0.93) in 300 subjects, but the difference was statistically significant. The ffLDL-C were 0.12 +- 31 mmol/l (p < 0.001) lower and vmfLDL-C were 0.11 +- 26 mmol/l (p < 0.001) higher than dLDL-C. The difference was not significant between ffLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels < 1.70 mmol/l (p = 0.58) and between vmfLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels 2.26 - 4.52 mmol/l (p = 0.38). At all other TG levels, the difference between LDL-C calculated by both formulas and dLDL-C was statistically significant (p < 0.001). As compared to direct assay, 11% and 14% subjects were classified in wrong National Cholesterol Education Programm cardiac risk categories by FF and VMF respectively. Conclusion: LDL-C should be measured by direct homogeneous assay in routine clinical laboratories, as the calculated methods did not have a uniform performance for LDL-C estimation at different TG levels. (author)

  15. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to isolated soy protein and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from the European Natural Soyfood Manufacturers Association (ENSA), the European Vegetable Protein Federation (EUVEPRO) and the Soya Protein Association (SPA), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel...... on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to isolated soy protein (ISP) and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, referring to disease risk reduction. The food constituent that is the subject...

  17. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  18. Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil mitigates high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Nibrass Taher; Yaseen, Awny H; Said, Eman; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2017-04-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/kg/day) starting from the ninth week for further 4 weeks with interruption of the cholesterol-rich chow. Biochemical assessment of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and myocardial oxidative/antioxidant biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH), besides biochemical assessment of serum nitric oxide (NO), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), was conducted. Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and serum Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) were also evaluated along with histopathological examination of aorta specimens. Fasudil administration significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and LDL and significantly increased serum HDL, with concomitant decrease in serum CK and LDH activities, NO, and restoration of serum TAC. Myocardial MDA significantly declined; SOD activity and GSH contents were restored. Serum ROCK-1 and VCAM-1 levels significantly declined as well. Vascular improvement was confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed normal aortic intema with the absence of atheromas. Fasudil has promising anti-atherogenic activity mediated primarily via alleviation of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammatory response.

  19. Cholesterol concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by anion-exchange-high-performance liquid chromatography in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Yuji; Takoura, Toshie; Manita, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomoya; Shono, Saori; Onozawa, Eri; Mizutani, Hisashi; Miki, Yohei; Itabashi, Yukiko; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-01

    Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared. Analytic reproducibility and precision of AEX-HPLC were acceptable. Positive correlation between serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Total-Chol), HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol), LDL cholesterol (LDL-Chol)+IDL cholesterol (IDL-Chol), and VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-Chol) was noted for AEX-HPLC and GP-HPLC in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. Reference intervals measured by AEX-HPLC for serum concentrations of Total-Chol, HDL-Chol, and LDL-Chol were determined to be 2.97-9.32, 2.79-6.57, 0.16-3.28mmol/L (2.5-97.5% interval), respectively. Furthermore, there was significant difference in lipoprotein profiles between healthy and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that AEX-HPLC can be used to evaluate lipoprotein profiles in dogs and could be a new useful indicator of hyperlipidemia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  1. 'LDL-C' = LDL-C + Lp(a)-C: implications of achieved ultra-low LDL-C levels in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 era of potent LDL-C lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2015-06-01

    The measurement that is termed 'LDL-cholesterol' (LDL-C) includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C], which can contribute approximately 30-45% to measured LDL-C levels as a percentage of its mass. We review the implications of achieved very low LDL-C levels in patients treated with potent LDL-C-lowering agents in the context of varying Lp(a) levels. Combination therapy with statins, ezetimibe, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can lower LDL-C to unprecedentedly low levels. Recent PCSK9 trials have shown that routine achievement of mean LDL-C less than 50 mg/dl is feasible, along with the modest reductions in Lp(a). Many patients will achieve LDL-C less than 25 mg/dl with concomitantly elevated Lp(a) levels that contribute substantially to the measured 'LDL-C'. Therefore, it is possible that some of these patients may have little to no circulating LDL-C. As the new era of ultralow LDL-C levels ensues, it is imperative to understand the contribution of Lp(a)-C to measured LDL-C and the consequences of achieving ultralow or potentially absent LDL-C in the setting of elevated Lp(a) levels and possibly free apo(a). We review this concept and suggest avenues of research, including analyses of existing datasets in current clinical trials and new research studies, to understand its pathophysiological and clinical significance.

  2. A study of serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B in Indian male violent criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Sinha, V K

    2006-01-01

    High cholesterol has been advanced as the most important factor in the development of coronary artery disease. Most panels have recommended population-wide dietary restrictions, yet a body of evolving data yields evidence of the hazards of low cholesterol, including links to aggression and hostility. The aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B of men with a violent criminal record and men with no criminal history. Fasting blood samples were collected from 30 men with a known history of violent crime and 30 men with no criminal record. Serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B were measured in each sample, and compared between the two groups. The group with the violent criminal record showed significantly lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B compared with the control group. Lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B could predispose to violence. Future research might explore the possibility that diets offered in prison could affect relevant pathways in lipid metabolism. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  4. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  5. HDL-LDL Ratio: A Significant Predisposition to the Onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of high-density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein (HDL-LDL) ratio as a predisposing factor to the onset of atherogenesis has been studied. Standard enzymatic method using Cholesterol kit to extract cholesterol was used. HDL was analysed using standard HDL Kit and LDL concentration was derived by a ...

  6. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHIN, M.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q 1 -0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q 10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  7. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  9. Polymorphism AvaII of the LDL receptor (rs5925 is associated with carotid-intima media thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Nikolajević-Starčević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased serum level of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol is a well established risk factor for atherosclerosis development and progression. Genetic variation in the LDL receptor gene could modulate serum LDL level and response to statin treatment thus affecting atherosclerosis development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the association between polymorphism AvaII (rs5925 of the LDL receptor gene with serum lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Methods 595 patients with DM2 (399 on statin therapy and 196 without were enrolled in the study. The carotid intima-media thickness was assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. AvaII (rs5925 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Results Genotype distribution and allele frequencies were not statistically significantly different between DM2 patients with regard to statin therapy. In DM2 patients using statins the highest serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol were observed in homozygous carriers of the A+ allele. After adjustment for well established cardiovascular risk factors homozygosity for the A+ allele (β=0.441 and p=0.04, statin treatment as well as serum levels of HDL, triglycerides, hsCRP and fibrinogen were independently associated with CIMT. Interactions of AvaII genotypes A-A+ and A+A+ with statin treatment were not statistically significant.Conclusion Homozigosity for the A+ allele of the AvaII polymorphism is associated with greater CIMT in DM2 patients.

  10. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  13. Altered Metabolism of LDL in the Arterial Wall Precedes Atherosclerosis Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D.; Christoffersen, Christina; Lindholm, Marie W.

    2015-01-01

    and degradation of LDL particles in atherosclerotic aortas of mice by measuring the accumulation of iodinated LDL particles in the arterial wall. Methods and Results: Cholesterol-fed, LDL receptor–deficient mice were treated with either an anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide or a mismatch control antisense...... oligonucleotide once a week for 1 or 4 weeks before injection with preparations of iodinated LDL particles. The anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide reduced plasma cholesterol by ≈90%. The aortic LDL permeability and degradation rates of newly entered LDL particles were reduced by ≈50% and ≈85% already after 1...... week of treatment despite an unchanged pool size of aortic iodinated LDL particles. In contrast, the size, foam cell content, and aortic pool size of iodinated LDL particles of aortic atherosclerotic plaques were not reduced until after 4 weeks of treatment with the anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide...

  14. The good and the bad: what researchers have learned about dietary cholesterol, lipid management and cardiovascular disease risk since the Harvard Egg Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance, C

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, while lower than it once was, remains a significant health consideration. To review the evolving evidence with respect to what role various factors play in the aetiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). While total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were previously believed to play central roles, it has now become clear that neither in isolation is highly significant. For example, some people with very high LDL-C levels do not develop CHD, while others with very low LDL-C levels do. Furthermore, there is a difference between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol, which is found in animal-based foods, raises blood cholesterol in only approximately one-third of people. Conversely, intake of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids can result in dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, obesity--particularly abdominal obesity--and metabolic syndrome both are strong independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease. Statin therapy and a diet comprising a portfolio of plant sterols and viscous fibres can both significantly reduce LDL-C levels and C-reactive protein. The latter is a key marker of inflammation and of elevated risk for cardiovascular disease.

  15. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  16. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  17. [Influence of FPS on the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-he; Xing, Yan-hong; Rong, Xiang-lu; Huang, Ping

    2007-08-01

    To explore the effect of FPS on low-density lipoprotein acceptor (LDL-R) mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model control, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, FPS low dosage, FPS moderate dosage, and FPS high dosage group. Excepting the rats in the normal control group, the ones in other groups were all made rats' hyperlipidemic model by irrigating hyperlipidemic emulsion into the stomach and observed the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of rats of each group. Relative content of LDL-RmRNA in low and moderate dosage groups was notably higher than that inmodel group. The contents's difference was not remarkable between FPS moderate dosage group and Gynostemma pentaphyllum group. FPS can appreciably increase the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats and promote the elimination ofLDL-C to reduce serum cholesterol notably.

  18. Plant sterol or stanol esters retard lesion formation in LDL receptor-deficient mice independent of changes in serum plant sterols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Jogchum; Beugels, Ilona; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2006-01-01

    Statins do not always decrease coronary heart disease mortality, which was speculated based on increased serum plant sterols observed during statin treatment. To evaluate plant sterol atherogenicity, we fed low density lipoprotein-receptor deficient (LDLr(+/-)) mice for 35 weeks with Western diets

  19. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation the Effect Garlet Tablet on Serum Lipid Profile

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    F. Emami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some investigators reported significant effect of garlic on serum cholesterol reduction. In addition, Iranian culture has specific belief on herbs and garlic in this regard. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of garlet tablets on serum lipid profile.Materials & Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups for evaluation of the effect of garlic on their lipid profile. The first group was low fat regimen group and the second was garlet tablet regimen group. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in both groups. Then, after two months of these regimens administration, these items were measured again and were compared.Results: Mean age, sex and baseline initial lipid levels were similar in both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in the garlic regimen group (in spite of non significant reduction in the other group. Triglyceride and HDL levels were not changed significantly in both regimen groups. Conclusion: Garlet tablet administration has more significant reductive effect on cholestrol level than low cholesterol diet.

  2. Small, dense LDL particles predict changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes--a prospective cohort study.

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    Philipp A Gerber

    Full Text Available The association of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL particles with an increased cardiovascular risk is well established. However, its predictive value with regard to glucose metabolism and arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been thoroughly investigated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study in patients with (prediabetes who were seen at baseline and after two years. sdLDL particles were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis. Insulin resistance was estimated by using the homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2. Intima media thickness (IMT and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were assessed by ultrasound measurements. Fifty-nine patients (mean age 63.0 ± 12.2 years were enrolled and 39 were seen at follow-up. IMT increased in the whole cohort during follow-up. The change in IMT was predicted by the proportion of sdLDL particles at baseline (p=0.03, and the change in FMD was predicted by LDL-cholesterol levels at baseline (p=0.049. HOMA2 and changes in HOMA2 correlated with the proportion of sdLDL particles and changes in this proportion, respectively (p<0.05 for both. Serum resistin levels increased in parallel with the increasing sdLDL particle number, while serum adiponectin increased only in patients with unaltered sdLDL particle number at follow-up (p<0.01 for both. In conclusion, the proportion of small, dense LDL particles and changes in this proportion are predictive of changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance, and are closely associated with other determinants of an adverse metabolic status. Thus, this parameter extends the individual risk assessment beyond the limitations of traditional risk markers in patients with dysglycemia.

  3. Assessment of serum lipids in patients with age related macular degeneration from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambreen, F.; Qureshi, I. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine serum lipids in patients with age related macular degeneration from Pakistani population. Methods: The study was a cross sectional, randomized and case-control. Selected subjects ages were >50 years and were normotensive, non-diabetic with no family history of any such disease and no complication of posterior ocular chamber other than age related macular degeneration (AMD). Controls were age matched healthy individuals with no symptoms of AMD. Diagnosis of AMD was done through conventional diagnostic techniques by professional ophthalmologists. Serum samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL using commercially available kits. Data were compared with Student's t-test. Pearson correlation was calculated for relationship between different parameters. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Compared to controls, AMD patients had significantly greater total cholesterol concentration (p<0.041), and power HDL/LDL ratio (p<0.038), while serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were non-significantly different from control subjects. Total cholesterol in AMD patients was significantly correlated with TG, LDL and HDL (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The study indicates that high cholesterol might be a predictor of AMD and can be a diagnostic parameter. (author)

  4. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

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    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  5. Carcass traits, blood serum and meat lipid fractions in Polish Landrace pigs differing in RYR1 genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Janik A.; Barowicz T.; Pieszka M.; Migdai W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the effect of RYR1 genotypes on carcass traits and lipid fractions in blood serum and musculus longissimus dorsi of Polish Landrace pigs. The fatteners with RYR1CRYR1 genotype had lower level of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL cholesterol in blood serum than individuals from RYR1CRYR1C group. The same group of animals had lower amount of intramuscular fat and cholesterol in comparison to homozygotes RYR1CRYR1C. The intramuscular fat of hetero...

  6. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  7. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is strong risk factor for acquired color vision impairment in young to middle-aged Japanese men: the Okubo Color Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (Pmen with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related