Can, Busra; Kara, Ozgur; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Arik, Gunes; Aycicek, Gozde Sengul; Sumer, Fatih; Civelek, Ramazan; Demirtas, Canan; Ulger, Zekeriya
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the presence of low muscle mass and function. Possible mechanisms underlying sarcopenia include oxidative stress and elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and biomarkers that may be involved in its pathogenesis and hence early detection. A total of 72 patients (36 sarcopenic and 36 non-sarcopenic) were included in the study. An experienced geriatric team applied comprehensive geriatric assessment to all patients. Anthropometric measures, gait speed and handgrip strength were recorded. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess skeletal muscle mass. In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests, serum adiponectin, thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older Adults as the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function or muscle performance. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be functionally dependent and had lower scores on comprehensive geriatric assessment tools. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the sarcopenic group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3. Sarcopenic patients had lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, calcium, triglycerides, uric acid and adiponectin (p sarcopenia whereas ESR was positively correlated. The present study demonstrated an association of sarcopenia with inflammatory markers CRP, ESR and adiponectin. Long-term prospective studies are warranted to confirm the relationship between markers oxidative stress and age related muscle decline.
Ghazavi, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Solhi, Hassan; Rafiei, Mohammad; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad
A relationship between the expression of inflammation markers, oxidative stress and opium use has not been clearly established. This study was done to determine serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), quantity of C3 and C4 complement factors, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in opium smokers and non-drug-using control participants. The present study was done on 44 male opium smokers and 44 controls of the same sex and age (20-40 years). The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. All of the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of opium use, for at least one year, with a daily opium dosage not less than 2g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured using ELISA method and serum C3, C4 and immunoglobulins concentration were determined by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) method. NO production was estimated through Griess reaction and TAC was assessed by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) test. Serum hs-CRP, complement factors (C3 and C4) and FRAP levels were significantly higher in the opium smokers (8.93 ± 1.93; 138.47 ± 13.39; 68.79 ± 7.02 and 972.75 ± 11.55, respectively) relative to the control group (0.72 ± 0.09; 93.36 ± 8.73; 33.08 ± 7.39 and 761.95 ± 18.61, respectively). These results permit us to conclude that opium smokers indeed present with a low to moderate grade inflammation, which is defined by an increase in acute phase proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Michelle Brønniche; Langhorn, Rebecca; Goddard, Amelia
The diagnostic performance of canine serum amyloid A (SAA) was compared with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the detection of systemic inflammation in dogs. Sera from 500 dogs were retrospectively included in the study. C-reactive protein and SAA were measured using validated automated assays....... The overlap performance, clinical decision limits, overall diagnostic performance, correlations, and agreement in the clinical classification between these 2 diagnostic markers were compared. Significantly higher concentrations of both proteins were detected in dogs with systemic inflammation (SAA range: 48.......75 to > 2700 mg/L; CRP range: 0.4 to 907.4 mg/L) compared to dogs without systemic inflammation (SAA range: 1.06 to 56.4 mg/L; CRP range: 0.07 to 24.7 mg/L). Both proteins were shown to be sensitive and specific markers of systemic inflammation in dogs. Significant correlations and excellent diagnostic...
Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Afanasyeva, Galina A.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Zakharova, Natalia B.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.
We report on plasmonic photothermal therapy of rats with inoculated cholangiocarcinoma through the intratumoral injection of PEG-coated gold nanorods followed by CW laser light irradiation. The length and diameter of gold nanorods were 41+/-8 nm and 10+/-2 nm, respectively; the particle mass-volume concentration was 400 μg/mL, which corresponds to the optical density of 20 at the wavelength 808 nm. The tumor-bearing rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) without any treatment (control); (2) with only laser irradiation of tumor; (3) with intratumoral administration of gold nanorods and laser irradiation of tumors. An hour before laser irradiation, the animals were injected intratumorally with gold nanorod solutions in the amount of 30% of the tumor volume. The infrared 808-nm laser with power density of 2.3 W/cm2 was used for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PTT). The withdraw of animals from the experiment was performed 24 h after laser exposure. The content of lipid peroxidation products and molecular markers of inflammation (TNF-α, IGF-1, VEGF-C) was determined by ELISA test in serum of rats. The standard histological techniques with hematoxylin and eosin staining were used for morphological examination of tumor tissues. It was revealed that the significant necrotic changes were noted in tumor tissue after plasmonic photothermal therapy, which were accompanied by formation of inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation products into the bloodstream
Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos; Festa, Andreas; Bazinet, Richard P; Hanley, Anthony J
Recent evidence has documented distinct effects of individual saturated FAs (SFAs) on cardiometabolic outcomes, with potential protective effects from odd- and very long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs). Cross-sectional and prospective associations of individual serum SFAs (12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, and total SFA) with proinflammatory biomarkers and adiponectin were investigated in 555 adults from the IRAS. Principal component analysis (PCA) of proinflammatory markers yielded three clusters: principal component (PC) 1: fibrinogen, white cell count, C-reactive protein; PC 2: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TNF-α, IL-18; PC 3: IL-6 and IL-8. Cross-sectional analyses on proinflammatory PCs and adiponectin, and prospective analyses on 5 year PAI-1 and fibrinogen concentrations were conducted with multiple regression. Total SFA and 16:0 were positively associated with PC 1 and PC 2, and negatively associated with adiponectin. The 14:0 was positively associated with PC 1 and negatively associated with adiponectin. In contrast, 15:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with PC 2, and 20:0 and 22:0 were positively associated with adiponectin. The 18:0 was negatively associated with PC 3. Prospectively, 15:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with 5 year PAI-1 concentrations. The results demonstrate that individual SFAs have distinct roles in subclinical inflammation, highlighting the unique metabolic impacts of individual SFAs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian
The aim of this study was to examine endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in hypertension and prediabetes by studying adhesion molecules and inflammatory factors. This study included 133 outpatients. Participants were categorized into three groups based on the presence or absence of hypertension and prediabetes: control subjects without prediabetes and hypertension (N group, n = 39); patients with hypertension only (H group, n = 34); and patients with hypertension and prediabetes (HD group, n = 60). Hypertension was diagnosed according to JNC7 criteria. Prediabetes was defined according to 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Plasma was isolated from overnight fasting blood samples for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), P-selectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as indicators of endothelial function and inflammation. We found that the H and HD groups showed significantly higher levels of all four biomarkers compared with the N group (all p Prediabetes and hypertension induce endothelial dysfunction and inflammation by elevating levels of soluble adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The comorbidity of these diseases may exacerbate inflammation and endothelial dysfunction by enhancing the expression of ICAM-1 and TNF-α.
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Preterm delivery is one of the most common complications in pregnancy, and it is the major cause (75- 80% of all neonatal deaths. Bacterial vaginosis predisposes to an increased risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membrane and miscarriage. In this syndrome normal vaginal lactobacilli, which produce protective H2O2, are reduced and replaced with anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on the week of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum. Methods. A total of 186 pregnant women were included into this study, between the week 16 and 19 of pregnancy. In the study group there were 76 pregnant women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis by the criteria based on vaginal Gram-stain Nugent score and Amsel criteria. In the control group there were 110 healthy women with normal vaginal flora. Ultrasound examination was performed in both groups. Vaginal fluid and blood samples were taken to determine biochemical markers with colorimetric methods. Results. The week of delivery was statistically significantly shorter in the study group and the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the serum were statistically significantly higher in women with bacterial vaginosis comparing to the control group. Also the levels of uric acid and white blood cells in the serum were higher in the study group compared to the control one. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the pregnancy complicated with bacterial vaginosis ends much earlier than the pregnancy without it. Also, higher levels of biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum in the study group, similarly to results of other studies, suggest that pathophysiological processes responsible for preterm delivery can begin very early in pregnancy.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of ＜2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT ＜2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT ＜2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P＜0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT＜2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative
Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Birkan; Yildirim, Murat Baki; Ergin, Merve; Yalçin, Abdussamed; Kiliç, Mehmet
OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and tissue levels of markers of impaired oxidative metabolism and correlate these levels with the histopathology and Alvarado score of acute appendicitis patients. METHOD: Sixty-five acute appendicitis patients (mean age, 31.4±12.06 years; male/female, 30/35) and 30 healthy control subjects were studied. The Alvarado score was recorded. Serum samples were obtained before surgery and 12 hours postoperatively to examine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase, stimulated paraoxonase, arylesterase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, ceruloplasmin, oxidative stress markers (advanced oxidized protein products and total thiol level) and ischemia-modified albumin. Surgical specimens were also evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n = 37), perforated appendicitis (n = 8), phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 12), perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 4), or no appendicitis (n = 4). The Alvarado score of the acute appendicitis group was significantly lower than that of the perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis group (p = 0.004). The serum total antioxidant status, total thiol level, advanced oxidized protein products, total oxidant status, catalase, arylesterase, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly different between the acute appendicitis and control groups. There was no correlation between the pathological extent of acute appendicitis and the tissue levels of the markers; additionally, there was no correlation between the tissue and serum levels of any of the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems plays a role in the pathogenesis acute appendicitis. The Alvarado score can successfully predict the presence and extent of acute appendicitis. PMID:25518019
Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.
Røsjø, Egil; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin Ingeleiv; Bakke, Søren Jacob; Beiske, Antonie G; Bjerve, Kristian S; Hovdal, Harald; Lilleås, Finn; Midgard, Rune; Pedersen, Tom; Benth, Jūratė Saltytė; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Holmøy, Trygve
To explore the relationships between vitamin A, D and E and inflammation in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, we assessed their associations with 11 inflammation markers in 9 serial serum samples from 85 patients, before and during interferon-β1a treatment. A negative association was found between vitamin A and pentraxin 3 independent of interferon-β1a use, whereas positive associations between vitamin D and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and secreted frizzled-related protein 3 were seen before, and between vitamin E and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 during interferon-β1a treatment. These findings suggest associations with diverse inflammatory pathways, which may be differentially influenced by interferon-β1a treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...
Full Text Available Objectives. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic, inflammatory disease. Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute-phase protein, involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess serum concentration of SAA in RA patients, with reference to other inflammatory parameters and markers of extra-articular involvement. Methods. The study population consisted of 140 RA patients, low/moderate disease activity (L/MDA in 98 (70% patients and high disease activity (HDA in 42 (30%. Comprehensive clinical and laboratory assessment was performed with evaluation of electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness. Results. The mean SAA concentration [327.0 (263.4 mg/L] was increased highly above the normal value, even in patients with L/MDA. Simultaneously, SAA was significantly higher in patients with HDA versus L/MDA. The mean SAA concentration was significantly higher in patients treated with glucocorticoids, was inversely associated with QTc duration, and was markedly higher in patients with atherosclerotic plaques, emphasizing increased CV risk. SAA was significantly higher in patients with increased cystatin-C level. Conclusions. In RA patients, high serum SAA concentration was strongly associated with activity of the disease and risk of CV and renal involvement. Recurrent assessment of SAA may facilitate searching patients with persistent inflammation and risk of extra-articular complications.
Pot, G.K.; Geelen, A.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Harvey, L.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Hart, A.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Lund, E.K.; Rijkers, G.T.; Kampman, E.
Fish consumption is associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. A possible mechanism by which fish consumption could decrease colorectal cancer risk is by reducing inflammation. However, thus far, intervention studies investigating both systemic and local gut inflammation markers are lacking.
Swati Pradeep Patel
Full Text Available Aims: Resistin is an adipocytokine, which have been studied for its role in insulin resistance and recently in inflammation. The aim of the present study is to assess the concentration of resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and to compare the levels between subjects with and without periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to further correlate the resistin levels with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at −420. Setting and Designs: A total of 96 subjects (48 males and 48 females were divided on the basis of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL and hemoglobin A 1c levels into healthy (group 1, n = 24, uncontrolled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 2, n = 24, controlled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 3, n = 24 and chronic periodontitis without T2DM (group 4, n = 24. Materials and Methods: The GCF and serum levels of resistin were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared among the study groups. Further, the association of the resistin levels with periodontal inflammation and SNP at −420 was studied. Results and Conclusion: The resistin levels in GCF and serum from patients with periodontitis or diabetes mellitus related periodontitis (controlled or uncontrolled were higher than that of healthy subjects and correlated positively with GI. Further, subjects with GG genotype at −420 showed significantly higher GI, PD, CAL as compared with genotype group CC. Resistin was detected in all serum and GCF samples and was significantly higher in periodontitis. Further, GG genotype at −420 was associated significantly with periodontal inflammation and resistin levels.
Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies. PMID:24009946
Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies.
Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais
-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....
Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions with an increasing worldwide prevalence. The global emergence of obesity increases the risk of developing chronic metabolic disorders. Thus, it is an economic issue that increased the costs of the comorbidities associated. Moreover, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that obesity is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, this status is conditioned by the innate immune system activation in adipose tissue that promotes an increase in the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the triggering of the systemic acute-phase response which is characterized by elevation of acute-phase protein levels. On this regard, low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic of various chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers, among others, which are also characterized by obesity condition. Thus, a growing body of evidence supports the important role that is played by the inflammatory response in obesity condition and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related.
Yun, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyunyoung; Yang, Wonjae
Objective Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in healthy men with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate the association between systemic inflammation markers and serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. Material and methods A cohort of 20,151 healthy native Korean men without prostate disease between the ages of 40 and 65 years who underwent medical checkups were studied from January 2007 to December 2013. Serum total PSA and serum C-reactive protein concentrations, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts were determined. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. We checked the correlation between systemic inflammation markers and PSA. Results Data obtained from 18,800 healthy men were analyzed. The mean age of the study subjects was 50.72±7.62 years and the mean NLR was 1.764±0.804. Correlation analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) revealed that neutrophil count (coefficient = 0.028, p value <0.001), and NLR (coefficient = 0.027, p value <0.001) correlated with PSA. Multivariate analysis using the full model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.043 respectively). Multivariate analysis using a stepwise model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.040, respectively) and BMI was negatively correlated with PSA (p<0.001). Conclusion Systemic inflammation markers are useful with a serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. NLR in particular is significantly associated with serum PSA. PMID:28861299
Pradeep, A R; Martande, Santosh S; Singh, Sonender Pal; Suke, Deepak Kumar; Raju, Arjun P; Naik, Savitha B
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels and correlation of human S100A12 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 44 subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 had 10 periodontally healthy subjects, group 2 consisted of 17 CP subjects and group 3 had 17 type 2 DM subjects with CP. GCF and serum levels of human S100A12 and hs-CRP were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoturbidimetric analysis, respectively. The clinical outcomes evaluated were gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level and the correlations of the two inflammatory mediators with clinical parameters were evaluated. Both human S100A12 and hs-CRP levels increased from group 1 to group 2 to group 3. The GCF and serum values of both these inflammatory mediators correlated positively with each other and with the periodontal parameters evaluated (p < 0.05). Human S100A12 and hs-CRP can be considered as possible GCF and serum markers of inflammatory activity in CP and DM.
Isshiki, Miwa; Hirayama, Satoshi; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Masayuki; Furuta, Ayaka; Yano, Kouji; Yamatani, Kotoko; Sugihara, Masami; Idei, Mayumi; Miida, Takashi
Rapid turnover proteins (RTPs), such as transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein (RBP), and transferrin (Tf), provide an accurate assessment of nutritional status but are susceptible to inflammation. Lipid-related markers, which have short half-lives in serum, may be better suited for nutritional assessment. We sought to identify sensitive nutritional markers unaffected by inflammation. Fasting serum samples were collected from 30 malnourished inpatients and 25 healthy volunteers. Malnourished inpatients were divided into 2 groups: a low-C-reactive protein (CRP) group (CRP group (CRP ≥ 20 mg/l, n = 15). Lipid-related markers, traditional nutritional markers, RTPs, micronutrients, and ketone bodies were measured and compared among the groups. Apolipoprotein (Apo)C-II and ApoC-III concentrations were lower in malnourished inpatients than in the control group. There was no significant difference in ApoC-II and ApoC-III between the low- and high-CRP groups. Carnitine transporters and ketone bodies did not show a significant difference among the three groups. Albumin, TTR, RBP, and Tf concentrations were lowest in the high-CRP group, intermediate in the low-CRP group, and highest in the control group. These results indicate that ApoC-II and ApoC-III are appropriate nutritional biomarkers unaffected by inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Markers of immune activation have been associated with mania but have not been examined in combination. We studied the association between mania and an inflammation score based on four immune markers. METHODS: A total of 57 individuals with mania were assessed at up to three time points: the day of hospital admission, evaluation several days later, and six-month follow-up. Also assessed were 207 non-psychiatric controls and 330 individuals with recent onset psychosis, multi-episode schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder depression. A combined inflammation score was calculated by factor analysis of the levels of class-specific antibodies to the NR peptide of the NMDA receptor; gliadin; Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protein 24; and Toxoplasma gondii. Inflammation scores among groups were compared by multivariate analyses. The inflammation score of the mania group at evaluation was studied as a predictor of re-hospitalization in the follow-up period. RESULTS: The combined inflammation score of the mania group at hospital admission and at evaluation differed significantly from that of the non-psychiatric controls (t=3.95, 4.10, p<.001. The inflammation score was significantly decreased at six month follow-up (F=5.85, p=0.004. There were not any significant differences in the inflammation scores of any of the other psychiatric groups and that of the controls. Within the mania group, an elevated inflammation score at evaluation predicted re-hospitalization (Hazard ratio=7.12, p=.005. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization for mania is associated with immune activation. The level of this activation is predictive of subsequent re-hospitalization. Interventions for the modulation of inflammation should be evaluated for the therapy of individuals with mania.
Vinod, Suja; Gow, Andrew; Weinberger, Barry; Potak, Debra; Hiatt, Mark; Chandra, Shaku; Hegyi, Thomas
Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease. In neonates, elevated SP-D levels in cord blood and on day 1 have been associated with prenatal risk factors and with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and infections. It is not known whether serum SP-D during the first week of life is a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease of prematurity that is associated with lung parenchymal maldevelopment and injury. The goal of this study is to determine whether serum SP-D on days 3 and 7 of life are associated with the development of BPD in preterm infants. Serum samples were obtained on postnatal days 3 and 7 from 106 preterm infants (500-2000 g birth weight, 23-32-week gestation). SP-D was quantified by Western blot. BPD was determined at 36 weeks PMA using NICHD criteria. The mean birth weight was 1145 ± 347 g and gestational age 29.2 ± 7.4 weeks. BPD was diagnosed in 7 and "BPD or death" in 16 infants. Days 3 and 7 values tracked significantly (r = 0.648), and did not correlate with birth weight or gestational age. Contrary to expectations, serum SP-D was not associated with BPD. Significant gender differences were noted, with SP-D dropping from day 3 to day 7 in males, while increasing in females (p D does not appear to be a useful marker for BPD. Decreasing serum SP-D levels in males, as compared to females, during the first week of life are likely related to gender differences in lung maturation, consistent with the higher incidence of BPD in males.
Serum markers related to depression: A systematic review. ... is one of the most common neurological and psychiatric disorders that are associated with imbalance in ... Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science databases were retrieved using the depression, serum markers, ... A total of 89 articles were included in final analysis.
Soloski, Mark J.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Lahey, Lauren J.; Wagner, Catriona A.
Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (pLyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations. PMID:24740099
Platelet activation and inflammation markers were assessed by measuring plasma levels of sP-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF4), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Results: HIV infected patients had higher levels of sP- selectin, PF4 and IL-6 than uninfected controls (p<0.001). ART naïve subjects had higher levels ...
Mark J Soloski
Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.
Wakshlag, Joseph J; Struble, Angela M; Levine, Corri B; Bushey, Jennifer J; Laflamme, Dorothy P; Long, Grace M
Evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived adipokines induce mild inflammation and may play a role in insulin resistance associated with diabetes. The present study was designed to examine a series of adipokines and markers of inflammation in dogs before and after a successful weight loss. The study included fasting serum samples from twenty-five dogs before and after a weight-loss programme. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured as indicators of chronic inflammation, while serum adipokines including total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin and leptin were also examined. Medians for CRP (before, 10.0 (interquartile range 5.4-15.0) μg/ml; after, 5.6 (interquartile range 3.8-7.0) μg/ml) and MCP-1 (before, 212 (interquartile range 157-288) ng/ml; after, 185 (interquartile range 143-215) ng/ml) decreased significantly after weight loss. Medians for resistin showed a mild, yet significant reduction (before, 67.1 (interquartile range 44.4-88.5) pg/ml; after, 60.5 (interquartile range 32.3-67.1) pg/ml), while leptin showed a dramatic decrease after weight loss (before, 18.9 (interquartile range 10.8-35.4) ng/ml; after, 6.6 (interquartile range 3.9-10.2) ng/ml). Serum total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were unchanged on all analyses performed. These data suggest that weight loss can decrease chronic inflammation; however, the clinical implications of this decrease are not well elucidated in dogs. Surprisingly, there was no increase in total or HMW serum adiponectin after weight loss, as observed previously in human subjects. The lack of change in total and HMW adiponectin might explain why insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are less prevalent in obese dogs when compared with humans and cats.
Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, S
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample for measurement of the two markers of inflammation YKL-40 and hsCRP, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one polybrominated biphenyl, and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) adjusted to the serum lipid content. Participants were 50 through 69 years old, living in settlements, town or city (n = 151/173/211; 95% participation rate). ΣOCP, ΣPCB and ΣPBDE serum levels were higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (pInuit compared to non-Inuit (pInuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs to promote chronic diseases common to populations in Greenland. These data inform guidelines on 'the Arctic dilemma' and encourage follow-up on the ageing Arctic populations.
Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Szterling-Jaworowska, Malgorzata; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona
YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of the study was to assess serum YKL-40 level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and treatment. A total of 37 individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after 2 weeks of therapy. Serum YKL-40 concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and topical therapy. Median YKL-40 serum levels were significantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p psoriasis and inflammation in psoriatic patients, but not a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of the treatment.
Savitskaya Yulia A
Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma.
Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Larsen, S O; Arends, J
The addition of two new markers in maternal serum, estriol and HCG, to those already known, namely the level of maternal serum alfa-fetoprotein and maternal age, considerably improves the expected results of a screening strategy for Down syndrome. The detection rate is slightly increased from 53....
Full Text Available Chloé Pouvreau,1 Antoine Dayre,1 Eugene G Butkowski,2 Beverlie de Jong,2 Herbert F Jelinek2,3 1Faculty of Sciences, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France; 2School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia; 3Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors associated with chronic disease such as essential hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the association of inflammation and oxidative stress in HTN with T2DM as a comorbidity is inconclusive due to the multifactorial nature of these cardiometabolic diseases. Methodology: The influence of pathophysiological factors include genetics, age of patient, and disease progression change throughout the lifespan and require further investigation. The study population included 256 participants attending a rural health screening program who were tested for markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and coagulation/fibrinolysis. Demographic and clinical variables included, age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cholesterol profile. Data were tested for normality, and nonparametric statistics were applied to analyze the sample with significance set at p<0.05. Results: Of the inflammatory markers, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-10 were significantly different between the control and hypertensive group (p<0.03 and between the HTN+T2DM compared to the HTN group (p<0.05. Significant results for oxidative stress were observed for urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 between the control and the HTN+T2DM group (p<0.01. Glutathione (GSH was also significant between the HTN and HTN+T2DM group (p<0.05. Investigation of the progression of HTN also found significant changes in the inflammatory markers IGF-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, and
Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy
Full Text Available Inflammation in systemic sclerosis (SSc is a prominent, but incompletely characterized feature in early stages of the disease. The goal of these studies was to determine the circulating levels, clinical correlates and biological effects of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, a marker of inflammation, in patients with SSc. Circulating levels of SAA were determined by multiplex assays in serum from 129 SSc patients and 98 healthy controls. Correlations between SAA levels and clinical and laboratory features of disease were analyzed. The effects of SAA on human pulmonary fibroblasts were studied ex vivo. Elevated levels of SAA were found in 25% of SSc patients, with the highest levels in those with early-stage disease and diffuse cutaneous involvement. Significant negative correlations of SAA were found with forced vital capacity and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. Patients with elevated SAA had greater dyspnea and more frequent interstitial lung disease, and had worse scores on patient-reported outcome measures. Incubation with recombinant SAA induced dose-dependent stimulation of IL-6 and IL-8 in normal lung fibroblasts in culture. Serum levels of the inflammatory marker SAA are elevated in patients with early diffuse cutaneous SSc, and correlate with pulmonary involvement. In lung fibroblasts, SAA acts as a direct stimulus for increased cytokine production. These findings suggest that systemic inflammation in SSc may be linked to lung involvement and SAA could serve as a potential biomarker for this complication.
Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Strøm, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Lars F.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker for the presence of systemic inflammation in dogs. Results from previous experimental and clinical studies suggest that CRP concentrations also quantitatively reflect the degree and progress of an inflammatory process, suggesting its use...
Khan, J.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, N.A.; Mehmood, T.
To determine the serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels as biochemical marker of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and correlate it with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study was performed on 100 patients of chronic liver disease whose liver biopsies had been carried out. Fifty healthy controls were also included in the study. Routine liver function tests, hepatitis serology and serum hyaluronic acid levels were carried out on patients and controls. Liver biopsy of 100 patients revealed that 21 were in stage 0 fibrosis, 38 in stage 1 fibrosis, 26 in stage 3 fibrosis and 15 in stage 4 fibrosis. Mean Serum HA (mean +- SD) concentration in patients were 189 +- 98 mg/L vs. 21 +- 10 mg/L of healthy controls. The difference observed was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients in stage 4 fibrosis had significantly higher (p <0.001) mean serum HA concentration as compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. Diagnostic accuracy of serum HA at marginally elevated level of 60 mg/L determined the sensitivity 78.4 %, specificity 80.9%, positive predicted value 93.9% and negative predicted value of 50%. Serum HA is a useful non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. There is a strong positive correlation between serum HA levels and degree of liver fibrosis. The concentration of serum HA rises according to progression of liver fibrosis and levels are highest in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)
Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6...... as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients....
that CRP levels and WBC count were strongly related to components of the insulin resistance syndrome, such as BMI, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, fasting insulin and proinsulin . Elevated WBC levels have been associated with elevated serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, fasting glucose levels, and diastolic blood pressure . Leukocytosis is also associated with several disorders that characterize the metabolic syndrome and with micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes [41,42,56]. The association of AMPD1 34T allele with higher CRP observed in multivariate analysis should be treated with extreme caution, since it was not observed in the univariate analysis and it lost significance when BMI, LDL or HDL cholesterol was excluded from the multivariate model. Lack of a univariate association between C34T genotype and CRP in patients with past myocardial infarction was reported previously . The multivariate relation observed in our study is not consistent with potential anti-inflammatory action of higher adenosine concentrations in 34T carriers . This phenomenon may be related to the association between metabolic syndrome and C34T polymorphism. In our previous study we found that the polymorphism is associated with a reduced frequency of obesity in CAD patients and of hyperglycemia and diabetes in both CAD and heart failure patients . Taken together, these results suggest that intercorrelations between inflammation, metabolic syndrome and the common functional AMPD1 polymorphism need further research. Our study revealed a strong association of the inflammation markers, particularly IL-6 and CRP, with past severe ventricular arrhythmia episodes. The strength of the association was similar to that of LVEDV, which is a potent marker of structural heart damage, with a proven prognostic role for the risk of cardiovascular events , and these factors were independent of each other in the multivariate model. Many
Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika
Low organisational justice has been shown to be associated with increased risk of various health problems, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We tested whether organisational injustice contributes to chronic inflammation in a population of middle-aged men and women. This prospective cohort study uses data from 3205 men and 1204 women aged 35-55 years at entry into the Whitehall II study (phase 1, 1985-1988). Organisational justice perceptions were assessed at phase 1 and phase 2 (1989-1990) and circulating inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 at phase 3 (1991-1993) and phase 7 (2003-2004). In men, low organisational justice was associated with increased CRP levels at both follow-ups (phase 3 and 7) and increased IL-6 at the second follow-up (phase 7). The long term (phase 7) associations were largely independent of covariates, such as age, employment grade, body mass index and depressive symptoms. In women, no relationship was found between organisational justice and CRP or IL-6. This study suggests that organisational injustice is associated with increased long-term levels of inflammatory markers among men.
Laura Anca, Popescu; Bogdana, Virgolici; Olivia, Timnea; Horia, Virgolici; Dumitru, Oraseanu; Leon, Zagrean
Oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance are the principal culprits in childhood obesity. Immune modifications are also important in the development of the obesity complications.The aim of this study is to find the relations for some immunity parameters with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation. Sixty obese children (10-16 years old) and thirty age and sex matched lean children were involved. The activities for erythrocyte superoxid dismutase (SOD), for erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and serum thioredoxin level were measured by ELISA, as oxidative stress markers. Circulating immune complexes (CIC), complement fractions C3, C4 and the self-antibodies, antismooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), antiliver-kidney microsome antibodies (LKM1) were measured by ELISA methods. Ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured as inflammatory markers by immunoturbidimetric methods. ceruloplasmin (pLKM1 and ASMA and GPx activity were not modified between groups. Positive correlations (for pLKM1 (r=0.37), GPx activity and ASMA (r=0.27), haptoglobin and C3 (r=0.33), ceruloplasmin and CIC (r=0.41), CRP and C3 (p<0.27) and negative correlations were calculated for C4 both with GPx activity (r= -0.28) and with thioredoxin level (r= -0.27). In the obese children versus the lean ones, higher levels for C3 (p<0.001), C4(p<0.001), CIC (p<0.05), In conclusion, this study demonstrates that immune modifications, inflammation and oxidative stress are related and they act in cluster in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.; Allende-Labastida, Javier; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Moretti, Diego; Rodriguez-Lastra, Ramiro; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B.
Background: Iron deficiency is common in obese subjects. This may be due to an increase in serum hepcidin and a decrease in iron absorption from adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: We evaluated whether weight and fat loss in obese subjects would decrease inflammation and serum hepcidin and
Bagni, B.; Feggi, L.M.; Prandini, N.; Pasini, S.; Mollica, G.
The tumor marker CA-125 is an embrional glycoprotein detectable in tissues derived from celomatic epitelium. Serum Ca-125 was determined by RIA in 66 patients with various ovarian pathologies (16 malignant at stage III-IV and 50 benign). Six patients with ovarian carcinoma were monitored during the first week after surgery and chemiotherapy for a total of 150 days of treatment. It has been observed that CA-125 serum level is consistently above the normal range (>35 U/ml) in all malignant diseases. In benign pathology, levels above the normal were found to be represented almost exclusively by ovarian endometriosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that chemiotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA-125 serum levels. This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy
Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansooreh; Shidfar, Farzad; Tabassi, Zohreh; Shahaboddin, Mohamadesmaeil; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.
Full Text Available Chronic inflammation contributes to the onset and development of metabolic diseases. Clinical evidence has suggested that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 has some effects on inflammatory markers. However, these results are equivocal. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of CoQ10 on serum levels of inflammatory markers in people with metabolic diseases.Electronic databases were searched up to February 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. The outcome parameters were related to inflammatory factors, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and C reactive protein (CRP. RevMan software was used for meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, Egger line regression test and Begg rank correlation test were performed by STATA software.Nine trials involving 428 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that compared with control group, CoQ10 supplementation has significantly improved the serum level of CoQ10 by 1.17μg/ml [MD = 1.17, 95% CI (0.47 to 1.87 μg/ml, I2 = 94%]. Meanwhile, it has significantly decreased TNF-α by 0.45 pg/ml [MD = -0.45, 95% CI (-0.67 to -0.24 pg/ml, I2 = 0%]. No significant difference was observed between CoQ10 and placebo with regard to CRP [MD = -0.21, 95% CI (-0.60 to 0.17 mg/L, I2 = 21%] and IL-6 [MD = -0.89, 95% CI (-1.95 to 0.16 pg/ml, I2 = 84%].CoQ10 supplementation may partly improve the process of inflammatory state. The effects of CoQ10 on inflammation should be further investigated by conducting larger sample size and well-defined trials of long enough duration.
Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P
Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose...... of prostatic bone metastases. Blood samples were obtained prior to biopsy or TURP. Serum PICP, PIIINP and ICTP were measured with commercial available RIAs and PSA by IRMA. Serum PSA was increased in patients with local prostatic cancer compared with patients with hyperplasia (p
Heaney, J A; Allen, M A; Keane, T; Duffy, J J
A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM/sup R/) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable.
Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.
A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)
Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.
of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...
Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Haydock, Richard M; Hayek, Michael G; Park, JeanSoon
As in human populations, advances in nutrition and veterinary care have led to an increase in the lifespan of companion animals. Detrimental physiological changes occurring later in life must be understood before interventions can be made to slow or reduce them. One important aspect of human aging is upregulation of the inflammatory response and increase in oxidative damage resulting in pathologies linked to chronic inflammation. To determine whether similar processes occur in the aging dog, changes in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated in 80 Labrador retrievers from adulthood to the end of life. Serum levels of immunoglobulin M (p immunoglobulin G or C-reactive protein unless the last year of life was included in the analysis (p = .002). Baseline levels of heat shock protein 70 decreased with age (p < .001) while those after exposure to heat stress were maintained (p = .018). However, when excluding final year of life data, a decline in the heat shock protein 70 response after heat stress was observed (p = .004). These findings indicate that aging dogs undergo changes similar to human inflammaging and offer the possibility of nutritional or pharmacological intervention to delay or reduce these effects.
Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M
Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Aline Zyman de; Rodrigues, Jhenifer Kliemchen; Dib, Luciana Azôr; Romão, Gustavo Salata; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles
to compare serum markers of oxidative stress between infertile patients with and without endometriosis and to assess the association of these markers with disease staging. this was a prospective study conducted on 112 consecutive infertile, non-obese patients younger than 39 years, divided into two groups: Endometriosis (n=48, 26 with minimal and mild endometriosis - Stage I/II, and 22 with moderate and severe endometriosis - Stage III/IV) and Control (n=64, with tubal and/or male factor infertility). Blood samples were collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the analysis of serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and total hydroxyperoxide levels by spectrophotometry and of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were compared between the endometriosis and control groups, stage I/II endometriosis and control, stage III/IV endometriosis and control, and between the two endometriosis subgroups. The level of significance was set at 5% (p Control Group (8.0 ± 2 µMol/g protein) and among patients with stage III/IV disease (9.7 ± 2.3 µMol/g protein) compared to patients with stage I/II disease (8.2 ± 1.0 µMol/g protein). No significant differences in serum malondialdehyde levels were observed between groups. we demonstrated a positive association between infertility related to endometriosis, advanced disease stage and increased serum hydroxyperoxide levels, suggesting an increased production of reactive species in women with endometriosis. These data, taken together with the reduction of serum vitamin E and glutathione levels, suggest the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress in women with infertility associated with endometriosis. The reproductive and metabolic implications of oxidative stress should be assessed in future studies.
running on markers of muscle damage and inflammation have not yet been reported. ... in muscles of the lower limb, as they contract eccentrically during downhill ..... nutritional and fluid intake in future field work on multiday trail running.
Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Picavet, H. Susan J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were
Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Susan, H; Picavet, J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M
ObjectiveThe prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were
Barić Rafaj, R; Kuleš, J; Marinculić, A; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J; Mihaljević, Ž; Tumpa, A; Mrljak, V
Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the canine population. While haemostatic parameters and markers of endothelial function have been evaluated in various disease conditions in dogs, there are no studies of these markers in canine obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of naturally gained weight excess and obesity on inflammatory, hemostatic and endothelial biomarkers in dogs. A total of 37 overweight and obese dogs were compared with 28 normal weight dogs. Overweight and obese dogs had significantly elevated concentrations of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Number of platelets, activity of factor X and factor VII were significantly higher, while activated partial thromboplastine time (aPTT) and soluble plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were significantly decreased. Statistical analysis of high mobility group box - 1 protein (HMGB-1), soluble intercellular adhesive molecule -1 (sICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) concentrations did not show significant differences between the total overweight and obese group and the normal weight group of dogs. Analytical changes in the dogs in our study reflects that weight excess in dogs can be associated with a chronic low degree of inflammation and a hypercoagulable state, where primary and secondary hemostasis are both affected. However obesity is not associated with impairment of endothelial function in dogs.
Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P
of prostatic bone metastases. Blood samples were obtained prior to biopsy or TURP. Serum PICP, PIIINP and ICTP were measured with commercial available RIAs and PSA by IRMA. Serum PSA was increased in patients with local prostatic cancer compared with patients with hyperplasia (p ..., ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p .... The sensitivity ranged from 0.53 to 0.62 and specificity from 0.91 to 0.95. The sensitivity for alkaline phosphatase and PSA was 0.69 and 0.66 and specificity 0.91 and 0.68, respectively....
Full Text Available Formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation are intermediate pathways of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. We investigated the effect of benfotiamine on markers of these pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.Patients with type 2 diabetes and urinary albumin excretion in the high-normal and microalbuminuric range (15-300 mg/24h were randomized to receive benfotiamine (n = 39 or placebo (n = 43. Plasma and urinary AGEs (N(ε-(carboxymethyl lysine [CML], N(ε-(Carboxyethyl lysine [CEL], and 5-hydro-5-methylimidazolone [MG-H1] and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble E-selectin and low-grade inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], serum amyloid-A [SAA], myeloperoxidase [MPO] were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks.Compared to placebo, benfotiamine did not result in significant reductions in plasma or urinary AGEs or plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.Benfotiamine for 12 weeks did not significantly affect intermediate pathways of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. TRIAL REGRISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00565318.
Alkhalaf, Alaa; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Gans, Reinold O B; Heeringa, Peter; Scheijen, Jean L; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L
Formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation are intermediate pathways of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. We investigated the effect of benfotiamine on markers of these pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Patients with type 2 diabetes and urinary albumin excretion in the high-normal and microalbuminuric range (15-300 mg/24h) were randomized to receive benfotiamine (n = 39) or placebo (n = 43). Plasma and urinary AGEs (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine [CML], N(ε)-(Carboxyethyl) lysine [CEL], and 5-hydro-5-methylimidazolone [MG-H1]) and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble E-selectin) and low-grade inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], serum amyloid-A [SAA], myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Compared to placebo, benfotiamine did not result in significant reductions in plasma or urinary AGEs or plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation. Benfotiamine for 12 weeks did not significantly affect intermediate pathways of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. TRIAL REGRISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00565318.
Jensen, T K; Andersson, A M; Hjollund, N H
= -0.61, P sperm concentration (r = -0.40, P sperm concentration (r = 0.38, P sperm counts below 20 mill/mL among men who's inhibin B....... All blood samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Median sperm concentration and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa were significantly higher among men from centre A (56.0 mill/mL and 42.5%), compared with men from centre B (44.8 mill/mL and 39%). Men from centre B had...... reproductive health, may serve as a new marker of spermatogenesis, in addition to sperm concentration and serum FSH....
Jason D Thorpe
Full Text Available Evaluating diagnostic and early detection biomarkers requires comparing serum protein concentrations among biosamples ascertained from subjects with and without cancer. Efforts are generally made to standardize blood processing and storage conditions for cases and controls, but blood sample collection conditions cannot be completely controlled. For example, blood samples from cases are often obtained from persons aware of their diagnoses, and collected after fasting or in surgery, whereas blood samples from some controls may be obtained in different conditions, such as a clinic visit. By measuring the effects of differences in collection conditions on three different markers, we investigated the potential of these effects to bias validation studies.We analyzed serum concentrations of three previously studied putative ovarian cancer serum biomarkers-CA 125, Prolactin and MIF-in healthy women, women with ovarian cancer undergoing gynecologic surgery, women undergoing surgery for benign ovary pathology, and women undergoing surgery with pathologically normal ovaries. For women undergoing surgery, a blood sample was collected either in the clinic 1 to 39 days prior to surgery, or on the day of surgery after anesthesia was administered but prior to the surgical procedure, or both. We found that one marker, prolactin, was dramatically affected by collection conditions, while CA 125 and MIF were unaffected. Prolactin levels were not different between case and control groups after accounting for the conditions of sample collection, suggesting that sample ascertainment could explain some or all of the previously reported results about its potential as a biomarker for ovarian cancer.Biomarker validation studies should use standardized collection conditions, use multiple control groups, and/or collect samples from cases prior to influence of diagnosis whenever feasible to detect and correct for potential biases associated with sample collection.
Christiansen, Michael; Spencer, Kevin; Laigaard, Jennie
ADAM 12 is a placenta-derived glycoprotein that is involved in growth and differentiation. The maternal serum concentration of ADAM 12 is a potential first-trimester maternal serum marker of Down syndrome (DS). Here we examine the potential of ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker...
Azarsız, Elif; Karaca, Neslihan; Levent, Erturk; Kutukculer, Necil; Sozmen, Eser
Background Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare clinically symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disorder which manifests a wide variability of symptoms, complications. Atherosclerosis in common variable immunodeficiency patients has not been investigated yet contrary to other severe clinical complications. We aimed to investigate the chitotriosidase enzyme's role as an inflammation and atherosclerosis marker in paediatric common variable immunodeficiency patients. Methods Common variable immunodeficiency patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 23) evaluated for chitotriosidase activity with other inflammation markers (hsCRP, myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, ferritin), lipid profile and echocardiographic findings (carotid artery intima media thickness - cIMT, brachial artery flow-mediated vazodilatation - FMD%). Results In patients, the mean chitotriosidase activity (8.98 ± 6.28) was significantly higher than the controls (5.17 ± 3.42) ( P = 0.014). Chitotriosidase showed positive relation with hs-CRP ( P = 0.011) and SAA ( P = 0.011) but had no relation with ferritin ( P = 0.155), HDL ( P = 0.152) or LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.380). Mean cIMT increased in patients compared with the controls ( P variable immunodeficiency patients demonstrated in vivo the presence of activated macrophages indicating ongoing inflammation. Echocardiographic diastolic functional deficiency, increased cIMT and decreased FMD% may be accepted as early atherosclerotic findings, but none of them showed relationship with chitotriosidase activities.
Mokkala, Kati; Pellonperä, Outi; Röytiö, Henna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Laitinen, Kirsi
Increased intestinal permeability with subsequent metabolic endotoxemia, i.e., elevated circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS, has been introduced as a novel initiator of obesity related metabolic disturbances in non-pregnant individuals. The objective was to investigate the extent to which intestinal permeability, measured by serum zonulin concentration, is related to metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic risk markers in overweight pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study including 100 pregnant overweight women in early pregnancy. Serum zonulin was analyzed using ELISA, and markers for metabolic endotoxemia (LPS), inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein and glycoprotein acetylation GlyA), glucose metabolism (fasting glucose and insulin), and lipid metabolism were measured. Higher serum zonulin concentration associated positively with LPS (P=0.02), inflammatory markers (Pzonulin quartiles). All the observed associations were confirmed (Pzonulin concentration, i.e., increased intestinal permeability, contributes to metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in overweight pregnant women. By reinforcing intestinal barrier, it may be possible to manipulate maternal metabolism during pregnancy with subsequent health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahmani, Asghar; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari Heirdarlo, Ali; Abangah, Ghobad; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sayehmiri, Kourosh
Gastritis is an important premalignant lesion and recent studies suggested a production of inflammatory cytokine-like C-reactive protein during gastritis. This study aimed to determine any relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and inflammation activity among patients with gastritis. Demographic and clinical variables of participants were collected by a validated questionnaire. Using histology of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori status was investigated and serum concentrations of hs-CRP were measured among dyspeptic patients. Correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and inflammation activities was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The relation between active inflammation and other variables was evaluated by logic link function model. Totally 239 patients (56.6% female) were analysed. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe inflammation activities was 66.5%, 23.8% and 9.6% respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among men and women were 2.85 ± 2.84 mg/dl and 2.80 ± 4.80 mg/dl (p = 0.047) respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among patients with H. pylori infection, gland atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia were 2.83 ± 3.80 mg/dl, 3.52 ± 5.1 mg/dl, 2.22 ± 2.3 mg/dl and 5.3 ± 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Relationship between hs-CRP and inflammation activities (p gastritis, elevated hs-CRP levels may be considered as a predictive marker of changes in gastric mucosa and a promising therapeutic target for patients with gastritis.
Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Strom, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Lars F; Eriksen, Thomas; Jensen, Asger L; Luntang-Jensen, Michael
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker for the presence of systemic inflammation in dogs. Results from previous experimental and clinical studies suggest that CRP concentrations also quantitatively reflect the degree and progress of an inflammatory process, suggesting its use for inflammation monitoring. The objective was to investigate whether the canine CRP response in serum correlates with the amount of trauma and the consequent inflammatory response after 3 standard aseptic soft-tissue surgical procedures in 3 groups of dogs. A total of 24 client-owned intact female dogs of various breeds were enrolled in a clinical study with random allocation into 2 surgical groups, for either conventional, open-approach ovariohysterectomy (OVH; n = 14) or laparoscopic assisted OVH (n = 10). In addition, a group of 8 male Beagles from a laboratory animal facility underwent vasectomy, serving as the third and mildest surgical trauma group. Serum CRP was measured pre- and at 4, 8, 12, 23, and 27 hours postsurgery. Cumulative concentration over time and point concentrations of CRP were correlated with the surgical trauma impact level. There was a significant surgery trauma-related difference in cumulative CRP concentrations among the 3 groups, and also in the 12 hours postsurgery concentration. The CRP response varied according to the degree of surgical trauma on 3 standardized levels, thus supporting the use of canine serum concentrations of CRP as an inflammatory activity indicator and monitoring marker. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Boots, Agnes W.; Drent, Marjolein; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.
Oxidative stress and low antioxidant levels are implicated in the aetiology of sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease. Quercetin is a potent dietary antioxidant that also displays anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, the aim is to examine the effect of quercetin supplementation on markers of
Busch, Evan L; Whitsel, Eric A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Yang, Yang C
Previous research has reported associations between social relationships and carcinogenesis. Inflammation is a potential mediator of these associations. To clarify these links for one tumor site, we examined associations between social relationships, circulating inflammation markers, and breast cancer incidence. Among 132,262 participants from the prospective Women's Health Initiative, we used linear and logistic regression to evaluate associations between social relationship characteristics (social support, social strain, social network size) and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between inflammation markers and breast cancer incidence, as well as associations between social relationship characteristics and breast cancer incidence with and without adjustment for inflammation markers. Larger social networks were associated with lower continuous CRP (beta = -0.22, 95% CI -0.36, -0.08) and WBC (beta = -0.23, 95% CI -0.31, -0.16). Greater social strain was associated with higher continuous CRP (beta = 0.24, 95% CI 0.14, 0.33) and WBC (beta = 0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.14). When WBC was dichotomized at 10,000 cells/uL, high WBC was associated with greater hazards of in situ breast cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.17, 2.33) but not invasive breast cancer. Social relationship characteristics were not associated with incidence of invasive or in situ breast cancer. Larger social networks were associated with lower inflammation and greater social strain was associated with higher inflammation. Higher inflammation might be associated with development of in situ breast cancer, but this appeared to be due to factors other than social relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.
Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Andersen, Lars Bo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1467 9-year-olds wererandomly selected from all regions...... explosive, isometric and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC). RESULTS: The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin and resistin and lower levels of TNF-α compared...
N. N. Yepifantseva
association between the indices under study in all the patient groups and in the control group. Conclusion. There are general features and differences in the time course of changes in serum apoptotic markers and their association in the acute period of SBI, IS, and HS. Key words: severe brain injury, stroke, apoptosis, APO-I/FAS, FAS-L, caspase-1/ICE, CD40, hTRAIL.
Matsuura, Tetsuhiko; Sato, Masaaki; Nagai, Kouhei; Sato, Toshiyuki; Arito, Mitsumi; Omoteyama, Kazuki; Suematsu, Naoya; Okamoto, Kazuki; Kato, Tomohiro; Soma, Yoshinao; Kurokawa, Manae S
Psoriasis is a refractory inflammatory disease, however, its pathophysiology is still not fully understood. We tried to identify novel serum peptides associated with the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Serum peptides from 24 patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV), 10 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 14 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and 23 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of some peptides on the secretion of humoral factors from dermal cells were investigated by cytokine arrays and ELISAs. A total of 93 peptides were detected. 24, 20, 23, and 2 peptides showed at least 1.2-fold difference in ion intensity between the psoriasis (PV+PsA) and HC groups, between the PV+PsA and AD groups, between the PV and PsA groups, and between patients with severe-to-moderate PV (n=6) and those with mild PV (n=18), respectively (ppsoriasis, regulating the secretion of inflammatory chemokines and an antimicrobial protein. The modulation of serum peptides may be a potential therapeutic strategy for psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular mortality are well established. This study investigated whether inflammation could be part of the mechanism leading to temperature-related cardiovascular deaths. Methods The study population consisted of a cohort of 673 men with mean age of 74.6 years, living in the greater Boston area. They were seen for examination roughly every 4 years, and blood samples for inflammation marker analyses were drawn in 2000-2008 (total of 1254 visits. We used a mixed effects model to estimate the associations between ambient temperature and a variety of inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukins -1β, -6 and -8. Random intercept for each subject and several possible confounders, including combustion-related air pollution and ozone, were used in the models. Results We found a 0 to 1 day lagged and up to 4 weeks cumulative responses in C-reactive protein in association with temperature. We observed a 24.9% increase [95% Confidence interval (CI: 7.36, 45.2] in C-reactive protein for a 5°C decrease in the 4 weeks' moving average of temperature. We observed similar associations also between temperature and soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (4.52%, 95% CI: 1.05, 8.10, over 4 weeks' moving average, and between temperature and soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (6.60%, 95% CI: 1.31, 12.2 over 4 weeks' moving average. Penalized spline models showed no deviation from linearity. There were no associations between temperature and other inflammation markers. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to decreased temperature is associated with an increase in inflammation marker levels among elderly men. This suggests that inflammation markers are part of intermediate processes, which may lead to cold-, but not heat-, related
Roslind, Anne; Johansen, Julia S
YKL-40, a member of 'mammalian chitinase-like proteins', is secreted by macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, endothelial-, vascular smooth muscle-, and cancer cells. High serum YKL-40 is a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with cancer, inflammation and increased tissue remodelling. High...
Caroline K. Glidden
Full Text Available Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Tracking common host immune responses indicative of recent infection may have potential as a non-specific diagnostic approach for disease surveillance. The challenge to immunologists is to identify the most promising markers, which ideally should be highly conserved across pathogens and host species, become upregulated rapidly and consistently in response to pathogen invasion, and remain elevated beyond clearance of infection. This study combined an infection experiment and a longitudinal observational study to evaluate the utility of non-specific markers of inflammation [NSMI; two acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and TNF-α] as indicators of pathogen exposure in a wild mammalian species, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer. Specifically, in the experimental study, we asked (1 How quickly do buffalo mount NSMI responses upon challenge with an endemic pathogen, foot-and-mouth disease virus; (2 for how long do NSMI remain elevated after viral clearance and; (3 how pronounced is the difference between peak NSMI concentration and baseline NSMI concentration? In the longitudinal study, we asked (4 Are elevated NSMI associated with recent exposure to a suite of bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens in a wild population? Among the four NSMI that we tested, haptoglobin showed the strongest potential as a surveillance marker in African buffalo: concentrations quickly and consistently reached high levels in response to experimental infection, remaining elevated for almost a month. Moreover, elevated haptoglobin was
Background: Weight loss studies were conducted in children without asthma have demonstrated a reduction in systemic inflammation. However, the impact of weight loss in the obese paediatric population with asthma has not been investigated. Objective: To measure the effects of weight loss on markers of systemic ...
Full Text Available Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the presence of biomarkers in pulpitis.The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources were searched for English and non-English articles published through February 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, tissue or analyte used, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale.From the initial 847 publications evaluated, a total of 57 articles were included in this review. In general, irreversible pulpitis was associated with different expression of various biomarkers compared to normal controls. These biomarkers were significantly expressed not only in pulp tissue, but also in gingival crevicular fluid that can be collected non-invasively, and in dentin fluid that can be analyzed without extirpating the entire pulpal tissue. Such data may then be used to accurately differentiate diseased from healthy pulp tissue. The interplay of pulpal biomarkers and their potential use for a more accurate and biologically based diagnostic tool in endodontics is envisaged.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Immune system disorder, including inflammation, takes a significant place when considering still unclear etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers in the first episode of schizophrenia and their relation to the therapy response. Methods. In this study we determined the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers: white blood cells count (WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR and the elements of differential white blood cell counts (or the leukocyte formula: granulocytes (Gra, lymphocytes (Lym and monocytes (Mon, in the first episode of schizofrenia, in 78 patients hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade. The levels were measured at admission to the clinic, as well as after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. The Positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS was applied to measure the severity of psychopathology and response to the treatment. Results. During the first episode of schizophrenia, before initiation of antipsychotic treatment, the frequency of abnormal values was high (≥ 25% of the patients for the following non-specific inflammation markers: WBC, CRP, ESR and Gra, in the leukocyte formula, but dropped after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment at the level of high statistical significance for WBC and Gra (p < 0.001. The ESR remained unchanged in as many as 50% of the patients even after 4-week antipsychotic treatment, at the level of statistical significance in the non-responders compared to the responders (p = 0.045. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that in the first episode of schizophrenia the blood levels of non-specific inflammation markers (WBS, CRP, ESR and Gra from the leukocyte formula were high in the subpopulation of patients with the tendency towards normalization of inflammation parameters after a 4-week antipsychotic
McDonald, Alicia C; Vira, Manish A; Vidal, Adriana C; Gan, Wenqi; Freedland, Stephen J; Taioli, Emanuela
Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in otherwise healthy men; systemic inflammation has been associated with cancer. The study of systemic inflammatory markers in men without clinical prostate disease, but with elevated PSA may characterize the subgroup of men at higher risk for subsequent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between systemic inflammatory markers and serum PSA in 3,164 healthy men without prostatic disease, aged >40 years, from the 2001 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Serum total PSA levels and concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were recorded. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratio were calculated. PSA elevation was defined as levels equal or greater than 4 ng/ml. Elevated serum PSA (194 men, 6.1% of the total), was significantly associated with plasma fibrinogen (ORmultiv = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09-3.25), and NLR (ORmultiv = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26), after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, education, race, co-morbidities, and use of medications. Markers of systemic inflammation were associated with elevated PSA in men without known prostatic disease. Future studies are needed to examine these markers' relationship with prostate cancer occurrence and progression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Asferg, Camilla; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L
BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also closely associated with obesity, an established causative factor in the development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to inves......BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also closely associated with obesity, an established causative factor in the development of hypertension. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate the relationship between two markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and blood pressure (BP) and other hemodynamic variables in obese subjects. METHODS: From a large cardiovascular study based in the general population, we selected subjects with a body mass index (BMI...... index (rho: -0.057 to 0.068; P > 0.13). However, fibrinogen and CRP were found to be significantly related to heart rate (rho: 0.127-0.169; P obese subjects from the general population, we found no significant relationships between markers...
Monach, Paul A; Warner, Roscoe L; Tomasson, Gunnar; Specks, Ulrich; Stone, John H; Ding, Linna; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fessler, Barri J; Hoffman, Gary S; Iklé, David; Kallenberg, Cees GM; Krischer, Jeffrey; Langford, Carol A; Mueller, Mark; Seo, Philip; St. Clair, E William; Spiera, Robert; Tchao, Nadia; Ytterberg, Steven R; Johnson, Kent J; Merkel, Peter A
Objective To identify circulating proteins that distinguish between active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and remission in a manner complementary to markers of systemic inflammation. Methods Twenty-eight serum proteins representing diverse aspects of the biology of AAV were measured before and 6 months after treatment in a large clinical trial of AAV. Subjects (n=186) enrolled in the Rituximab in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (RAVE) trial were studied. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were available for comparison. The primary outcome was the ability of markers to distinguish severe AAV (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG)≥3 at screening) from remission (BVAS/WG=0 at month 6), using areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Results All subjects had severe active vasculitis (median BVAS/WG=8) at screening. In the 137 subjects in remission at month 6, 24 of the 28 markers showed significant declines. ROC analysis indicated that levels of CXCL13 (BCA-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) best discriminated active AAV from remission (AUC>0.8) and from healthy controls (AUC>0.9). Correlations among these markers and with ESR or CRP were low. Conclusions Many markers are elevated in severe active AAV and decline with treatment, but CXCL13, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 distinguish active AAV from remission better than the other markers studied, including ESR and CRP. These proteins are particularly promising candidates for future studies to address unmet needs in the assessment of patients with AAV. PMID:22975753
Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.
Ashraf A. Foda
Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.
Park, So Young; Hong, Gyong Hwa; Park, Sunjoo; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook
Progranulin, a protein secreted from the airway epithelium, is known to attenuate the downstream cascade of neutrophilic inflammation in particular. We hypothesized that progranulin may have a role in inflammatory regulation in asthma. To investigate the association between serum progranulin levels and various clinical features in patients with asthma. Serum samples and clinical data of 475 patients with asthma and 35 healthy controls at a tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated health promotion center were collected. Serum progranulin levels were compared between patients with asthma and healthy controls and then were compared within the patients with asthma in terms of pulmonary function and measures of inflammatory status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of asthma. Serum progranulin levels were significantly lower in the asthma group than in healthy group and were positively correlated with prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted within patients with asthma. We found a negative correlation between serum progranulin levels and blood neutrophil counts. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher serum progranulin levels were associated with a lower risk of severe asthma (odds ratio, 0.888; 95% confidence interval, 0.846-0.932; P progranulin remains unknown, we suggest that serum progranulin may be an indicator of severe asthma with airflow limitation. Future studies with comprehensive airway sampling strategies are warranted to clarify its role, particularly in neutrophilic asthma. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD, we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4 ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9 vs. 3.4 (±4.9 ng/mL; P<0.001. Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.
Muratli, S; Uzunlulu, M; Gonenli, G; Oguz, A; Isbilen, B
Fetuin-A levels are reported to be low as a negative acute phase reactant in systemical inflammatory situations. Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized with inflammation. In this study, we hypothesised that the serum fetuin A levels could be found to be low due to inflammation in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. For this purpose, serum fetuin A levels in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were compared with those in healthy subjects. A total of 85 participants (11 male, 74 female, mean age: 38.60±10.14 years) were included. The patient group consisted of 44 Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (7 male, 37 female) and the control group consisted of 41 healthy subjects (4 male, 37 female). Groups were compared according to their demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data and serum fetuin-A levels. Correlation analysis was used for determining the relation between fetuin A levels and clinical parameters. Fetuin-A levels of the patient group were found lower than those of the control group (0.58±0.50 g/L versus 1.53±1.60 g/L, P=0.001). Fetuin-A levels were not correlated with clinical parameters such as TSH, C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. These findings supported the hypothesis that serum fetuin A levels could be found to be low as a negative acute phase reactant in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Fetuin A can be considered as an indicator of inflammation in Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Full Text Available Background: Inflammation plays a major role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD. Inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC count, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, are widely used for cardiovascular risk prediction. The aim of the study was to establish factors associated with WBC, CRP and IL-6 in patients with CAD. Two functional polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes participating in adenosine metabolism were analyzed (C34T AMPD1, G22A ADA. Methods: Plasma concentrations of IL-6 were measured using high-sensitivity ELISA kits, and the nephelometric method was used for high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP measurement in 167 CAD patients. Results: Presence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its components, presence of heart failure, severity of CAD symptoms, severe past ventricular arrhythmia (sustained ventricular tachycardia [sVT] or ventricular fibrillation [VF], lower left ventricle ejection fraction, higher left ventricle mass index, higher end-diastolic volume and higher number of smoking pack-years were significantly associated with higher WBC, CRP and IL-6. Strong associations with arrhythmia were observed for IL-6 (median 3.90 vs 1.89 pg/mL, p<0.00001 and CRP concentration (6.32 vs 1.47 mg/L, p=0.00009, while MS was associated most strongly with IL-6. CRP and IL-6 were independent markers discriminating patients with sVT or VF. There were no associations between AMPD1 or ADA genotypes and inflammation markers. Conclusions: WBC, CRP and IL-6 are strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. Their strong association with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia emphasizes the proarrhythmic role of inflammation in the increased cardiovascular risk of CAD patients.
Fox, P; Hudson, M; Brown, C; Lord, S; Gebski, V; De Souza, P; Lee, C K
The host inflammatory response has a vital role in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. We examined the prognostic value of inflammatory markers (albumin, white-cell count and its components, and platelets) in pre-treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Using data from a randomised trial, multivariable proportional hazards models were generated to examine the impact of inflammatory markers and established prognostic factors (performance status, calcium, and haemoglobin) on overall survival (OS). We evaluated a new prognostic classification incorporating additional information from inflammatory markers. Of the 416 patients, 362 were included in the analysis. Elevated neutrophil counts, elevated platelet counts, and a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio were significant independent predictors for shorter OS in a model with established prognostic factors. The addition of inflammatory markers improves the discriminatory value of the prognostic classification as compared with established factors alone (C-statistic 0.673 vs 0.654, P=0.002 for the difference), with 25.8% (P=0.004) of patients more appropriately classified using the new classification. Markers of systemic inflammation contribute significantly to prognostic classification in addition to established factors for pre-treated patients with advanced RCC. Upon validation of these data in independent studies, stratification of patients using these markers in future clinical trials is recommended.
Roos, de N.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Katan, M.B.
Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. Objective: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. Design: We
Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P
Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose......, ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p
Ficek, Joanna; Wyskida, Katarzyna; Ficek, Rafał; Wajda, Jarosław; Klein, Dariusz; Witkowicz, Joanna; Rotkegel, Sylwia; Spiechowicz-Zatoń, Urszula; Kocemba-Dyczek, Joanna; Ciepał, Jarosław; Więcek, Andrzej; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy
Increased permeability of the intestinal wall and intestinal dysbiosis may contribute to chronic systemic inflammation, one of the causes of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality burden in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Plasma concentration of zonulin, haptoglobin, TNFα, IL6, D-lactates and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was assessed in blood samples obtained after overnight fast before midweek morning HD session in 150 stable, prevalent HD patients. Daily intake of energy and macronutrients was assessed on the basis of a food frequency questionnaire. Serum hsCRP level was increased in over 70% of patients. Plasma levels of zonulin [11.6 (10.9-12.3) vs 6.8 (5.8-7.8) ng/mL], IL6 [6.2 (1.0-10.3) vs 1.3 (1.0-2.0) pg/mL] and TNFα [5.9 (2.9-11.8) vs 1.6 (1.3-1.8) pg/mL], but not LPS and D-lactates were significantly higher in HD than in healthy controls. D-lactates and LPS levels were weakly associated with IL6 (R = 0.175; p = 0.03, and R = 0.241; p = 0.003). There was a borderline correlation between plasma zonulin and serum hsCRP (R = 0.159; p = 0.07), but not with IL6, LPS and D-lactates. In multiple regression, both serum CRP and plasma IL6 variability were explained by LPS (β = 0.143; p = 0.08 and β = 0.171; p = 0.04, respectively), only. The weak association between plasma D-lactate, LPS and IL6 levels indicates that intestinal flora overgrowth or increased intestinal permeability contributes very slightly to the chronic inflammation development in HD patients.
Cordoni-Voutsas, M.; Glaubitt, D.; Wagner, W.; Lichtenberg, T.
Having noted an increased serum level of TPA and CEA in patients with renal carcinoma the authors extended these studies by using a larger number of tumor markers. In 15 patients (11 men and 4 women after menopause) aged 33 to 74 years who had renal carcinoma, among them 3 with tumor metastases, the serum concentration of TPA, CA 12-5, CEA, AFP, ferritin, prolactin, β-HCG, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies were used in the determination of serum CA 12-5 and CEA. In all patients surgical treatment, irradiation, or cytostatic therapy had not been performed. In serum the normal range was exceeded by TPA in 7 patients, CA 12-5 in 3, CEA and AFP in one each, ferritin in 12, prolactin in 2, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin in 10 patients. In one man serum prolactin was reduced. Serum β-HCG was normal in all patients. According to these results serum ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin are of great value as tumor markers in patients with renal carcinoma. In several patients the increase of serum β/sub 2/-microglobulin may be ascribed partly to deterioration of renal function. As no consistent patterns of tumor markers in serum were observed it is recommended to determine several tumor markers and not only one of them during the follow-up of patients. Radioimmunoassays for measuring the serum level of tumor markers, especially ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin, may considerably assist in the management of patients with renal carcinoma by providing early information about tumor recurrence or metastases
Pradeep, A R; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Priyanka, N
Obesity is increasing in prevalence worldwide and has emerged as a strong risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, the remote effects of periodontal disease on various systemic diseases have been proposed. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of MCP-4 and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in obese and non-obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find a correlation between MCP-4 and hsCRP in GCF and serum. Forty subjects (20 males and 20 females) were selected and divided into four groups (10 subjects in each group), based on clinical parameters: group NOH (non-obese healthy), group OH (obese healthy), Group NOCP (non-obese with chronic periodontitis) and group OCP (obese with chronic periodontitis). The levels of serum and GCF MCP-4 were determined by ELISA and hsCRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry method. The mean GCF and serum concentration of MCP-4 was highest for group OCP followed by group NOCP, group OH (in GCF); group OH, group NOCP(in serum) and least in group NOH. The mean hsCRP concentration was highest for group OCP followed by group OH, group NOCP and group NOH. A significant positive correlation was found between serum and GCF MCP-4 and hsCRP levels. GCF MCP-4 concentrations increased in periodontal disease compared to health and correlated positively with the severity of disease indicating it as a novel marker of periodontal disease. The serum concentration of MCP-4 was found to be more in obese group as compared to nonobese group indicating it as a marker of obesity. Furthermore, based on the positive correlation of MCP-4 and hsCRP found in this study, it can be proposed that MCP-4 and hsCRP may be the markers linking chronic inflammation in obesity and periodontal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johansen, Julia S; Milman, Nils; Hansen, Michael
YKL-40, a growth factor for fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum YKL-40 is found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodelling and ongoing fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate whether macrophages and giant...... cells in the granulomatous sarcoid lesions of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis produce YKL-40 and to determine whether serum YKL-40 in these patients were associated with disease activity....
Daamen, Lois A; Groot, Vincent P; Heerkens, Hanne D; Intven, Martijn P W; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Molenaar, I Quintus
Biomarker testing can be helpful to monitor disease progression after resection of pancreatic cancer. This systematic review aims to give an overview of the literature on the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers for the detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer during follow-up. A systematic search was performed to 2 October 2017. All studies reporting on the diagnostic value of postoperatively measured serum biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer recurrence were included. Data on diagnostic accuracy of tumor markers were extracted. Forest plots and pooled values of sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Four articles described test results of CA 19-9. A pooled sensitivity and specificity of respectively 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.91) were calculated. One article reported on CEA, showing a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 65%. No other serum tumor markers were discussed for surveillance purposes in the current literature. Although testing of serum CA 19-9 has considerable limitations, CA 19-9 remains the most used serum tumor marker for surveillance after surgical resection of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to assess the role of serum tumor marker testing in the detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer and to optimize surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R.; Alfonso, Anthony J.; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C.; Williamson, Donald A.; Ravussin, Eric
objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Methods and Procedures Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m2) were randomized to “control (CO)” = 100% energy requirements; “CR” = 25%; “caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)”= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or “low-calorie diet (LCD)” = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. Results At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. Discussion CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD. PMID:18421281
Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.
We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043
Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C; Vestergaard, H
influence on both YKL-40 and hsCRP by ΣOCP (psmoking. POP levels were associated with the intake of the traditional Inuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs......Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between...... exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample...
Full Text Available Skeletal muscles in patients with cancer undergo many changes due to immuno-inflammatory factors of tumor origin, or to chemotherapy and irradiation. Aim of the present study is to identify serological biomarkers and early myopathic features in skeletal muscle biopsies from weight stable patients bearing colorectal cancer at the onset of disease. Morphometric analyses by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed on intraoperative muscle biopsies from patients with early colorectal cancer and from weight stable patients undergoing surgery for benign non-inflammatory conditions. Serological analyses for testing markers of inflammation (C Reactive Protein, CRP, muscle enzymes, (Creatin Kinase, CK, soluble isoforms of adhesion molecules (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, NCAM, and a marker of protein turnover (prealbumin, a typical indicator of caloric and protein malnutrition were also performed. Fifty oncologic patients (28 male/22 female and 25 non oncologic patients (18 male/7 female (p=N.S. were studied. In muscles from cancer patients we observed a subclinical myopathy characterized by an abnormal distribution of myonuclei. The percentage of myofibers with internalized nuclei was significantly higher in oncologic (median= 13.1%, IQR= 6.0-20.3 than in non oncologic patients (median= 3%, IQR= 2.5-6.1 (p<0.0001. The frequency of these internally nucleated myofibers is even higher in a subgroup of oncologic patients taking myotoxic drugs. In cancer patients, we observed an inverse correlation between the number of internally nucleated fibers and the presence of node metastasis (N+ (ρ=-0.30 (p=0.03. Moreover, in patients with colorectal cancer, low serum levels of preoperative prealbumin (median= 167,7 mg/L, normal range 200-400 mg/L, were detected. The link between the observed early myopathy and long-term cachexia is supported also by the altered expression of sarcolemma associated proteins, in particular laminin and dystrophin
Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P
Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose...
Background. It has recently been suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. This study was to evaluate the role of PCT as a single early marker of neonatal sepsis. Setting. Neonatal Unit, Johannesburg Hospital, and Microbiology Laboratory, National Health ...
Full Text Available The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1 were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden’s index (0.64, higher sensitivity (75.76%, and specificity (88.57%, which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.
Full Text Available Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol, synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol, and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols. Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28.1–38.9 kg/m2 were studied under chitosan (n = 61 and placebo treatments (n = 55. The participants were briefly educated regarding improvement of nutrition quality and energy expenditure. Daily chitosan intake was 3200 mg. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly more (p = 0.0252 under chitosan (−8.67 ± 18.18 mg/dL, 5.6% than under placebo treatment (−1.00 ± 24.22 mg/dL, 0.9%. This reduction was not associated with the expected greater decreases in markers of cholesterol absorption under chitosan treatment. Also, increases in markers of cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis under chitosan treatment were not any greater than under placebo treatment. In conclusion, a significant selective reduction of serum LDL cholesterol under chitosan treatment is neither associated with a reduction of serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption, nor with increases of markers for cholesterol and bile acid synthesis.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of serum procalcitonin content for assessing the inflammation and organ injury in neonatal septicemia. Methods: 48 children with neonatal septicemia who were treated in our hospital between April 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the observation group, 50 healthy newborns who were delivered in our hospital during the same period were selected as the normal control group, and the observation group were further divided into high PCT group and low PCT group (n=24 according to the median of serum PCT content. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum contents of inflammatory mediators, and color Doppler diasonograph was used to measure heart injury index levels. Results: Peripheral blood PCT content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α contents of high PCT group and low PCT group were significantly higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, serum inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α contents increased (P<0.05; routine ultrasound parameters cardiac output (CO and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of twodimensional speckle tracking imaging parameters left ventricular global longitudinal strain rate (GLSr and left ventricular global circumferential strain rate (GCSr of high PCT group and low PCT group were lower than those of normal control group while serum myocardial injury indexes cardiac troponin I (cTnI, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP and α-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (HBDH contents were higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, CO and LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of GLSr and GCSr decreased while the indexes cTnI, H-FABP and HBDH contents increased (P<0
Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure
Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise. Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200 mg d-1 or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 h and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO and macrophages (CD68. Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.
Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS
Full Text Available Background. High value of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR is a strong independent predictor and biomarker of ongoing vascular inflammation in various cardiovascular disorders. Objective. The main focus of the study is to investigate the effect of nebivolol on NLR in mild to moderate hypertensive patients in comparison with metoprolol. In addition, BMI, blood pressure, TLC count, blood sugar, and lipid profile were also assayed before and after treatment. Materials and Methods. In this 12-week prospective double-blinded randomized study, 120 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly divided into two groups to prescribed daily dose of tab nebivolol 5–10 mg and metoprolol 50–100 mg, respectively, for 12 weeks. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results. A total of 100 patients completed the study. Both drugs lowered blood pressure significantly, nebivolol 20.5/10.5 and metoprolol 22.5/11.2 (p<0.001 from baseline. Regarding inflammation, nebivolol reduced total leukocyte count (p=0.005 and neutrophil count (p=0.003 and increased lymphocyte count (p=0.004 as compared to metoprolol. Similarly, nebivolol but not metoprolol significantly reduced NLR ratio (p=0.07. Nebivolol improved lipid profile and blood sugar compared to metoprolol, but values were nonsignificant. Conclusion. Nebivolol has a strong impact on reducing NLR, a marker of subclinical inflammation in hypertensive patients. Moreover NLR can be used as a disease and drug monitoring tool in these patients.
Denys, Anne; Clavel, Gaëlle; Lemeiter, Delphine; Schischmanoff, Olivier; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Semerano, Luca
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There are limited experimental data on vascular involvement in arthritis models. To study the link between CVD and inflammation in RA, we developed a model of vascular dysfunction and articular inflammation by collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. We studied the expression of vascular inflammatory markers in CIA with and without concomitant hyperlipidic diet (HD). Collagen-induced arthritis was induced with intradermal injection of chicken type-II collagen followed by a boost 21 days later. Mice with and without CIA were fed a standard diet or an HD for 12 weeks starting from the day of the boost. Arthritis severity was evaluated with a validated clinical score. Aortic mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-17 were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 localization in the aortic sinus was determined by immunohistochemistry. Atherosclerotic plaque presence was assessed in aortas. Collagen-induced arthritis was associated with increased expression of VCAM-1, independent of diet. VCAM-1 overexpression was detectable as early as 4 weeks after collagen immunization and persisted after 15 weeks. The HD induced atheroma plaque formation and aortic iNOS expression regardless of CIA. Concomitant CIA and HD had no additive effect on atheroma or VCAM-1 or iNOS expression. CIA and an HD diet induced a distinct and independent expression of large-vessel inflammation markers in B6 mice. This model may be relevant for the study of CVD in RA. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Falconer, C.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Walhin, J.P.; Thompson, D.; Page, A.S.; Peters, T.J.; Montgomery, A.A.; Sharp, D.J.; Dayan, C.M.; Andrews, R.C.
Background and aims We investigated whether objectively measured sedentary time was associated with markers of inflammation in adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods and results We studied 285 adults (184 men, 101 women, mean age 59.0 ± 9.7) who had been recruited to the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (Early ACTID) randomised controlled trial. C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and accelerometer-determined sedentary time and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured at baseline and after six-months. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the independent cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sedentary time with markers of inflammation. At baseline, associations between sedentary time and IL-6 were observed in men and women, an association that was attenuated following adjustment for waist circumference. After 6 months of follow-up, sedentary time was reduced by 0.4 ± 1.2 h per day in women, with the change in sedentary time predicting CRP at follow-up. Every hour decrease in sedentary time between baseline and six-months was associated with 24% (1, 48) lower CRP. No changes in sedentary time between baseline and 6 months were seen in men. Conclusions Higher sedentary time is associated with IL-6 in men and women with type 2 diabetes, and reducing sedentary time is associated with improved levels of CRP in women. Interventions to reduce sedentary time may help to reduce inflammation in women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24925122
Chupel, Matheus Uba; Minuzzi, Luciele Guerra; Furtado, Guilherme; Santos, Mário Leonardo; Hogervorst, Eef; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana Maria
Immunosenescence contribute to increase the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, leading cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise and taurine supplementation on peripheral markers of BBB, inflammation, and cognition of elderly women. Forty-eight elderly women (age, 83.58 ± 6.9 years) participated in the study, and were allocated into combined exercise training (CET: n = 13), taurine supplementation (TAU: n = 12), exercise training associated with taurine (CET+TAU: n = 11), or control (CG: n = 12) groups. Exercise was applied twice a week (multi-modal exercise). Taurine ingestion was 1.5 g., once a day. Participants were evaluated before and after 14-weeks of intervention. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and serum concentration of S100β and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were determined. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) was also applied. Concentrations of S100β were maintained in all intervention groups, while a subtle increase in the CG was found. NSE levels increased only in TAU group (p < 0.05). CET reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β/IL-1ra, IL-6/IL10, and TNF-α/IL-10 ratios (p < 0.05). TAU decreased the IL-1β/IL-1ra ratio (p < 0.05). MMSE score increased only in the CET+TAU group (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a trend for changes in IL-1β and the Charlson Comorbidity Index to be independently associated with changes in S100β. Exercise and taurine decreased inflammation, and maintained the BBB integrity in elderly women. Exercise emerged as an important tool to improve brain health even when started at advanced ages.
Ashfaq, A.; Ejaz, A.; Abbas, G.
To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion ransmitted infections. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Physiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College (LNHMC) in collaboration with Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI) and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Blood Bank, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Methodology: During this period, a total of 174 blood donors were selected through random sampling technique. All participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria involving apparently healthy blood donors of either gender within the age bracket of 18 - 60 years and consenting to participate were selected. The participants were screened for transfusion transmitted infections as per WHO recommendations through the standard procedures used for screening at the JPMC blood bank. The demographic profile, anthropometric measurements and vitals were recorded for every participant. Serum neopterin was measured using ELISA kits. Data was analysed on SPSS version 21. ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied as tests of significance at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The neopterin content in the sera of disease negative blood donors was 6.23 +-2.19 nmol/l as compared to disease positive blood donors, in whom the neopterin level was increased to 15.10 +-4.93 nmol/l (p =0.001). Conclusion: The neopterin assay has the potential to detect a number of transfusion transmissible viral diseases; which may, or may not be revealed by the usually employed battery of routine tests. We conclude that the risk of transfusion transmitted pathogens in our population can be reduced significantly, using neopterin assay as a routine in blood banks. (author)
Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: email@example.com
Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.
Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.
Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity
Imani, Hossein; Tabibi, Hadi; Najafi, Iraj; Atabak, Shahnaz; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Leila
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, and systemic and vascular inflammatory markers in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 patients on PD were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1000 mg/d ginger for 10 wk, whereas the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and the end of week 10, serum concentrations of glucose, carboxymethyl lysine, pentosidine, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), and sE-selectin were measured after a 12- to 14-h fast. Serum fasting glucose decreased significantly up to 20% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (P ginger reduces serum fasting glucose, which is a risk factor for hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease, in patients on PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brouwers, Corline; Versteeg, Henneke; Meine, Mathias
Introduction: Studies suggest that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can induce a decrease in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and systemic inflammation, which may be associated with CRT-response. However, the evidence is inconclusive. We examined levels of BNP and inflammatory markers from...... ventricular end systolic volume; subjective CRT-response was defined as an improvement of ⩾10 points in patient-reported health status assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Plasma BNP and markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, TNFα, sTNFr1 and sTNFr2) were measured at three time points...... is not automatically related to a stronger overall decrease in inflammation. Large-scale studies are warranted that further examine the relation between the clinical effects of CRT on inflammatory markers, as the latter have been associated with poor prognosis in heart failure....
We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal
Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Kotler, Gregory; Everett, Brendan M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Sesso, Howard D.
BACKGROUND Markers of systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1], and fibrinogen) have been associated with a greater risk of total and ischemic stroke, in addition to elevated blood pressure. However, the role of these inflammatory markers on stroke pathophysiology by hypertension status is uncertain. METHODS Blood samples were collected and assayed for hsCRP, sICAM-1, and fibrinogen among 27,330 initially healthy women from the Women’s Health Study, and women were followed up from 1992 to 2013. Prior to randomization, the baseline questionnaire collected self-reported hypertension status, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle factors. New cases of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were updated annually through questionnaires and confirmed by medical records according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria. Multivariable Cox models estimated overall associations between each inflammatory marker and stroke and separately stratified by hypertension status. RESULTS We observed 629 incident total strokes over 477,278 person-years. In adjusted analyses, extreme quartiles of hsCRP and sICAM-1 were each associated with a significantly greater risk of total stroke (hsCRP: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.26; sICAM-1: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.63). Fibrinogen was not associated with a significantly greater stroke risk. In analyses stratified by hypertension status, elevated hsCRP was associated with a nonstatistically significant greater risk of total stroke among prehypertensive and hypertensive women. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that hsCRP and sICAM-1 are associated with hypertension status and stroke risk among women. Further work should examine the role of inflammatory markers on ischemic stroke subtypes and clarify mechanisms. PMID:27235695
Priscila Larcher LONGO
Full Text Available Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10, diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10, diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10, periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6, and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6. Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL, gingival bleeding index (GB, probing depth (PD, attachment level (AL and bleeding on probing (BP. Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc. Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1 were measured by ELISA. Results: DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025 and AL (p=0.003 values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Conclusions: Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups.
Full Text Available Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P<0.05 except for UA (P=0.214. There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance.
Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila
Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Background Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma? Methods Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed. Results Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy. Conclusions Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question. PMID:20604945
Full Text Available Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP, is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state.
Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte
Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of alprostadil combined with conventional therapy on serum markers in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received alprostadil combined with conventional therapy and control group received conventional treatment. Then serum markers of both groups were compared. Results: (1 contents of serum nerve function related molecules: serum NSE and S100β contents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and BDNF and NGF contents showed an increasing trend; (2 contents of atherosclerosis related enzymes: serum GGT, iNOS and MPO contents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and PON1 and PON2 contents showed an increasing trend; (3 platelet activation related molecules: serum PPARγ, CD62p, YKL-40, sCD40L and Fibulin-5 contents of observation group all showed a decreasing trend. Conclusions: Alprostadil combined with conventional treatment is helpful to alleviate neuronal damage and inhibit the processes of atherosclerosis and platelet activation; it’s an ideal method for treating acute cerebral infarction.
Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A
To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.
Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. Objective: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Design: A diet intervention of spinach with or without nitrate was performed in mice. A high-fat and high-fructose diet was used to cause insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in mice. The impacts of spinach nitrate on lipid profile, insulin resistance, markers of endothelial function, and inflammation were determined in mice. Results: Spinach nitrate improved the vascular endothelial function of the mice with high-fat and high-fructose consumption, as evidenced by the elevated plasma nitrite level, increased serum nitric oxide (NO level and decreased serum ET-1 level after spinach nitrate intervention. Spinach nitrate also reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and elevated serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in the mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Mice receiving spinach with 60 mg/kg of nitrate (1.02±0.34 showed a significantly low homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index as compared with the model mice (2.05±0.58, which is indicating that spinach nitrate could effectively improve the insulin resistance. In addition, spinach nitrate remarkably decreased the elevated serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 levels induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet
Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana Del Rocío; Almeida-Becerril, Tomás; Solís-Serna, Alan Donovan; Atilano-Miguel, Salvador; Sánchez-González, Juan Raúl; Barbosa-Cortés, Lourdes; Ruíz-Cruz, Eugenia Dolores; Huicochea, Juan Carlos; Cárdenas-Conejo, Alan; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Yam-Ontiveros, Carlos Alberto; Ricárdez-Marcial, Edgar F
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent dystrophy in childhood generated by a deficiency in dystrophin. DMD is a neuromuscular disease and its clinical course comprises chronic inflammation and gradual muscle weakness. Supplementation of omega-3 long chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 long chain-PUFA) reduces inflammatory markers in various disorders. The goal of this research was to analyze the influence of ω-3 long chain-PUFA intake on gene expression and blood inflammatory markers in boys with DMD. In a placebo-controlled, double. Blind, randomized trial, boys with DMD (n = 36) consumed 2.9 g/day of ω-3 long chain-PUFA or sunflower oil as control, in capsules, for a period of 6 months. Blood was analyzed at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 of supplementation for expression of inflammatory markers in leukocytes and serum. There was high adherence to capsule intake (control: 95.3% ± 7.2%, and ω-3 long chain-PUFA: 97.4% ± 3.7% at month 6). Enrichment of EicosaPentaenoic Acid (EPA) and DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA) in erythrocytes increased significantly in patients supplemented with ω-3 long chain-PUFA compared with the placebo group during the 6 months of supplementation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) of the Nuclear Factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and its target genes InterLeukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 was downregulated significantly (p Omega-3 long chain-PUFA intake decreased the serum IL-1β (-59.5%; p = 0.011) and IL-6 (-54.8%; p = 0.041), and increased the serum IL-10 (99.9%, p < 0.005), in relation to those with placebo treatment. Supplementation with ω-3 long chain-PUFA 2.9 g/day is well-tolerated, has a beneficial reductive effect on proinflammatory markers, and increases an anti-inflammatory marker, indicating that ω-3 long chain-PUFA could have a potential therapeutic impact on chronic inflammation in DMD. This research is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT018264229). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society
Silverman, Harold A; Dancho, Meghan; Regnier-Golanov, Angelique; Nasim, Mansoor; Ochani, Mahendar; Olofsson, Peder S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Miller, Edmund J; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Golanov, Eugene; Metz, Christine N; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A
Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune–brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region–specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays a role in controlling peripheral cytokine levels), remain unclear. To provide insight, we studied gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and brain cholinergic system components in the cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and thalamus in mice after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection. Endotoxemia was accompanied by elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines and brain region–specific increases in Il1b (the highest increase, relative to basal level, was in cortex; the lowest increase was in cerebellum) and Il6 (highest increase in cerebellum; lowest increase in striatum) mRNA expression. Gene expression of brain Gfap (astrocyte marker) was also differentially increased. However, Iba1 (microglia marker) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions in parallel with morphological changes, indicating microglia activation. Brain choline acetyltransferase (Chat ) mRNA expression was decreased in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase (Ache) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and increased in the hippocampus, and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrm1) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and the brainstem. These results reveal a previously unrecognized regional specificity in brain immunoregulatory and cholinergic system gene expression in the context of peripheral inflammation and are of interest for designing future antiinflammatory approaches. PMID:25299421
Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian
Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards...
Alkhalaf, Alaa; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Heeringa, Peter; Scheijen, Jean L.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.
Background: Formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation are intermediate pathways of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. We investigated the effect of benfotiamine on markers of these pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes and
Schæbel, Louise Kærholm; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Laurberg, Peter
The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains...... unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood...... samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were...
Taylor, Brandie D; Tang, Gong; Ness, Roberta B
OBJECTIVES: As inflammation has been associated with preeclampsia in cross-sectional analyses, we examined the relationship between inflammatory markers and preeclampsia in early pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 409 preeclamptic women and 297 normotensive controls...... with primiparous singleton pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort at a median gestation of 16 weeks. Preeclampsia was defined by blood pressure ⩾140/90mmHg and proteinuria ⩾3g/24h. Inflammatory markers included interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-4, IL-4 receptor, IL-5, IL-12, IL-2, TNF......-alpha, TNF-beta, TNF-receptor, IL-1beta IL-1alpha IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF), and RANTES. We examined associations between inflammatory markers dichotomized by the limit of detection...
Abdelgawad, M.R.; Wahba, M.A.
The change and the prognostic value of serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP level in patients with cirrhosis and/or primary liver cancer (HCC) were investigated. The level of serum hepatocyte growth factor was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and AFP was determined by using radioimmunoassay in 29 patients with cirrhosis. Twenty five patients with primary liver cancer (13 patients without nodular cirrhosis and 12 patients with nodular cirrhosis) were categorized according to tumour size (≤ or >5 cm) and the level of AFP (≤ or > 200 ng/dl). The correlation between serum AFP and hepatocyte growth factor were significantly increased (P 0.05). Serum AFP can significantly discriminate between all studied groups (P 0.001) except for the comparison between control and cirrhosis (P>0.05), and also between HCC and HCC without nodular cirrhosis and HCC with cirrhosis (P>0.05). Serum HGF and AFP levels were positively affected by tumour size and nodular cirrhosis (P<0.001). Also, serum HGF level was highly affected by the levels of serum AFP in HCC patients. Non-significant correlation was observed between serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP in control, cirrhosis, cirrhosis and HCC patients with AFP ? 200 ng/dl. It could be concluded that the over expressions of the hepatocyte growth factor and AFP may indicate an adverse prognosis for patients with cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. The sustained high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor in cirrhosis and/or HCC could be considered a factor related to early tumour diagnosis, so, serum HGF level may be used as a non-invasive marker in diagnosis and prognosis of liver malignancy. However, further studies are highly recommended to evaluate the role of HGF or its constituents in diagnosis and/or therapy in the future in a larger cohort of patients with different stages of liver malignancy
Cohen, S B; Wattiez, A; Stockheim, D; Seidman, D S; Lidor, A L; Mashiach, S; Goldenberg, M
The aim of this study was to investigate a possible role for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) as pre-operative markers for the diagnosis of ovarian torsion. Twenty consecutive patients admitted to the gynaecological emergency room with suspected clinical diagnosis of ovarian torsion were prospectively assigned to the study. Blood samples were drawn pre-operatively and examined for serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Surgeons were blinded to laboratory results prior to laparoscopy. The pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian torsion was confirmed during an urgent diagnostic laparoscopy in 8 (40%) patients. The surgical diagnosis among the remaining 12 patients was a large ovarian cyst not in torsion. In six out of eight (75.0%) patients with ovarian torsion serum IL-6 concentrations were elevated. None of the 12 patients without torsion had elevated serum IL-6 concentrations. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of women with elevated serum TNF-alpha concentrations, two of eight (25.0%) patients with torsion and four of 12 (33.3%) control cases. Elevated serum IL-6 concentrations, but not serum TNF-alpha concentrations, were significantly associated with the occurrence of ovarian torsion. In patients with vague clinical signs of ovarian torsion, serum IL-6 might help to distinguish which patients should undergo diagnostic laparoscopy.
Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Department (Spain); Garde, C. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, B. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada (Spain); Expósito, J. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); Torne, P. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); and others
This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.
Arrebola, J.P.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Garde, C.; Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I.; González-Alzaga, B.; Expósito, J.; Torne, P.
This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.
Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Gurcay, Ahmet G; Cakci, Aytul
To evaluate blood and serum markers in traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, with and without pressure sores. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Ministry of Health Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit, and Numune Education and Research Hospitals, Ankara, Turkey, from 2006-2008. A total of 23 SCI patients with pressure sores (group I) and a control group of 25 SCI patients without pressure sores (group II) were evaluated. Characteristics of sores were examined with respect to duration, location, grade, tissue types, surface area, and exudate amount. Recorded laboratory parameters included erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Htc), lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), serum iron, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, total protein, albumin, vitamin B12, and zinc. The most common pressure sore location was the sacrum (38%). Compared to the control group, the patients with pressure sores showed anemia with reduced serum iron, transferrin, TIBC, and increased ferritin. They also had increased ESR, CRP, and WBC and reduced lymphocytes, total protein, albumin and zinc. Statistically significant correlations were found between CRP, Hb, Htc, lymphocytes, RBC, WBC, and serum protein levels, and grade of pressure sores. Clinicians should regularly screen patients with respect to blood and serum markers, in order to determine any risks for pressure sores, and they should perform immediate preventive measures based on the patient's condition.
Jiang, Rifeng; Dong, Ximin; Zhu, Wenzhen; Duan, Qing; Xue, Yunjing; Shen, Yanxia; Zhang, Guopeng
Histological type is important for determining the management of patients with suspicious lung cancers. In this study, PET/CT combined with serum tumor markers were used to evaluate the histological type of lung lesions. Patients with suspicious lung cancers underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and serum tumor markers detection. SUVmax of the tumor and serum levels of tumor markers were acquired. Differences in SUVmax and serum levels of tumor markers among different histological types of lung cancers and between EGFR mutation statues of adenocarcinoma were compared. The diagnostic efficiencies of SUVmax alone, each serum tumor marker alone, combined tumor markers and the combination of both methods were further assessed and compared. SCC had the highest level of SUVmax, followed by SCLC and adenocarcinoma, and benign lesions had a lowest level. CYFRA21-1 and SCC-Ag were significantly higher in SCC, NSE was significantly higher in SCLC (Ptumor marker or SUVmax alone. When combined, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity increased significantly (Ptumor markers (P>0.05 for all). SUVmax and serum tumor markers show values in evaluating the histological types of suspicious lung cancers. When properly combined, the diagnostic efficiency can increase significantly.
Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi
Cancer is singled out as the biggest cause of death in the world, predicted to reach 13.1 million cancer-related deaths by the year 2030. Although there are no specific tumor markers used in cancer screening, some markers can be used to assist in making a diagnosis and determining a prognosis. They can be used to follow in cases where the diagnosis is cancer through monitoring of the disease recurrence and/or evaluating the response to therapy. These markers are not specific as the number increases in multiple cases of cancer. Some markers are positive in a single type of cancer; others are detectable in more than one type. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, and reliable with high prognostic value. Other characteristics of an ideal tumor marker are organ specificity and correlation of it with tumor stages. However, none of the tumor markers reported to date has all these characteristics. Influence of different stages of chronic kidney function on serum tumor markers is variable. Furthermore, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation affect on tumor markers differently. Sometimes, no study has been found in the literature review. Combined serum tumor markers may also be valuable. This literature review points the role of serum tumor markers in screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of cancer patients in chronic kidney disease patients and renal allograft recipients. In addition, impact of chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation on different serum tumor markers is briefly explored.
Natsios, Athanasios; Vezakis, Antonios; Kaparos, Georgios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Karakostas, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Logothetis, Emmanouil; Polydorou, Andreas
Serum and bile tumor markers are under intense scrutiny for the diagnosis of malignant disease. The purpose of our study was to report the usefulness of serum and bile tumor markers for the discrimination between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. Between March 2010 and May 2013, 95 patients with obstructive jaundice or history of biliary obstruction, were included in the study. During ERCP, bile samples were obtained for measurement of tumor markers CEA, CA19- 9, CA125, CA72-4 and CA242. Serum samples were taken before ERCP for the same measurements. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with malignant disease and patients with benign disease. Serum tumor marker levels were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Serum CA242 and CA19-9 exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy (76.8% and 73.7%, respectively). CA125 and CA72-4 levels in bile samples were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Bile CA125, CEA and CA72-4 achieved the best diagnostic accuracy (69, 65 and 65), respectively). The combined detection of CA19-9, CA242 in serum and CA125, CA72-4 in bile along with total bilirubin levels, showed the best diagnostic accuracy (81%). Serum and bile tumor markers, when studied alone, lack the diagnostic yield to discriminate benign from malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. In cases of diagnostic dilemmas the combination of serum and bile markers might be helpful.
Kim, Sun Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Roh, Young Wook; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo; Oh, Young Ha
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of noninvasive serum markers for the prediction of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. We analyzed a total of 225 patients with chronic viral liver diseases (180 with hepatitis B virus, 43 with hepatitis C virus, and 2 with hepatitis B+C virus) who underwent a liver biopsy procedure at the Hanyang University Guri Hospital between March 2002 and February 2007. Serum was also obtained at the time of liver biopsy. Liver fibrosis was staged according to the scoring system proposed by the Korean Study Group for the Pathology of Digestive Diseases. Various noninvasive serum markers were evaluated, including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), age-platelet (AP) index, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), platelet count, hyaluronic acid (HA), and type IV collagen. There were 17, 40, 61, 74, and 33 patients at stages F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracies of each marker, as determined by the area under receiver operating characteristics curves, were APRI=0.822, CDS=0.776, platelet count=0.773, AP index=0.756, HA=0.749, type IV collagen=0.718, and AAR=0.642 for predicting significant fibrosis (> or =F2); and CDS=0.835, platelet count=0.795, AP index=0.794, HA=0.766, AAR=0.711, type IV collagen=0.697, and APRI=0.691 for predicting extensive fibrosis (> or =F3). All noninvasive serum markers evaluated in this study were useful for predicting significant or extensive liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. In particular, APRI was most useful for the prediction of significant fibrosis, and CDS was most useful for the prediction of extensive fibrosis.
Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham
This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.
Conclusion: Calprotectin was found to have high association with laboratory and ultrasonography markers of inflammation in RA patients, so it is recommended for use as a marker of inflammatory activity in RA patients especially for the follow-up of patients on biological therapy to assess its efficacy.
Full Text Available Milton-Omar Guzman-Ornelas,1 Efrain Chavarria-Avila,1 Jose-Francisco Munoz-Valle,1,2 Laura-Elizabeth Armas-Ramos,3 Jorge Castro-Albarran,3,4 Maria Elena Aguilar Aldrete,1,5 Edith Oregon-Romero,2 Monica Vazquez-Del Mercado,2 Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernandez1–31Biomedical Sciences Doctorate Program, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, 3Master of Human Nutrition Program, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 5Department of Public Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, MéxicoPurpose: Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766 with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin, distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.Subjects and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.Results: sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001 and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046 GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL, TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL, and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL, but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T.G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05 with inflammation markers and
Findeisen, Peter; Zapatka, Marc; Peccerella, Teresa; Matzk, Heike; Neumaier, Michael; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ugurel, Selma
Currently known prognostic serum biomarkers of melanoma are powerful in metastatic disease, but weak in early-stage patients. This study was aimed to identify new prognostic biomarkers of melanoma by serum mass spectrometry (MS) proteomic profiling, and to validate candidates compared with established markers. Two independent sets of serum samples from 596 melanoma patients were investigated. The first set (stage I = 102; stage IV = 95) was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF) MS for biomarkers differentiating between stage I and IV. In the second set (stage I = 98; stage II = 91; stage III = 87; stage IV = 103), the serum concentrations of the candidate marker serum amyloid A (SAA) and the known biomarkers S100B, lactate dehydrogenase, and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured using immunoassays. MALDI TOF MS revealed a peak at m/z 11.680 differentiating between stage I and IV, which could be identified as SAA. High peak intensities at m/z 11.680 correlated with poor survival. In univariate analysis, SAA was a strong prognostic marker in stage I to III (P = .043) and stage IV (P = .000083) patients. Combination of SAA and CRP increased the prognostic impact to P = .011 in early-stage (I to III) patients. Multivariate analysis revealed sex, stage, tumor load, S100B, SAA, and CRP as independent prognostic factors, with an interaction between SAA and CRP. In stage I to III patients, SAA combined with CRP was superior to S100B in predicting patients' progression-free and overall survival. SAA combined with CRP might be used as prognostic serological biomarkers in early-stage melanoma patients, helping to discriminate low-risk patients from high-risk patients needing adjuvant treatment.
Araya, Magdalena; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Arredondo, Miguel
The chaperone to Zn-Cu superoxide dismutase (CCS) has been postulated as a candidate copper indicator, changing in a consistent manner in induced and recovered copper deficiency, in experimental cell and animal models. In real life people have various conditions that may modify molecules acting as acute phase proteins, such as serum ceruloplasmin and copper concentration and could alter CCS responses. With the hypothesis that CCS mRNA transcripts and protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes in comparison to healthy individuals, we assessed adult individuals who, although not ill had conditions known to induce variable degrees of inflammation. Screening of 600 adults resulted in two study groups, formed on the basis of their clinical history and levels of serum C reactive protein (CRP): Group 1 (n = 61, mean (range) CRP = 0.9 (0.3-2.0 mg/dL) and Group 2 (n = 150, mean (range) CRP = 6.1 (4.3-8.7 mg/dL). Results showed that mRNA transcripts relative abundance was not different for CCS, MTIIA, TNF-alpha and Cu-Zn-SOD by group (p > 0.05, one way Anova), nor between sexes (p > 0.05, one way Anova). Distribution of CCS mRNA transcripts and CCS protein in serum did not show any differences or trends. Results disproved our hypothesis that CCS abundance of transcripts and CCS protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes, adding further support to the idea that CCS may be a copper marker.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Recently, a growing number of publications have suggested that the immune-inflammatory system may be involved in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and red cell distribution width (RDW in the three different phases of BD patients compared to each other and controls. Methods: One hundred eighty-seven bipolar patients (78 euthymic, 53 manic/hypomanic and 56 depressed, and 62 age and sex matched controls were enrolled. Sociodemographic variables and complete blood count parameters of the patients and the control group were recorded. Results: The groups did not differ from each other on the hematological parameters, except for NLR and RDW. Post-hoc analyses revealed that NLR values were significantly higher in the euthymic and manic/hypomanic bipolar groups compared to control group. In addition, post-hoc analyses revealed that RDW values were significantly higher in the manic/hypomanic bipolar group relative to the control group. Discussion: Longitudinal studies evaluating the levels of inflammatory markers in the early phases of the disorder, and their relationship with the development of different episodes and medical comorbidities may be useful to understand the role of inflammation in BD.
Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Hastreiter, Ljiljana; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Fischer, Sandra; Büttner, Janine; Kellerer, Teresa; Clavel, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Hauner, Hans
Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Plasma high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMW adiponectin) was significantly increased after VLCD. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were significantly decreased after 28 days of VLCD. Using three different methods, gut paracellular permeability was decreased after VLCD. These changes in clinical parameters were not associated with major consistent changes in dominant bacterial communities in feces. In summary, a 4-week caloric restriction resulted in significant weight loss, improved gut barrier integrity and reduced systemic inflammation in obese women.
Full Text Available BackgroundProgression of liver fibrosis is characterized by synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP cleave collagen fibers at a specific site and thereby generate soluble fragments of ECM (neo-epitopes. The levels of these neo-epitopes might reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins.MethodsBile duct ligation (BDL was performed on wildtype rats, which received atorvastatin (15mg/kg*d for one week starting at one, two, three, four and five weeks after BDL (T1-T5, while controls remained untreated. Hepatic fibrosis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hepatic hydroxyproline content. TGFβ levels were measured by RT-PCR. Proteolytic activity of MMP-2 was examined by zymography. Levels of degradation MMP driven type I, III, IV and VI collagen degradation (C1M, C3M, C4M and C6M and type III and IV collagen formation (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S markers were assessed by specific ELISAs in serum probes.ResultsSerum markers of ECM neo-epitopes reflected significantly the deposition of ECM in the liver and were able to distinguish between early (T1-T3 and severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Statin treatment to the fibrotic livers resulted in reduction of neo-epitope markers, especially when therapy was started in the stage of severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Furthermore, these markers correlated with hepatic expression of profibrotic cytokines TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. Formation markers of type III and IV collagen (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S and degradation markers C4M and C6M correlated significantly with MMP-2 activity in rats with severe fibrosis. ConclusionDetermination of ECM remodelling turnover markers in serum allowed a distinction between mild and severe fibrosis. With respect to statin therapy, the markers may serve as read-out for efficacy of anti-fibrotic treatment.
Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L.; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R.; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E.; Ward, Jonathan R.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Zuercher, William J.; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O.; Ingham, Philip W.; Hurlstone, Adam F.; Whyte, Moira K. B.; Renshaw, Stephen A.
The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health, by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralise invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterised the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils, and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signalling, and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:24431232
Burgon, Joseph; Robertson, Anne L; Sadiku, Pranvera; Wang, Xingang; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Prince, Lynne R; Walker, Paul; Hoggett, Emily E; Ward, Jonathan R; Farrow, Stuart N; Zuercher, William J; Jeffrey, Philip; Savage, Caroline O; Ingham, Philip W; Hurlstone, Adam F; Whyte, Moira K B; Renshaw, Stephen A
The inflammatory response is integral to maintaining health by functioning to resist microbial infection and repair tissue damage. Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to inflammatory sites to neutralize invading bacteria through phagocytosis and the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species into the extracellular environment. Removal of the original inflammatory stimulus must be accompanied by resolution of the inflammatory response, including neutrophil clearance, to prevent inadvertent tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis and its temporary inhibition by survival signals provides a target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, making it essential to better understand this process. GM-CSF, a neutrophil survival factor, causes a significant increase in mRNA levels for the known anti-apoptotic protein serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). We have characterized the expression patterns and regulation of SGK family members in human neutrophils and shown that inhibition of SGK activity completely abrogates the antiapoptotic effect of GM-CSF. Using a transgenic zebrafish model, we have disrupted sgk1 gene function and shown this specifically delays inflammation resolution, without altering neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo. These data suggest SGK1 plays a key role in regulating neutrophil survival signaling and thus may prove a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disease.
Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; Krop, Esmeralda; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert
Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, probably involving mechanisms of inflammation and coagulation. Little is known about effects of the short exposures encountered while participating in traffic. The objective of the study was to examine effects of exposure of commuters to air pollution on cardiovascular biomarkers. Thirty-four healthy adult volunteers commuted for 2 hr by bus, car, or bicycle during the morning rush hour. During the commute, exposure to particle number, particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), PM ≤ 10 µm in diameter (PM10), and soot was measured. We estimated inhaled doses based on heart rate monitoring. Shortly before exposure and 6 hr after exposure, blood samples were taken and analyzed for CC16 (Clara cell protein 16), blood cell count, coagulation markers, and inflammation markers. Between June 2007 and June 2008, 352 pre- and postexposure blood samples were collected on 47 test days. We used mixed models to analyze the associations between exposure and changes in health parameters. We observed no consistent associations between the air pollution exposures and doses and the various biomarkers that we investigated. Air pollution exposure during commuting was not consistently associated with acute changes in inflammation markers, blood cell counts, or blood coagulation markers.
Wu Xiaohui; Lu Hankui; Gao Yunchao; Yuan Zhibin
Objective: Bone metabolic markers (BMM) are biochemical substances that reflect bone resorption or formation. Some of them have been found to be useful in the diagnosis and management of bone metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two bone resorption markers: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and N-terminal procollagen propeptides of type I collagen (PINP), as well as two bone formation markers: cross linked N and C terminal telepeptides of type I collagen (NTX and CTX) in the detection of bone metastasis in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods: There were sixty-three DTC patients in this study, 33 cases with clinically confirmed bone metastases and 30 cases with no bone metastases. The extents of bone metastases (or extents of the disease, EOD) were classified into four grades (0, I, II and III) according to the clinical and imaging findings including 99 Tc m -MDP, 131 I whole body scans and others. Serum BMM levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay for B-ALP, radioimmunoassay for PINP, ELISA for NTX and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for CTX. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, grade correlation analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to analyze the correlation between BMM and DTC patients with bone metastases. Results: The serum levels of B-ALP, NTX and CTX were significantly higher in DTC patients with bone metastases than those in patients with no bone metastases (all P 0.05). The serum levels of all markers were correlated with EOD grades (r s =0.371-0.558, all P<0.01). B-ALP level was found to have significant difference between EOD 0 to I (P=0.012). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of B-ALP for detecting DTC with bone metastases were 71.1% and 76.7% respectively by ROC curve analysis, which were higher than those of the other three markers. Conclusions: Serum BMM levels of B-ALP, NTX and CTX were useful for the evaluation of DTC with
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies. The aim of this report was to present the prognostic and predictive value of 8 serum tumor markers in this group of patients. Methods. The study involved 63 patients. On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma - 8 patients; adenocarcinoma - 33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated carcinoma - 22 patients. In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP, chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG, neuron specific enolase (NSE, marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125, prostate-specific antigene (PSA, marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3, marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA at the time of diagnosis. The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present. The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR, partial response (PR or stable disease (SD had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression. Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males, aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria. The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50mg/m2 (day 1, cisplatin 60mg/m2 (day 1, and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3. The period between two chemotherapy
Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih
The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).
Gohel, Mukesh G; Chacko, Anusha N
Diabetes is undoubtedly one of the most challenging health problems in 21st century. Understanding the pathogenesis and preventing long term complications have been major goals of research in diabetes mellitus (DM). Research in the past few years has linked oxidative stress and inflammation to beta cell dysfunction. Aim of this study is to evaluate serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity (marker of oxidative stress) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) level (an inflammatory marker) in type 2 DM subjects with good and poor glycemic control. Further, we investigated correlation between serum GGT and hsCRP level with glycemic control (FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c) in subjects. A cross sectional study consists of 150 patients out of them 50 patients having type 2 DM with good control (Group II), 50 patients with type 2 DM with poor control (Group III) and 50 normal healthy control (Group I) were selected. Serum GGT, serum hsCRP, FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c, and other biochemical investigations include serum liver enzymes and lipids were measured. Mean serum GGT and hsCRP concentration were statistically significantly higher in group III patients compared to group I and group II subjects as well as increased in group II compared to group I (p stress and inflammation appears to be a key component and also associated with poor glycemic control and further pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. All our finding suggesting a link between oxidative stress, inflammation and glycemic control in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Lu, Yueh-An; Lee, Shen-Yang; Lin, Hui-Yi; Liu, Yen-Chun; Kao, Huang-Kai; Chen, Yung-Chang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao
Reconsidering when to initiate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been emphasized recently. With evolving modern aged and diabetes-prone populations, conventional markers of uremia are not sufficient for determining the optimal timing for dialysis initiation. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between hyperphosphatemia and uremic patients who need RRT registration. All patients from the department of nephrology in one tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan who had advanced CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates regression models were used to identify factors associated with hemodialysis initiation decision making. During the study period, 209 of 292 patients with advanced CKD were enrolled in hemodialysis program and 83 patients (controls) were not. Univariable analysis indicated that male sex, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, high serum creatinine level, and high serum phosphate level were associated with initiation of hemodialysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that those with higher serum phosphate level (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-3.5, p = 1.4 × 10(-5)) and being in nephrology care for <12 months (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8, p = 0.016) tended to be significant markers for hemodialysis initiation. Hyperphosphatemia, in addition to conventional laboratory markers and uremic symptoms, may be a useful marker to determine timing of hemodialysis initiation in patients with advanced CKD. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Mouratidou, Theodora; De Castro-Orós, Isabel; Bea, Ana M; Perez-Calahorra, Sofía; Cenarro, Ana; Moreno, Luis A; Civeira, Fernando
A well-balanced diet is the first-line treatment in hyperlipidemia. The objective was to study the association between serum phytosterols and dietary patterns to use them as surrogate markers of dietary compliance in primary dyslipidemias. 288 patients with primary hyperlipidemias (192 autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) and 96 familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL)) were included. Principal factor analysis identified 2 major dietary patterns using a 137-item food frequency questionnaire. "Vegetable & Fruits pattern" was characterized by higher intake of fruits, green beans, nuts, tomatoes, roasted or boiled potatoes, lettuce and chard and lower of processed baked goods, pizza and beer. "Western pattern" was positively characterized by hamburgers, pasta, sunflower oil, rice, chickpeas, whole milk, veal, red beans and negatively with white fish. Serum non-cholesterol sterols were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Plant sterols to-total cholesterol (TC) levels were lower with a higher adherence to a "Vegetable & Fruits pattern" (P = 0.009), mainly in ADH subjects (R(2) = 0.019). Their concentration was greater with higher compliance to "Western pattern" especially in FCHL (P = 0.014). Higher levels of synthesis markers-to-TC with a greater adherence to "Vegetable & Fruits pattern" were found (P = 0.001) (R(2) = 0.033 and R(2) = 0.109 in ADH and FCHL respectively). In subjects with primary dislipidemia, dietary patterns associate with serum absorption and synthesis markers, but no with lipid concentrations. The influence of diet on non-cholesterol sterols levels is not powerful enough to use them as subrogate markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Miura, Y.; Suwabe, A.; Tawara, M.; Endo, R.; Ikeda, K.; Sera, K.
Serum trace elements were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method in a patient with acute aortic dissection during the supportive process by a Nutrition support team (NST). The patient was a 53-year old male who suffered from acute aortic dissection on March 1, 2007. He received emergent Bentall operation and bow pars total displacement. Since he suffered from diarrhea as a result of hypoalbuminemia and bowel dysfunction, enteral nutrition was not sufficient to maintain adequate intake. Therefore, we also used parenteral nutrition until the 97th disease day. Afterwards, the patient managed only with enteral nutrition. We measured serum trace elements during these periods. Serum trace elements such as Fe, Zn and Se were preserved within normal ranges. On the other hand, Cu gradually decreased until the 54th disease day (44 μg/l) and stayed in the lower levels around the detection limit until the 109th disease day. Thereafter, Cu slightly increased and reached 117 μg/l on the 131st disease day (reference range of serum Cu in adult males: 700-1,300 μg/l). It was suggested that the serum levels of these trace elements might reflect the nutritional stages of the patient and could be useful as clinical markers for nutritional therapies. (author)
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenism, and the prevalence of this condition in women of reproductive is 5-10%. The growth of early ovarian antral follicles is arrested and dominant follicle selection is disturbed in this syndrome. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to investigate whether inhibin B serum concentrations represent the extent of ovarian abnormalities in patients with PCOS. METHOD Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle and other endocrine characteristics were compared between 20 patients with PCOS and 19 healthy women in the control group. RESULTS Inhibin B concentrations were not significantly different between women with PCOS and women in the control group. In patients with PCOS there was statistically significant correlation between serum inhibin B and LH (r=0.514; p=0.021. There were no positive correlations between inhibin B and others endocrine parameters in patients with PCOS (FSH, E2, T, androstenedione. CONCLUSION Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle in women with PCOS are not different from the concentrations in healthy women. Serum Inhibin B levels in patients with PCOS are only slightly correlated with the endocrine markers of the disease so it could not represent the magnitude of ovarian dysfunction in this syndrome.
Møller, Holger Jon; K. Moestrup, Søren; Weis, Nina Margrethe
OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... analyses at the time of first positive blood culture. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: sCD163 was highly correlated with other macrophage markers and was significantly elevated (median [25-75 percentiles], 4.6 mg/L [2.8-8.9]) compared with healthy controls (2.7 mg/L [2.1-3.3], p ..., all macrophage markers were increased in patients who died from their infection compared with survivors, whereas no change was observed in any of the markers in the very old age. At cutoff levels of 9.5 mg/L (sCD163) and 1650 nmol/L (C-reactive protein), the relative risk for fatal outcome in patients...
SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.
The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions
Simone Gonçalves de Almeida
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD with serum ferritin lower than 500ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW, and healthy volunteers (n = 35 were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PC, high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. RESULTS: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039 and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028 where related with the patients' nutritional condition. CONCLUSION: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.
Wu Xingyong; Jiang Min; Geng Jun; Hu Desheng; He Jian; Fan Xiandong
To study the serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in whole body bone imagine, 73 patients with malignancy were under a whole body bone scan. The serum tumor markers levels of AFP, CEA, CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 were measured in 73 patients and 37 normal people. The results showed that there was significant difference only on serum CEA level (P<0.005), and no significant difference on CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 levels (P<0.05) between 36 patients with multiple abnormal concentration and the others with normal bone imagine. The serum levels of CEA, CA125 and CA19-9 in patients were significant higher than that of normal controls (P<0.005). Combined the whole body bone scan and detection of serum tumor markers might be regarded as clinical significance for the diagnosis of bone metastases. (authors)
Jensen, Majken K; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Franz, Mary
BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIV...... in this population. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a lower risk of diabetes and heart disease in persons who consume diets high in whole grains.......BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIVE......-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and interleukin 6). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of the relations of whole grains, bran, and germ intakes with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation in 938 healthy men and women. RESULTS: Whole-grain intake was inversely associated...
Brazhnik, Kristina; Sokolova, Zinaida; Baryshnikova, Maria; Bilan, Regina; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona
Multiplexed analysis of cancer markers is crucial for early tumor diagnosis and screening. We have designed lab-on-a-bead microarray for quantitative detection of three breast cancer markers in human serum. Quantum dots were used as bead-bound fluorescent tags for identifying each marker by means of flow cytometry. Antigen-specific beads reliably detected CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 125 in serum samples, providing clear discrimination between the samples with respect to the antigen levels. The novel microarray is advantageous over the routine single-analyte ones due to the simultaneous detection of various markers. Therefore the developed microarray is a promising tool for serum tumor marker profiling.
Velarde, María S; Del R Carrizo, Teresita; Prado, María M; Díaz, Elba I; Fonio, María C; Bazán, María C; Abregu, Adela V
A subclinical inflammation state was detected in the early step of diabetes, which increases the serum levels of cytokines that induce acute-phase protein synthesis as C-reactive protein (PCR) and fibrinogen (Fg), stimulating the endothelial disfunction of adhesion molecules. Thirty patients (15 boys, 15 girls) with type 1 diabetes (DT1), without vascular complications, were studied. Their mean age and duration of diabetes were 11.8 +/- 2.1 and 3.9 +/- 3.2 years, respectively. The laboratory parameters evaluated were: blood leukocytes count, globular sedimentation velocity, fasting glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high sensitivity PCR (uPCR), plasma soluble E-selectin (sE-S), sVCAM-1 and microalbuminuria. Increased levels of uPCR, sE-S and VCAM-1 were found, compared with the control group control [0.60 (0.30-1.25) vs. 0.20 (0.20-0.65) mg/l, p = 0.013], [108 (60-150) vs. 68 (56-82) ng/ml, p = 0.0031] y [750 (708-826) vs. 721 (674-751) ng/ml, p = 0.039] respectively. When diabetic patients were grouped according to duration of disease (3 and > de 3 years), uPCR values were higher in the second group. uPCR levels were better correlated with sE-S (r = 0.44, p = 0.03) and VCAM-1 (r = 0.49, p = 0.02). These results suggest the presence of pro-inflammatory and endothelial activation states, which are strongly associated with DT1.
Abhishek Singh Nayyar
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations (levels ofserum total proteins and advanced oxidation protein products as markers of oxidantmediated protein damage in the sera of patients with oral cancers.Methods: The study consisted of the sera analyses of serum total protein andadvanced oxidation protein products’ levels in 30 age and sex matched controls, 60patients with reported pre-cancerous lesions and/or conditions and 60 patients withhistologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma. One way analyses of variance wereused to test the difference between groups. To determine which of the two groups’ meanswere significantly different, the post-hoc test of Bonferroni was used. The results wereaveraged as mean ± standard deviation. In the above test, P values less than 0.05 weretaken to be statistically significant. The normality of data was checked before thestatistical analysis was performed.Results: The study revealed statistically significant variations in serum levels ofadvanced oxidation protein products (P<0.001. Serum levels of total protein showedextensive variations; therefore the results were largely inconclusive and statisticallyinsignificant.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need for more studies with larger samplesizes to be conducted before a conclusive role can be determined for sera levels of totalprotein and advanced oxidation protein products as markers both for diagnosticsignificance and the transition from the various oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditionsinto frank oral cancers.
Tislarić, Dubravka; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana; Ristić, Smiljana; Latin, Visnja; Zuvić-Butorac, Marta; Bacić, Josip; Petek, Marijan; Kapović, Miljenko
To evaluate the impact of smoking and number of previous births on maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG). The study included 3,252 completed unaffected singleton pregnancies that proceeded beyond 37 weeks' gestation and resulted with a birth of healthy child. Smoking status of mothers and data concerning gravidity and parity were collected at the sampling date. Serum markers were measured between 13 and 22 gestational weeks, corrected for maternal weight, and converted to multiples of median (MoM) for unaffected pregnancy of the corresponding gestational age. Median MoM values for both markers were examined in relation to both: smoking habits and number of previous births. Smokers had significantly decreased free beta-hCG MoM values compared to nonsmokers (p habits, especially concerning the free beta-hCG levels, would be worthwhile. The evidence of the coexisting influence of parity on serum levels of free beta-hCG, both in smokers and nonsmokers, should perhaps be a stimulus for reconsideration of which corrections the screening performance is dependent on. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Soliman, S.Et; Shousha, M.A.
Obesity, insulin resistance syndrome, and atherosclerosis are closely linked phenomena, often connected with a chronic low grade inflammatory state and pro thrombotic hypo fibrinolytic condition. This study investigated the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and selected markers of inflammation and thrombin generation in obese healthy women. The study included 36 healthy obese women (body mass index ≥ 30), with normal insulin sensitivity (NIS, n = 18) or impaired insulin sensitivity (IIS, n 18), and 10 non obese women (body mass index < 25).Impaired insulin sensitivity patients had significantly higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), transforming growth factor -β1(TGF-β1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), activated factor VII (VIIa), and prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) compared with either control subjects or normal insulin sensitivity patients. On the other hand, NIS patients had higher hs-CRP, TGF-β1, PAI-1, and factor VIIa, but not F1 + 2, levels than controls. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the insulin sensitivity index and TGF-β1, hs-CRP, PAI-1; factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 levels. Moreover, significant direct correlations were noted between TGF-β1 and CRP, PAI-1, factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 concentrations. Finally, multiple regressions revealed that TGF-β1 and the insulin sensitivity index were independently related to F1 + 2. These results document an in vivo relationship between insulin sensitivity and coagulation activation in obesity. Here we report that obesity is associated with higher TGF-β, PAI-1, prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1 + 2), and activated factor VII (VIIa) plasma levels, and that insulin resistance exacerbates these alterations. The elevated TGF-β1 levels detected in the obese population may provide a biochemical link between insulin resistance and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease
Pilling, Luke C; Joehanes, Roby; Melzer, David; Harries, Lorna W; Henley, William; Dupuis, Josée; Lin, Honghuang; Mitchell, Marcus; Hernandez, Dena; Ying, Sai-Xia; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Singleton, Andrew; Levy, Daniel; Munson, Peter; Murabito, Joanne M; Ferrucci, Luigi
Chronically elevated circulating inflammatory markers are common in older persons but mechanisms are unclear. Many blood transcripts (>800 genes) are associated with interleukin-6 protein levels (IL6) independent of age. We aimed to identify gene transcripts statistically mediating, as drivers or responders, the increasing levels of IL6 protein in blood at older ages. Blood derived in-vivo RNA from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n=2422, ages 40-92 yrs) and InCHIANTI study (n=694, ages 30-104 yrs), with Affymetrix and Illumina expression arrays respectively (>17,000 genes tested), were tested for statistical mediation of the age-IL6 association using resampling techniques, adjusted for confounders and multiple testing. In FHS, IL6 expression was not associated with IL6 protein levels in blood. 102 genes (0.6% of 17,324 expressed) statistically mediated the age-IL6 association of which 25 replicated in InCHIANTI (including 5 of the 10 largest effect genes). The largest effect gene (SLC4A10, coding for NCBE, a sodium bicarbonate transporter) mediated 19% (adjusted CI 8.9 to 34.1%) and replicated by PCR in InCHIANTI (n=194, 35.6% mediated, p=0.01). Other replicated mediators included PRF1 (perforin, a cytolytic protein in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells) and IL1B (Interleukin 1 beta): few other cytokines were significant mediators. This transcriptome-wide study on human blood identified a small distinct set of genes that statistically mediate the age-IL6 association. Findings are robust across two cohorts and different expression technologies. Raised IL6 levels may not derive from circulating white cells in age related inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M
Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.
Caminiti, Carolina; Armeno, Marisa; Mazza, Carmen S
The epidemic of childhood obesity is associated with early atherosclerosis. Several reports have related this event to low-grade inflammation described in obesity. CRP and IL6 are markers that correlate with adiposity. The waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) is an anthropometric marker associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between WtHR, metabolic complications and pro-inflammatory factors in obese children and adolescents. Weight, height, waist circumference, glycemia, insulin, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in the baseline sample in 280 patients 6-19 years of age with overweight or obesity (OW/OB) and 112 normal-weight controls. Logistic regression was performed using WtHR as an independent variable. p>0.05 STATA11. Mean WtHR was 0.6±0.06 in OW/OB and 0.43±0.02 in controls (p0.5, insulin resistence and inflammatory markers were significantly increased (p<0.01) compared to the WtHR<0.5 (HOMA 3.4 vs. 1.4; CRP 2.3 vs. 0.6; Il-6 2.9 vs. 2.1; and TNF-α 6.4 vs. 5.55). In logistic regression, a significant independent association was found between WtHR with CRP (OR1.47), IL6 (OR1.60) and TNF-α (OR1.79). Obese children and adolescents have high inflammatory markers that may increase cardiovascular risk. WtHR is associated with low-grade inflammation and may be considered a relevant anthropometric marker in the clinical practice.
Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth
Presence of autoantibodies precedes development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (SP RA) and seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at risk of developing RA. The aims of the study are to identify additional serum immune markers discriminating between SP and seronegative (SN) RA, and markers
Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano
As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.
Väätäinen, U; Lohmander, L S; Thonar, E; Hongisto, T; Agren, U; Rönkkö, S; Jaroma, H; Kosma, V M; Tammi, M; Kiviranta, I
To further our understanding of the pathogenesis of chondromalacia of the patella (CM), we have studied the release into knee joint fluid and serum, obtained from patients with CM, of molecules associated with the metabolism of joint cartilage matrix and synovium. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), interstitial collagenase (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor for metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), phospholipase activity A2 (PLA2), hyaluronan (HA), aggrecan fragments (AGN) and antigenic keratan sulfate (KS) were quantified in knee joint lavage fluid from 96 patients with CM; KS and HA also was measured in serum. Chondromalacia was graded on a scale of I to IV according to Outerbridge (1961). The histopathology of the synovial membrane close to the patellofemoral joint was evaluated. Control samples were obtained from nine patients with knee pain presenting with arthroscopically normal knee joints. The concentrations of MMP-3, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 proteins in joint lavage fluid were increased in advanced (grade IV) CM, compared with controls. Levels of MMP-1 in lavage fluid correlated with the severity of CM (r = 0.38, P < 0.01) and MMP-1 and MMP-3 concentrations correlated with each other (r = 0.45, P < 0.001). TIMP-1 was elevated in grade IV CM compared with grades II and III CM (P < 0.02, P < 0.01). Interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6) showed no significant change in CM. The lavage fluid level of PLA2 increased with the severity of CM (r = 0.40, P < 0.001). Serum KS was higher in CM IV than in controls (P = 0.05), while lavage fluid KS concentration was elevated in CM I (P = 0.04). There were no differences in the lavage fluid levels of AGN and HA between the different study groups. Synovium showed slight or moderate histological signs of inflammation in 9% of CM patients. The changes in the release and activity of these marker molecules from serum and synovial fluid may reflect changes in the
Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min
Uric acid acts as both a pathogenic inflammatory mediator and an antioxidative agent. Several studies have shown that uric acid level correlates with the incidence, severity, and prognosis of pulmonary diseases. However, the association between uric acid level and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been studied. This study was conducted to elucidate how serum uric acid level is related with clinical prognosis of ARDS. A retrospective cohort study with propensity score matching was conducted at a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The medical records of patients diagnosed with ARDS admitted from 2005 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with ARDS met the inclusion criteria. Patients with a serum uric acid level uric acid group, and those with a level ≥3 mg/dL were classified into the normal to high uric acid group. We selected 40 patients in each group using propensity score matching. A higher percentage of patients in the low uric acid group experienced clinical improvement in ARDS. More patients died from sepsis in the normal to high uric acid group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a low serum uric acid level was significantly associated with better survival rate. In patients with ARDS, a low serum uric acid level may be a prognostic marker of a low risk of in-hospital mortality.
Lukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej
Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 healthy subjects. The serum concentrations of IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 were determined using immunoenzyme assays, whereas CRP using immunoturbidimetric method. We defined the diagnostic criteria and prognostic value for proteins tested. In GC patients, the serum concentrations of all the proteins tested were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. The IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with nodal metastases, while CRP with tumor stage, gastric wall invasion, presence of nodal and distant metastases. Diagnostic sensitivity of IL-6 was higher (85%) than those of other markers (CRP 66%, CA 19-9 34%, CEA 22%) and increased in combined use with CRP or CEA (88%). The area under ROC curve for IL-6 was larger than those of CRP and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9). None of the proteins tested was independent prognostic factor for the survival of GC patients. Our findings indicate better usefulness of serum proinflammatory proteins-IL-6 and CRP than classic tumor markers-CEA and CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of GC.
Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J
It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.
Nielson, Carrie; Wiedrick, Jack; Shen, Jian; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baker, Erin M.; Baraff, Aaron; Piehowski, Paul D.; Lee, Christine; Baratt, Arie; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.; Lim, Jeong Youn; Bauer, Douglas C.; Lane, Nancy E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Smith, Richard D.; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric S.
Accelerated bone loss significantly increases the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanisms underlying bone loss remain incompletely understood, and there are few available biomarkers. We utilized a novel proteomics approach to identify serum peptides and proteins associated with bone loss in 1967 older men who were randomly chosen from the Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Study (MrOS study) (age ≥ 65 yrs). Men had 2-3 measures of femoral neck BMD over an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Change in BMD was estimated and then categorized into three groups: maintained BMD (n=453), expected loss (n=1185) and accelerated loss (n=237). A liquid chromatography–ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) proteomics platform was used to identify and quantify peptides from serum proteins. The whole cohort was randomly divided into discovery (N= 960) and validation (N= 915) sub-cohorts. Linear regression models and a random forest approach were used to discover differentially abundant individual peptides and a proteomic signature that distinguished individuals with accelerated bone loss from those who maintained BMD. Network analyses were performed using the MetaCore knowledgebase. We identified 12 peptides that were associated with BMD loss in both discovery (P< 0.1 FDR) and replication sub-cohorts (P<0.05). Those 12 peptides mapped to the following proteins: ALS, LYVE1, RNAS1, C2, ICOSL, C163A, C7, HEMO, CD14, CERU, CRAC1 and CD59. Meta-analysis of peptidesassociated with bone loss identified 6 additional proteins including GRP78, IGF-2, SHBG, ENPP2, IBP2 and IBP6. We also identified a proteomic signature that was predictive of BMD loss with a discriminative value similar to serum bone marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslink peptide (CTX). Interestingly, combining the proteomic signature with CTX significantly improved the ability to discriminate men with accelerated loss. In summary, we have identified potential new biomarkers for bone loss that provide
Weston, Philip S J; Poole, Teresa; Ryan, Natalie S; Nair, Akshay; Liang, Yuying; Macpherson, Kirsty; Druyeh, Ronald; Malone, Ian B; Ahsan, R Laila; Pemberton, Hugh; Klimova, Jana; Mead, Simon; Blennow, Kaj; Rossor, Martin N; Schott, Jonathan M; Zetterberg, Henrik; Fox, Nick C
To investigate whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) concentration is increased in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), both pre and post symptom onset, and whether it is associated with markers of disease stage and severity. We recruited 48 individuals from families with PSEN1 or APP mutations to a cross-sectional study: 18 had symptomatic Alzheimer disease (AD) and 30 were asymptomatic but at 50% risk of carrying a mutation. Serum NfL was measured using an ultrasensitive immunoassay on the single molecule array (Simoa) platform. Cognitive testing and MRI were performed; 33 participants had serial MRI, allowing calculation of atrophy rates. Genetic testing established mutation status. A generalized least squares regression model was used to compare serum NfL among symptomatic mutation carriers, presymptomatic carriers, and noncarriers, adjusting for age and sex. Spearman coefficients assessed associations between serum NfL and (1) estimated years to/from symptom onset (EYO), (2) cognitive measures, and (3) MRI measures of atrophy. Nineteen of the asymptomatic participants were mutation carriers (mean EYO -9.6); 11 were noncarriers. Compared with noncarriers, serum NfL concentration was higher in both symptomatic ( p < 0.0001) and presymptomatic mutation carriers ( p = 0.007). Across all mutation carriers, serum NfL correlated with EYO (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and multiple cognitive and imaging measures, including Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ = -0.62, p = 0.0001), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (ρ = 0.79, p < 0.0001), baseline brain volume (ρ = -0.62, p = 0.0002), and whole-brain atrophy rate (ρ = 0.53, p = 0.01). Serum NfL concentration is increased in FAD prior to symptom onset and correlates with measures of disease stage and severity. Serum NfL may thus be a feasible biomarker of early AD-related neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.
Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of serum fibrosis markers in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen III peptide (P III P) and Type IV collagen (IV C) contents were determined with RIA in 128 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after treatment as well as in 40 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum contents of the four markers in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Decreases of the levels in treatment failures were not significant and the levels remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum fibrosis markers levels in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is valuable for early diagnosis as well as for evaluation of the effect of chemotherapy. (authors)
Ripoll, Cristina; Keitel, Felix; Hollenbach, Marcus; Greinert, Robin; Zipprich, Alexander
Iron overload is an increasingly recognized phenomenon in nonhemochromatosis cirrhosis. To evaluate the relationship between iron overload and liver insufficiency and portal hypertension. Cirrhotics with hepatic hemodynamic and ferritin measurement (within 30 d) were included. Exclusion criteria were malignancy (except hepatocellular carcinoma Milan-in), severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute events in the previous 2 weeks, immunosuppression, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or portal vein thrombosis, and end-stage renal disease. Patients were followed-up until death or liver transplant. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Fifty-one patients were included (male 61%; median age 57 y; interquartile range, 47 to 66 y); Child-Pugh A 11/B 25/C 15). A positive correlation was observed between ferritin and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein: r=0.273, P=0.06 and aspartate aminotransferase: r=0.302, P=0.035). No correlation between ferritin and hepatic venous pressure gradient was seen. Negative correlations were observed between ferritin and circulatory dysfunction (mean arterial pressure: r=-0.360, P=0.014 and serum sodium: r=-0.419, P=0.002). In contrast, associations to markers of liver failure such as international normalized ratio (r=0.333, P=0.005), bilirubin (r=0.378, P=0.007), albumin (r=-0.265, P=0.082), model for end-stage liver disease (r=0.293, P=0.041), and Child-Pugh score (r=0.392, P=0.009) were observed. No differences in survival according to ferritin was detected. In patients with cirrhosis, serum ferritin levels are associated with markers of liver insufficiency, inflammation, and circulatory dysfunction but not portal hypertension.
Akinkugbe, A A; Avery, C L; Barritt, A S; Cole, S R; Lerch, M; Mayerle, J; Offenbacher, S; Petersmann, A; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; Slade, G D; Heiss, G; Kocher, T; Holtfreter, B
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, 3 mg/L. Periodontitis was positively associated with higher prevalence odds of NAFLD, and this relationship was modified by serum CRP levels.
Song Qingzhang; Zhang Aihua; Bai Zhenlian; Zhuo Liankun; Wang Hong
To study the cause for slow recovery in male hyperthyroidism patients after treated with ATD, the changes of serum β 2 -MG, TGAb and TMAb were measured by RIA. A total of 164 male hyperthyoidism patients were divided into 3 groups by their different therapeutic effects: untreated patients (group B, n=65), treated but unrelieved patients (group C, n=52), treated and recovered patients (group D, n=47) and 58 normal persons serving as controls (group A). The results indicated that the levels of serum β 2 -MG, FT 3 and FT 4 were significantly higher in group B and C than those in group A (P 3 or FT 4 and β 2 -MG respectively in group B and C. There was no significant difference in β 2 -MG, FT 3 and FT 4 between group D and A (P>0.05). And there was no difference in the positive rates of TGAb and TMAb between group D and C(P>0.05). The serum β 2 -MG was still higher in 19.1% patients and the positive rates of TGAb and TMAb were also higher in 23.4% patients. These results suggest that β 2 -MG, TGAb and TMAb could act as serum markers of immunological remission for male hyperthyroidism patients and the determination of β 2 -MG, TGAb and TMAb could be benifical to monitoring therapeutic effect. The cause for slow recovery in about 20% male hyperthyroidism patients might be due to higher serum β 2 -MG and higher positive rates of TGAb and TMAb. (authors)
Steuber, Thomas; O'Brien, Matthew Frank; Lilja, Hans
Due to its universal applicability for early detection and prediction of cancer stage and disease recurrence, widespread implementation of serum-based prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements has a significant influence on current treatment strategies for men with prostate cancer (PCa). However, over-detection and the resultant over-treatment of indolent cancers have been strongly implicated to occur. Using current recommended guidelines, the PSA test suffers from both limited sensitivity and specificity to enable efficacious population-based cancer detection. Therefore, novel biomarkers are much needed to complement PSA by enhancing its diagnostic and prognostic performance. The present literature on serum markers for PCa was reviewed. PSA derivatives, molecular PSA isoforms, and novel molecular targets in blood were summarized and weighted against their potential to improve decision-making of men with PCa. Current evidence suggests that no single analyte is likely to achieve the desired level of diagnostic and prognostic accuracy for PCa. However, the combination of biomarkers with clinical and demographic data, for example, using established standard nomograms, has produced progress toward the goal of both optimal screening and risk assessment. Furthermore, potential candidate molecular markers for PCa can be derived from high-throughput technologies. Current studies demonstrate that understanding dynamic PSA changes over time may offer diagnostic and prognostic information. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice represents the main goal in the near future to enable physicians to tailor risk-adjusted screening and treatment strategies for current patients with PCa.
Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086
Li Yanping; Wang Qun; Zhao Zihong; Zhou Shan
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers, including CEA, CA125, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) for lung cancer patients. Methods: The subjects involved 138 diagnosed lung cancer patients (82 males, 56 females, average age 58.6 years, from October 2010 to March 2012), 96 patients with benign lung diseases (56 males, 40 females, average age 51.3 years) and 45 healthy adults (30 males, 15 females, average age 43.9 years). The pathological types of lung cancer consisted of 66 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 52 adenocarcinoma and 20 small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The diagnostic efficacy for different pathological types was compared among each single tumor marker and combination of tumor markers. One-way analysis of variance q test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 in patients with lung cancer were higher than those in patients with benign lung diseases and in healthy subjects (CEA: (19.99±30.99), (10.78±19.77), (3.25±3.42) μg/L; CA125: (79.70±95.98), (44.96±44.97), (20.66±7.13) μg/L; NSE: (35.23±40.22), (15.31±8.42), (13.30±5.65) μg/L; CYFRA21-1: (18.07±43.71), (8.30±8.83), (3.13±1.60) μg/L; F=4.481, 5.436, 4.776, 6.002, all P<0.05). The highest level of CEA, NSE or CYFRA21-1 were found in adenocarcinoma (F=4.932, P<0.05), SCLC (F=5.119, P<0.05) or SCC (F=5.378, P<0.05), respectively. The highest sensitivity tumor markers for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CYFRA21-1 (78.8%, 52/66), NSE (75.0%, 15/20) and CEA (57.7%, 30/52), respectively. In combined detection, the highest sensitivity combinations for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (89.4%, 59/66), CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (80.0%, 16/20) and CEA + CA125 + NSE (78.8%, 41/52), respectively. Conclusions: Combined detection
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Patgiri, Dibyaratna; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Sharma, Pradeep; Kutum, Tridip; Mattack, Nirmali
Strokes are caused by disruption of the blood supply to the brain. This may result from either blockage or rupture of a blood vessel. Yearly 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. India ranks second worldwide in terms of deaths from stroke. The incidence of stroke increases with age affecting the economically productive middle aged population. Hypertension and male sex are other risk factors for stroke. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein whose concentration rises in blood following inflammation. Formerly, assays for CRP detected its rise only after significant inflammation. However, recently developed high sensitivity assays (hsCRP) enable the measurement of CRP in individuals who are apparently healthy. Several studies indicate that hsCRP is elevated in individuals who are at risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease or Cerebrovascular events, the elevation may be found years before the first detection of vascular problems. In the absence of other biochemical markers, the present study aimed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic role of hsCRP in stroke. The study consisted of 50 patients of acute stroke admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. The control population consisted of two groups - 50 age and sex matched controls with hypertension (Hypertensive control group) and 50 age and sex matched controls with no obvious disease constituted the Normal control group. hsCRP levels were measured in all the groups and compared statistically. hsCRP is an acute phase reactant whose concentration rises in stroke as well as in those at risk. The rise may be identified even before the appearance of risk factors. Hence, hsCRP may be useful as a predictive and diagnostic marker in stroke.
Full Text Available <b>Purpose:</b> Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. <b>Methods:</b> Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . <b>Results:</b> There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P<0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. <b>Conclusion:</b> This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.
Full Text Available Objectives-Methods. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is characterized by chronicity and relapses despite efficacious treatment. Acute and chronic inflammatory processes and concomitant disturbances in cell adhesion characterize the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate these processes further we measured adhesion molecules (L-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 serum levels in 16 children with VL, as well as in 20 healthy controls. All children were treated with liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg on days 1 to 5, 14, and 21. Measurements were performed at days 0, 15 and 30. Results. All children responded well to treatment in both clinical and laboratory terms. In three cases relapse occurred at 3, 5 and 6 months after treatment had ended. Serum L-selectin levels, both pre-treatment and post-treatment, did not significantly differ between patients and controls. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 median levels were similar in patients and controls (P>0.05 at day 0 and significantly increased at day 15 (P0.05, but not in the 3 patients who relapsed (P<0.05. Conclusions. Despite the small number of the patients, the changes in VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels indicate the anti-parasite activation of the immune system during the course of VL and the effect of treatment. Decline in post-treatment serum VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels might be used as a marker of treatment efficacy in childhood VL.
Dai Yaozong; Li Liren
Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum bone metabolic biochemical markers levels in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum S-BGP (with RIA), TSH, FT 4 (with ECLIA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL, LDL, ApoA 1 , ApoB and Ca 2+ (with biochemical methods) were measured in 30 elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of S-BGP and calcium in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (2.78 ± 0.96 μg/L and 2.16 ± 0.17 mmol/L respectively) were significantly lower than those in controls (3.9 ± 1.48 μg/L and 2.31 ± 0.21 mmol/L respectively, both P<0.01). TC and LDL levels in the subclinical hypothyroid subjects (5.58 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 3.67 ± 0.36 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: The lowering of calcium levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism would lead to loss of bone mass. Decreased S-BGP contents might be the chief cause of osteoporosis in these subjects. (authors)
Moran, Gabriel; Carcamo, Carolina; Concha, Margarita; Folch, Hugo
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that is elevated in blood during inflammation. The role of this protein in allergic diseases of airways remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the SAA in blood, lung and bronchial cells in a murine model of bronchial hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus. To achieve this purpose, different groups of 5-month-old mice were housed in cages containing hay bedding that was contaminated with A. fumigatus and were kept in an isolation room for 16 days to allow for the induction of allergic airway inflammation. Subsequently, the mice were then exposed once again to Aspergillus spores at 0, 2, 8, 24 and 72 h, and they were bled to acquire serum and sacrificed to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or lung tissues for analysis. SAA levels were measured in lung, serum and BALF by dot blot assay and RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). The results indicated that SAA protein levels increased in both serum and lung within 2-24h after mice were exposed to Aspergillus spores. Moreover, the SAA mRNA expression levels in the lungs and BALF cells demonstrated the same trend that was observed for the protein levels through the dot blot assay; in particular, SAA mRNA levels increased within the first hour after mice were exposed to A. fumigatus. In this allergic airway model, we conclude that A. fumigatus can induce an acute inflammatory response in the airways through the stimulation of the SAA protein, increasing its levels in serum, lung tissue and BALF samples during the early hours of exposure of mice that have been sensitised for this fungus. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Schett, Georg; Zhang, Chen
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. Current markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are reflecting the production of an acute phase reactant rather than tissue specific inflammation, but the use of CRP as a diagnostic...... and prognostic marker for AS has not provided the sought accuracy and specificity. We hypothesized that local enzymatic activity in the disease-affected tissue, which is associated with extensive tissue turnover may, by cleavage, modify the CRP produced in the liver. These cleavage products may provide...
Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.
-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP-TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil...... (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5–20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 were also...
Ebert, T; Hindricks, J; Kralisch, S; Lossner, U; Jessnitzer, B; Richter, J; Blüher, M; Stumvoll, M; Fasshauer, M
Fractalkine has recently been introduced as an adipokine that improves glucose tolerance. Regulation of fractalkine in gestational diabetes, as well as its association with markers of obesity, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and renal function, has not been elucidated. Circulating fractalkine was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 74 women with gestational diabetes and 74 healthy, pregnant control subjects matched for age, BMI, and gestational age. Median (interquartile range) levels of fractalkine were not significantly different between the two groups [gestational diabetes: 2.24 (2.16) μg/l; control: 2.45 (1.38) μg/l] (P = 0.461). In multivariate linear regression analysis, fractalkine remained independently associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (β = -0.253, P = 0.002) and the proinflammatory adipokine progranulin (β = 0.218, P = 0.007). Circulating fractalkine is not different between women with gestational diabetes and control subjects, but the adipokine is independently associated with markers of insulin resistance and proinflammatory progranulin in pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Lei, Y.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Wang, P.-Y.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, T.-J.
The health impact of dust events from China has become a concern within China and in its neighboring countries. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between particulate matter exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality. Here, we use pulmonary hypertensive rat models to examine inflammation markers in the lung and in peripheral blood after exposure to Asian dust storm particles. Using a nose-only inhalation system, eight pulmonary hypertensive rats were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from an actual Asian dust storm that took place between March 18 and 19, 2002; four control rats were also exposed to room air. Four rats exposed to CAPs of 315.6 μg/m 3 for 6 h were classified as the low-exposure group, and another four rats exposed to CAPs of 684.5 μg/m 3 for 4.5 h were classified as the high-exposure group. The animals were sacrificed 36 h after exposure. Inflammation markers in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed, and IL-6 in BAL was also determined using ELISA. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood increased with increased CAP exposure levels (P<0.001, test for trend). In BAL analysis, total cell numbers and the proportion of neutrophil also increased with increased CAP levels (P<0.001, test for trend for both markers). Positive dose-response relationships between CAP exposure and total protein (P<0.05) and between CAPs and LDH activity (P<0.05) were also observed. Moreover, IL-6 protein in BAL increasing with CAP levels (P<0.05, test for trend) was demonstrated. Our results revealed that exposure to particulate matters during an Asian dust storm could increase lung inflammation and injury in pulmonary hypertensive rats. Further studies are needed to determine the components of dust storm particles that may contribute to the particle toxicity
Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Hyon-Suk
We evaluated recently introduced automated immunoassay analyzer LUMIPULSE G1200 (Fujirebio, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) for detecting serologic hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers by comparison with the results by ARCHITECT i4000SR (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL). Precision performance was evaluated over 20 days. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe), and antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) in a total of 1,000 serum samples were assessed by the two analyzers. Discrepant results were retested by COBAS e411 (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). LUMIPULSE showed excellent precision performance of total imprecision less than 3.5% coefficient of variation. The qualitative results between the two analyzers were agreed with each other in 92.0-99.8% of the specimens according to the different HBV markers. The degrees of reactions for HBeAg were moderately correlated between the two analyzers (r = 0.60), and those of other HBV markers were well correlated (r = 0.80 or greater). However, there were 183 discrepancies among 1,000 cases, and most of them showed degree of reaction around the cutoff values. LUMIPULSE G1200 showed well-concordant results with ARCITHECT for hepatitis B serologic tests. However, results near the cutoff values would need to be retested with other immunoassay or molecular methods, when the serological profiles of HBV markers are unusual or are not correlated to the clinical conditions of the patient, due to discrepancies between the immunoassay analyzers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vlaanderen, Jelle; van Veldhoven, Karin; Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Portengen, Lützen; Grimalt, Joan O; Zwiener, Christian; Heederik, Dick; Zhang, Xiangru; Vineis, Paolo; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vermeulen, Roel
Exposure to disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to swimming in chlorinated water has been associated with allergic and respiratory health effects, including asthma. Biological mechanisms contributing to these associations are largely unknown. We hypothesized a potential pathway involving modulation of the immune system. We assessed levels of immune markers (CCL11, CCL22, CXCL10, CRP, EGF, GCSF, IL-8, IL-17, IL-1RA, MPO, VEGF, Periostin) in serum collected from 30 women and 29 men before and after 40min of swimming in a chlorinated pool. Exposure to DBPs was assessed by measuring bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, and dibromochloromethane in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Covariate data including information on physical activity was available through questionnaires and measurements. We assessed the association between indicators of swimming in a chlorinated pool and changes in serum immune marker concentrations using linear regression with bivariate normal distributions and adjusted for multiple comparisons by applying the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. We observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IL-8 (-12.53%; q=2.00e-03), CCL22 (-7.28%; q=4.00e-04), CCL11 (-7.15%; q=9.48e-02), CRP (-7.06%; q=4.68e-05), and CXCL10 (-13.03%; q=6.34e-14) and a significant increase in IL-1RA (20.16%; q=4.18e-06) from before to after swimming. Associations with quantitative measurements of DBPs or physical activity were similar in direction and strength. Most of the observed associations became non-significant when we adjusted the effects of exposure to DBPs for physical activity or vice-versa. Our study indicates that swimming in a chlorinated pool induces perturbations of the immune response through acute alterations of patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion. The observed effects could not be uniquely attributed to either exposure to DBPs or physical activity. Evidence in the literature suggests that observed decreases in
Vos, Lukas M.; Kuijer, Roel; Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, Boudewijn
Purpose: There is a growing interest in markers for cartilage degradation in synovial joints because of their potential diagnostic and prognostic value. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify valuable degradation markers for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing
Hacker, Stefan; Lambers, Christopher; Pollreisz, Andreas; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Lichtenauer, Michael; Mangold, Andreas; Niederpold, Tina; Hacker, Andreas; Lang, György; Dworschak, Martin; Vukovich, Thomas; Gerner, Christopher; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide burden and a major cause of death. The disease is accompanied by chronic inflammation and increased cellular turnover that is partly due to an overwhelming induction of apoptosis. In this study, we hypothesized that systemic markers of apoptosis are altered in patients with mild-to-severe COPD. A total number of 64 patients and controls were enrolled in the study. Lung function parameters of all groups (nonsmoker, healthy smoker, COPD GOLD I&II, COPD GOLD III&IV) were evaluated at the time of inclusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify protein levels in serum samples. Serum contents of apoptotic end-products caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and histone-associated-DNA-fragments were increased in patients with COPD, whereas anti-inflammatory soluble ST2 showed a peak in patients with COPD I&II (P=0.031) compared to healthy smokers. Levels of pro-inflammatory caspase-1/ ICE correlated significantly with the number of pack years (R=0.337; P=0.007). Our results indicate a systemic release of apoptosis-specific proteins as markers for increased cellular turnover accompanied by progression of COPD. Furthermore, soluble ST2 seems to have a critical role in the anti-inflammatory regulatory mechanism at early stages of the disease.
Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Yang; Wei, Yongxiang
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been indicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that OSAS may be associated with cardiovascular disease by elevating serum levels of inflammatory markers and causing arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. Related scientific reports published from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015, were searched in the following electronic literature databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, ISI Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, and the Cochrane Library. The association of OSAS with serum levels of inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffening were investigated. Overall, 18 eligible articles containing 736 patients with OSAS and 424 healthy persons were included in this meta-analysis. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with moderate-severe OSAS was significantly lower than that in controls (standardized mean difference -1.02, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.73, Preactive protein and C-reactive protein (standardized mean difference 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.73, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in controls. OSAS, particularly moderate-severe OSAS, appeared to reduce endothelial function, increase arterial stiffness, and cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Orozović, V; Rafajlovski, S; Gligić, B; Miailović, Z; Obradović, S; Ratković, N; Djenić, N; Baskot, B
Patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) and patients with left ventricular myocardial infarction (LVMI) of the anterior wall with ST-elevation (STEMI), due to the profundity and volume of the necrosis, tend to have a more severe and more complicated clinical outcome as well as a higher mortality level compared to patients with myocardial infarction of inferoposterior localization in the left ventricle (IPILK), without the right ventricle being overtaken. C-Reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive and reliable indicator of acute inflammation and is in good correlation with creatin kinasis (CK) or the enzymes which indicate necrosis markers in acute myocardial infarction (AIM). Because of this, a common biohumoral answer is of greater importance and more reliable both diagnostically and prognostically; it signifies a more severe and more complicated clinical outcome, especially on the rupture of the myocardium. The main goal of this study was to compare the maximum values of enzymes and CRP in patients with RVMI and LVMI who had first STEMI and who were in the acute phase treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). During a six-year period (2000-05), in the Clinic for Urgent Internal Medicine at the Military Medical Academy, a total of 74 patients included in a prospective study were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of patients with RMI 19 (25.67%), and the second group of patients with LMI 55 (74.33%). The patients in both groups received a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), if they had been admitted in the first 4 hrs from the beginning of the chest pain, and if there were no contraindications. All the others received thrombolitic therapy, and a "rescue" PCI if needed, in the next 24-48 hours. The risk factors, clinical outcome, necrosis and inflammation biomarkers (enzymes and CRP), coronary status, restenosis of stent, and intra-hospital mortality rate in the first month, as well as a long term
Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie
Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)
Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Steen
OBJECTIVE: To establish the first trimester serum levels of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP) in pregnancies with adverse outcome. Furthermore, to determine the screening performance using proMBP alone and in combination with other first trimester markers. METHODS: A case-control...... study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The proMBP concentration was measured in cases with small-for-gestational age (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40), gestational hypertension (n = 10) and in controls (n = 500). Concentrations were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The pro...
Hori, Koji; Konishi, Kimiko; Hachisu, Mitsugu
We reviewed the importance of measuring serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since Tune and Coyle reported a simple method for assessing SAA using radioreceptor-binding assay, SAA is assumed to be the cumulative activity of parent medications and their metabolites and its relationship with delirium and cognitive functions has been debated. However, we evaluated the SAA in AD patients and SAA was correlated with prescription of antipsychotic medications, cognitive dysfunctions, severity of AD and psychotic symptoms, especially, with delusion and diurnal rhythm disturbance. From these results, we should not only pay attention to avoiding the prescription of medications with anticholinergic activity but also we speculated that AA appeared endogenously in AD and accelerated AD pathology. Moreover, there might be the possibility that SAA has predictive value for assessing the progressiveness of AD and as a biological marker for AD.
Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Lin, SuLin; Tong, Terry; Baig, Sonia; Ho, Sherry; Sukumar, Ponnusamy; Biswas, Arijit; Hahn, Sinuhe; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Choolani, Mahesh A.
(MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified
Miettinen, T A; Gylling, H; Nissinen, M J
To study the whole-body cholesterol metabolism in man, cholesterol synthesis and absorption need to be measured. Because of the complicated methods of the measurements, new approaches were developed including the analysis of serum non-cholesterol sterols. In current lipidologic papers and even in intervention studies, serum non-cholesterol sterols are frequently used as surrogate markers of cholesterol metabolism without any validation to the absolute metabolic variables. The present review compares serum non-cholesterol sterols with absolute measurements of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in published papers to find out whether the serum markers are valid indicators of cholesterol metabolism in various conditions. During statin treatment, during interventions of dietary fat, and in type 2 diabetes the relative and absolute variables of cholesterol synthesis and absorption were frequently but not constantly correlated with each other. In some occasions, especially in subjects with apolipoprotein E3/4 and E4/4 phenotypes, the relative metabolic markers were even more sensitive than the absolute ones to reflect changes in cholesterol metabolism during dietary interventions. Even in general population at very high absorption the homeostasis of cholesterol metabolism is disturbed damaging the validity of the serum markers. It is worth using several instead of only one precursor and absorption sterol marker for making conclusions of altered synthesis or absorption of cholesterol, and even then the presence of at least some absolute measurement is valuable. During consumption of plant sterol-enriched diets and in situations of interfered cholesterol homeostasis the relative markers do not adequately reflect cholesterol metabolism. Accordingly, the validity of the relative markers of cholesterol metabolism should not be considered as self-evident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan
To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful.
Bijnen, S.T. van; Wouters, D.; Mierlo, G.J. van; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation,
van Bijnen, S. T. A.; Wouters, D.; van Mierlo, G. J.; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation, and the
Iván Darío BRAVO-TOBAR
Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35, II (n = 29, and III (n = 18. A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease.
Sorva, A; Välimäki, M; Risteli, J; Risteli, L; Elfving, S; Takkunen, H; Tilvis, R
Chronic immobilization could markedly affect calcium and bone metabolism in elderly people. To investigate this, and to test the theory of 'type II' osteoporosis in bedridden elderly patients with low vitamin D status, 55 such subjects were examined. Serum concentrations of ionized calcium (Ca++), intact parathyrin (PTH) and two novel markers of bone collagen formation (carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen; PICP) and resorption (carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen; ICTP) were measured. The effects on these parameters after 40 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D (1000 IU d-1) and/or calcium (1 g d-1) were subsequently prospectively evaluated. Despite low (mean 11.6 nmoll-1) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD), those of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) were mostly normal. Neither correlated with Ca++ or PTH. PTH correlated negatively not only with Ca++ (r = -0.328, P r = -0.306, P r = 0.268, P = 0.06). Vitamin D supplementation did not change PICP or ICTP considerably, despite slightly increased 1,25-(OH)2D and slightly decreased PTH. Ca++ values were normal and remained stable. In conclusion, Ca++ and PTH are poor indicators of vitamin D status in chronically immobilized elderly subjects. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increased bone resorption is not due to 'type II' secondary hyperparathyroidism; rather the resorption is primarily increased. Correction of vitamin D deficiency does not seem to benefit ageing bones unless adequate mechanical loading is provided.
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the specificity of 12 tumor markers related to colon carcinoma and identify the most sensitive index. Logistic regression and Bhattacharyya distance were used to evaluate the index. Then, different index combinations were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM diagnosis model of malignant colon carcinoma. The accuracy of the model was checked. High accuracy was assumed to indicate the high specificity of the index. Through Logistic regression, three indexes, CEA, HSP60 and CA199, were screened out. Using Bhattacharyya distance, four indexes with the largest Bhattacharyya distance were screened out, including CEA, NSE, AFP, and CA724. The specificity of the combination of the above six indexes was higher than that of other combinations, so did the accuracy of the established SVM identification model. Using Logistic regression and Bhattacharyya distance for detection and establishing an SVM model based on different serum marker combinations can increase diagnostic accuracy, providing a theoretical basis for application of mathematical models in cancer diagnosis.
Grkovic, L; Baird, K; Steinberg, S M; Williams, K M; Pulanic, D; Cowen, E W; Mitchell, S A; Hakim, F T; Martires, K J; Avila, D N; Taylor, T N; Salit, R B; Rowley, S D; Zhang, D; Fowler, D H; Bishop, M R; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Currently there are no accepted measures of cGVHD activity to aid in clinical management and disease staging. We analyzed clinical markers of inflammation in the sera of patients with established cGVHD and correlated those with definitions of disease activity. In all, 189 adults with cGVHD (33% moderate and 66% severe according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) global scoring) were consecutively enrolled onto a cross-sectional prospective cGVHD natural history study. At the time of evaluation, 80% were receiving systemic immunosuppression and failed a median of four prior systemic therapies (PST) for their cGVHD. Lower albumin (P<0.0001), higher C-reactive protein (P = 0.043), higher platelets (P = 0.030) and higher number of PST (P<0.0001) were associated with active disease defined as clinician's intention to intensify or alter systemic therapy due to the lack of response. Higher platelet count (P = 0.021) and higher number of PST (P<0.0001) were associated with more severe diseased defined by NIH global score. This study identified common laboratory indicators of inflammation that can serve as markers of cGVHD activity and severity.
de Beer, Maria C; Wroblewski, Joanne M; Noffsinger, Victoria P; Ji, Ailing; Meyer, Jason M; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; de Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R
Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO) were injected intraperitoneally with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. (3)H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of (3)H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P < 0.05) and 80% (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived (3)H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45% (P < 0.05). Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.
Little, Tanya J; Cvijanovic, Nada; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Argueta, Donovan A; Rayner, Christopher K; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L
Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion. 20 lean, 18 overweight and 19 obese participants underwent intraduodenal Intralipid® infusion (2 kcal/min) with collection of endoscopic duodenal biopsies and blood. Plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA (HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (multiplex), and duodenal expression of occludin, zona-occludin-1 (ZO-1), intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase (IAP), and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) (RT-PCR), were assessed. Fasting plasma AEA was increased in obese, compared with lean and overweight (Plean (Plean and overweight. The relationships between plasma AEA with duodenal ZO-1 and IAP, and GIP, suggest that altered endocannabinoid signalling may contribute to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and incretin release in human obesity.
Mellenthin, Liesa; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grotevendt, Anne; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Hannemann, Anke
In recent years links among vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and cardio-metabolic disease were proposed. As information regarding the associations between vitamin D and inflammatory markers in the general population is sparse, we investigated the associations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and white blood cell count (WBC). The study population comprised 2723 men and women aged 25-88 years from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regressions were performed to assess the associations between 25(OH)D and the three inflammatory markers. The models were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory medication and month of blood sampling. The association between 25(OH)D and WBC was assessed separately in smokers (n = 718) and non-smokers (n = 2005) as effect modification was observed. We detected a U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP with a nadir of 21-25 ng/ml in fully-adjusted linear regression models with restricted cubic splines (p < 0.01; p' < 0.01). We further detected an inverse association between 25(OH)D and fibrinogen (p < 0.01). In addition, there was an inverse association between 25(OH)D and WBC in smokers (p = 0.02) but no association in non-smokers (p = 0.73). Our study confirms a potential role of 25(OH)D in chronic inflammation. Yet, different inflammatory biomarkers are differently associated with 25(OH)D. Beneficial effects of increasing 25(OH)D were observed for fibrinogen and WBC (in smokers only). In contrast, the U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP indicates that ever-increasing 25(OH)D concentrations may also be related to proinflammatory states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bai, Lu; Guo, Chi-Hua; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jun-Gang; Li, Miao; Shen, Cong; Guo, You-Min; Duan, Xiao-Yi
The expression of P53 was previously found by us significantly correlated with maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between SUVmax and the status of the chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression or serum tumor markers in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Sixty-four gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect changes of Her-2, P53 and Survivin in lesions, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method was used to quantify expression of serum CA72-4, CA19-9 and CEA of these patients. Then, the relationships between these parameters above were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Also, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to determine the best cut-off value of SUVmax for suggesting chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. Besides, we identified a linear correlation to estimate the equations between SUVmax and the serum tumor markers. Our results showed that higher SUVmax was detected in patients with positive expression of Her-2 and P53, compared with negative groups. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that SUVmax was associated with Her-2 or P53 with the moderate relevant Pearson correlation coefficient. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax for suggesting Her-2 or P53-positive, when the cut-off value of SUVmax was set at 3.25 or 5.45, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between SUVmax and serum tumor markers were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and serum CA72-4 and CA19-9 could be used as independent parameters to establish an equation for SUVmax by the linear regression models. These results suggested that SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used to predict and evaluate Her-2 or P53 related chemotherapy resistance of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. However, before PET
Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. LD is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. LD is a chronic disease which can attack a number of organs: skin, heart, brain, joints. Chronic, low-grade inflammation involves general production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers and is a typical feature of aging. So far, the best method of diagnosing LD is a time-consuming and expensive two-stage serological method. The aim of our study was to evaluate the activity of two lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC and β-galactosidase (GAL in the serum of patients with Lyme disease, as potential markers of LD. Due to the increasing number of patients with Lyme disease and a number of false results, new ways to diagnose this disease are still being sought. As elevated level of β-galactosidase is a manifestation of residual lysosomal activity in senescent cells, the increase in its activity in serum during chronic Lyme disease might be a marker of a potentially accelerated senescence process. The study was performed on serum taken from cubital veins of 15 patients with Lyme disease and eight healthy subjects (control group. FUC and GAL activity was measured by the method of Chatterjee et al. as modified by Zwierz et al. In the serum of patients with Lyme disease, GAL activity significantly increased (p = 0.029, and the activity of FUC had a tendency to increase (p = 0.153, compared to the control group. A significant increase in GAL activity in the serum of patients with Lyme disease indicates an increased catabolism of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans and could be helpful in the diagnosis of Lyme disease, although this requires confirmation in a larger group of patients. As GAL is the most widely used assay for detection of senescent cells, an elevated level of β-galactosidase might be a manifestation of accelerated senescence process in the course of Lyme
Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.
Fowke, Jay H; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E
BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. The WHR, an estimate of centralized
Sampson, Anthony P; Pizzichini, Emilio; Bisgaard, Hans
mediators in a wide range of diseases, implying that their biological activities reach far beyond acute bronchoconstriction, the activity traditionally ascribed to them. The validity of examining sputum for "biomarkers" has improved the understanding of asthma pathophysiology, optimization of asthma......The understanding that asthma pathophysiology includes an inflammatory component has spurred the more aggressive use of anti-inflammatory therapies and created a need for effective tools to measure inflammation. Biomarkers of airway inflammation proposed are obtained by methods that are direct...... but highly invasive (bronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage), moderately direct, and less invasive (indirect sputum, exhaled air, breath condensate) or indirect and least invasive (blood, urine). Several studies described in this review have implicated the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) as inflammatory...
Wang, Wanping; Liu, Mingyue; Wang, Jing; Tian, Rui; Dong, Junqiang; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Xianping; Wang, Yuanfang
Screening indexes of tumor serum markers for benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) were analyzed to find the optimum method for diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an automatic immune analyzer and radioimmunoassay methods were used to examine the levels of 8 serum markers in 164 SPN patients, and the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of malignant or benign SPN was compared for detection using a single plasma marker or a combination of markers. The results for serological indicators that closely relate to benign and malignant SPNs were screened using the Fisher discriminant analysis and a non-conditional logistic regression analysis method, respectively. The results were then verified by the k-means clustering analysis method. The sensitivity when using a combination of serum markers to detect SPN was higher than that using a single marker. By Fisher discriminant analysis, cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA21-1), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and breast cancer antigen (CA153), which relate to the benign and malignant SPNs, were screened. Through non-conditional logistic regression analysis, CYFRA21-1, SCC and CA153 were obtained. Using the k-means clustering analysis, the cophenetic correlation coefficient (0.940) obtained by the Fisher discriminant analysis was higher than that obtained with logistic regression analysis (0.875). This study indicated that the Fisher discriminant analysis functioned better in screening out serum markers to recognize the benign and malignant SPN. The combined detection of CYFRA21-1, CA125, SCC and CA153 is an effective way to distinguish benign and malignant SPN, and will find an important clinical application in the early diagnosis of SPN. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Kim, Charles; Jary, Hannah; Mortimer, Kevin; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Curran-Everett, Doug; Gordon, Stephen; Petrache, Irina
Household air pollution (HAP) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both HAP and HIV are widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, where HIV has 10.6% prevalence in patients 15-49 years old. We hypothesized that HIV infection (HIV + ) and habitual exposure to HAP (HAP + ) synergize to cause systemic inflammation and vascular injury, which may herald early onset of chronic respiratory diseases. In this pilot study, 50 subjects from Malawi with known HIV status were administered surveys recording demographics, HAP exposure, and respiratory symptoms/diagnoses. Peripheral blood was collected, and Meso Scale Discovery V-Plex assay was used to measure the levels of 41 serum markers. Almost all subjects (96%) reported HAP + , 30 were HIV + , 20 were HIV - , with a mean age of 22 years in both groups. More females (73%) were HIV + , whereas 65% of those who were HIV - were males. The vast majority were never-smokers (70% of HIV - and 83% of HIV + subjects, respectively). Forty-six percent of all subjects (57% of HIV + HAP + and 33% of HIV - HAP + ) reported respiratory diagnoses and/or respiratory symptoms, with breathlessness and cough being most common. Although HIV + HAP + individuals had a trend to increased proinflammatory cytokines and vascular injury markers, and decreases in proangiogenic factors compared with HIV - HAP + , only the decrease in serum interleukin-16 (by 44%) was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Also, compared with other subjects, serum interleukin-2 levels were significantly decreased (by 31%; P = 0.02) in HIV + subjects with persistent respiratory symptoms. This study suggests a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in HIV + individuals exposed to HAP. The significant decrease in interleukin-2 and interleukin-16, cytokines associated with HIV clearance, may contribute to viral persistence, and because their low levels were found to correlate with
Parlesak, Alexandr; Negrier, I.; Neveux, N.
with arginine did not affect epithelial integrity, production of any of the cytokines investigated, or the amount of nitric oxide. The amino acid used primarily by nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells cocultured with leukocytes was glutamine. Activation of IEC with bacteria significantly enhanced...... the catabolism of serine, asparagine, and lysine, and reduced glutamine catabolism. Addition of arginine increased ornithine formation and moderately reduced transepithelial transport of methionine and other amino acids. Hence, arginine supplementation does not interfere with inflammation-associated cross...
Full Text Available Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. However, little is known about a possible causal role of inflammation in metabolic disorders. Mexico is among the countries with the highest obesity rates in the world and the admixed Mexican population is a relevant sample due to high levels of genetic diversity. Methods: Here, we studied 1,462 Mexican children recruited from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in five inflammation-related genes were genotyped: rs1137101 (leptin receptor (LEPR, rs7305618 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A, rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, rs1800896, rs1800871 (interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1862513 (resistin (RETN. Ten continuous and eight binary traits were assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were used adjusting for age, sex, and recruitment centre. Results: We found that one SNP displayed a nominal evidence of association with a continuous trait: rs1800871 (IL-10 with LDL (beta = −0.068 ± 1.006, P = 0.01. Subsequently, we found one nominal association with a binary trait: rs7305618 (HNF1A with family history of hypertension (odds-ratio = 1.389 [1.054–1.829], P = 0.02. However, no P-value passed the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Discussion: Our data in a Mexican children population are consistent with previous reports in European adults in failing to demonstrate an association between inflammation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and metabolic traits.
Sapra, Mamta; Lawson, Donna; Iranmanesh, Ali; Varma, Anjali
The purpose of this study was to explore body fat independent effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on measures of glucose and adipokine homeostasis, and markers of inflammation. Eight non-diabetic men with schizophrenia (age: 55±3years, BMI: 29.7±1.2kg/m(2)) on SGAs were studied after an overnight fast. DXA and single-cut CT of abdomen were respectively used for the assessment of total body and abdominal fat. Blood samples were collected for measurements of glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and TNF-α. Data in schizophrenic subjects were compared to eight age (55±2.8years) and BMI (29.6±1.1kg/m(2)) matched healthy men. The results were significant for markedly decreased serum adiponectin in schizophrenia patients (4.6±0.9 vs 11.1±1.5ng/mL, p=0.001). Lower levels of adiponectin in schizophrenia men were associated with significant increases in insulin resistance (4.2±0.7 vs 1.7±0.4, p=0.004), CRP (3.5±1.2 vs 1.2±0.3, p=0.037), and leptin (12±1.4 vs 8.5±1.4ng/mL, p=0.05). Various measures of adiposity, including fat mass index (FMI) and abdominal fat were not different in the two study groups. These findings in the context of comparable age and total body/abdominal fat mass are assumed to be either disease specific, and/or treatment inflicted. The definitive invoking etiology and a presumptive role of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of insulin resistance and increased risk of inflammation warrant future investigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, procalcitonin (PCT, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98% and negative predictive value (98.6% and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI. On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.
Lajer, Henrik; Daugaard, Gedske; Andersson, Anna-Maria
TRA-1-60 antigen has been related to the presence of embryonal germ cell carcinoma (EC) and carcinoma in situ. Our study further investigated the clinical efficacy of TRA-1-60 as a serum tumor marker for germ cell cancer in the testis. Three groups of patients with germ cell tumors were included:...
Engelen, MJA; de Bruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; ten Koor, KA; Willemse, PHB; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ
Objectives. The goals of this study were to analyze preoperative serum levels of CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA 19-9 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and to investigate if routine assessment of these markers in follow-up may lead to earlier detection of recurrence. Methods.
Hermansen, M-L F; Hummelshøj, L; Lundsgaard, Dorte
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between serum levels of ß2-microglobulin (ß2MG), which some studies suggest reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and various clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in SLE. Twenty-six SLE patients...
Ugur, Merve Guzeldulger; Kutlu, Ruhusen; Kilinc, Ibrahim
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD. In this study, we aimed to assess the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammation markers on smokers and non-smoking individuals. Our study was a case-control study and 175 individuals who want to give up smoking constituted the case group. As a control group, 175 individuals who never smoked. The mean age of 350 participants was 35.83 ± 13.11 years. Educational status of the non-smokers was significantly higher than that of the smoking group (P study, IL-6 inflammatory marker and VEGF levels were found to be high and IL-10 anti-inflammatory marker was discovered to be low in smokers. For this reason, raising awareness in the society about the harms of smoking and encouraging people to give it up have become more challenging to counteract the inflammatory effects of smoking in human body and to prevent many smoking-related diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Recent studies show that statin therapy, while effective at lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes. To test the effects of maximal dosages of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin (80mg/day and 40mg/day, respectively) we obtained frozen serum ...
Yang Shunfang; Zhang Peiling; Cao Jie; Zeng Jun; Dong Qianggang
To evaluate the diagnostic value and relationship between five tumor markers (CA19- 9,CA125,CYFRA21-1 ,CEA,NSE) and free DNA in serum for lung cancer detection and try to find a new and more efficient tumor marker, the amounts of CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, CEA, NSE were determined by RIA and free DNA was determined by the use of quantitative real time PCR amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 52 lung cancer patients and 8 cases of benign pulmonary disease and 10 healthy controls. The resulls showed that average concentration of free DNA in serum of lung cancer patients, benign pulmo- nary disease and healthy controls was 107.6ng/mL, 76.86ng/mL and 18.8ng/mL, respective- ly. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of free DNA for lung cancer were 71. 2%, 50% and 68.3%, same as the diagnostic value of combined detection of five tumor markers. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the five tumor markers and free DNA combinend detection for lung cancer were 94.2%, 25% and 85%, respectively. The free DNA in the serum of lung cancer patients may be a new and better tumor marker. (authors)
Ciółkowski, Janusz; Stasiowska, Barbara; Mazurek, Henryk
After the GINA 2006 publication, asthma therapy is based on control of symptoms. However there are suggestions of monitoring of airway inflammation. Aim of the study was to compare clinical criteria of asthma control with cellular markers of lower airway inflammation in induced sputum in a group of young asthmatics. To assess relationship between sputum eosinophilia, asthma severity and spirometry. A group of 154 young patients with chronic asthma (8-21 years) underwent sputum induction by inhalation of 4,5% saline solution. Sputum induction was effective in 121 patients (78%), and in this group control of clinical symptoms was assessed according to GINA 2006 criteria. Asthma was controlled in 82 subjects (67.8%) and uncontrolled in 39 (32.2%). Patients with controlled asthma had higher FEV1/FVC (79.8 +/- 7.1% vs 74.2 +/- 9.9%; p = 0.004) and MMEF (80.7 +/- 23.0% vs 65.3 +/- 21.8%; p 3%) was observed in 24.4% of patients with controlled asthma and in 61.5% with uncontrolled asthma (p astma than in patients with moderate-severe disease (3.1 +/- 5.7% vs 7.1% +/- 8.8; p = 0.006). Patients with high sputum eosinophil count had lower FEV1 (89.4 +/- 14.9% vs 94.9 +/- 13.9%; p = 0.047), FEV1/FVC (74.5 +/- 10.1% vs 79.2 +/- 9.3%; p = 0.01) and MMEF (68.7 +/- 23.3% vs 81.7 +/- 23.1%; p = 0.004). In this study of young asthmatics, control of asthma symptoms was observed in 67.8% of patients. However, cellular markers of lower airway inflammation were present in 1/4 of patients with controlled asthma and in 3/4 with uncontrolled disease. Sputum eosinophilia was related to asthma severity. FEV1/FVC and MMEF were more important that FEV1 for estimating control of asthma. Improvement of asthma control scoring is needed as well as availability of simple methods of inflammation monitoring.
Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming
Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)
Kelstrup, Louise; Dejgaard, Thomas F; Clausen, Tine D
Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 were investigated in 597 adult offspring born to women with and without diabetes during pregnancy. No association between fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia and levels of YKL-40 was found. However, female sex and increasing BMI in the offspring...
Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.
Full Text Available To evaluate maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM in relation to the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI.Two hundred and eighty-seven women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 2014 and 2016 were included in this study. Maternal blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected at the time of admission. Maternal serum CRP concentration was measured using a high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentration was measured using a point-of-care test. MIAC was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction result for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and for the 16S rRNA gene. IAI was characterized by an amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration of ≥ 745 pg/mL.Women with MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP concentrations than did women without (with MIAC: median 6.9 mg/L vs. without MIAC: median 4.9 mg/L; p = 0.02; with IAI: median 8.6 mg/L vs. without IAI: median 4.7 mg/L; p < 0.0001. When women were split into four subgroups based on the presence of MIAC and/or IAI, women with the presence of both MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP than did women with IAI alone, with MIAC alone, and women without MIAC and IAI (both MIAC and IAI: median: 13.1 mg/L; IAI alone: 6.0 mg/L; MIAC alone: 3.9 mg/L; and without MIAC and IAI: median 4.8 mg/L; p < 0.0001. The maternal serum CRP cutoff value of 17.5 mg/L was the best level to identify the presence of both MIAC and IAI, with sensitivity of 47%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 42%, negative predictive value of 96%, and the positive likelihood ratio of 10.9.The presence of both MIAC and IAI was associated with the highest maternal serum CRP concentrations. Maternal serum CRP concentration in women with PPROM at the time of admission can rule out the
Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar
Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su
Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Borné, Yan [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden)
Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su
Objective: To assess the detection rate of common malignancies with combined determination of four serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, SF, TSA). Methods: Serum AFP, CEA, SF (with RIA) and TSA (with biochemical method) contents were determined in 612 patients with various kinds of proved malignancies. Results: Positive rates of combined determination of these four tumor markers for detection of common malignancies were: 95.2%(79/83) for liver carcinoma, 92.6% (125/135) for lung carcinoma, 88.5% (115/130) for gastric cancer, 83.3% (60/72) for colorectal cancer, 84.2% (85/101) for breast cancer, 90.0% (9/10) for chorionepithelioma and 88.9% (72/81) for ovarian cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of these four tumor markers for screening malignancies is simple, cheap, practical and worth popularization. (authors)
Fernández-Yunquera, Ainhoa; Ripoll, Cristina; Bañares, Rafael; Puerto, Marta; Rincón, Diego; Yepes, Ismael; Catalina, Vega; Salcedo, Magdalena
To evaluate the expression of serum fibrosis markers in liver transplantation (LT) recipients on everolimus monotherapy compared to patients on an anti-calcineurin regimen. This cross-sectional case-control study included LT patients on everolimus monotherapy (cases) (E) (n = 30) and matched controls on an anti-calcineurin regimen (calcineurin inhibitors, CNI), paired by etiology of liver disease and time since LT (n = 30). Clinical characteristics, blood tests and elastography were collected. Serum levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiopoietin-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), platelet derived growth factor, amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), VCM-1 (ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (pg/mL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of these markers between E and CNI was compared. Stratified analysis was done according to factors that may influence liver fibrosis. Variables are described with medians (interquartillic range) or percentages. A total of 60 patients [age: 59 (49-64), hepatitis C virus (HCV): n = 21 (35%), time from LT: 73 mo (16-105)] were included. Patients had been on everolimus for a median of 15 mo. No differences in inflammatory activity, APRI test or liver elastography were found between the groups. No significant differences were observed between the groups in serum levels of PIIINP, metalloproteinase type = 1, angiopoietin, HGF, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-10 and vascular cell adhesion molecule. Patients on E had a lower expression of TGF-β [E: 12.7 (3.7-133.6), CNI: 152.5 (14.4-333.2), P = 0.009] and HA [E: 702.89 (329.4-838.2), CNI: 1513.6 (691.9-1951.4), P = 0.001] than those on CNI. This difference was maintained in the stratified analysis when recipient age is more than 50 years (TFG-β1: P = 0.06; HA: P = 0.005), in patients without active neoplasia (TFG-β1
A. S. Tkachenko
Full Text Available It has been established that features of modern diet might be considered as a possible source of inflammatory diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Particular attention is paid to the role of different food additives in the development of intestinal inflammation, including the food additive E407, known as carrageenan. A model of chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis of moderate severity has been elaborated, which allows us to study carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation. In particular, the features of blood serum protein spectrum and cytokine spectrum in chronic carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation are not studied. The female Wistar rats have been used for the experiment. Chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis has been reproduced by the free access of animals to 1% solution of carrageenan in drinking water. Laboratory animals have been divided into 3 groups. Group № 1 consisted of experimental animals, who consumed food additive carrageenan during 2 weeks and group № 2 included experimental animals, who consumed food additive carrageenan during 4 weeks. Group № 3 consisted of intact healthy animals. The development of gastroenterocolitis has been proved morphologically and biochemically. Manipulations with animals have been carried out in accordance with the provisions of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (Strasbourg, 1986. It has been established that the disease has been associated with dysproteinemia. The level of α1-globulins increased after 2 weeks of carrageenan consumption and has been normalized in animals, who consumed carrageenan during 4 weeks. The similar changes have been observed for α2-globulins level. It could be explained by production of acute phase proteins, such as α1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, α2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, etc. The intake of carrageenan also caused
Wang, Linchuan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Yan
To date, there is a trend that the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays (CMIA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECIA) technology gradually replacing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). But the performance such as the limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, linear range of CMIA, or ECIA for serum markers of infectious diseases has rarely been reported. Using proficiency testing samples and standard materials, we confirmed the LOQ of the ELISA and the precision, linear range, LOQ, and instrument biases of the Abbott i2000 for eight serum markers. We used the Abbott i2000 and ELISAs to assess five HIV samples; the researchers were blinded to the true status of the samples. For the Abbott i2000, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the low, medium, and high concentration samples ranged from 1.06 to 12.74%, which were less than the allowable error; the linear ranges of HBsAg and HBsAb were 0.66-304.11 IU/ml and 8.16-1205.9 mIU/ml, respectively. For the Abbott i2000, the LOQs of HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb, anti-HCV, anti-TP, and anti-HIV were 0.026 IU/ml, 4 mIU/ml, 0.14 NCU/ml, 0.56 NCU/ml, 0.99 NCU/ml, 0.5 NCU/ml, 8.8 mIU/ml, and 1.92 NCU/ml, respectively, and these values were 0.16 IU/ml, 6.97 mIU/ml, 1.16 NCU/ml, 1.63 NCU/ml, 1.79 NCU/ml, 1.03 NCU/ml, 8.33 mIU/ml, and 1.3 NCU/ml, respectively, for the ELISA. When five HIV samples were blindly assessed, two cases were missed by the Abbott i2000 and the ELISA results were consistent with the expected results. The Abbott i2000 performed significantly better than the ELISA on HBV and HCV screening; however, for anti-TP and anti-HIV, the ELISA remained the preferred method. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Jajamovich, Guido H; Bane, Octavia; Fiel, M Isabel; Chou, Hsin; Schiano, Thomas D; Dieterich, Douglas; Babb, James S; Friedman, Scott L; Taouli, Bachir
Establishing accurate non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis quantification remains a major unmet need. Here, we assessed the diagnostic value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in comparison with transient elastography (TE) and blood tests [including ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) and APRI] for liver fibrosis detection. In this single centre cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled 60 subjects with liver disease who underwent multiparametric MRI (DWI, DCE-MRI and MRE), TE and blood tests. Correlation was assessed between non-invasive modalities and histopathologic findings including stage, grade and collagen content, while accounting for covariates such as age, sex, BMI, HCV status and MRI-derived fat and iron content. ROC curve analysis evaluated the performance of each technique for detection of moderate-to-advanced liver fibrosis (F2-F4) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). Magnetic resonance elastography provided the strongest correlation with fibrosis stage (r = 0.66, P fibrosis (F2-F4), AUCs were 0.78, 0.82, 0.72, 0.79, 0.71 for MRE, TE, DCE-MRI, DWI and APRI, respectively. For detection of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4), AUCs were 0.94, 0.77, 0.79, 0.79 and 0.70, respectively. Magnetic resonance elastography provides the highest correlation with histopathologic markers and yields high diagnostic performance for detection of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, compared to DWI, DCE-MRI, TE and serum markers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dong, Min; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Xing; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wen, Jing-Yun; Lin, Qu; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wei, Li; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wu, Xiang-Yuan
Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a candidate diagnostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, current evidence of its diagnostic value is conflicting, primarily due to the small sample sizes of previous studies, and its prognostic role in HCC also remains unclear. In the present study, sGP73 levels in 462 patients with HCC, 186 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 83 healthy controls were evaluated using ELISA, and it was identified that the median sGP73 levels were significantly higher in the HCC (18.7 ng/ml) and liver cirrhosis (18.5 ng/ml) patients than in the healthy controls (0 ng/ml; both P<0.001); however, the levels did not significantly differ between the HCC and liver cirrhosis groups (P=0.632). sGP73 had an inferior sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis (27.79 and 77.96%, respectively) compared with α-fetoprotein (57.36 and 90.96%, respectively; P<0.001). In the HCC group, a high level of sGP73 was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and independently predicted poor overall survival (OS) time (P<0.001). Additionally, in patients with resectable HCC, a high level of sGP73 was associated with significantly decreased disease-free survival (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.039) times compared with a low level of sGP73. This study demonstrated that sGP73 is unsuitable as a diagnostic marker for the early detection of HCC; however, it is an independent negative prognostic marker, providing a novel risk stratification factor and a potential therapeutic molecular target for HCC.
Bokhari, S.N.H.; Naeem, M.
Objective: A number of supportive laboratory tests such as ECG, Chest x-ray, ABGs SLDH, SGOT, S. Bilirubin and D-dimer with variable sensitivity and specificity are available to facilitate the clinical diagnosis of acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) which is produced mainly by the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, is found altered during a variety of diffuse lung diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the validity of SACE level as a marker for hypoxic damage to the pulmonary endothelium in PE. Design: A prospective study carried out on forty patients with high clinical suspicion of PE. Besides routine diagnostic tests mentioned above all of them had ventilation Perfusion isotope (v/q) scans (as a diagnostic test) and SACE level checked. Setting: Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Results: Among forty consecutive patients with age range 25-59 years (mean: 42 Yr). Twenty six patients (65%) with abnormal scans reported as High probability were included in group-A (True Positive), whereas 14(35)% patients having low-probability (suspected or Normal scan were included in group-b, low SACE level (<28iu/l) was found in 19/26 (sensitivity of 73% in group-A (positive Predictive Value: 47%) and 9/14(sensitivity of 64%) in Group-B. Whereas mean levels for both groups were 34.55 and 54.84 respectively. Rise in LDH was pronounced in group A. Only chest x-ray and ECGS were found to be more sensitive for group-A than group-B. Changes in ABGs (type-1 resp. Failure) had low sensitivity. Conclusion: Among clinically suspected cases of PE, fall in SACE level can be used as a sensitive and reliable diagnostic marker as more than 75% of the enzyme in produced in the lungs compared with other enzymes which have extra-pulmonary source. (author)
Kowalska, Irina; Straczkowski, Marek; Nikolajuk, Agnieszka; Adamska, Agnieszka; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika; Otziomek, Elzbieta; Wolczynski, Slawomir; Gorska, Maria
Visfatin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, is suggested to play a role in pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance might be involved in the development of endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. The aim of the study was to asses the relation between serum visfatin concentration and insulin sensitivity and markers of hyperandrogenism in lean and obese PCOS patients. The study group consisted of 70 women with PCOS (23 lean and 47 obese) and 45 healthy women (25 lean and 20 obese). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and the measurements of serum visfatin, sex hormones were performed. The PCOS group had lower insulin sensitivity (P=0.00049) and higher serum visfatin (P=0.047) in comparison to the control group. The decrease in insulin sensitivity was present in both the lean (P=0.019) and obese (P=0.0077) PCOS subjects, whereas increase in serum visfatin was observed only in lean PCOS subjects (P=0.012). In the whole group, serum visfatin was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=-0.27, P=0.004). This relationship was also observed in the subgroup of lean (r=-0.30, P=0.038), but not obese women. Additionally, in lean women, visfatin was associated with serum testosterone (r=0.47, P=0.002) and free androgen index (r=0.48, P=0.002), independently of other potential confounding factors. Visfatin is associated with insulin resistance and markers of hyperandrogenism in lean PCOS patients.
Full Text Available The authors stud the clinical efficiency of fenspiride (Erespal among children (n = 46, suffering from acute bronchitis. It was shown that fenspiride reduced the cough duration and conduced to faster improvement of the patients' health. Besides, fenspiride application was accompanied by the reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokines both in the blood serum and condensate of expired air.Key words: bronchitis, fenspiride, cytokines, condensate of expired air, children.
N.A. Il'enkova; O.V. Alekseeva; V.V. Chikunov
The authors stud the clinical efficiency of fenspiride (Erespal) among children (n = 46), suffering from acute bronchitis. It was shown that fenspiride reduced the cough duration and conduced to faster improvement of the patients' health. Besides, fenspiride application was accompanied by the reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokines both in the blood serum and condensate of expired air.Key words: bronchitis, fenspiride, cytokines, condensate of expired air, children.
Bohr, Anna-Helene; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; Nielsen, Claus Henrik
disease activity (JADAS27), biomarkers of inflammation (myelo-related protein complex 8/14 (MRP8/14), C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WtH ratio), and PA were explored. RESULTS: Mean values for TC, LDLc, and HDLc...... in the patients were within the normal range for Danish Children. HDLc was negatively correlated with MRP8/14 (r = -0.343, CI -0.474 to -0.201, p MRP8/14 correlated positively...... with CRP, JADAS27 and WtH ratio (r = 0.277, CI 0.142 to 0.413, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Levels of cholesterol fractions in patients with JIA were found within the normal range. Nonetheless, the level of HDLc was negatively associated with the level of the inflammatory marker MRP8/14, which is in accordance...
Reding-Bernal, Arturo; Sánchez-Pedraza, Valentin; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Sobrino-Cossio, Sergio; Tejero-Barrera, María Elizabeth; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; León-Hernández, Mireya; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and genetic correlation (ρG) between GERD symptoms severity, metabolic syndrome components, and inflammation markers in Mexican families. Methods Cross-sectional study which included 32 extended families resident in Mexico City. GERD symptoms severity was assessed by the ReQuest in Practice questionnaire. Heritability and genetic correlation were determined using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines software. Results 585 subjects were included, the mean age was 42 (±16.7) years, 57% were women. The heritability of the severity of some GERD symptoms was h2 = 0.27, 0.27, 0.37, and 0.34 (p-value metabolic syndrome components ranged from 0.40 for fasting plasma glucose to 0.61 for body mass index and diabetes mellitus. The heritability for fibrinogen and C-reactive protein was 0.64 and 0.38, respectively. Statistically significant genetic correlations were found between acidity complaints and fasting plasma glucose (ρG = 0.40); sleep disturbances and fasting plasma glucose (ρG = 0.36); acidity complaints and diabetes mellitus (ρG = 0.49) and between total ReQuest score and fasting plasma glucose (ρG = 0.43). The rest of metabolic syndrome components did not correlate with GERD symptoms. Conclusion Genetic factors substantially explain the phenotypic variance of the severity of some GERD symptoms, metabolic syndrome components and inflammation markers. Observed genetic correlations suggest that these phenotypes share common genes. These findings suggest conducting further investigation, as the determination of a linkage analysis in order to identify regions of susceptibility for developing of GERD and metabolic syndrome. PMID:28582452
Rabinovich, A; Cohen, J M; Kahn, S R
The postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a chronic complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Inflammation may contribute to its pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analyzed the association between biomarkers of inflammation and PTS in DVT patients. The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for studies published until March 2015 that measured blood inflammation biomarker levels in adult DVT patients and reported their association with PTS development. Two reviewers independently performed full text assessment and data extraction. Ten studies were included. Nine reported on the association between C-reactive protein and PTS; Interleukin (IL)-6 was measured in six studies; IL-8 in four studies; Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in three studies; IL-10 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in two studies; and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, matrix metalloprotease-9, P-Selectin, tumor necrosis factor α and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured in one study. Studies differed in terms of populations included, exclusion criteria, methods used for biomarker measurement and statistical measures of association between biomarkers and PTS. We were able to metaanalyze results only for IL-6 and found no significant association. Descriptively, ICAM-1 was significantly associated with PTS in two out of three studies that measured it. Other biomarkers did not demonstrate a significant association with PTS. Our systematic review found conflicting results regarding the role of inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of PTS. ICAM -1 appears to be a promising marker for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schnettler, William T.; Hacker, Michele R.; Barber, Rachel E.; Rana, Sarosh
Objective Few guidelines address the management of pregnancies complicated by abnormal maternal serum analytes (MSAs) in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects (NTDs). Our objective was to gather preliminary data regarding current opinions and management strategies among perinatologists in the US. Methods This survey of Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) physicians and fellows used a secure electronic web-based data capture tool. Results A total of 545 potential participants were contacted, and 136 (25%) responded. The majority were experienced academic physicians with robust practices. Nearly all (97.7%) respondents reported a belief in an association between abnormal MSAs and adverse pregnancy outcomes other than aneuploidy or NTDs. Plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were most often chosen as markers demonstrating a strong association with adverse outcomes. Most (86.9%) respondents acknowledged that abnormal MSAs influenced their counseling approach, and the majority (80.1%) offered additional ultrasound examinations. Nearly half started at 28 weeks and almost one-third at 32 weeks. Respondents acknowledging a relevant protocol in their hospital or practice were more likely to offer additional antenatal testing (p = 0.01). Conclusions Although most perinatologists were in agreement regarding the association of MSAs with adverse pregnancy outcomes, a lack of consensus exists regarding management strategies. PMID:22372385
Maria C. de Beer
Full Text Available Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P<0.05 and 80% (P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45% (P<0.05. Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.
Full Text Available Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated with metformin (1.5–2.5 g per day (n = 29 or placebo (n = 23 for six months. Serum samples were collected before and after two, four, and six months of treatment. We found serum cobalamin to decline and reach significant lower levels after six months of treatment (p = 0.003. Despite the decline in serum cobalamin, we observed no reductions in the physiological active part of cobalamin bound to transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin, or increase in the metabolic marker of cobalamin status, methylmalonic acid. Instead, the non-functional part of circulating cobalamin bound to haptocorrin declined (p = 0.0009. Our results have two implications: The data questions whether metformin treatment induces an impaired cobalamin status in PCOS patients, and further suggests that serum cobalamin is a futile marker for judging cobalamin status in metformin-treated patients.
Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve
Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.
Liu Juzhen; Cai Tietie; Qin Shana
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.
Katherine E. Corder, Katherine R. Newsham, Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss
Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2 were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS, swelling (arm circumference, muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension, skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02. Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006, indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78 or arm swelling (p = 0.75. Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby
Stewart, Frances M; Freeman, Dilys J; Ramsay, Jane E; Greer, Ian A; Caslake, Muriel; Ferrell, William R
Obesity in pregnancy is increasing and is a risk factor for metabolic pathology such as preeclampsia. In the nonpregnant, obesity is associated with dyslipidemia, vascular dysfunction, and low-grade chronic inflammation. Our aim was to measure microvascular endothelial function in lean and obese pregnant women at intervals throughout their pregnancies and at 4 months after delivery. Plasma markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and placental function and their association with microvascular function were also assessed. Women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited, 30 with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 kg/m(2) and 30 with a BMI more than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) matched for age, parity, and smoking status. In vivo endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular function was measured using laser Doppler imaging in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and at 4 months postnatal. Plasma markers of endothelial activation [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1], inflammation (IL-6, TNFalpha, C-reactive protein, and IL-10), and placental function (PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio) were also assessed at each time point. The pattern of improving endothelial function during pregnancy was the same for lean and obese, but endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly lower (P lean women but declined to near 1st trimester levels in the obese (lean/obese difference, 115%; P lean response being greater than obese (P = 0.021), and response declined in both groups in the postpartum period. In multivariate analysis, time of sampling had the most impact on endothelial-independent function [18.5% (adjusted sum of squares expressed as a percentage of total means squared), P lean 0.30 (0.21-0.47), P lean counterparts. There was a higher PAI-1/ PAI-2 ratio in the 1st trimester in obese women, which improved later in
Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Fujiwara, Makoto; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Miyoshi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Takeyari, Shinji; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Namba, Noriyuki; Ozono, Keiichi
Vitamin D-deficient rickets (DR) has recently re-emerged among developed countries. Vitamin D deficiency can influence biochemical results of patients with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-related hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets (HR), making differential diagnosis difficult. In the present study we evaluated the utility of serum FGF23 levels in the diagnosis of DR and during its treatment. The study group comprised 24 children with DR and 8 children with HR. Serum FGF23 levels and bone metabolism-related measurements were assessed. Serum FGF23 levels in patients with DR were less than 19 pg/ml, while those in patients with HR were more than 57 pg/ml. There were significant differences in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, as well as tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption per glomerular filtration rate between patients with DR and HR, but these values were not fully mutually exclusive. In addition, serum FGF23 and phosphate levels were increased following treatment. Serum FGF23 level is the most critical biochemical marker for distinguishing DR from HR and might be a good indicator of biochemical response to the intervention. Serum FGF23 levels show utility for the diagnosis of DR and in the assessment of its response to treatment.
Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M
Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.
Full Text Available Objective: In view of the side effects of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG, identification of noninvasive markers predicting the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is important. This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8 in diagnosis of VUR in children with first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI. Materials and Methods: Eighty children with first febrile UTI were divided into two groups, with and without VUR, based on the results of VCUG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value positive and negative likelihood ratio, and accuracy of IL-8 for prediction of VUR were investigated. Results: Of the 80 children with febrile UTI, 30 (37.5% had VUR. There was no significant difference between the children with and without VUR and also between low and high-grade VUR groups in terms of serum concentration of IL-8 (P>0.05. Based on ROC curve, the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio positive, and accuracy of serum IL-8 was lower than those of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant positive correlation only between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and VUR. Conclusions: This study showed no significant difference between the children with and without VUR in terms of the serum concentration of IL-8. Therefore, it seems that serum IL-8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of VUR.
Al-Ghoul, Walid M.; Kim, Margarita S.; Fazal, Nadeem; Azim, Anser C.; Ali, Ashraf
Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as
Full Text Available Hernán Trimarchi1, Alexis Muryan2, Mariana Dicugno2, Pablo Young3, Mariano Forrester1, Fernando Lombi1, Vanesa Pomeranz1, Romina Iriarte1, María Soledad Raña1, Mirta Alonso21Nephrology, 2Biochemistry, 3Internal Medicine Services, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, ArgentinaBackground: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD patients, the main etiologies being diabetes and hypertension. Cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers are usually employed to assess risk or damage, or during follow-up. Proteinuria is considered a strong predictor of morbidity, a cause of inflammation, oxidative stress, hemodynamic alteration, and progression of chronic kidney disease. However, proteinuria is rarely considered in the clinical assessment of HD patients.Methods: This was a concurrent, cohort-observational, cross-sectional study in which 52 chronic HD subjects were divided into three groups according to the degree of proteinuria: Group (G A: <1 g/day, n = 25; GB: 1–3 g/day, n = 13; GC: >3 g/day, n = 14. Baseline hemoglobin, albuminemia, cholesterol, body mass index, Malnutrition-Inflammatory Score, pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T, C-reactive protein (CRP, and ultrafiltration rates were analyzed.Results: There was no difference between groups in terms of baseline age, gender, hypertension, cause of renal failure, hemoglobin, cholesterol, albumin, CRP levels, cardiac biomarkers, adiponectin, body mass index, or Malnutrition-Inflammatory Score. Time on HD: GA, 34.56 ± 23.3 (range [r]: 6–88; GB, 25.15 ± 19.40 (r: 6–58; GC, 18.21 ± 9.58 (r: 6–74 months; P = 0.048. Proteinuria: GA, 0.33 ± 0.30 (r: 0.0–0.88; GB, 1.66 ± 0.54 (r: 1.03–2.75; GC, 7.18 ± 2.80 (r: 3.04–21.5 g/day; P < 0.001. Mean ultrafiltration rates were significantly different: GA, 2.80 ± 0.73; GB: 1.85 ± 0.96 liters/session; P = 0.003. Fourteen diabetic patients were identified (27%: GA, 3 (12%; GB, 3 (23%; GC, 8 (57
Christoph W Michalski
Full Text Available While cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate liver fibrosis, their effects in chronic pancreatitis and on pancreatic stellate cells (PSC are unknown.The activity of the endocannabinoid system was evaluated in human chronic pancreatitis (CP tissues. In vitro, effects of blockade and activation of cannabinoid receptors on pancreatic stellate cells were characterized. In CP, cannabinoid receptors were detected predominantly in areas with inflammatory changes, stellate cells and nerves. Levels of endocannabinoids were decreased compared with normal pancreas. Cannabinoid-receptor-1 antagonism effectuated a small PSC phenotype and a trend toward increased invasiveness. Activation of cannabinoid receptors, however, induced de-activation of PSC and dose-dependently inhibited growth and decreased IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion as well as fibronectin, collagen1 and alphaSMA levels. De-activation of PSC was partially reversible using a combination of cannabinoid-receptor-1 and -2 antagonists. Concomitantly, cannabinoid receptor activation specifically decreased invasiveness of PSC, MMP-2 secretion and led to changes in PSC phenotype accompanied by a reduction of intracellular stress fibres.Augmentation of the endocannabinoid system via exogenously administered cannabinoid receptor agonists specifically induces a functionally and metabolically quiescent pancreatic stellate cell phenotype and may thus constitute an option to treat inflammation and fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis.
Malorni, A.; Facchiano, A.
We have developed new bioinformatic tools and strategies, aimed to the identification and characterization of proteins as markers of pathological states, for the analysis of data derived from protein expression profiles obtained by mass spectrometry techniques, for the study of structural and functional properties of the proteins, and for the analysis of data from omics approaches
Sangfelt, Per; Von Sydow, Madeleine; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Weiland, Ola; Lindh, Gudrun; Fischler, Björn; Lindgren, Susanne; Reichard, Olle
In Stockholm, Sweden, the majority of pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative. Newborns to HBeAg positive mothers receive vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Newborns to HBeAg negative mothers receive vaccine and HBIg only if the mothers have elevated ALT levels. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate ALT levels as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA levels in HBeAg negative carrier mothers. Altogether 8947 pregnant women were screened for HBV markers from 1999 to 2001 at the Virology Department, Karolinska Hospital. Among mothers screened 192 tested positive for HBsAg (2.2%). 13 of these samples could not be retrieved. Of the remaining 179 sera, 8 (4%) tested positive for HBeAg and 171 (95.5%) were HBeAg negative. Among the HBeAg negative mothers, 9 had HBV DNA levels > 10(5) copies/ml, and of these 7 had normal ALT levels indicating low sensitivity of an elevated ALT level as a surrogate marker for high HBV DNA level. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels. Hence, it is concluded that the use of ALT as a surrogate marker for high viral replication in HBeAg negative mothers could be questioned.
Neergaard, Jesper; Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Christiansen, Claus
truncated tau fragments (Tau-A and Tau-C) in serum. Platelets, albumin and several modifiable risk factors, including Body Mass Index, high density lipoprotein and White Blood Cell count were associated with the serum level of tau fragments. The factors associated with tau in serum may promote...
Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, JöRg M.; Burgener, Iwan A.
Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum a1-proteinase inhibitor
Nøjgaard, Camilla; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Erik
in the patients compared to controls. Patients with steatosis or no fibrosis had the lowest serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP, whereas patients with alcoholic hepatitis and/or cirrhosis had the highest levels. Serum YKL-40 was associated with the presence of fibrosis, and serum PIIINP was also associated...
Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations.Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434 and Malays (N = 2,542 and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538 from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry.Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10(-8 after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10 (p-values ≤0.009, in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250 were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036 but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058.Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with CRP levels in East-Asian and South
Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Liu, Jianjun; Froguel, Philippe; Lee, Jeannette; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan Ting; Peng, Chen; Young, Terri L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Aung, Tin; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Klein, Ronald; Siscovick, David S.; Jensen, Richard A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Smith, Albert Vernon; Teo, Yik Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel
Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations. Methods Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434) and Malays (N = 2,542) and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538) from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD) difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE)] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry. Results Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10−8) after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10) (p-values ≤0.009), in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250) were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036) but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058). Conclusions Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with
Zahng Shiqin; Hu Xin; Li Hong'e; Yan Huaixin
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of detecting breast cancer with 3 imaging techniques(Ultrasound, Full-field digital mammography, Magnetic resonance imagery) and serum marker CA15-3. Methods: Sixty-six pathologically proven patients with breast cancer were examined with Ultrasound before operation, 58 cases were examined with Full-field digital mammography, 30 cases were examined by Magnetic resonance imagery, the serum marker CA15-3 was detected with CLIA in 58 cases. Results: The accurate rates of US, MO and MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer were respectively significantly higher than that of CA15-3(P 0.05) (the accuracy of US was 86.4%, the accuracy of MO was 93.2%, the accuracy of MRI was 96.7%). Conclusion: Ultrasonography,due to its reasonably good accuracy with very low cost, might be selected as the first choice of non-invasive diagnosis of breast cancer. (authors)
Full Text Available Introduction. Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and controls.
Laigaard, Jennie; Sørensen, Tina; Fröhlich, Camilla
levels decrease markedly during pregnancy. ADAM12 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) is an IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 protease and is present in human pregnancy serum. The goal of this study was to determine whether ADAM12 concentration in maternal serum is a useful indicator of foetal health. METHODS: We......OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bioavailable insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and II is important to foetal growth. It is regulated by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) 1 through 6. Proteolytic cleavage of IGFBP-3 takes place in human pregnancy serum; accordingly, IGFBP-3 serum...... developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of ADAM12 in serum. The assay range was 42 to 667 micro g/L. Recombinant ADAM12 was used as the standard for calibration. RESULTS: We found that ADAM12 was highly stable in serum. Serum concentration increased from 180 micro g...
Pejcic, A; Kesic, L J; Milasin, J
Periodontitis has been identified as a potential risk factor for systemic pathologies such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aims of this investigation were to assess the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammatory factor, as well as to discover whether there is a relation to the severity of periodontitis and to the periodontopathogens. Periodontal examinations and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level measurements were performed in 50 patients with periodontitis. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding on probing index and periodontal disease status. The patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depth periodontitis had high attachment loss and pocket depth >5 mm. The control group comprised 25 volunteers with healthy gingiva, gingival sulcus periodontal parameters and CRP levels were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis. Patients who had severe periodontitis, with high levels of mean clinical attachment loss, and subjects with moderate periodontitis had higher mean CRP levels. The percentage of subjects with elevated levels of CRP >5 mg/l was greater in the higher clinical attachment loss group compared to the group with lower attachment loss. The presence of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Periodontitis and the presence of P. gingivalis are associated with an enhanced inflammatory response expressed by higher CRP levels. The association of periodontitis with CRP levels appears to be a contributing factor for CVD and might be a possible intermediate pathway in this association.
Full Text Available Lifespan is a complex trait, and longitudinal data for humans are naturally scarce. We report the results of Cox regression and Pearson correlation analyses using data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP, with mortality data of 1518 participants (113 of which died, over a time span of more than 10 years. We found that in the Cox regression model based on the Bayesian information criterion, apart from chronological age of the participant, six baseline variables were considerably associated with higher mortality rates: smoking, mean attachment loss (i.e. loss of tooth supporting tissue, fibrinogen concentration, albumin/creatinine ratio, treated gastritis, and medication during the last 7 days. Except for smoking, the causative contribution of these variables to mortality was deemed inconclusive. In turn, four variables were found to be associated with decreased mortality rates: treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, treatment of dyslipidemia, IGF-1 and being female. Here, being female was an undisputed causative variable, the causal role of IFG-1 was deemed inconclusive, and the treatment effects were deemed protective to the degree that treated subjects feature better survival than respective controls. Using Cox modeling based on the Akaike information criterion, diabetes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and serum calcium were also associated with mortality. The latter two, together with albumin and fibrinogen, aligned with an"integrated albunemia" model of aging proposed recently.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum HA and LN as serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in CHB patients. METHODS: Serum HA and LN levels of 87 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 19 blood donors were assayed by RIA. Liver fibrosis stages were determined according to the Metavir scoring-system. The diagnostic performances of all indexes were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. RESULTS: Serum HA and LN concentrations increased significantly with the stage of hepatic fibrosis, which showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis (HA: r = 0.875, p < 0.001; LN: r = 0.610, p < 0.001. There were significant differences of serum HA and LN levels between F2-4 group in comparison with those in F0-F1 group (p < 0.001 and controls (p < 0.001, respectively. From ROC curves, 185.3 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value of serum HA for diagnosis of significant fibrosis, giving its sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC of 84.2%, 83.3%, 90.6%, 73.5%, 5.04, 0.19 and 83.9, respectively. While 132.7 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value of serum LN, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC were 71.9%, 80.0%, 87.2%, 60.0%, 3.59%, 0.35% and 74.7, respectively. Combinations of HA and LN by serial tests showed a perfect specificity and PPV of 100%, at the same time sensitivity declined to 63.2% and LR+ increased to 18.9, while parallel tests revealed a good sensitivity of 94.7%, NPV to 86.4%, and LR- declined to 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HA and LN concentrations showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis. Detection of serum HA and LN in predicting significant fibrosis showed good diagnostic performance, which would be further optimized by combination of the two indices. HA and LN would be clinically useful serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, when liver biopsy is
Zhong Ying; Du Minghua; Zhang Jiao; Wu Wei
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of serum levels of the hepatic fibrosis markers ICTP, IGF-I, BGP and the conventional hepatic carcinoma markers as well as hepatic function indicators in patients with primary and metastatic hepatic cancers. Methods: Serum ICTP, IGF-I, BGP (with RIA), AFP, CEA, CA-199 (with CLIA) contents were determined and conventional liver function tests (ALT, AST, γ-GT) were examined in 51 patients with liver carcinoma (primary 28, metastatic 23) and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of ICTP, IGF-I and BGP in all the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The levels of CEA and CA-199 were significantly higher in patients with metastatic hepatic carcinoma than those in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (P 0.05). Levels of BGP were positively correlated with the AST and γ-GT levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of ICTP, IGF-I, BGP were increased in both primary and metastatic hepatic carcinoma. (authors)
Song, Lingmin; Zhu, Yuchun; Han, Ping; Chen, Ni; Lin, Dao; Lai, Jianyu; Wei, Qiang
To reveal the correlation between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) histologic inflammation and serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) concentrations, and the possible mechanism. Patients underwent surgery at the Urology Department of West China Hospital of Sichuan University were retrospectively studied. Preoperative sPSA and transrectal ultrasonography were measured. According to the histopathological classification system for chronic prostatic inflammation proposed by the Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) and the International Prostatitis Collaborative Network (IPCN), we classified the histologic sections of prostatic biopsy into glandular, periglandular, and stromal inflammation by the anatomical location of inflammatory infiltration. The glandular inflammation was graded according to the inflammatory aggressiveness. The periglandular and stromal inflammation were graded according to the inflammatory density. The correlation between histologic inflammation and sPSA was studied by a multiple regression model in conjunction with age and total prostatic volume. A total of 454 patients with exclusively BPH were analyzed. The periglandular inflammatory infiltration was the most common pattern (95.6%). Single regression analysis revealed that total prostatic volume, the aggressiveness of glandular inflammation, and the intensity of periglandular and stromal inflammation were correlated with sPSA. However, the multiple regression analysis revealed that only the total prostatic volume and the aggressiveness of glandular inflammation were correlated significantly with sPSA (R = .389, 0.289; P = .000). The aggressiveness of glandular inflammatory infiltration in BPH is a significant contributor to elevated sPSA levels. The theory of leakage may be the most reasonable mechanism to reveal the correlation morphologically. We should take inflammation into consideration when interpreting the abnormal elevating of sPSA levels. Copyright © 2011
Essraa Adel Aly Aly Hegazy
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of the protein markers in both cirrhotic patients on top of hepatitis C virus (HCV and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients on top of HCV in comparison to normal controls. Methods: A total number of 100 subjects including HCC, cirrhotic patients on top of HCV and normal controls were subjected to serum protein markers analysis for alpha-fetoprotein, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein A2, insulin like growth factor 1 and insulin like growth factor 1 receptor by western blotting technique. Results: It was found that alpha-fetoprotein alone could not be used as a screening test while apolipoprotein A2 as a serum marker could be used as a non invasive screening test to differentiate a case of HCC from cirrhotic HCV patient. The all four markers were able to discriminate normal persons from HCC and cirrhotic HCV patients effectively. Conclusions: We concluded that proteomics analysis being non invasive, rapid and sensitive is a novel gate that can serve in early diagnosis and screening of HCC and cirrhotic HCV patients
Casoinic, F; Sampelean, D; Buzoianu, Anca D; Hancu, N; Baston, Dorina
Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and controls. In all, 60 consecutive patients with DMT2 and NASH, 55 with DMT2 without NAFLD, and 50 age-and-gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. The serum levels of protein carbonyls and 8-isoprostane were determined by ELISA methods, while the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by means of the spectrophotometric method. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory parameters were examined for all the subjects included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the independent predictive factors in the relationships investigated here. Patients with DMT2 and NASH displayed significantly higher serum levels of protein carbonyls (1.112 ± 0.42 nmol/dL), MDA (6.181 ± 1.81 ng/mL), and 8-isoprostane (338.6 ± 98.5 pg/mL) compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that in patients with DMT2 and NASH, the serum levels of oxidative stress markers were independently and positively associated with: HbA1c, duration of diabetes, the UKPDS cardiovascular risk score (for protein carbonyls); age, LDL-cholesterol (for 8-isoprostane); and triglycerides serum levels (for MDA). Our findings indicate that the process of oxidative stress tends to increase in patients with DMT2 and NASH, compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. This evidence suggests that an antioxidant therapy might prove useful in the treatment of patients with DMT2 and NASH.
Udenze Ifeoma Christiana
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in people with metabolic syndrome and to determine the association between the liver enzymes and obesity, insulin resistance, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 50 adult men and women with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched males and females without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the student′s t-test. Regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the liver enzymes ALP (P = 0.031, ALT (P = 0.019, and GGT (P = 0.037, as well as in the inflammatory markers CRP (P = 0.019 and the cytokine IL-6 (P = 0.040 between the two study groups. ALP and ALT showed significant correlation with waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, and waist/hip ratio (P < 0.05. Multivariate regression also identified ALT, AST, and ALP to be associated with IL-6 and CRP (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Liver enzyme levels were increased in metabolic syndrome and associated with obesity, fasting insulin, and CRP. Elevated liver enzymes may indicate dysmetabolism and increased
Hu, Chun; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Xuejing; Gao, Peng; Yang, Shikun; Han, Yachun; Chen, Xianghui; Xiao, Li; Yuan, Shuguang; Liu, Fuyou; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Sun, Lin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem which contributes to a significant morbidity and mortality in China. Concomitant inflammatory state further boosts the mortality due to cardiovascular events in patients with CKD undergoing dialysis. There is a general notion that Omega-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) have certain health benefits perhaps via the regulation of inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with CKD is controversial. We analyzed the data of oral supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in CKD patients by searching literature on database from inception to August 2016. The analysis included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) derived from multiple databases, and the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation versus the control cohorts were compared. All of the data analysis was calculated by RevMan 5.2. A total of 12 RCTs involving 487 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Among them 254 patients received omega-3 fatty acids and 233 patients served as controls who received placebo. The meta-analysis revealed no statistical significance in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.44 to 0.05; P = 0.11), IL-6 (SMD, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.33 to 0.33; P = 0.99) and TNF-α (SMD, 0.14; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.44; P = 0.38) between the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation group and control. This suggested that there is insufficient evidence to conclude the benefit of omega-3 fatty acids oral supplementation in reducing serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in patients with CKD. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.
Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, K; Savolainen, M J; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Brader, L; Mortensen, L S; Cloetens, L; Johansson-Persson, A; Onning, G; Landin-Olsson, M; Herzig, K-H; Hukkanen, J; Rosqvist, F; Iggman, D; Paananen, J; Pulkki, K J; Siloaho, M; Dragsted, L; Barri, T; Overvad, K; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hedemann, M S; Arner, P; Dahlman, I; Borge, G I A; Baardseth, P; Ulven, S M; Gunnarsdottir, I; Jónsdóttir, S; Thorsdottir, I; Orešič, M; Poutanen, K S; Risérus, U; Akesson, B
Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m(-2) , 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L(-1) 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37 ng L(-1) , P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Ruth K Michl
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO is produced within the respiratory tract and can be detected in exhaled bronchial and nasal air. The concentration varies in specific diseases, being elevated in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis, but decreased in primary ciliary dyskinesia. In cystic fibrosis (CF, conflicting data exist on NO levels, which are reported unexplained as either decreased or normal. Functionally, NO production in the paranasal sinuses is considered as a location-specific first-line defence mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between upper and lower airway NO levels and blood inflammatory parameters, CF-pathogen colonisation, and clinical data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasal and bronchial NO concentrations from 57 CF patients were determined using an electrochemical analyser and correlated to pathogen colonisation of the upper and lower airways which were microbiologically assessed from nasal lavage and sputum samples. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to clinical parameters (lung function, BMI, laboratory findings (CRP, leucocytes, total-IgG, fibrinogen, and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. There were significant correlations between nasal and bronchial NO levels (rho = 0.48, p<0.001, but no correlation between NO levels and specific pathogen colonisation. In patients receiving azithromycin, significantly reduced bronchial NO and a tendency to reduced nasal NO could be found. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation of nasal NO to CRP (rho = -0.28, p = 0.04 and to leucocytes (rho = -0.41, p = 0.003 was observed. In contrast, bronchial NO levels showed no correlation to clinical or inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSION: Given that NO in the paranasal sinuses is part of the first-line defence mechanism against pathogens, our finding of reduced nasal NO in CF patients with elevated systemic inflammatory markers indicates impaired upper airway defence. This
Mones M. Abu Shady
Conclusion: The elevation of plasma neopterin concentrations in early JIA patients may indicate stimulation of immune response. Serum neopterin can be used as a sensitive marker for assaying background inflammation and disease activity score in JIA patients.
Full Text Available Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint
Ji Woo Lee
Full Text Available PurposeSerum glycated albumin (GA has been recently used as another glycemic marker that reflects shorter term glycemic control than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Insulin secretory function and glycemic fluctuation might be correlated with the ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c in diabetic adult patients. This study investigated the association of GA and GA/HbA1c ratio with the levels of fasting C-peptide, fasting plasma glucose in type 1 and type 2 pediatric diabetes.MethodsTotal 50 cases from 42 patients were included. The subjects were classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM (n=30 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n=20 group. The associations among HbA1c, GA, and GA/HbA1c ratio were examined. The relationship between the three glycemic indices and fasting glucose, fasting C-peptide were analyzed.ResultsMean values of GA, the GA/HbA1c ratio were significantly higher in T1DM than T2DM. GA (r=0.532, P=0.001, HbA1c (r=0.519, P=0.002 and the GA/HbA1c ratio (r=0.409, P=0.016 were correlated with the fasting plasma glucose. Fasting C-peptide level arranged 4.22±3.22 ng/mL in T2DM, which was significantly above the values in T1DM (0.26±0.49 ng/mL. There were no significant correlation between HbA1c and fasting C-peptide level. However, GA and the GA/HbA1c ratio exhibited inverse correlations with fasting C-peptide level (r=-0.214, P=0.002; r=-0.516, P<0.001.ConclusionGA seems to more accurately reflects fasting plasma glucose level than HbA1c. GA, GA/HbA1c ratio appear to reflect insulin secretory function.
Pan, Y W; Zhou, Z G; Wang, M; Dong, J Q; Du, K P; Li, S; Liu, Y L; Lv, P J; Gao, J B
Early detection and treatment is critically important for lung cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 participate in lung cancer regulation. CEA, CA125, and ProGRP are commonly used serum tumor markers for lung cancer. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP when used in combination with IL-6, IL-10, and MCP in lung cancer diagnosis. Serum from three different groups (healthy controls, individuals with high risk for lung cancer, and lung cancer patients) was collected. Electrochemiluminescence was used to detect expressions of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP; ELISA was used to examine serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1. Specificity and sensitivity of single as well as combination markers in lung cancer diagnosis were determined. Results indicated that CEA, CA125, ProGRP, and MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in lung cancer patients as compared to those in controls and high risk individuals. Higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels were observed in both lung cancer patients and high-risk individuals as compared to those in controls. Highest sensitivity (95.2%) in cancer diagnosis was achieved when all six markers were used. This was followed by a combination of IL-6, IL-10, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP (92.6%). The most sensitive (88.6%). Four-marker combination was composed of IL-6, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP. As the combined usage of CEA, CA125, ProGRP, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 significantly improved sensitivity of lung cancer detection; this biomarker arrangement may be beneficial for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer.
Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Fernández-Fernández, Ceila; Bermejo, Laura M; Morencos, Esther; Romero-Moraleda, Blanca; Gómez-Candela, Carmen
Inflammation markers (IM) have been associated with the development of chronic diseases. This study compares the effects on IM of three exercise programs combined with a hypocaloric diet. 119 overweight participants (73 women, 46 men) aged 18-50 years were randomised into four treatment groups: strength training (S; n = 30), endurance training (E; n = 30), combined S + E (SE; n = 30), and a diet and physical activity recommendations group (D; n = 29). Energy intake, anthropometric variables (AV), training variables (VO2peak, strength index, dynamometric strength index [DSI]) and plasma IM were recorded at baseline and after 22 weeks of treatment. 84 participants completed the study. At 22 weeks, all groups showed a significantly reduced energy intake (P hypocaloric diet improved AV and reduced plasma leptin concentrations. No differences were seen between groups in terms of TNF-α, IL-6 or CRP reduction. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT01116856. http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P
The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might
Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011
Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…
Johansen, JS; Milman, N; Hansen, M
macrophages and giant cells in the granulomatous sarcoid lesions of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis produce YKL-40 and to determine whether serum YKL-40 in these patients were associated with disease activity. Methods: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 27 patients with a histological...
Zhou Zhenxian; Geng Quanlin; Gong Xiping; Yang Chenbao
Objective: To evaluate the value of combined determination of serum levels of TBA, PC-III, IV-C, HA, CG and LN in diagnosis of chronic hepatic diseases. Methods: Serum TBA levels were measured with totally automatic enzymatic method and the other five markers with RIA in 118 patients with various types of hepatic diseases as well as in 31 controls. Results: Serum levels of TBA and the other markers were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (p<0.01). Among the various types of diseases, values of the tested markers increased along with the increase of the severity of the disease process. Conclusion: Combined measurements of serum levels of TBA and other five markers were of important value for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome prediction of hepatic fibrosis
Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A
Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)
I. Yu. Karpuk
Full Text Available The goal of present study was to determine the levels of mast cell tryptase (MCT in whole saliva, and blood serum IgE antibodies in patients with intolerance for dental prosthetic materials (IDM before and after removal of prosthetic constructs. We have conducted examination of the patients suffering from the IDM symptoms, who were divided into 2 groups depending on the time span between the end of prosthetic treatment and emergence of pathological symptoms: group 1 (n = 19, 1 to 14 days (symptoms emerged immediately after treatment; group 2, (n = 18, IDM symptoms occuring 6 months to 5 years later; group 3 (n = 16, controls without complaints for IDM. Whole saliva (WS samples were collected before removal of prosthetic constructs and 1 month later. In group 1, salivary MCT was detected in 16 subjects (84.2% before removal of prosthetic constructs, while 1 month after MCT not detectable in saliva (p < 0.001. Salivary MCT in control group was not detected both before and after removal of prosthetic constructions. Hence, mast cell tryptase in whole saliva could be a diagnostic marker for intolerance to dental materials. In group 1 of the patients, we detected IgE antibodies to Ni-HSA in 78.9% of patients, IgE antibodies to Cr-HSA in 68.4% of patients and IgE to Co-HSA in 52.6% of patients. Salivary MCT levels strongly correlated with IgE levels to Ni-HSA (Rspearman = 0.9; p < 0.05, showing moderate correlation with Cr-HSA (Rspearman = 0.7; p < 0.05. The data obtained suggest some prevalence of immediate type immune reaction against dental materials. Notable local increase of MCT level could be an important diagnostic marker of local inflammatory process initiation. MCT in whole saliva was found only in 3 patients (16.7% from group 2; those had IgE antibodies to metal ions in blood serum, thus indicating IgE-dependent reaction type. Other patients from group 2 were likely to develop a different type of allergic reaction, e. g. delayed or
N. S. Sergeeva
Full Text Available The review summarizes the results of studies of levels and/or activity in the blood serum of a metabolic marker thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1 of proliferating cells in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD and malignant neopasms (NM.Comparison of the data in the literature in some cases have been difficult due to the fundamentally different methods of detection the activity or concentration of TK-1, used by authors, even despite the presence of relatively high (but not absolute correlation between these parameters (maximum 0.8.Many clinical and laboratory studies have shown levels of correlation and/or TK-1 activity with clinical stages and different types of LPD and solid MN and can serve as a prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival of patients. When solid MN shown that the activity of TK-1 accurately reflects the proliferative status of tumor.A comparison of the dynamics of TC-1 in the process of chemotherapy and its clinical efficacy, different authors have received fundamentally different results: in some cases the marker reduction was associated with treatment efficacy, and in part of publications they show that the clinically relevant effects of the treatment observed increase in the marker after the first chemotherapy.The entire set of received data demonstrates the relevance of the further development of the algorithm use of TK-1 in oncology practice.
Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Chen Yichang; Ding Yingshu
Objective: To explore the desirability of setting a routine of test for detection of the serum markers of several viral infections hospitalized patients before anticipated blood exposure. Methods: Serum levels of five HBV markers, anti-HCV, anti-HIV (with ELISA) and ALT were determined in 214 hospitalized patients before forthcoming blood exposure as well as in 2468 controls. Results: The positive rate of each of the above-mentioned markers in the patients was: HBsAg 15.2% (397/2614), HBcAb- IgG 72.5% (1895/2614), anti-HCV 3.91% (102/2614), anti- HIV 0.08% (2/2614) and ALT level was above 40 u in 8.7% of the patients (227/2614). Each of the positive rate was significantly higher than that in the controls. Conclusion: There is a substantial portion of subjects harboring viral infections in the hospitalized patients. It is imperative to have these patients identified before blood exposure so that proper cautions can be taken and preventive measures implemented to minimize possible nosocomial as well as patients-to-staff infections. Moreover, any potential legal problems can also be appropriately dealt with. (authors)
Li, Kun; Xiu, Chen-Lin; Gao, Li-Ming; Liang, Hua-Gang; Xu, Shu-Feng; Shi, Ming; Li, Jian; Liu, Zhi-Wei
Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnostic methods, the status of early detection was not achieved. So, a new diagnostic method is needed. The aim of this study is to obtain the highly specific nucleic acid aptamers with strong affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients for targeting the serum. Aptamers specifically binding to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients were screened from the random single-stranded DNA library with agarose beads as supports and the serum as a target by target-substituting subtractive SELEX technique and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Subsequently, the secondary single-stranded DNA library obtained by 10 rounds of screening was amplified to double-stranded DNA, followed by high-throughput genome sequence analysis to screen aptamers with specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Finally, six aptamers obtained by 10 rounds of screening were identified with high specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Compared with other five aptamers, the aptamer 43 was identified both with the highest specificity to bind target molecule and without any obvious affinity to non-specific proteins. The screened aptamers have relatively high specificity to combine tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients, which provides breakthrough points for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.
Antonio J. Lepedda
Full Text Available Apolipoproteins are very heterogeneous protein family, implicated in plasma lipoprotein structural stabilization, lipid metabolism, inflammation, or immunity. Obtaining detailed information on apolipoprotein composition and structure may contribute to elucidating lipoprotein roles in atherogenesis and to developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lipoprotein-associated disorders. This study aimed at developing a comprehensive method for characterizing the apolipoprotein component of plasma VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with Mass Spectrometry analysis, useful for identifying potential markers of plaque presence and vulnerability. The adopted method allowed obtaining reproducible 2-DE maps of exchangeable apolipoproteins from VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Twenty-three protein isoforms were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. Differential proteomic analysis allowed for identifying increased levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A protein (AP SAA in all lipoprotein fractions, especially in LDL from atherosclerotic patients. Results have been confirmed by western blotting analysis on each lipoprotein fraction using apo AI levels for data normalization. The higher levels of AP SAA found in patients suggest a role of LDL as AP SAA carrier into the subendothelial space of artery wall, where AP SAA accumulates and may exert noxious effects.
Kulkarni, Gayithri H; Jadhav, Prashant; Kulkarni, Kiran; Shinde, Sachin V; Patil, Yojana B; Kumar, Manish
Dental implants form the mainstay of dental treatment involving rehabilitation of missing teeth. One of the major concerns for the clinicians doing dental implants is the postsurgical failure of dental implants. Success of dental implants is dependent upon the skills of the surgeon and the amount and quality of the bone remaining at the edentulous area where dental implant has to be placed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitrites are few of the enzymes and molecules which are said to be altered in inflammation. However, their exact role in the inflammatory processes around natural tooth and dental implant is still unclear. Hence we comparatively evaluated the levels of MPO and nitrites in the areas around the dental implants and natural teeth. The present study comprises 42 patients who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants from 2011 to 2014. Depth of probing value (DP), score of plaque index (SPI), gingival index (GI), and index of gingival bleeding time (GBT) were evaluated for the assessment of the periimplant soft tissue changes. Assessment of inflammation around the dental implant surface and around natural tooth was done based on the readings of these parameters. For the measurement of the MPO levels, spectrophotometric MPO assay was used. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The mean plaque index values were 1.56 and 0.97 in periodontitis cases of natural teeth and inflamed cases of dental implants respectively. While comparing mean plaque index, mean probing depth, and mean gingival bleeding index in between the two groups, significant difference was obtained. Mean MPO concentration in periodontitis and gingivitis cases in natural teeth were 0.683 and 0.875 U/μL, while in inflamed dental implant cases, the mean value was 0.622 U/μL. While comparing the total MPO levels, total nitrite levels, and total nitrite concentration in between two study groups, significant difference was obtained
Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.
Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti
Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.
Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum
Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti
Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo
-oestrogenic activity in serum was statistically significant for women who had been at work within the last week, while no association was observed for women who had not been at work during the most recent week. Conclusions: The study illustrates the usefulness of this biomarker for qualitative assessment...... with oestrogen-like properties in an occupational setting. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from two separate cohorts representing non-pregnant and pregnant female greenhouse workers in Denmark. Serum samples from 270 non-pregnant women and 173 pregnant women were analysed for xeno-oestrogenic activity......, medium or high based on information collected by detailed interviews of the women and the employers. Results: In both cohorts, an exposure-associated increase in the xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum was demonstrated. Among the pregnant women, the association between pesticide exposure and xeno...
Conclusion: Although the positive CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF rates were observed at low values during the NSLCLC serum diagnosis, they still played an important role in diagnosing lung cancer. Significant levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF were detected in the serum. The amounts found were useful for diagnosing NSCLC patients who depended on the currently limited biomarker development.
Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate renal function measurements are important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In contrast to creatinine, the production of serum cystatin C has been extensively reported to be unaffected by body muscle mass, age, gender, and nutritional status.MethodsOur study included 37 samples from diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients for whom serum creatinine tests had been requested and 40 samples from a healthy populations in Dong-A University Hospital between May 2010 and June 2010. The assay precision (i.e., the coefficient of variation and the reference range of the serum cystatin C test were evaluated. We compared the estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs based on cystatin C with those based on creatinine. Moreover, we investigated the influences of age, gender, weight, and muscle mass on serum creatinine and serum cystatin C.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between GFR based on creatinine and that based on cystatin C (r=0.79, P<0.0001 among the diabetic CKD patients. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly correlated with body weight and muscle mass, but the strengths of these correlations were greater for serum creatinine. The precision study revealed excellent results for both the high and low controls. The 95% reference interval of cystatin C in the healthy population was 0.371 to 1.236 mg/L.ConclusionBased on these results, we conclude that, despite the strong correlation between serum creatinine and cystatin C, cystatin C is less affected by weight and muscle mass and might represent a better alternative for the assessment of renal function.
Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo [Dept. of Ultrasonography, Baoji Central Hospital, Baoji (China); Ai, Hong [Dept. of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)
To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo; Ai, Hong
To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis
Zhang Guifen; Ma yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi
Objective: To explore the effect of matrine on reversal of hepatic fibrosis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid ( HA), laminin (LN) and type III procollagen (PC III) levels were measured with RIA in 40 patients with chronic B hepatitis treated with matrine and 40 other patients treated without matrine both before and 3, 6 months after treatment as well as in 32 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum contents of all the three markers in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05) and increased further at 6 months (vs before treatment, P 0.05), but the levels in the matrine group were significantly lower than those in the group without matrine at 6 months (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Matrine exerts marked anti-fibrosis effect in patients with chronic B hepatitis. (authors)
Vondran, Florian W R; Timrott, Kai; Kollrich, Sonja; Steinhoff, Ann-Kristin; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Juergen; Lehner, Frank; Schwinzer, Reinhard
Acute rejection (AR) remains a major cause for long-term kidney allograft failure. Reliable immunological parameters suitable to define the pre-transplant immune state and hence the individual risk of graft rejection are highly desired to preferably adapt the immunosuppressive regimen in advance. Donor and third party alloreactivities were determined by mixed lymphocyte cultures. Soluble forms of CD25, CD30, and CD44 were detected in patients' serum by ELISA. Various lymphocyte subpopulations were measured using flow cytometry. All patients received triple immunosuppression (tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/steroids) and were grouped according to biopsy results within the first year: rejection-free (RF, n = 13), borderline (BL, n = 5), or acute rejection (AR, n = 7). Patients with AR showed the highest pre-transplant alloreactivities and serum levels (sCD25/sCD30/sCD44) according to the pattern RF transplant frequencies of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells lacking CD28, but lower numbers of CD8(+) CD161(bright) T cells and NK cells than RF individuals. Pre-transplant immune state defined by alloreactivity, serum markers, and particular lymphocyte subsets seems to correlate with occurrence of graft rejection after kidney transplantation. A prognostic score based on pre-transplant serum levels has shown great potential for prediction of rejection episodes and should be further evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Loo Keat Wei
Full Text Available Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke.
Sakamoto, Misato; Shoji, Atsushi; Sugawara, Masao
Functionalized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing a fluorescence dye Rhodamine 6G is proposed as a marker in sandwich-type immunoassay for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lipocalin-2 (LCN2). The GUVs were prepared by the electroformation method and functionalized with anti-BSA antibody and anti-LCN2 antibody, respectively. The purification of antibody-modified GUVs was achieved by conventional centrifugation and a washing step in a flow system. To antigen on an antibody slip, antibody-modified GUVs were added as a marker and incubated. After wash-out of excess reagents and lysis of the bound GUVs with Triton X-100, the fluorescence image was captured. The fluorometric immunoassays for BSA and LCN2 exhibited lower detection limits of 4 and 80 fg ml(-)(1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramsey, Jordan M; Cooper, Jason D; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bahn, Sabine
Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (pdepression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data.
Fragoso, Alex; Laboria, Noemi; Botero, Mary Luz; Bejarano, Diego; Latta, Daniel; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas E.; Kemmner, Wolfgang; Katakis, Ioanis; Gärtner, Claudia; Drese, Klaus; O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
A microsystem integrating electrochemical biosensoric detection for the simultaneous multiplexed detection of protein markers of breast cancer is reported. The immobilization of antibodies against each of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) was achieved via crosslinking to a bipodal dithiol chemisorbed on gold electrodes. This bipodal dithiol had the double function of eliminating non-specific binding and optimal spacing of the anchor antibodies for maximum accessibility to the target proteins. Storage conditions were optimized, demonstrating a long-term stability of the reporter conjugates jointly stored within a single reservoir in the microsystem. The final system has been optimized in terms of incubation times, temperatures and simultaneous, multiplexed detection of the protein markers was achieved in less than 10 minutes with less than ng/mL detection limits. The microsystem has been validated using real patient serum samples and excellent correlation with ELISA results obtained.
Köhne, Jessica L; Ormsbee, Michael J; McKune, Andrew J
The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on markers of inflammation and muscle damage, perceived soreness and lower limb performance are unknown in endurance-trained female athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single-bout of downhill running (DHR) on hsC-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, lower limb circumferences and performance. Trained female runners ( n = 8; 29 ± 5.9 years) (VO 2max : ≥ 50 ml -1 .kg -1 .min -1 , midfollicular phase (7-11 days post-menses) were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner into two groups: MIPS ( n = 4) ingested one serving of NO Shotgun daily for 28 days prior to DHR and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits; Control (CON) ( n = 4) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner to MIPS. hsCRP, IL-6, CK, perceived soreness, limb circumferences, and performance measures (flexibility, squat jump peak power) were tested on 5 occasions; immediately before (PRE), immediately post-DHR, 24, 48 and 72 h post-DHR. There were main effects of time for CK ( p = 0.05), pain pressure threshold (right tibialis anterior ( p = 0.010), right biceps femoris ( p = 0.01), and left iliotibial band (ITB) ( p = 0.05) across all time points), and maximum squat jump power ( p = 0.04). Compared with 24 h post-DHR, maximum squat jump power was significantly lower at 48 h post-DHR ( p = 0.05). Lower body perceived soreness was significantly increased at 24 h ( p = 0.02) and baseline to 48 h ( p = 0.02) post DHR. IL-6 peaked immediately post-DHR ( p = 0.03) and hsCRP peaked at 24 h post-DHR ( p = 0.06). Calculation of effect sizes indicated a moderate attenuation of hsCRP in MIPS at 72 h post-DHR. Consumption of MIPS for 4 weeks prior to a single bout of DHR attenuated inflammation three days post, but did
Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y
We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity.
Li, Fangxuan; Li, Shixia; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Juntian
There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients. We analyzed the correlation between serum level of CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and lymph node metastasis in 1501 gastric cancer patients. Lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was related with tumor location, Bormann type, tumor size, histological type, depth of invasion and TNM stage (p CEA were positively correlated with the metastatic lymph node counts and the N stage (p tumor markers were higher (p tumor markers, the positive rates of tumor markers combination were higher. The combination of CA724 + CA242 + CA199 + CEA had highest positive rate. The higher CEA level related to N1 stage patients while higher CA199 was related with poor prognosis for N1 stage patients. For N0 and N2 stage patients, evaluation of CA724 indicated poorer prognosis. For N1 and N2 stage gastric patients, the patients with increased CA242 inclined to have shorter survival time. The tumor makers CA724, CA242, CA199 and CEA were evaluated significantly in the gastric patients with later N stage. The combination of these four tumor markers maybe prefer diagnostic index of gastric cancer and its lymph node metastasis. These tumor markers can be a possible indicator of poorer prognosis in different N stage patients.
Blyth, Brian J; Farhavar, Arash; Gee, Christopher; Hawthorn, Brendan; He, Hua; Nayak, Akshata; Stöcklein, Veit; Bazarian, Jeffrey J
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which prevents the entry into the central nervous system (CNS) of most water-soluble molecules over 500 Da, is often disrupted after trauma. Post-traumatic BBB disruption may have important implications for prognosis and therapy. Assessment of BBB status is not routine in clinical practice because available techniques are invasive. The gold-standard measure, the cerebrospinal fluide (CSF)-serum albumin quotient (Q(A)), requires the measurement of albumin in CSF and serum collected contemporaneously. Accurate, less invasive techniques are necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Q(A) and serum concentrations of monomeric transthyretin (TTR) or S100B. Nine subjects with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score < or =8) and 11 subjects with non-traumatic headache who had CSF collected by ventriculostomy or lumbar puncture (LP) were enrolled. Serum and CSF were collected at the time of LP for headache subjects and at 12, 24, and 48 h after ventriculostomy for TBI subjects. The Q(A) was calculated for all time points at which paired CSF and serum samples were available. Serum S100B and TTR levels were also measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to determine the relationship between the serum proteins and QA. Seven TBI subjects had abnormal Q(A)'s indicating BBB dysfunction. The remaining TBI and control subjects had normal BBB function. No significant relationship between TTR and QA was found. A statistically significant linear correlation between serum S100B and Q(A) was present (r = 0.432, p = 0.02). ROC analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between Q(A) and serum S100B concentrations at 12 h after TBI (AUC = 0.800; SE 0.147, 95% CI 0.511-1.089). Using an S100B concentration cutoff of 0.027 ng=ml, specificity for abnormal Q(A) was 90% or higher at each time point. We conclude that
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in the serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsA total of 68 NAFLD patients who were admitted to The Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from July 2014 to April 2016 were enrolled as NAFLD group, and 70 healthy persons who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Among the 68 patients in the NAFLD group, 24 had NAFLD alone and 44 were complicated by abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, ALT, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and serum markers of iron metabolism ［serum iron (SI, serum ferritin (SF, and serum hepcidin (HEPC］ were measured for all patients, and the correlations between abnormal ALT level and serum markers of iron metabolism were analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between two variables. ResultsThe NAFLD group had significantly higher body mass index and serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, and TG than the healthy control group (t=9.8, 8.6, 8.5, 9.2, and 2.7, all P＜0.05. Compared with the healthy control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher levels of SI (21.7±7.1 μmol/L vs 187±6.9 μmol/L, t=2.3, P=0.02 and SF (340.2±257.6 μg/L vs 119.1±81.2 μg/L, t=6.7, P＜0.01 and a significantly lower level of HEPC (12.2±5.3 μg/L vs 22.2±6.5 μg/L, t=9.9, P＜0.01. Compared with those with NAFLD alone, the patients complicated by abnormal ALT level had significantly higher serum levels of ALT (89±58 U/L vs 26±8 U/L, t=7.1, P＜0.01, SI (23.4±6.2 μmol/L vs 19.6±7.9 μmol/L, t=2.2, P=0.03, and SF (406.2±290.0 μg/L vs 219.4±112.0 μg/L, t=3.7, P＜0.01, as well as a significantly
Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.
Esnafoglu, Erman; Cırrık, Selma; Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Erdil, Abdullah; Ertürk, Emine Yurdakul; Daglı, Abdullah; Noyan, Tevfik
To evaluate the serum levels of zonulin, which regulates tight junctions between enterocytes and is a physiological modulator controlling intestinal permeability, in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Serum zonulin levels were determined in 32 patients with ASD and 33 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of ASD symptoms was assessed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Serum zonulin levels were significantly higher in the patients with ASD (122.3 ± 98.46 ng/mL) compared with the healthy controls (41.89 ± 45.83 ng/mL). There was a positive correlation between zonulin levels and Childhood Autism Rating Scale score when all subjects were assessed (r = 0.523; P zonulin, which regulates intestinal permeability, plays a role in the development of symptoms of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Advances in the "omics" field bring about the need for a high number of good quality samples. Many omics studies take advantage of biobanked samples to meet this need. Most of the laboratory errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Therefore evidence-based standard operating procedures for the pre-analytical phase as well as markers to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples taking into account the desired downstream analysis are urgently needed. We studied concentration changes of metabolites in serum samples due to pre-storage handling conditions as well as due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We collected fasting serum samples and subjected aliquots to up to four freeze-thaw cycles and to pre-storage handling delays of 12, 24 and 36 hours at room temperature (RT and on wet and dry ice. For each treated aliquot, we quantified 127 metabolites through a targeted metabolomics approach. We found a clear signature of degradation in samples kept at RT. Storage on wet ice led to less pronounced concentration changes. 24 metabolites showed significant concentration changes at RT. In 22 of these, changes were already visible after only 12 hours of storage delay. Especially pronounced were increases in lysophosphatidylcholines and decreases in phosphatidylcholines. We showed that the ratio between the concentrations of these molecule classes could serve as a measure to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples in our study. In contrast, we found quite stable metabolite concentrations during up to four freeze-thaw cycles. We concluded that pre-analytical RT handling of serum samples should be strictly avoided and serum samples should always be handled on wet ice or in cooling devices after centrifugation. Moreover, serum samples should be frozen at or below -80°C as soon as possible after centrifugation.
G. V. Kakurina
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is often asymptomatic until it reaches the advanced stage. Currently, there are no available markers that can accurately predict the risk of progression of epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the level of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP-1 in the blood serum to identify groups of increased risk of cancer in patients with chronic laryngeal and hypopharyngeal hyperplasia associated with epithelial dysplasia. Material and methods. The blood serums from 45 patients with SCCHN (T1–4N0–3M0, 12 patients with chronic inflammatory laryngeal and hypopharyngeal diseases and 15 heath subjects were examined. The blood analysis was performed using the CAP1 ELISA kit (Cusabio on the Biochrom Anthos 2020 Microplate IEA Reader. Results. The serum level of САР1 was higher by 75 % in patients with SCCHN (Т1N0M0 than in patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis. Moreover, differences in the serum level of САР1 were observed between healthy subjects and patients with chronic laryngeal hyperplasia. In SCCHN patients with regional metastases, CAP1 concentration in the blood serum was 2 times higher compared to that observed in SCCHN patients without regional metastases (p≤0.01. Conclusion. The study results showed the feasibility of using the level of CAP1 for distinguishing patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis from those with laryngeal cancer, as well as for early detection of SCCHN and the development of new method for prediction of disease.
Vangsted, A.; Drivsholm, L.; Andersen, E.
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was recently suggested as a marker for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the NCAM in 78% of SCLC patients and in 25% of patients with other cancer forms. NCAM was proposed to be the most sensitive marker...... for SCLC, and it may also be an important prognostic marker for SCLC. We used a competitive ELISA to analyze the concentrations of NCAM in sera from 96 SCLC patients, 16 patients with non-SCLC, 4 patients with other cancer forms, and 16 healthy controls. All sera were collected at the time of diagnosis......, before the patients received chemotherapy. The polyclonal antibody used in the assay recognized all three isoforms of NCAM. The concentration of NCAM was related to clinical parameters of the patients such as age, sex, blood group status, stage of disease, organ site involvement of metastases, survival...
development of breast cancer screening test. Increasing our understanding of the role of biomarkers in the etiology and progression of breast cancer...granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia . Hypertens Pregnancy 1999;18:95 – 106. 50. Bux J, Hofmann C, Welte K. Serum G-CSF
Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul
The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; pstress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children. We used a newly designed transthyretin test kit to evaluate nutritional status of children admitted to our hospital. There is no national reference standard; hence we made a comparative study using anthropometric measurements and measurement of serum albumin level. A total of 102 children (51 controls and 51 study subjects were included in this study. Transthyretin was found to be more sensitive to changes in acute malnutrition than albumin, and its level reflects recent dietary intake compared to overall nutritional status. The method is more sensitive and reliable for detection of acute malnutrition, along with anthropometric methods. Measurement of serum transthyretin level can be used as a valuable diagnostic method for assessment of acute malnutrition among children.
Effects of a High Protein and Omega-3-Enriched Diet with or Without Creatine Supplementation on Markers of Soreness and Inflammation During 5 Consecutive Days of High Volume Resistance Exercise in Females
Sara Hayward, Colin D. Wilborn, Lem W. Taylor, Stacie L. Urbina, Jordan J. Outlaw, Cliffa A. Foster, Michael D. Roberts
Full Text Available We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4 followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8. Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a no intervention (CTL, n = 10 b a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d (DI, n = 8, and c the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d (DI+C, n = 10. During week 9, participants resistance-trained for five consecutive days whereby 8 sets of 10 target repetitions at 70% one repetition maximum (1RM were performed each day for bench press, back squat, deadlift, and hip-thrusters with the intent of eliciting muscle soreness and inflammation. Prior to and 24 h following each of the 5 bouts muscle soreness (DOMS was assessed via questionnaire, and fasting blood was obtained and analyzed for serum cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. No group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for training volume over the 5-d overreaching protocol. Furthermore, no group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for serum cortisol, IL-6 or CRP, and DOMS actually decreased in all groups 24 h following the fifth day training bout. This study demonstrates that, regardless of protein, omega-3 fatty acid and/or creatine supplementation, 5 days of consecutive resistance training does not alter perceived muscle soreness, training volume, and/or markers of inflammation in novice resistance-trained females.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cystic Fibrosis associated liver disease (CFLD develops in approximately 30% of CF patients. However, routine sensitive diagnostic tools for CFLD are lacking. Within this study, we aimed to identify new experimental biomarkers for the detection of CFLD. METHODS: 45 CF patients were included in the study and received transient elastography. Differential regulation of 220 different serum proteins was assessed in a subgroup of patients with and without CFLD. Most interesting candidate proteins were further quantified and validated by ELISA in the whole patient cohort. To assess a potential relation of biomarker expression to the degree of hepatic fibrosis, serum biomarkers were further determined in 18 HCV patients where liver histology was available. RESULTS: 43 serum proteins differed at least 2-fold in patients with CFLD compared to those without liver disease as identified in proteome profiling. In ELISA quantifications, TIMP-4 and Endoglin were significantly up-regulated in patients with CFLD as diagnosed by clinical guidelines or increased liver stiffness. Pentraxin-3 was significantly decreased in patients with CFLD. Serum TIMP-4 and Endoglin showed highest values in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis compared to those with fibrosis but without cirrhosis. At a cut-off value of 6.3 kPa, transient elastography compassed a very high diagnostic accuracy and specificity for the detection of CFLD. Among the biomarkers, TIMP-4 and Endoglin exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for CFLD. Diagnostic sensitivities and negative predictive values were increased when elastography and TIMP-4 and Endoglin were combined for the detection of CFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Serum TIMP-4 and Endoglin are increased in CFLD and their expression correlates with hepatic staging. Determination of TIMP-4 and Endoglin together with transient elastography can increase the sensitivity for the non-invasive diagnosis of CFLD.
Sinkala, Edford; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Nsokolo, Bright; Kayamba, Violet; Vinikoor, Michael; Zulu, Rabison; Bwalya, Martin; Foster, Graham R; Kelly, Paul
Cirrhosis is the dominant cause of portal hypertension globally but may be overshadowed by hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in the tropics. In Zambia, schistosomiasis seroprevalence can reach 88% in endemic areas. Bacterial translocation (BT) drives portal hypertension in cirrhosis contributing to mortality but remains unexplored in HSS. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic may reduce BT. We aimed to explore the influence of rifaximin on BT, inflammation, and fibrosis in HSS. In this phase II open-label trial (ISRCTN67590499), 186 patients with HSS in Zambia were evaluated and 85 were randomized to standard care with or without rifaximin for 42 days. Changes in markers of inflammation, BT, and fibrosis were the primary outcomes. BT was measured using plasma 16S rRNA, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and lipopolysaccharide, whereas hyaluronan was used to measure fibrosis. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) assessed inflammation. 16S rRNA reduced from baseline (median 146 copies/µL, interquartile range [IQR] 9, 537) to day 42 in the rifaximin group (median 63 copies/µL, IQR 12, 196), P < 0.01. The rise in sCD14 was lower ( P < 0.01) in the rifaximin group (median rise 122 ng/mL, IQR-184, 783) than in the non-rifaximin group (median rise 832 ng/mL, IQR 530, 967). TNFR1 decreased ( P < 0.01) in the rifaximin group (median -39 ng/mL IQR-306, 563) but increased in the non-rifaximin group (median 166 ng/mL, IQR 3, 337). Other markers remained unaffected. Rifaximin led to a reduction of inflammatory markers and bacterial 16S rRNA which may implicate BT in the inflammation in HSS.
Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Dombernowsky, P
CA 125 is currently widely applied in the management of patients with ovarian cancer. However, a change in results of CA 125, which should be considered significant, has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of CA 125 to signal progressive ovarian cancer during fo...... utility of serological tumor markers in patients with ovarian cancer....
Jeong, Jae Yoon; Kim, Tae Yeob; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Oh, Young-Ha; Yoo, Kyo-Sang
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of LSM for predicting significant and advanced fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers. METHODS: We consecutively analyzed 70 patients with various chronic liver diseases. Liver fibrosis was staged from F0 to F4 according to the Batts and Ludwig scoring system. Significant and advanced fibrosis was defined as stage F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3, respectively. The accuracy of prediction for fibrosis was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Seventy patients, 15 were belonged to F0-F1 stage, 20 F2, 13 F3 and 22 F4. LSM was increased with progression of fibrosis stage (F0-F1: 6.77 ± 1.72, F2: 9.98 ± 3.99, F3: 15.80 ± 7.73, and F4: 22.09 ± 10.09, P < 0.001). Diagnostic accuracies of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 0.915 (95%CI: 0.824-0.968, P < 0.001) and 0.913 (95%CI: 0.821-0.967, P < 0.001), respectively. The cut-off values of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 8.6 kPa with 78.2% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity and 10.46 kPa with 88.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between LSM and serum hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen in diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: SWE showed a significant correlation with the severity of liver fibrosis and was useful and accurate to predict significant and advanced fibrosis, comparable with serum markers. PMID:25320528
Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, K; Savolainen, M J; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Brader, L; Mortensen, L S; Cloetens, L; Johansson-Persson, A; Önning, G; Landin-Olsson, M; Herzig, K-H; Hukkanen, J; Rosqvist, F; Iggman, D; Paananen, J; Pulkki, K J; Siloaho, M; Dragsted, L; Barri, T; Overvad, K; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hedemann, M S; Arner, P; Dahlman, I; Borge, G I A; Baardseth, P; Ulven, S M; Gunnarsdottir, I; Jónsdóttir, S; Thorsdottir, I; Orešič, M; Poutanen, K S; Risérus, U; Åkesson, B
Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18–24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m−2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (−0.18, mmol L−1 95% CI −0.35; −0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (−0.15, −0.28; −0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (−0.04, −0.07; −0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference −84, −133; −37 ng L−1, P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, −0.23, −0.41; −0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation. PMID:23398528
Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.
Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...
Thompson, R J; Rubery, E D; Jones, H M [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)
Brain type creatine kinase-BB (CPK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 113 women with breast cancer and 354 female controls. 80% of women with metastatic breast cancer had levels above 3 ng/ml (control range 0.5-3.7 ng/ml); the highest level was 23 ng/ml. 60% of women with local disease but no evidence of distant metastases showed levels above 3 ng/ml, the highest being 9.0 ng/ml. Of women who had presented with stage I, II, or III disease and postoperatively had no evidence of persistent disease 30% had levels above 3 ng/ml. Serial measurements in 31 patients indicated that the serum CPK-BB correlated with clinical response to treatment.
Thompson, R.J.; Rubery, E.D.; Jones, H.M.
Brain type creatine kinase-BB (CPK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 113 women with breast cancer and 354 female controls. 80% of women with metastatic breast cancer had levels above 3 ng/ml (control range 0.5-3.7 ng/ml); the highest level was 23 ng/ml. 60% of women with local disease but no evidence of distant metastases showed levels above 3 ng/ml, the highest being 9.0 ng/ml. Of women who had presented with stage I, II, or III disease and postoperatively had no evidence of persistent disease 30% had levels above 3 ng/ml. Serial measurements in 31 patients indicated that the serum CPK-BB correlated with clinical response to treatment. (author)
Grangl, Gernot; Zöhrer, Evelyn; Köstenberger, Martin; Jud, Alexandra; Fauler, Günter; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Marterer, Robert; Gamillscheg, Andreas; Jahnel, Jörg
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot may develop chronic right ventricular dysfunction and hepatic congestion over time. We hypothesized that bile acid metabolism is altered in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients and therefore sought to correlate right ventricular indices with serum bile acid levels. Indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume, as assessed by cardiac magnetic-resonance imaging, was classified as 150ml/m2 (Group 3, n = 6) in 29 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction and right ventricular ejection fraction were calculated. The serum bile acid profile, including 15 species, in these patients was determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Serum bile acid levels increased from Group 1 to Group 3 (2.5 ± 0.7; 4.1 ± 2.5; 6.0 ± 2.8 μmol/l, respectively) with significantly increased bile acid values in Group 3 compared to Group 1 (p≤0.05). In Group 3, but not in Group 1 and 2, a significant increase in glycine-conjugated bile acids was observed. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction increased (12 ± 1; 28 ± 16; 43 ± 3%, Groups 1-3, respectively) and right ventricular ejection fraction decreased (48.4 ± 6.4; 48.5 ± 6.5; 42.1 ± 5.3%, Groups 1-3, respectively) with rising indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume. These preliminary results suggest that serum bile acid levels are positively correlated with indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot; however, this needs to be confirmed in a larger patient cohort.
Martin H de Borst
Full Text Available Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12 with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP, patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID. Healthy subjects (n = 10 screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, p<0.01; IgG4: 50[16-68] vs 10[1-38] mg/24 h, p<0.001; beta-2-microglobulin: 200[55-404] vs 50[28-110] ug/24 h, p = 0.03; KIM-1: 9- vs 5- ug/24 h, p = 0.01. Fractional excretions of these damage markers were also reduced by NSAID. The distal tubular marker H-FABP showed a trend to reduction following NSAID treatment. Surprisingly, NSAID treatment did not reduce urinary excretion of the inflammation markers MCP-1 and NGAL, but did reduce plasma MCP-1 levels, resulting in an increased fractional MCP-1 excretion. In conclusion, the anti-proteinuric effect of indomethacin is associated with reduced urinary excretion of glomerular and tubular damage markers, but not with reduced excretion of renal
Moolchandani, K; Priyadarssini, M; Rajappa, M; Parameswaran, S; Revathy, G
Studies suggest that Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global burden health associated with significant comorbid conditions. Few biochemical parameters have gained significance in predicting the disease progression. The present work aimed to study the association of the simple biochemical parameter of serum bilirubin level with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to assess their association with the co-morbid conditions in CKD. We recruited 188 patients with CKD who attended a Nephrology out-patient department. eGFR values were calculated based on the serum creatinine levels using CKD-EPI formula. Various biochemical parameters including glucose, creatinine, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin were assayed in all study subjects. Study subjects were categorized into subgroups based on their eGFR values and their diabetic status and the parameters were compared among the different subgroups. We observed a significantly decreased serum bilirubin levels (p bilirubin levels (r = 0.92). We also observed a significant positive correlation between the eGFR levels and the direct bilirubin levels (r = 0.76). On multivariate linear regression analysis, we found that total and direct bilirubin independently predict eGFR, after adjusting for potential confounders (p bilirubin may help in predicting the early progression of CKD and more so in diabetic CKD.
Iwasa, Naoki; Takashima, Satoshi; Iwasa, Tatsuo; Iwasa, Kazuko; Suzuki, Tomomi; Kobatake, Yui; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Nishii, Naohito
This study examined the predictive value of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, measured during routine periodic health examinations, in the renal prognosis of dogs. A cohort of 140 dogs weighing C concentrations were measured during periodic health examinations from December 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively studied, with renal disease-related death the predicted end point. Of the 140 dogs, nine died from renal diseases during the follow-up period (539 ± 249 days). Serum Cys-C concentrations were higher in the dogs that subsequently died of renal disease than in the censored group (0.8 ± 0.25 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, respectively; P C concentrations (>0.55 mg/dl) had a shorter (P C concentrations (≤0.55 mg/dl). In conclusion, high serum Cys-C concentrations in periodic health examinations in dogs <15 kg predicted poorer prognosis for renal function. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Popowski, T; Goffinet, F; Batteux, F; Maillard, F; Kayem, G
Premature rupture of membranes is a common situation in obstetrics that links the amniotic cavity and the bacterial cervicovaginal flora. The main risk in case of preterm premature rupture of membranes is the occurrence of an amniochorial infection, which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. One main purpose in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes is to identify infection early to adapt the clinical care. Among the marker used in practice, CRP has a sensitivity between 56% and 86% and specificity between 55% and 82% for predicting clinical chorioamnionitis. These values are respectively 21% to 56% and 76% to 95% for the prediction of early neonatal infection. The white blood cell count, also used in routine, has a poor predictive value of clinical chorioamnionitis although a high specificity when the threshold is of 16 giga/l. Among the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 has been the most studied. Its predictive value for chorioamnionitis or neonatal infection is higher but its clinical usefulness is limited by the various threshold used in the studies and the lack of routine measure. Procalcitonin appears to have low predictive values for detecting amniochorial infection but has finally been little studied. Ways to improve prediction of infection in cases of premature rupture of membranes are either looking for new markers or the analysis of local markers (vaginal secretions and amniotic fluid). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Jespersen, Sofie; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Anesten, Birgitta
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated cognitive impairment has declined since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). However, milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. Inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with cognitive impairment, and CSF neurofila......BACKGROUND: HIV-associated cognitive impairment has declined since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). However, milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. Inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been associated with cognitive impairment, and CSF...... neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) and CSF neopterin concentrations are increased in those patients. Microbial translocation in HIV infection has been suggested to contribute to chronic inflammation, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are markers of microbial translocation...... and the resulting monocyte activation, respectively. We hypothesised that microbial translocation contributes to inflammation and axonal damage in the central nervous system (CNS) in untreated HIV infection. METHODS: We analyzed paired samples of plasma and CSF from 62 HIV-infected, untreated patients without...
Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.
Ricco, Gabriele; Popa, Delia Codruta; Cavallone, Daniela; Iacob, Speranta; Salvati, Antonio; Tabacelia, Daniela; Oliveri, Filippo; Mascolo, Giovanni; Bonino, Ferruccio; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao; Gheorghe, Liana; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana
The interplay between hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses is complex and not always characterized during chronic HDV infection. We assessed the clinical usefulness of new quantitative assays for HBV and HDV serum markers in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sera obtained from 122 HDV-genotype-1 and HBV-genotype-D co-infected, anti-HIV-negative patients [71 males; median age 49.8 (21.7-66.9) years], recruited consecutively in two geographic areas (Italy 69 patients, Romania 53) with different HBV and HDV epidemiology, were tested for HBsAg, HBV-DNA, HBcrAg, total anti-HBc, HDV-RNA, IgM and total anti-HDV using quantitative assays. Cirrhosis, that showed comparable prevalence in the two cohorts, was diagnosed in 97 of 122 (79.5%) patients. At multivariate analysis, cirrhosis was associated with lower total anti-HBc/IgM-anti-HDV ratio (OR 0.990, 95%CI 0.981-0.999, P=0.038), whereas disease activity was associated with higher total anti-HDV (OR 10.105, 95% CI 1.671-61.107, P=0.012) and HDV-RNA levels (OR 2.366, 95% CI 1.456-3.844, P=0.001). HDV-RNA serum levels showed a positive correlation with HBV-DNA (ρ=0.276, P=0.005), HBsAg (ρ=0.404, PHBV and HDV serum markers identifies specific patterns associated with activity and stage of chronic hepatitis D (CHD). HDV pathogenicity depends on the underlying active HBV infection in spite of the inhibition of its replication. HDV-RNA, IgM anti-HDV, total anti-HDV, total anti-HBc, HBsAg and HBcrAg serum levels qualify for prospective studies to predict progressive CHD and identify candidates to antiviral therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Thelin, Eric Peter; Just, David; Frostell, Arvid; Häggmark-Månberg, Anna; Risling, Mårten; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Peter; Bellander, Bo-Michael
The serum proteome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) could provide information for outcome prediction and injury monitoring. The aim with this affinity proteomic study was to identify serum proteins over time and between normoxic and hypoxic conditions in focal TBI. Sprague Dawley rats (n=73) received a 3mm deep controlled cortical impact ("severe injury"). Following injury, the rats inhaled either a normoxic (22% O 2 ) or hypoxic (11% O 2 ) air mixture for 30min before resuscitation. The rats were sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after trauma. A total of 204 antibodies targeting 143 unique proteins of interest in TBI research, were selected. The sample proteome was analyzed in a suspension bead array set-up. Comparative statistics and factor analysis were used to detect differences as well as variance in the data. We found that complement factor 9 (C9), complement factor B (CFB) and aldolase c (ALDOC) were detected at higher levels the first days after trauma. In contrast, hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)1α, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and WBSCR17 increased over the subsequent weeks. S100A9 levels were higher in hypoxic-compared to normoxic rats, together with a majority of the analyzed proteins, albeit few reached statistical significance. The principal component analysis revealed a variance in the data, highlighting clusters of proteins. Protein profiling of serum following TBI using an antibody based microarray revealed temporal changes of several proteins over an extended period of up to four weeks. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schlaf, G; Altermann, W W; Rothhoff, A; Seliger, B
The CD30 molecule, a 120 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily and was originally identified on the surface of Reed-Sternberg cells and anaplastic large cell lymphomas in Hodgkin's disease patients. In addition to lymphoproliferative disorders the expression of CD30 was found in both activated CD8+ and CD4+ Th2 cells which lead to the activation of B-cells and consequently to the inhibition of the Th1-type cellular immunity. The membrane-bound CD30 molecule can be proteolytically cleaved, thereby generating a soluble form (sCD30) of about 85 kDa. Low serum levels of soluble CD30 were found in healthy humans, whereas increased sCD30 serum concentrations were detected under pathophysiological situations such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, certain viral infections and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. In addition, it has recently been suggested that pre- or post-transplant levels of sCD30 represent a biomarker for graft rejection associated with an impaired outcome for transplanted patients. We here review (i) the current knowledge of the clinical significance of sCD30 serum levels for solid organ transplantations and (ii) our own novel data regarding inter- and intra-individual variations as well as time-dependent alterations of sCD30 levels in patients. (iii) Based on this information the implementation of sCD30 as predictive pre-transplant or post-transplant parameter for solid organ transplantation is critically discussed.
Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Efe, Erkan; Çelik, Ahmet; Dagli, Hasan; Kılınc, Metin; Resim, Sefa
Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are diseases of elderly men and are related to increased oxidative stress (OS). Although prolidase has a role in collagen metabolism, it is also used to evaluate OS in many diseases. However, there is a lack of data about serum prolidase activity (SPA) in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare SPA levels in males with BPH and PCa. Evaluation was made of a total of 81 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for a definitive diagnosis due to high PSA levels. Patients were separated into 2 groups as BPH and PCa patients. Pre-biopsy malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), PSA levels and serum prolidase activities (SPA) were compared between the groups and the correlations of SPA with the other parameters were also investigated in both groups. BPH was diagnosed in 51 patients and PCa in 30. The mean age of patients was similar in both groups as 63.25 ± 5.81 years in the BPH group 65.30 ± 7.35 years in the PCa group(p:0.081). The median MDA and SOD levels were insignificantly increased in the PCa patients. SPA values were similar in BPH and PCa patients. SPA did not correlate with age, PSA, MDA or SOD levels in either group. Our study results revealed that serum prolidase activity is similar in BPH and PCa cases and is not correlated with MDA, SOD or PSA levels.
Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Owaga, Eddy; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Tzu-chieh; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su
Fe is an essential element for erythropoiesis and Hb synthesis. High Hb levels affect the blood's viscosity and are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of Hb and cardiometabolic abnormalities with the risk of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional study. National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010-2011, adolescents). Healthy adolescents aged 13-18 years. In total, 1941 adolescents (963 boys and 978 girls) were entered in the study. The mean age was 15·3 (sd 0·1) years (boys, 15·3 (sd 0·1) years; girls, 15·2 (sd 0·1) years). ALT tertile cut-off points for boys were 11 and 16 U/l, and for girls were 9 and 12 U/l. Girls without dyslipidaemia and presenting in the highest quartile (Q1) of Hb (>13·6 g/dl) were 1·89 and 3·76 times more likely to have raised serum ALT (9 and >12 U/l, respectively) than the reference (lowest quartile of Hb (Q1), 12 U/l) than the reference (Q1 of Hb, 15·4 g/dl), who were 7·40 times more likely to have elevated serum ALT of >16 U/l than the reference (Q1 of Hb, Hb level is a predictor of elevated serum ALT in adolescent girls with dyslipidaemia. Our study also highlights the importance of further research to establish cut-off points for Hb and its utility in diagnosing and preventing the onset of dyslipidaemia in adolescents.
Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu
Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1-3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7-35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4-89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9-134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (PGPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated with CYFRA21-1, CEA and TPS in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, GPS was more efficient in predicting prognosis of advanced NSCLC than these three single prognosis related tumor markers.
Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu
Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21–1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21–1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1–3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7–35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4–89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9–134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for median levels of CEA and TPS in healthy controls and NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). In NSCLC patients, positive correlations were found between CYFRA21-1 and GPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P < 0.05), 0.61 (P < 0.05) and 0.55 (P < 0.05), respectively. Survival analyses showed GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated
Zhou, Gang; Niu, Lizhi; Chiu, David; He, Lihua; Xu, Kecheng
The presence of serum tumor markers, carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor-supplied group of factors (TSGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is closely associated with invasion and metastasis of many malignancies. The expression of these markers were measured in serum taken from 37 pancreatic cancer patients prior to treatment. Levels of CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA and TNF-α expression correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph node and liver metastasis (P markers were significantly reduced compared with levels prior to cryosurgery (P 0.05). Thus, cryosurgery is more effective than chemotherapy for decreasing CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TSGF and TNF-α serum levels in these patients.
Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M
Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.
Parrinello, Christina M; Landay, Alan L; Hodis, Howard N; Gange, Stephen J; Norris, Philip J; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Xue, Xiaonan; Lazar, Jason; Benning, Lorie; Tracy, Russell P; Kaplan, Robert C
Summary Among 127 HIV-infected women, the magnitude of HDLc increases after HAART initiation predicted the magnitude of concurrent decreases in inflammation biomarkers. After HAART initiation, changes in LDLc and inflammation were unrelated. In the same population, predicted risk of coronary heart disease based upon levels of standard clinical risk factors was similar before and after HAART treatment. Thus, it remains unknown whether short-term treatment-related changes in standard risk factors may appreciably change risk of CVD. PMID:23435295
Maria C. Sandoval
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVPC acts on edema reduction is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of HVPC with negative polarity (- applied to the ankle of rats with acute joint inflammation. METHOD: Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups (n=16: inflamed+HVPC(-, 0.03 mL application of ι-carrageenan (3% to the tibiotarsal joint plus HVPC(-; inflamed+HVPC placebo, carrageenan application and HVPC placebo; normal+HVPC(-, HVPC application(-; and normal control, no intervention. The HVPC(- 100 Hz at a submotor level was applied daily for 45 min on three consecutive days. The variables were pain, hind-foot volume, and serum histamine and albumin assessed before and during the 48 hours following inflammation. The variables were compared using the t test, one-way ANOVA, nested ANOVA for repeated measures, and the post hoc Bonferroni test. Analysis of covariance was applied to adjust the effects of HVPC(- by measurements of pain, inflammation, albumin, and histamine at 24 h, and the final weight was compared to the other groups. The significance level was set at p0.05. Albumin was reduced in the groups that received the intervention, but there was no differences between them. There was only a 24 hour increase in histamine with the normal+HVPC(- (p=0.0001 and inflamed+HVPC placebo groups (p=0.01 compared to the normal control group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that HVPC(- with the parameters employed did not reduce pain or edema and did not change serum albumin or histamine levels,, which indicates the inability of this resource to have a positive effect when treating treat acute joint inflammation.
Manju D. Chandrasegaram
Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP often mimics pancreatic cancer. The diagnosis of both conditions is difficult preoperatively let alone when they coexist. Several reports have been published describing pancreatic cancer in the setting of AIP. Case Report. The case of a 53-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and radiological features of autoimmune pancreatitis, with a “sausage-shaped” pancreas and bulky pancreatic head with portal vein impingement, is presented. He had a normal serum IgG4 and only mildly elevated Ca-19.9. Initial endoscopic ultrasound-(EUS- guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA of the pancreas revealed an inflammatory sclerosing process only. A repeat EUS guided biopsy following biliary decompression demonstrated both malignancy and features of autoimmune pancreatitis. At laparotomy, a uniformly hard, bulky pancreas was found with no sonographically definable mass. A total pancreatectomy with portal vein resection and reconstruction was performed. Histology revealed adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreatic head and autoimmune pancreatitis and squamous metaplasia in the remaining pancreas. Conclusion. This case highlights the diagnostic and management difficulties in a patient with pancreatic cancer in the setting of serum IgG4-negative, Type 2 AIP.
Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene
Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...... of bone and soft tissue turnover, as well as levels of PTH and vitamin D metabolites, in 16 patients (nine males; median age, 52 yr; range, 28-78 yr) with active acromegaly (serum IGF-I at least 30% above upper limit of an age-related reference range). Serum procollagen III amino-terminal propeptide...... (PIIINP) and type I procollagen amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin (OC), bone-related alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), albumin-corrected calcium, intact PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2) vit D], urinary type 1 collagen...
Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.
Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es
Shimada, Hideaki; Noie, Tamaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yutaka
The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum tumor markers, particularly CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4, in patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "gastric cancer" and "tumor marker," to select 4,925 relevant reports published before the end of November 2012. A total of 187 publications contained data for CEA and CA19-9, and 19 publications contained data related to all three tumor markers. The positive rates were 21.1 % for CEA, 27.8 % for CA19-9, and 30.0 % for CA72-4. These three markers were significantly associated with tumor stage and patient survival. Serum markers are not useful for early cancer, but they are useful for detecting recurrence and distant metastasis, predicting patient survival, and monitoring after surgery. Tumor marker monitoring may be useful for patients after surgery because the positive conversion of tumor markers usually occurs 2-3 months before imaging abnormalities. Among other tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful for detecting and predicting liver metastases. Moreover, CA125 and sialyl Tn antigens (STN) are useful for detecting peritoneal metastases. Although no prospective trial has yet been completed to evaluate the clinical significance of these serum markers, this literature survey suggests that combinations of CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 are the most effective ways for staging before surgery or chemotherapy. In particular, monitoring tumor markers that were elevated before surgery or chemotherapy could be useful for detection of recurrence or evaluation of the response.
Full Text Available The κ/λ hybrid antibodies in normal human serum were reported recently, but their clinical relevance has not yet been explored. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is one of the major joint diseases, and the early diagnosis and treatment of RA remain a challenge. Here, we developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to quantify relative serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels in RA patients, osteoarthritis (OA patients, and healthy controls (HC in order to assess their potential use as a serological biomarker of early disease and clinical activity and to preliminarily investigate their immunomodulatory roles in RA. Surprisingly, we found that κ/λ hybrid antibody was markedly increased in both early and established RA. Serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels were significantly correlated with clinical indexes and inflammatory markers in RA. Further analysis showed a positive correlation between κ/λ hybrid antibody levels and the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28. In conclusion, serum κ/λ hybrid antibodies in RA were identified for the first time. High levels of κ/λ hybrid antibody may be a useful tool in distinguishing early RA from OA and HC. We suggest κ/λ hybrid antibody as a marker for disease activity. The increased κ/λ hybrid antibodies were associated with inflammatory conditions in RA.
Yi, Lang; Hao, Mingju; Lu, Tian; Lin, Guigao; Chen, Lida; Gao, Ming; Fan, Gaowei; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Guojing; Yang, Xin; Li, Yulong; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Han, Yanxi; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming
The κ/λ hybrid antibodies in normal human serum were reported recently, but their clinical relevance has not yet been explored. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major joint diseases, and the early diagnosis and treatment of RA remain a challenge. Here, we developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to quantify relative serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels in RA patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and healthy controls (HC) in order to assess their potential use as a serological biomarker of early disease and clinical activity and to preliminarily investigate their immunomodulatory roles in RA. Surprisingly, we found that κ/λ hybrid antibody was markedly increased in both early and established RA. Serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels were significantly correlated with clinical indexes and inflammatory markers in RA. Further analysis showed a positive correlation between κ/λ hybrid antibody levels and the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28). In conclusion, serum κ/λ hybrid antibodies in RA were identified for the first time. High levels of κ/λ hybrid antibody may be a useful tool in distinguishing early RA from OA and HC. We suggest κ/λ hybrid antibody as a marker for disease activity. The increased κ/λ hybrid antibodies were associated with inflammatory conditions in RA.
De Groote, Mary A; Sterling, David G; Hraha, Thomas; Russell, Theresa M; Green, Louis S; Wall, Kirsten; Kraemer, Stephan; Ostroff, Rachel; Janjic, Nebojsa; Ochsner, Urs A
New non-sputum biomarker tests for active tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are of the highest priority for global TB control. We performed in-depth proteomic analysis using the 4,000-plex SOMAscan assay on 1,470 serum samples from seven countries where TB is endemic. All samples were from patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of active pulmonary TB that were systematically confirmed or ruled out for TB by culture and clinical follow-up. HIV coinfection was present in 34% of samples, and 25% were sputum smear negative. Serum protein biomarkers were identified by stability selection using L1-regularized logistic regression and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics. A naive Bayes classifier using six host response markers (HR6 model), including SYWC, kallistatin, complement C9, gelsolin, testican-2, and aldolase C, performed well in a training set (area under the sensitivity-specificity curve [AUC] of 0.94) and in a blinded verification set (AUC of 0.92) to distinguish TB and non-TB samples. Differential expression was also highly significant ( P CA6 (carbonic anhydrase 6). Target product profiles (TPPs) for a non-sputum biomarker test to diagnose active TB for treatment initiation (TPP#1) and for a community-based triage or referral test (TPP#2) have been published by the WHO. With 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, the HR6 model fell short of TPP#1 but reached TPP#2 performance criteria. In conclusion, we identified and validated a six-marker signature for active TB that warrants diagnostic development on a patient-near platform. Copyright © 2017 De Groote et al.
Kumar, Amanika; Torres, Michelle L; Cliby, William A; Kalli, Kimberly R; Bogani, Giorgio; Aletti, Giovanni; Nitschmann, Caroline C; Multinu, Francesco; Weaver, Amy L; Block, Matthew S; Mariani, Andrea
To identify preoperative nutritional and inflammatory markers that predict perioperative outcomes in patients with ovarian cancer (OC). Fifty patients who underwent primary debulking for advanced (stage III/IV) OC were selected from a cohort of patients who underwent surgery between 2002 and 2009. We analyzed C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6) and albumin and their impact on mortality and surgical outcomes. Two patients were excluded since they did not have adequate measurements of CRP and IL6. Among the remaining patients, 25 (52%) were ≥70 years old. Nine (19%), 12 (25%) and 12 (25%) patients had low serum albumin (<3.0 g/dl), elevated CRP (≥70 mg/l) and elevated IL6 (≥24 pg/ml), respectively. Age was a significant predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.01). Low serum albumin (<3.0 g/dl) was a predictor of death within 6 month (p=0.03). Elevated CRP (≥70 mg/l) was a predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.02), death within 6 months (p=0.02), death within 12 months (p=0.04), and longer hospital stay (p=0.01). Elevated IL6 (≥24 pg/ml) was a predictor of non-home discharge (p=0.002) and surgical complications (p=0.02), and also associated with longer hospital stay (p=0.03). Poor nutrition and high inflammatory status negatively influence surgical and oncological outcomes of patients with OC. These preoperative markers can be used for selection of patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy at high risk of short survival, non-home discharge and long hospital stay. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Sun, Shu; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, Morten A
and after anti-TNF-α treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: A highly specific and technically robust ELISA detecting act-MMP-3 in serum was developed. The lower limit of detection was 33.7 pg/mL. The dilution and spiking recovery of human serum was within 100 ± 20%. The average intra- and inter-assay variations...
Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui
Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and ...
Lee, Stuart M. C.; Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargans, Alan R.; Sharma, Kumar; De Vivo, Immaculata
BACKGROUND: Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Astronauts participating in long-duration missions may be at an increased risk of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage due to radiation, psychological stress, altered physical activity, nutritional insufficiency, and hyperoxia during extravehicular activity. By studying one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and his ground-based twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to determine whether these spaceflight factors contribute to an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. This study of twins affords a unique opportunity to examine spaceflight-related atherosclerosis risk that is independent of the confounding factors associated with different genotypes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and determine if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. These physiological and biochemical data will be extended by using an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between intermediate phenotypes and risk factors for atherosclerosis and the metabolomic signature from plasma and urine samples. Since metabolites are often the indirect products of gene expression, we simultaneously assessed gene expression and DNA methylation in leukocytes. HYPOTHESIS: We predict that, compared to the ground-based twin, the space-flown twin will experience elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage, altered arterial structure and function, accelerated telomere shortening, dysregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and a metabolic profile shift
D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G
Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (Pdonkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.
Full Text Available Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH is an a frequently occurring orthopaedic disease with high morbidity. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Yuanshi Shengmai Chenggu Tablet is a valid prescription for treating steroid-induced femoral head necrosis. However, there are rare investigations about the serum protein marker expression after the acting of drugs on hormone and TCM. In the present study, we aimed to systematically discover and validate the serum biomarkers expression difference in patients with steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head (SANFH after taking Yuanshi Shengmai Chenggu Tablets (SANFH-TCM, so as to reveal the action mechanism of TCM from the molecular level by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ with multiple reaction monitoring quantification. Significant differences in fibrinogen alpha, fibrinogen beta, fibrinogen gamma, fibronectin, C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein D, and apolipoprotein E were found among SANFH, SANFH-TCM, and healthy controls. Therefore, our study proposes potential biomarkers for SANFH diagnosis and for the prognosis of femoral head necrosis after Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment.
Pedersen, C; Ingeberg, S; Teglbjaerg, L S
Serum thymidine kinase (S-TK) was measured weekly in 16 randomly selected patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC; Centers for Disease Control group IV A or group IV C-2) who participated in a controlled study of the efficacy of zidovudine therapy. S-TK increased significantly (P less than...... 0.01) in the zidovudine group, whereas it remained stable in the placebo (control) group. On the basis of this observation, the value of S-TK measurements as a predictor of bone marrow toxicity during zidovudine therapy was investigated in 42 patients with AIDS or ARC who received zidovudine as part...... of their usual treatment. There was a significant association between S-TK, haemoglobin and neutrophil counts measured after the first 4 weeks of therapy and the risk of developing bone marrow toxicity during the following 6 months. Combined, measurements of S-TK and neutrophil counts seem to be well suited...
Vestergaard, Poul Frølund; Hansen, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Espelund, Ulrick; Christiansen, Jens S; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Fisker, Sanne
Senescent changes in body composition and muscle strength are accompanied by reduced production of GH and IGF1, but the causal relationship remains elusive. We speculate that serum bioactive IGF1, measured by the IGF1 kinase receptor activation assay, is closer related to human physiological ageing than total IGF1 measured by immunoassay. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 adult males and females, between 20 and 70 years. After an overnight fasting, serum levels of bioactive IGF1, total IGF1 and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and IGFBP3 were assessed. Furthermore, body composition and muscle strength was measured. Total IGF1 levels were higher in females (P=0.048). Bioactive IGF1 were identical in males and females (P=0.31), decreasing with age. Total IGF1 tended to decrease more with age compared with bioactive IGF1 (-1.48 vs -0.89 percent/year, P=0.052). Total body fat (TBF) was lower and BMI was higher in males (Page. Knee extension and elbow flexion force were higher in males (P=0.001 and P=0.001), but decreased with age in both genders. Total but not bioactive IGF1 was positively correlated to TBF, knee extension and muscle function in males. In multiple linear regression, only age predicted total IGF1, whereas age and IGFBP1 predicted bioactive IGF1. Bioactive IGF1 tends to decrease to a lesser extent than total IGF1 with age and was not correlated with measures of body composition or muscle strength. Therefore, levels of circulating bioactive IGF1 does not appear to be a better biomarker of physiological ageing than total IGF1.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational asthma is a common type of asthma caused by a specific agent in the workplace. The basic alteration of occupational asthma is airways inflammation. Although most patients with occupational asthma are mature adults, there is evidence that airways inflammation starts soon after inception of exposure, including during apprenticeship. Airways hyper responsiveness to methacholine is a valid surrogate marker of airways inflammation, which has proved useful in occupational epidemiology. But it is time-consuming, requires active subject's cooperation and is not readily feasible. Other non-invasive and potentially more useful tests include the forced oscillation technique, measurement of fraction exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophils count in nasal lavage fluid. Methods and design This study aims to investigate early development of airways inflammation and asthma-like symptoms in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers, three populations at risk of occupational asthma whose work-related exposures involve agents of different nature. The objectives are to (i examine the performance of the non-invasive tests cited above in detecting early airways inflammation that might eventually develop into occupational asthma; and (ii evaluate whether, and how, constitutional (e.g. atopy and behavioural (e.g. smoking risk factors for occupational asthma modulate the effects of allergenic and/or irritative substances involved in these occupations. This paper presents the study rationale and detailed protocol. Discussion Among 441 volunteers included at the first visit, 354 attended the fourth one. Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives.
Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Hannhart, Bernard; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis
Occupational asthma is a common type of asthma caused by a specific agent in the workplace. The basic alteration of occupational asthma is airways inflammation. Although most patients with occupational asthma are mature adults, there is evidence that airways inflammation starts soon after inception of exposure, including during apprenticeship. Airways hyper responsiveness to methacholine is a valid surrogate marker of airways inflammation, which has proved useful in occupational epidemiology. But it is time-consuming, requires active subject's cooperation and is not readily feasible. Other non-invasive and potentially more useful tests include the forced oscillation technique, measurement of fraction exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophils count in nasal lavage fluid. This study aims to investigate early development of airways inflammation and asthma-like symptoms in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers, three populations at risk of occupational asthma whose work-related exposures involve agents of different nature. The objectives are to (i) examine the performance of the non-invasive tests cited above in detecting early airways inflammation that might eventually develop into occupational asthma; and (ii) evaluate whether, and how, constitutional (e.g. atopy) and behavioural (e.g. smoking) risk factors for occupational asthma modulate the effects of allergenic and/or irritative substances involved in these occupations. This paper presents the study rationale and detailed protocol. Among 441 volunteers included at the first visit, 354 attended the fourth one. Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives.
Casoni, F; Merelli, E; Bedin, R; Sola, P; Bertolotto, A; Faglioni, P
Interferon beta (INFbeta) may induce the expression of several proteins, including neopterin, considered a biological marker of INFbeta activity. The aim of this study was to determine the serum neopterin concentration at the beginning of, and during, IFNbeta-1a therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (r-r MS) patients, and to look for a possible correlation between protein synthesis and the clinical course of the disease. Thirteen r-r MS patients were treated with INFbeta-1a (i.m. 6 MIU/week) for 2 years. Blood samples for neopterin determinations were taken daily over a period of 1 week at the end of each 6 months of therapy, and tested for neutralizing antibodies (NABs). Neopterin levels peaked 24-48 h post-injection and returned to baseline after 120 h. After 1 year of therapy, four patients dropped out of the study because of progression of the disease: in these subjects a significant decrement of neopterin was observed. Neopterin baseline values were not found to decrease over the 2 years of therapy, and neopterin may be considered to be a useful marker of responsiveness to IFNbeta.
Craig, D G; Lee, P; Pryde, E A; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J
Macrophage activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose (POD). Neopterin is synthesised from macrophages and reflects the intensity of monocyte/macrophage activation. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a marker of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. To examine neopterin and sCD163 levels in a cohort of acute liver injury patients. Consecutive patients (n = 41, (18 (43.9%) male) with acute liver injury were enrolled. Neopterin and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. A total of 24/33 (72.7%) POD patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and therefore acute liver failure. Both neopterin and sCD163 levels were significantly higher in PODs compared with chronic liver disease (neopterin P paracetamol overdose, and reflect the degree of macrophage activation in this condition. Serum neopterin in particular may have value as an early proxy marker of macrophage activation following paracetamol overdose. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jian-Gang Dai; Yong-Feng Wu; Mei Li
Objective: To study the serum tumor markers, immunoglobulin, TNF-α and hs-CRP in breast cancer in different pathological stages of the concentration, and to analyze the clinical significance of early diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 130 patients with breast cancer were divided into stage I, II, III and IV according to clinical pathology. In addition, 40 patients with benign breast disease and 35 healthy subjects were selected as benign breast disease group and control group. Serum tumor markers, immunoglobulins, TNF-αand hs-CRP concentrations were measured and compared of all subjects. Results: There were no significant difference in serum tumor markers, immunoglobulin and inflammatory factors between the control group and the benign breast cancer group. The level of serum tumor markers in breast cancer group was significantly higher than that in control group and benign breast cancer group. The levels of serum CA125, CA153 and CEA were gradually increased with the severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and he difference was statistically significant. The level of serum immunoglobulin in breast cancer group was significantly higher than that in control group and benign breast cancer group. The levels of serum IgG and IgM increased gradually severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and the difference was statistically significant. The level of serum TNF-α and hs-CRP in serum of breast cancer group was significantly higher than that of control group and benign breast cancer group. The serum levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP increased gradually with severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The level of serum tumor markers in breast cancer patients is increasing. Humoral and inflammatory responses are activated to varying degrees and increase with the aggregation of disease. They may involve regulating the occurrence and metastasis of breast
Schweiger, A; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen
Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease that may participate in tumor progression. In order to evaluate its potential as a prognostic marker, its protein levels were measured by ELISA in preoperative sera from 324 patients with colorectal cancer. The level of cathepsin H was significantly...... increased in patient sera, the median level was 8.4 ng/mL versus 2.1 ng/mL in 90 healthy blood donors (p CEA). In survival analysis...... a significant difference was found between the group of patients with low cathepsin H (first tertile) who had a poor prognosis and the remaining patients (p = 0.03). The risk of patients was further stratified when cathepsin H levels were combined with CEA. Patients with high CEA and low cathepsin H had...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. METHODS: Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42 ± 2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05. In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05. Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P = 0.024, and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG. No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity.
Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza
To determine the association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular risk markers among diabetic patients. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, from December 2007 to March 2008 in 119 type 2 diabetic patients. Coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases were confirmed. Blood biochemical parameters including laboratory risk markers of cardiovascular disease were determined. Serum 25 hydoxy (OH) D was measured during winter. The correlation between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular prevalence, and also laboratory variables was determined. The mean age of patients was 55.3 +/- 11.2 years. The mean 25(OH) D concentration was 32.4 +/- 21.6ng/ml. The prevalence of hypovitaminous D was 26.1% among the diabetic patients. The difference with the control group was not significant (p=0.12). Overall, 36 (30.3%) patients were positive for coronary vascular disease (CVD). The correlation between hypovitaminous D and CVD was not significant (p=0.11). Patients with vitamin D deficiency had significant differences in body mass index (p=0.003), metabolic syndrome (p=0.05), high sensitive C-reactive protein (p=0.009), microalbuminuria (p=0.04), and glumerular filtration rate (p=0.02), compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D. The fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profiles, homocysteine, uric acid, and insulin resistance were not related to vitamin D deficiency. There is an association between hypovitaminous D and inflammatory markers that contributed to CVD, so vitamin D may be important in maintaining cardiovascular health. (author)
As'habi, Atefeh; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Nozary-Heshmati, Behnaz
This study was designed to investigate the associations between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), dialysis-malnutrition score (DMS) and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 291 HD patients were randomly selected from among 2302 adult HD patients in Tehran HD centers. The MIS and DMS were determined during one of the dialysis sessions in these patients. In addition, 4 mL blood was obtained before dialysis and analyzed for serum albumin and novel risk factors for CVD, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]. MIS and DMS were significantly positively correlated with serum CRP (p protein-energy wasting indicators in HD patients are associated with serum CRP and sICAM-1, as two CVD risk factors.
Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola
Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
van Exel, Eric; Eikelenboom, Piet; Comijs, Hannie; Frölich, Marijke; Smit, Johannes H.; Stek, Max L.; Scheltens, Philip; Eefsting, Jan E.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex disorder with a strong heritable component. Amyloid pathology, vascular factors, and inflammation are postulated to be involved in its pathogenesis, but causality has not been established unequivocally. Objective: To identify heritable traits in middle
Vangsted, A; Drivsholm, L; Andersen, E
The ganglioside fucosyl-GM1 (FucGM1) has been suggested as a marker for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunohistochemical analyses have shown the expression of the ganglioside in tumors in 75 to 90% of patients with SCLC. We have demonstrated that the ganglioside is shedded from SCLC cells both...... an immunoassay based on the scintillation proximity assay to analyze the concentrations of FucGM1 in sera from 112 SCLC patients, 21 patients with non-SCLC, 4 patients with other cancer forms, and 20 healthy controls. Sera were collected at the time of diagnosis before initiation of chemotherapy. The expression...... of FucGM1 was related to age, sex, blood group of the patient, and to the stage of disease and organ site involvement of metastases. The sera of 50% of the patients with SCLC were positive for FucGM1, and 12 of 21 sera from non-SCLC patients were markedly elevated. In SCLC sera, the concentration of Fuc...
Souglis, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Chryssanthopoulos, Costas; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Geladas, Nikos D
This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 male and 30 female) were divided into three groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for five days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and playing positions, as shown by the 3-way interaction, for creatine kinase (CK), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase, fibrinogen (FIB), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p position, for all oxidative, inflammatory and muscle damage indices (psexes, midfielders had higher peaks in all indices compared with defenders (p sex and playing position influence the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer game. This information should be taken into account by practitioners for the design of training programs following match play.
Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte
for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, and offspring's sex. Offspring MS markers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance, and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, insulin, and leptin...
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Patients requiring haemodialysis have cardiovascular and immune dysfunction. Little is known about the acute effects of exercise during haemodialysis. Exercise has numerous health benefits but in other populations has a profound impact upon blood pressure, inflammation and immune function; therefore having the potential to exacerbate cardiovascular and immune dysfunction in this vulnerable population. Methods: Fifteen patients took part in a randomised-crossover study investigating the effect of a 30-min bout of exercise during haemodialysis compared to resting haemodialysis. We assessed blood pressure, plasma markers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation and neutrophil degranulation. Results: Exercise increased blood pressure immediately post-exercise; however, 1 hour after exercise blood pressure was lower than resting levels (106±22 vs. 117±25 mm Hg. No differences in h-FABP, cTnI, myoglobin or CKMB were observed between trial arms. Exercise did not alter circulating concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α or IL-1ra nor clearly suppress neutrophil function. Conclusions: This study demonstrates fluctuations in blood pressure during haemodialysis in response to exercise. However, since the fall in blood pressure occurred without evidence of cardiac injury, we regard it as a normal response to exercise superimposed onto the haemodynamic response to haemodialysis. Importantly, exercise did not exacerbate systemic inflammation or immune dysfunction; intradialytic exercise was well tolerated.
Full Text Available Background: Different measures of body fat composition may vary in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Methods: We assessed the relations of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC to serum concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin in 97 healthy adults using multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, and use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Parameters of chronic inflammation were mutually adjusted. Results: VAT (β = 0.34, SAT (β = 0.43, BMI (β = 0.40, and WC (β = 0.47 were all significantly associated with hs-CRP. BMI was additionally inversely related to adiponectin (β = -0.29. In exploratory subgroup analyses defined by gender, BMI, smoking, and use of aspirin or NSAIDs, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of IL-6, SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP, and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC showed to be a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. Conclusion: VAT, SAT, BMI, and WC show distinct associations with parameters of chronic inflammation. Whether these differences reflect differential metabolic risks requires clarification by longitudinal studies.
Abdel-Rahman N Zekri
Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the possibility of using circulating miRNAs (serum miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC and to identify their possibility as candidates for targeted therapy.The study involved two sample sets: 1- a training set which included 90 patients with colorectal related disease (30 with CRC, 18 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, 18 with colonic polyps (CP and 24 with different colonic symptoms but without any colonoscopic abnormality who were enrolled as control group and 2- a validation set which included 100 CRC patients. Serum miRNAs were extracted from all subjects to assess the expression profiles for the following miRNAs (miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-146a, miR-223, miR-24, miR-454, miR-183, miR-135a, miR- 135b and miR- 92a using the custom miScript miRNA PCR-based sybergreen array. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the studied miRNAs for colorectal cancer diagnosis.Data analysis of miRNA from the training set showed that; compared to control group, only miR-19b was significantly up-regulated in patients with IBD group (fold change = 5.24, p = 0.016, whereas in patients with colonic polyps, miR-18a was significantly up-regulated (fold change = 3.49, p-value = 0.018. On the other hand, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-223 were significantly up-regulated (fold change = 2.35, 3.07, 2.38 and 10.35; respectively and p-value = 0.02, 0.015, 0.017 and 0.016; respectively in CRC patients. However, the validation set showed that only miR-223 was significantly up-regulated in CRC patients (fold change = 4.06, p-value = 0.04.Aberrant miRNA expressions are highly involved in the cascade of colorectal carcinogenesis. We have found that (miR-17, miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-223 could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. On the other hand, miR-19b and miR-18a could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for
Full Text Available The study aim was to assess the within-subject, day-to-day variability for ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR concentrations in serum of 6 female and 8 male cross-country skiers aged 16-18 years under a regular training regimen throughout 8 consecutive days. The concentrations of iron status variables and creatine kinase (CK activities were adjusted to plasma volume changes. Mean ferritin concentrations were 30.6 • 1.142[sup]±1[/sup] and 22.6 • 1.167[sup]±1[/sup] μg/l for men and women, respectively, the average within-subject, mean day-to-day variability coefficients (CV being 13.4% in men and 15.2% in women. Mean sTfR was 2.14 • 1.050[sup]±1[/sup] and 2.62 • 1.047[sup]±1[/sup] mg/l, respectively, and mean day-to-day CV 6.5% and 4.6%. Mean CV for sTfR/logFerr were 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. Neither index correlated with training loads or CK activities. Thus, the training performed once daily had no significant effect on ferritin concentrations on the following morning, so ferritin alone may prove insufficient in detecting iron deficiency in endurance athletes. The low variability of sTfR under endurance loads made it useful in detecting iron deficiency together with ferritin and the sTfR/logFerr index. Adjusting the concentrations of ferritin and sTfR by changes in plasma volume might be recommendable for endurance athletes.
Sara Soleimani Rad
Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.
Kardum, D; Huskic, J; Fabijanic, D; Banic, M; Buljevac, M; Kujundzic, M; Loncar, B
Previous studies have pointed to the changes of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) values in patients with liver disease and cancer located in different sites. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in SACE values in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis. The study comprised 30 patients with HCC (22 men and eight women) of average age 48.6 +/- 9.0 years and 30 patients with liver cirrhosis (21 men, nine women) of average age 49.1 +/- 9.5 years. The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers with matching anthropometric characteristics. SACE activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method using synthetic hippuryl-glycyl-glycine as substrate. The mean SACE value was considerably lower in patients with HCC, 22.8 U/ml (95% CI, 22.5-23.9), both those in whom HCC developed in cirrhotic liver (n = 23), 23.7 (22.9-24.5) as well as those with HCC without cirrhosis (n = 7), 21.8 (21.0-22.6), with regard to patients with liver cirrhosis, 37.2 (36.6-37.8) (P SACE value was increased in accordance with the severity of the disease expressed by Child's classification; however, at each stage SACE values were considerably lower in patients with HCC in cirrhotic liver (Child A, 35.8 vs 22.1; Child B, 38.7 vs 24.2; Child C, 40.0 vs 28.3) (P SACE activity. The SACE value was also significantly decreased in patients with HCC whose AFP were not altered. The study has shown that SACE values are low in patients with advanced HCC. It may be helpful in detecting HCC in patients with cirrhosis, where it can be difficult to differentiate between small HCC tumours and regeneration nodules.
Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...
Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sudo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Naru; Nakagawa, Naoya; Okada, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro
The survival benefit of neoadjuvant therapy for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma has been reported recently. However, prognostic factors for this strategy have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify prognostic factors for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Medical records of 66 patients with pancreatic carcinoma with arterial contact who intended to undergo tumor resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Prognostic factors were investigated by analyzing the clinicopathological factors with univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Gemcitabine plus S-1 was generally used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The objective response rate was 24%, and normalization of serum tumor markers following neoadjuvant chemotherapy was achieved in 29 patients (44%). Of the 66 patients, 60 patients underwent tumor resection and the remaining six patients did not due to distant metastases following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For all 66 patients, overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 87.8, 54.5, and 20.5%, respectively (median survival time, 27.1 months) and multivariate analysis revealed that normalization of serum tumor markers was found to be an independent prognostic factor of better overall survival (P = 0.023). Moreover, for 60 patients who undergo tumor resection, normalization of serum tumor markers (P = 0.005) was independently associated with better overall survival by multivariate analysis. Patients with pancreatic carcinoma with arterial contact who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy and experience normalization of serum tumor markers thereafter may be good candidates for tumor resection.
Sun Qihe; Yang Jiali; Gao Mingzhong
Objective: To study the dynamic changes of serum levels of several tumor markers after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment for breast, prostate and lung malignancies. Methods: Serum CA15-3 (in 48 cases of breast cancer), PSA (in 59 cases of prostate cancer) and CYFRA21-1 (in 59 cases of lung cancer) levels were measured with RIA both before and after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment. Furthermore, dynamic observation on the serum markers levels was carried out every 3 months in ten patients in each category. Results: After treatment, levels of these markers dropped significantly. Dynamic observation revealed that in the 10 cases of breast cancer, the levels of CA15-3 dropped continually. However, in the 10 cases of prostatic cancer, the disease got worse and the PSA levels kept increasing. In the lung cancer group, the CYFRA21-1 levels rose markedly and all patients expired before 9 months. Conclusion: Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers (CA15-3, PSA, CYFRA21-1) levels after 125 I seed implantation treatment was of definite prognostic value. (authors)
Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Andersen, Claus
To investigate the influence of serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor compared with conventional serum-containing medium (SCM) on the phenotype of organotypic primary spheroids from seven gliomas.......To investigate the influence of serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor compared with conventional serum-containing medium (SCM) on the phenotype of organotypic primary spheroids from seven gliomas....
Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui
The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.
Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.
Wiseman, Stewart; Marlborough, Fergal; Doubal, Fergus; Webb, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna
The cause of cerebral small vessel disease is not fully understood, yet it is important, accounting for about 25% of all strokes. It also increases the risk of having another stroke and contributes to about 40% of dementias. Various processes have been implicated, including microatheroma, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. A previous review investigated endothelial dysfunction in lacunar stroke versus mostly non-stroke controls while another looked at markers of inflammation and endothelial damage in ischaemic stroke in general. We have focused on blood markers between clinically evident lacunar stroke and other subtypes of ischaemic stroke, thereby controlling for stroke in general. We systematically assessed the literature for studies comparing blood markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in lacunar stroke versus non-stroke controls or other ischaemic stroke subtypes. We assessed the quality of included papers and meta-analysed results. We split the analysis on time of blood draw in relation to the stroke. We identified 1,468 full papers of which 42 were eligible for inclusion, including 4,816 ischaemic strokes, of which 2,196 were lacunar and 2,500 non-stroke controls. Most studies subtyped stroke using TOAST. The definition of lacunar stroke varied between studies. Markers of coagulation/fibrinolysis (tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), fibrinogen, D-dimer) were higher in lacunar stroke versus non-stroke although fibrinogen was no different to non-stroke in the acute phase. tPA and PAI were no different between lacunar and non-lacunar stroke. Fibrinogen and D-dimer were significantly lower in lacunar stroke compared to other ischaemic strokes, both acutely and chronically. Markers of endothelial dysfunction (homocysteine, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)) were higher or
Scherberich, Jürgen E; Gruber, Rudolf; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Schmitt, Hans; Herbst, Victor; Block, Matthias; Kaden, Jürgen; Schlumberger, Wolfgang
Abstract Background An ELISA to analyse uromodulin in human serum (sUmod) was developed, validated and tested for clinical applications. Methods We assessed sUmod, a very stable antigen, in controls, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1–5, persons with autoimmune kidney diseases and recipients of a renal allograft by ELISA. Results Median sUmod in 190 blood donors was 207 ng/mL (women: men, median 230 versus 188 ng/mL, P = 0.006). sUmod levels in 443 children were 193 ng/mL (median). sUmod was correlated with cystatin C (rs = −0.862), creatinine (rs = −0.802), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (rs = −0.645) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)–cystatin C (rs = 0.862). sUmod was lower in systemic lupus erythematosus-nephritis (median 101 ng/mL), phospholipase-A2 receptor- positive glomerulonephritis (median 83 ng/mL) and anti-glomerular basement membrane positive pulmorenal syndromes (median 37 ng/mL). Declining sUmod concentrations paralleled the loss of kidney function in 165 patients with CKD stages 1–5 with prominent changes in sUmod within the ‘creatinine blind range’ (71–106 µmol/L). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis between non-CKD and CKD-1 was superior for sUmod (AUC 0.90) compared with eGFR (AUC 0.39), cystatin C (AUC 0.39) and creatinine (AUC 0.27). sUmod rapidly recovered from 0 to 62 ng/mL (median) after renal transplantation in cases with immediate graft function and remained low in delayed graft function (21 ng/mL, median; day 5–9: relative risk 1.5–2.9, odds ratio 1.5–6.4). Immunogold labelling disclosed that Umod is transferred within cytoplasmic vesicles to both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane. Umod revealed a disturbed intracellular location in kidney injury. Conclusions We conclude that sUmod is a novel sensitive kidney-specific biomarker linked to the structural integrity of the distal nephron and to renal function. PMID:28206617
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of HBV markers on HBV-GN. Methods The immunohistochemistry was used to detect HBsAg and HBcAg in frozen sections of renal biopsy, the changes in HBV serum markers, renal functional parameters and clinical manifestations or symptoms were observed to analyze renal damage. Results Using renal biopsy data from 329 cases, this study found that the most common pathological subtype in HBV-GN was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN (24.9%, P P P P Conclusion Examination of HBV markers in serum and renal biopsy will be useful for clinicians to predict the renal damage in early stage when it is reversible in HBV-GN.
Full Text Available Clinical observations and mouse models have suggested that inflammation can be pro-tumorigenic. Since chemokines are critical in leukocyte trafficking, we hypothesized that chemokines play essential roles in inflammation-associated cancers. Screening for 37 chemokines in prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts revealed CXCL16, the ligand for the receptor CXCR6, as the most consistently expressed chemokine. Immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence and confocal imaging of 121 human prostate specimens showed that CXCL16 and CXCR6 were co-expressed, both on prostate cancer cells and adjacent T cells. Expression levels of CXCL16 and CXCR6 on cancer cells correlated with poor prognostic features including high-stage and high-grade, and expression also correlated with post-inflammatory changes in the cancer stroma as revealed by loss of alpha-smooth muscle actin. Moreover, CXCL16 enhanced the growth of CXCR6-expressing cancer and primary CD4 T cells. We studied expression of CXCL16 in an additional 461 specimens covering 12 tumor types, and found that CXCL16 was expressed in multiple human cancers associated with inflammation. Our study is the first to describe the expression of CXCL16/CXCR6 on both cancer cells and adjacent T cells in humans, and to demonstrate correlations between CXCL16 and CXCR6 vs. poor both prognostic features and reactive changes in cancer stoma. Taken together, our data suggest that CXCL16 and CXCR6 may mark cancers arising in an inflammatory milieu and mediate pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation through direct effects on cancer cell growth and by inducing the migration and proliferation of tumor-associated leukocytes.
Chen, Hanxiao; Yang, Xue; Liu, Huijun; Ma, Kun; Zhong, Jia; Dong, Zhi; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Yuyan; Li, Jianjie; An, Tongtong; Wu, Meina; Wang, Ziping; Zhao, Jun
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) significantly improve the survival of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation. Limited to the standards of tumor tissue samples and detection methods, still some people can't receive target therapy following genetic guidance. This study was to explore the relevance between serum tumor markers and treatment of EGFR-TKIs. We retrospectively collected the clinical information of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation, who received EGFR-TKIs as first-line therapy from June 2009 to June 2014 in Peking University Cancer Hospital, analyzed the relationship between serum tumor markers and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. The objective response rate (ORR) was 52.8% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 89.3%. The results showed that, patients with high CEA level before treatment responded better to TKIs (ORR 61.3% vs 35.9%, DCR 95.2% vs 74.4%, PCEA decreased 1 month later (61.5% vs 25%, P=0.002). Progression-free survival (PFS) significantly prolonged in patients with elevated baseline CEA (mPFS 9.8 mo vs 5.9 mo, P=0.027). To the opposite, PFS was significantly shorter in patients with elevated baseline CYFRA21-1 and CA125 (mPFS 9.0 mo vs 11.4 mo, P=0.029; 9.0 mo vs 11.5 mo, P=0.023, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score of 0-1, normal baseline CYFRA21-1 and CEA decline predicted longer PFS. The overall survival (OS) was highly associated with elevated CYFRA21-1 and CA125 (median OS 25.1 mo vs 52.5 mo, P=0.003; 22.7 mo vs 55.0 mo, PCEA. High level of baseline CEA and decline 1 month after treatment could predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. While high levels of baseline CYFRA21-1 and CA125 indicated shortened survival.
Full Text Available Background. Serum cystatin C (CysC was proposed as an effective reflection of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. However, its role in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been extensively verified especially in the detection of early RI. Patients and Methods. Seventy consecutive potential candidates for living donor liver transplantation with serum creatinine (Cr <1.5 mg/dL were included. CysC, Cr, and estimated GFR [creatinine clearance (CCr, Cockcroft-Gault formula (C-G, MDRD equations with 4 and 6 variables, CKD-EPI-Cr, CKD-EPI-CysC, and CKD-EPI-Cr-CysC] were all correlated to isotopic GFR. Early RI was defined as GFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results. Patients were 25.7% and 74.3% Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively. GFR was ≥90, 60–89, and 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 31.4%, 64.3%, and 4.3% of the patients, respectively. All markers and equations, except C-G, were significantly correlated to GFR with CKD-EPI-Cr-CysC formula having the highest correlation (r = 0.474 and the largest area under the ROC curve (0.808 for discriminating early RI. At a cutoff value of 1.2 mg/L, CysC was 89.6% sensitive and 63.6% specific in detecting early RI. Conclusion. In patients with liver cirrhosis, CysC and CysC-based equations showed the highest significant correlation to GFR and were measures that best discriminated early RI.
Berzinec, P.; Letkovicova, M.; Arpasova, M.; Zuffova, H.
The aim of the study was to test the diagnostic value tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 for squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Ninety-one patients were induced in this study: 56 with SQCLC - Group I, 25 with other types of lung cancer - Group II, 10 with benign respiratory tract diseases - Group III. Median CYFRA 21-1 serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.52 (0.94 - >16), in Group II: 3.58 (1.72 - >16), in Group III: 2.05 (0.99 - 3.41). Median CEA serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.49 (076- >20), in Group II: 3.32 (1.17 - >20), in Group III: 3.09 (1.84 - 6.37). There was a highly significant difference between the levels of CYFRA 21-1 in group I and Group III (p < 0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of CEA in Group I and III. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 by the cut-off 3.33 ng/ml in the diagnostics of SQCLC was 0.68, specificity 0.090, positive predictive value 0.91, negative predictive value 0.65. Sensitivity of CEA by cut-off 4.61 ng/ml was 0.5 by the same specificity 0.90. CYFRA 21-1 has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in the diagnostics of SQCLC. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 is significantly higher than sensitivity of CEA in this settings. (author)
Full Text Available Spontaneous abortion is an involuntary interruption of pregnancy before 22 weeks of gestation. According to the Algerian National Institute of Public Health the percentage of women suffering from permanent complications during pregnancy is approximately 15%. The aim of this study is the determination of some biochemical analytes, including folic acid, vitamin B12, alphafoetoproteine, beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG, progesterone and oestradiol (uE3, which are involved in the detection of pregnancy failures. This case-control study was carried out on women in the process of abortion and a control group with viable pregnancies in the East region of Algeria (Batna during the year 2015. In the present investigation, 69 pregnant women during the first and second trimester were recruited during the first and second trimesters as cases (with miscarriages and the control group (n=69 was constituted of women who had normal ultrasound. The average concentration of alpha-fetoprotein is significantly low during the first trimester, but it is very high during the second trimester between cases and controls. The median values of β- hCG, uE3 and progesterone decrease very significantly. The mean concentration of serum folate and vitamin B12 did not change significantly between cases and controls in the first and second trimesters. The results of this study revealed that, spontaneous abortions are associated with changes in serum markers and progesterone, which could form an important part in the early diagnosis of non-viable pregnancies. However, vitamins levels have no significant effects on these pregnancies.
Balogh, G A; Mailo, D A; Corte, M M; Roncoroni, P; Nardi, H; Vincent, E; Martinez, D; Cafasso, M E; Frizza, A; Ponce, G; Vincent, E; Barutta, E; Lizarraga, P; Lizarraga, G; Monti, C; Paolillo, E; Vincent, R; Quatroquio, R; Grimi, C; Maturi, H; Aimale, M; Spinsanti, C; Montero, H; Santiago, J; Shulman, L; Rivadulla, M; Machiavelli, M; Salum, G; Cuevas, M A; Picolini, J; Gentili, A; Gentili, R; Mordoh, J
p53 wild-type is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA gene transcription or DNA repair mechanisms. When damage to DNA is unrepairable, p53 induces programmed cell death (apoptosis). The mutant p53 gene is the most frequent molecular alteration in human cancer, including breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the genetic alterations in p53 oncogene expression in 55 patients with breast cancer at different stages and in 8 normal women. We measured by ELISA assay the serum levels of p53 mutant protein and p53 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR using specific p53 primers as well as mutation detection by DNA sequencing were also evaluated in breast tumor tissue. Serological p53 antibody analysis detected 0/8 (0%), 0/4 (0%) and 9/55 (16.36%) positive cases in normal women, in patients with benign breast disease and in breast carcinoma, respectively. We found positive p53 mutant in the sera of 0/8 (0.0%) normal women, 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease and 29/55 (52.72%) with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry evaluation was positive in 29/55 (52.73%) with mammary carcinoma and 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease. A very good correlation between p53 mutant protein detected in serum and p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry (83.3% positive in both assays) was found in this study. These data suggest that detection of mutated p53 could be a useful serological marker for diagnostic purposes.
Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, Kjeld; Savolainen, M J
BACKGROUND: Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized dietary...... by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. RESULTS: Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L-1 95% CI -0.35; -0...
Uslu, Ugur; Schliep, Stefan; Schliep, Klaus; Erdmann, Michael; Koch, Hans-Uwe; Parsch, Hans; Rosenheinrich, Stina; Anzengruber, Doris; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice
In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed. We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Serum was obtained from a total of 100 patients (28 patients in stage III and 72 patients in stage IV, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) at regular intervals during therapy, accompanied by follow-up imaging. When relapse was detected, both markers often remained within normal range. In contrast, in patients with metastatic measurable disease receiving therapeutic and not adjuvant DC vaccination, an increase of both markers was a strong indicator for disease progression. When comparing both markers in the whole study population, MIA showed a superior sensitivity to detect disease progression. S100 and MIA are highly sensitive tumor markers for monitoring of patients with melanoma with current metastases, but less sensitive for monitoring of tumor-free patients. In the current study, MIA had a slightly superior sensitivity to detect progressive disease compared to S100 and seems to be more useful in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Nordell, Anna D.; McKenna, Matthew; Borges, Álvaro H.; Duprez, Daniel; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Neaton, James D.; Gordin, F.; Finley, E.; Dietz, D.; Chesson, C.; Vjecha, M.; Standridge, B.; Schmetter, B.; Grue, L.; Willoughby, M.; Demers, A.; Lundgren, J. D.; Phillips, A.; Dragsted, U. B.; Jensen, K. B.; Fau, A.; Borup, L.; Pearson, M.; Jansson, P. O.; Jensen, B. G.; Benfield, T. L.; Darbyshire, J. H.; Babiker, A. G.; Palfreeman, A. J.; Fleck, S. L.; Collaco-Moraes, Y.; Cordwell, B.; Dodds, W.; van Hooff, F.; Wyzydrag, L.; Cooper, D. A.; Emery, S.; Drummond, F. M.; Connor, S. A.; Satchell, C. S.; Gunn, S.; Oka, S.; Delfino, M. A.; Merlin, K.; McGinley, C.; Neaton, J. D.; Bartsch, G.; DuChene, A.; George, M.; Grund, B.; Harrison, M.; Hogan, C.; Krum, E.; Larson, G.; Miller, C.; Nelson, R.; Neuhaus, J.; Roediger, M. P.; Schultz, T.; Thackeray, L.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Perez, G.; Lifson, A.; Duprez, D.; Hoy, J.; Lahart, C.; Perlman, D.; Price, R.; Rhame, F.; Sampson, J.; Worley, J.; der Simonian, R.; Brody, B. A.; Daar, E. S.; Dubler, N. N.; Fleming, T. R.; Freeman, D. J.; Kahn, J. P.; Kim, K. M.; Medoff, G.; Modlin, J. F.; Moellering, R.; Murray, B. E.; Pick, B.; Robb, M. L.; Scharfstein, D. O.; Sugarman, J.; Tsiatis, A.; Tuazon, C.; Zoloth, L.; Klingman, K.; Lehrman, S.; Lazovski, J.; Belloso, W. H.; Losso, M. H.; Benetucci, J. A.; Aquilia, S.; Bittar, V.; Bogdanowicz, E. P.; Cahn, P. E.; Casiró, A. D.; Cassetti, I.; Contarelli, J. M.; Corral, J. A.; Crinejo, A.; Daciuk, L.; David, D. O.; Guaragna, G.; Ishida, M. T.; Krolewiecki, A.; Laplume, H. E.; Lasala, M. B.; Lourtau, L.; Lupo, S. H.; Maranzana, A.; Masciottra, F.; Michaan, M.; Ruggieri, L.; Salazar, E.; Sánchez, M.; Somenzini, C.; Hoy, J. F.; Rogers, G. D.; Allworth, A. M.; Anderson, J. S. C.; Armishaw, J.; Barnes, K.; Carr, A.; Chiam, A.; Chuah, J. C. P.; Curry, M. C.; Dever, R. L.; Donohue, W. A.; Doong, N. C.; Dwyer, D. E.; Dyer, J.; Eu, B.; Ferguson, V. W.; French, M. A. H.; Garsia, R. J.; Gold, J.; Hudson, J. H.; Jeganathan, S.; Konecny, P.; Leung, J.; McCormack, C. L.; McMurchie, M.; Medland, N.; Moore, R. J.; Moussa, M. B.; Orth, D.; Piper, M.; Read, T.; Roney, J. J.; Roth, N.; Shaw, D. R.; Silvers, J.; Smith, D. J.; Street, A. C.; Vale, R. J.; Wendt, N. A.; Wood, H.; Youds, D. W.; Zillman, J.; Rieger, A.; Tozeau, V.; Aichelburg, A.; Vetter, N.; Clumeck, N.; DeWit, S.; de Roo, A.; Kabeya, K.; Leonard, P.; Lynen, L.; Moutschen, M.; O'Doherty, E.; Pereira, L. C.; Souza, T. N. L.; Schechter, M.; Zajdenverg, R.; Almeida, M. M. T. B.; Araujo, F.; Bahia, F.; Brites, C.; Caseiro, M. M.; Casseb, J.; Etzel, A.; Falco, G. G.; Filho, E. C. J.; Flint, S. R.; Gonzales, C. R.; Madruga, J. V. R.; Passos, L. N.; Reuter, T.; Sidi, L. C.; Toscano, A. L. C.; Zarowny, D.; Cherban, E.; Cohen, J.; Conway, B.; Dufour, C.; Ellis, M.; Foster, A.; Haase, D.; Haldane, H.; Houde, M.; Kato, C.; Klein, M.; Lessard, B.; Martel, A.; Martel, C.; McFarland, N.; Paradis, E.; Piche, A.; Sandre, R.; Schlech, W.; Schmidt, S.; Smaill, F.; Thompson, B.; Trottier, S.; Vezina, S.; Walmsley, S.; Wolff Reyes, M. J.; Northland, R.; Ostergaard, L.; Pedersen, C.; Nielsen, H.; Hergens, L.; Loftheim, I. R.; Raukas, M.; Zilmer, K.; Justinen, J.; Ristola, M.; Girard, P. M.; Landman, R.; Abel, S.; Abgrall, S.; Amat, K.; Auperin, L.; Barruet, R.; Benalycherif, A.; Benammar, N.; Bensalem, M.; Bentata, M.; Besnier, J. M.; Blanc, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Cabié, A.; Chavannet, P.; Chennebault, J. M.; Dargere, S.; de la Tribonniere, X.; Debord, T.; Decaux, N.; Delgado, J.; Dupon, M.; Durant, J.; Frixon-Marin, V.; Genet, C.; Gérard, L.; Gilquin, J.; Hoen, B.; Jeantils, V.; Kouadio, H.; Leclercq, P.; Lelièvre, J. -D.; Levy, Y.; Michon, C. P.; Nau, P.; Pacanowski, J.; Piketty, C.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Raymond, I.; Salmon, D.; Schmit, J. L.; Serini, M. A.; Simon, A.; Tassi, S.; Touam, F.; Verdon, R.; Weinbreck, P.; Weiss, L.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Yeni, P.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Staszewski, S.; Bergmann, F.; Bitsch, S.; Bogner, J. R.; Brockmeyer, N.; Esser, S.; Goebel, F. D.; Hartmann, M.; Klinker, H.; Lehmann, C.; Lennemann, T.; Plettenberg, A.; Potthof, A.; Rockstroh, J.; Ross, B.; Stoehr, A.; Wasmuth, J. C.; Wiedemeyer, K.; Winzer, R.; Hatzakis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Antoniadou, A.; Daikos, G. L.; Dimitrakaki, A.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Giannaris, M.; Karafoulidou, A.; Katsambas, A.; Katsarou, O.; Kontos, A. N.; Kordossis, T.; Lazanas, M. K.; Panagopoulos, P.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Petrikkos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Skoutelis, A.; Tsogas, N.; Xylomenos, G.; Bergin, C. J.; Mooka, B.; Pollack, S.; Mamorksy, M. G.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Karplus, R.; Kedem, E.; Maayan, S.; Shahar, E.; Sthoeger, Z.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Tambussi, G.; Rusconi, V.; Abeli, C.; Bechi, M.; Biglino, A.; Bonora, S.; Butini, L.; Carosi, G.; Casari, S.; Corpolongo, A.; de Gioanni, M.; Di Perri, G.; Di Pietro, M.; D'Offizi, G.; Esposito, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Montroni, M.; Nardini, G.; Nozza, S.; Quirino, T.; Raise, E.; Honda, M.; Ishisaka, M.; Caplinskas, S.; Uzdaviniene, V.; Schmit, J. C.; Staub, T.; Himmich, H.; Marhoum El Filali, K.; Mills, G. D.; Blackmore, T.; Masters, J. A.; Morgan, J.; Pithie, A.; Brunn, J.; Ormasssen, V.; La Rosa, A.; Guerra, O.; Espichan, M.; Gutierrez, L.; Mendo, F.; Salazar, R.; Knytz, B.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Beniowski, M.; Gasiorowski, J.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Antunes, F.; Castro, R. S.; Doroana, M.; Horta, A.; Mansinho, K.; Miranda, A. C.; Pinto, I. V.; Valadas, E.; Vera, J.; Rakhmanova, A.; Vinogradova, E.; Yakovlev, A.; Zakharova, N.; Wood, R.; Orrel, C.; Gatell, J.; Arnaiz, J. A.; Carrillo, R.; Clotet, B.; Dalmau, D.; González, A.; Jordano, Q.; Jou, A.; Knobel, H.; Larrousse, M.; Mata, R.; Moreno, J. S.; Oretaga, E.; Pena, J. N.; Pulido, F.; Rubio, R.; Sanz, J.; Viciana, P.; Hirschel, B.; Spycher, R.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Bottone, S.; Cavassini, M.; Christen, A.; Franc, C.; Furrer, H. J.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Genné, D.; Hochstrasser, S.; Magenta, L.; Moens, C.; Müller, Nicolas J.; Nüesch, R.; Phanuphak, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Pumpradit, W.; Chetchotisakd, P.; Dangthongdee, S.; Kiertiburanakul, S.; Klinbuayaem, V.; Mootsikapun, P.; Nonenoy, S.; Piyavong, B.; Prasithsirikul, W.; Raksakulkarn, P.; Gazzard, B. G.; Ainsworth, J. G.; Anderson, J.; Angus, B. J.; Barber, T. J.; Brook, M. G.; Care, C. D.; Chadwick, D. R.; Chikohora, M.; Churchill, D. R.; Cornforth, D.; Dockrell, D. H.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Fox, P. A.; Fox, R.; Gomez, P. A.; Gompels, M. M.; Harris, G. M.; Herman, S.; Jackson, A. G. A.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Johnson, M. A.; Kinghorn, G. R.; Kuldanek, K. A.; Larbalestier, N.; Leen, C.; Lumsden, M.; Maher, T.; Mantell, J.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; McLean, L.; Morris, S.; Muromba, L.; Orkin, C. M.; Peters, B. S.; Peto, T. E. A.; Portsmouth, S. D.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Ronan, A.; Schwenk, A.; Slinn, M. A.; Stroud, C. J.; Thomas, R. C.; Wansbrough-Jones, M. H.; Whiles, H. J.; White, D. J.; Williams, E.; Williams, I. G.; Youle, M.; Abrams, D. I.; Acosta, E. A.; Adams, S.; Adamski, A.; Andrews, L.; Antoniskis, D.; Aragon, D. R.; Arduino, R.; Artz, R.; Bailowitz, J.; Barnett, B. J.; Baroni, C.; Barron, M.; Baxter, J. D.; Beers, D.; Beilke, M.; Bemenderfer, D.; Bernard, A.; Besch, C. L.; Bessesen, M. T.; Bethel, J. T.; Blue, S.; Blum, J. D.; Boarden, S.; Bolan, R. K.; Borgman, J. B.; Brar, I.; Braxton, B. K.; Bredeek, U. F.; Brennan, R.; Britt, D. E.; Brockelman, J.; Brown, S.; Bruzzese, V.; Bulgin-Coleman, D.; Bullock, D. E.; Cafaro, V.; Campbell, B.; Caras, S.; Carroll, J.; Casey, K. K.; Chiang, F.; Childress, G.; Cindrich, R. B.; Clark, C.; Climo, M.; Cohen, C.; Coley, J.; Condoluci, D. V.; Contreras, R.; Corser, J.; Cozzolino, J.; Crane, L. R.; Daley, L.; Dandridge, D.; D'Antuono, V.; Patron, J. G. Darcourt Rizo; DeHovitz, J. A.; Dejesus, E.; des-Jardin, J.; Diaz-Linares, M.; Dietrich, C.; Dodson, P.; Dolce, E.; Elliott, K.; Erickson, D.; Estes, M.; Faber, L. L.; Falbo, J.; Farrough, M. J.; Farthing, C. F.; Ferrell-Gonzalez, P.; Flynn, H.; Frank, C.; Freeman, K. F.; French, N.; Friedland, G.; Fujita, N.; Gahagan, L.; Genther, K.; Gilson, I.; Goetz, M. B.; Goodwin, E.; Graziano, F.; Guity, C. K.; Gulick, P.; Gunderson, E. R.; Hale, C. M.; Hannah, K.; Henderson, H.; Hennessey, K.; Henry, W. K.; Higgins, D. T.; Hodder, S. L.; Horowitz, H. W.; Howe-Pittman, M.; Hubbard, J.; Hudson, R.; Hunter, H.; Hutelmyer, C.; Insignares, M. T.; Jackson, L.; Jenny, L.; John, M.; Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, G.; Johnson, J.; Johnson, L.; Kaatz, J.; Kaczmarski, J.; Kagan, S.; Kantor, C.; Kempner, T.; Kieckhaus, K.; Kimmel, N.; Klaus, B. M.; Klimas, N.; Koeppe, J. R.; Koirala, J.; Kopka, J.; Kostman, J. R.; Kozal, M. J.; Kumar, A.; Labriola, A.; Lampiris, H.; Lamprecht, C.; Lattanzi, K. M.; Lee, J.; Leggett, J.; Long, C.; Loquere, A.; Loveless, K.; Lucasti, C. J.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; MacVeigh, M.; Makohon, L. H.; Mannheimer, S.; Markowitz, N. P.; Marks, C.; Martinez, N.; Martorell, C.; McFeaters, E.; McGee, B.; McIntyre, D. M.; McKee, J.; McManus, E.; Melecio, L. G.; Melton, D.; Mercado, S.; Merrifield, E.; Mieras, J. A.; Mogyoros, M.; Moran, F. M.; Murphy, K.; Mushatt, D.; Mutic, S.; Nadeem, I.; Nadler, J. P.; Nahass, R.; Nixon, D.; O'Brien, S.; Ognjan, A.; O'Hearn, M.; O'Keefe, K.; Okhuysen, P. C.; Oldfield, E.; Olson, D.; Orenstein, R.; Ortiz, R.; Osterberger, J.; Owen, W.; Parpart, F.; Pastore-Lange, V.; Paul, S.; Pavlatos, A.; Pearce, D. D.; Pelz, R.; Peterson, S.; Pierone, G.; Pitrak, D.; Powers, S. L.; Pujet, H. C.; Raaum, J. W.; Ravishankar, J.; Reeder, J.; Regevik, N.; Reilly, N. A.; Reyelt, C.; Riddell, J.; Rimland, D.; Robinson, M. L.; Rodriguez, A. E.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M. C.; Rodriguez Derouen, V.; Roland, R.; Rosmarin, C.; Rossen, W. L.; Rouff, J. R.; Sampson, J. H.; Sands, M.; Savini, C.; Schrader, S.; Schulte, M. M.; Scott, C.; Scott, R.; Seedhom, H.; Sension, M.; Sheble-Hall, A.; Sheridan, A.; Shuter, J.; Slater, L. N.; Slotten, R.; Slowinski, D.; Smith, M.; Snap, S.; States, D. M.; Stewart, M.; Stringer, G.; Sullivan, J.; Summers, K. K.; Swanson, K.; Sweeton, I. B.; Szabo, S.; Tedaldi, E. M.; Telzak, E. E.; Temesgen, Z.; Thomas, D.; Thompson, M. A.; Thompson, S.; Ting Hong Bong, C.; Tobin, C.; Uy, J.; Vaccaro, A.; Vasco, L. M.; Vecino, I.; Verlinghieri, G. K.; Visnegarwala, F.; Wade, B. H.; Watson, V.; Weise, J. A.; Weissman, S.; Wilkin, A. M.; Williams, L.; Witter, J. H.; Wojtusic, L.; Wright, T. J.; Yeh, V.; Young, B.; Zeana, C.; Zeh, J.; Savio, E.; Vacarezza, M.; Aagaard, B.; Aragon, E.; Arnaiz, J.; Dragsted, U.; Gey, D.; Grarup, J.; Hengge, U.; Herrero, P.; Jansson, P.; Jensen, B.; Jensen, K.; Juncher, H.; Lopez, P.; Lundgren, J.; Matthews, C.; Mollerup, D.; Reilev, S.; Tillmann, K.; Varea, S.; Angus, B.; Babiker, A.; Darbyshire, J.; Fleck, S.; Horton, J.; Hudson, F.; Moraes, Y.; Pacciarini, F.; Palfreeman, A.; Paton, N.; Smith, N.; Bebchuk, J.; Collins, G.; Denning, E.; Fosdick, L.; Herman-Lamin, K.; Neaton, J.; Quan, K.; Quan, S.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Wyman, N.; Carey, C.; Chan, F.; Cooper, D.; Courtney-Rodgers, D.; Drummond, F.; Harrod, M.; Jacoby, S.; Kearney, L.; Law, M.; Lin, E.; Pett, S.; Robson, R.; Seneviratne, N.; Watts, E.; Sánchez, A.; Belloso, W.; Davey, R.; Pederson, C.; Modlin, J.; Beral, V.; Chaisson, R.; Fleming, T.; Hill, C.; Kim, K.; Murray, B.; Seligmann, M.; Weller, I.; Cahill, K.; Fox, L.; Luzar, M.; Martinez, A.; McNay, L.; Pierson, J.; Tierney, J.; Vogel, S.; Costas, V.; Eckstrand, J.; Abusamra, L.; Angel, E.; Benetucci, J.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Cahn, P.; Casiro, A.; Contarelli, J.; Corral, J.; David, D.; Dobrzanski, W.; Duran, A.; Ebenrstejin, J.; Ferrari, I.; Fridman, D.; Galache, V.; Ivalo, S.; Lanusse, I.; Laplume, H.; Lasala, M.; Lattes, R.; Lopardo, G.; Losso, M.; Lupo, S.; Marson, C.; Massera, L.; Moscatello, G.; Olivia, S.; Otegui, I.; Palacios, L.; Parlante, A.; Salomon, H.; Sanchez, M.; Suarez, C.; Tocci, M.; Toibaro, J.; Zala, C.; Agrawal, S.; Ambrose, P.; Anderson, C.; Baker, D.; Beileiter, K.; Blavius, K.; Bloch, M.; Boyle, M.; Bradford, D.; Britton, P.; Brown, P.; Busic, T.; Cain, A.; Carrall, L.; Carson, S.; Chenoweth, I.; Chuah, J.; Clark, F.; Clemons, J.; Clezy, K.; Cortissos, P.; Cunningham, N.; Curry, M.; Daly, L.; D'Arcy-Evans, C.; del Rosario, R.; Dinning, S.; Dobson, P.; Donohue, W.; Doong, N.; Downs, C.; Edwards, E.; Edwards, S.; Egan, C.; Ferguson, W.; Finlayson, R.; Forsdyke, C.; Foy, L.; Franic, T.; Frater, A.; French, M.; Gleeson, D.; Habel, P.; Haig, K.; Hardy, S.; Holland, R.; Hudson, J.; Hutchison, R.; Hyland, N.; James, R.; Johnston, C.; Kelly, M.; King, M.; Kunkel, K.; Lau, H.; Leamy, J.; Lester, D.; Lohmeyer, A.; Lowe, K.; MacRae, K.; Magness, C.; Martinez, O.; Maruszak, H.; Miller, S.; Murray, J.; Negus, P.; Newman, R.; Ngieng, M.; Nowlan, C.; Oddy, J.; Orford, N.; Patching, J.; Plummer, M.; Price, S.; Primrose, R.; Prone, I.; Ree, H.; Remington, C.; Richardson, R.; Robinson, S.; Rogers, G.; Roney, J.; Russell, D.; Ryan, S.; Sarangapany, J.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, K.; Shields, C.; Silberberg, C.; Shaw, D.; Skett, J.; Smith, D.; Soo, T. Meng; Sowden, D.; Street, A.; tee, B. Kiem; Thomson, Jl; Topaz, S.; Vale, R.; Villella, C.; Walker, A.; Watson, A.; Wendt, N.; Youds, D.; Cichon, P.; Gemeinhart, B.; Schmied, B.; Touzeau-Romer, V.; Colebunders, R.; DeRoo, A.; de Wit, S.; Angel, J.; Arsenault, M.; Bast, M.; Beckthold, B.; Bouchard, P.; Chabot, I.; Clarke, R.; Coté, P.; Gagne, C.; Gill, J.; Johnston, B.; Jubinville, N.; Lamoureux, N.; Latendre-Paquette, J.; Lindemulder, A.; McNeil, A.; Montaner, J.; Morrisseau, C.; O'Neill, R.; Page, G.; Pongracz, B.; Preziosi, H.; Puri, L.; Rachlis, A.; Ralph, E.; Rouleau, D.; Routy, J. P.; Seddon, T.; Shafran, S.; Sikora, C.; Stromberg, D.; Weiss, K.; Williams, K.; Baadegaard, B.; Andersen, Å Bengaard; Boedker, K.; Collins, P.; Gerstoft, J.; Jensen, L.; Moller, H.; Lehm Andersen, P.; Loftheim, I.; Mathiesen, L.; Obel, N.; Petersen, D.; Pors Jensen, L.; Trunk, F.; Aboulker, J. P.; Aouba, A.; Berthe, H.; Blanc, C.; Bornarel, D.; Boue, F.; Bouvet, E.; Brancon, C.; Breaud, S.; Brosseau, D.; Brunet, A.; Capitant, C.; Ceppi, C.; Chakvetadze, C.; Cheneau, C.; de Truchis, P.; Delavalle, A. M.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dumont, C.; Edeb, N.; Fabre, G.; Ferrando, S.; Foltzer, A.; Foubert, V.; Gastaut, J. A.; Gerbe, J.; Goujard, C.; Honore, P.; Hue, H.; Hynh, T.; Jung, C.; Kahi, S.; Katlama, C.; Lang, J. M.; Le Baut, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Leturque, N.; Lévy, Y.; Loison, J.; Maddi, G.; Maignan, A.; Majerholc, C.; de Boever, C.; Meynard, J. L.; Michelet, C.; Michon, C.; Mole, M.; Netzer, E.; Pialoux, G.; Raffi, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Ravaux, I.; Reynes, J.; Salmon-Ceron, D.; Sebire, M.; Tegna, L.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Tramoni, C.; Viard, J. P.; Vidal, M.; Viet-Peaucelle, C.; Zeng, A.; Zucman, D.; Adam, A.; Arastéh, K.; Behrens, G.; Bickel, M.; Bittner, D.; Bogner, J.; Darrelmann, N.; Deja, M.; Doerler, M.; Faetkenheuer, G.; Fenske, S.; Gajetzki, S.; Goebel, F.; Gorriahn, D.; Harrer, E.; Harrer, T.; Hartl, H.; Heesch, S.; Jakob, W.; Jäger, H.; Kremer, G.; Ludwig, C.; Mantzsch, K.; Mauss, S.; Meurer, A.; Niedermeier, A.; Pittack, N.; Potthoff, A.; Probst, M.; Rittweger, M.; Rotty, J.; Rund, E.; Ruzicka, T.; Schmidt, Rt; Schmutz, G.; Schnaitmann, E.; Schuster, D.; Sehr, T.; Spaeth, B.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Stephan, C.; Stockey, T.; Trein, A.; Vaeth, T.; Vogel, M.; Wasmuth, J.; Wengenroth, C.; Wolf, E.; Mulcahy, F.; Reidy, D. l; Cohen, Y.; Drora, G.; Eliezer, I.; Godo, O.; Magen, E.; Mamorsky, M.; Vered, H.; Aiuti, F.; Bergamasco, A.; Bertelli, D.; Bruno, R.; Cagliuso, M.; Chrysoula, V.; Cologni, G.; Conti, V.; Costantini, A.; Gaiottino, F.; Filice, G.; Francesco, M.; Gianelli, E.; Graziella, C.; Martellotta, F.; Maserati, R.; Murdaca, G.; Puppo, F.; Pogliaghi, M.; Ripamonti, D.; Ronchetti, C.; Rusconi, S.; Sacchi, P.; Silvia, N.; Suter, F.; Uglietti, A.; Vechi, M.; Vergani, B.; Vichi, F.; Vitiello, P.; Iwamoto, A.; Kikuchi, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Mori, M.; Nakamura, T.; Odawara, T.; Shirasaka, T.; Tabata, M.; Takano, M.; Ueta, C.; Watanabe, D.; Yamamoto, Y.; Erradey, I.; Blok, W.; van Boxtel, R.; Brinkman H Doevelaar, K.; van Eeden, A.; Grijsen, M.; Groot, M.; Juttmann, J.; Kuipers, M.; Ligthart, S.; van der Meulen, P.; Lange, J.; Langebeek, N.; Reiss, P.; Richter, C.; Schoemaker, M.; Schrijnders-Gudde, L.; Septer-Bijleveld, E.; Sprenger, H.; Vermeulen, J.; ten Kate, R.; van de Ven, B.; Bruun, J.; Kvale, D.; Maeland, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Inglot, M.; Knysz, B.; Mularska, E.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Rymer, W.; Szymczak, A.; de Salles Amorim, C.; Basso, C.; Flint, S.; Kallas, E.; Levi, G.; Lewi, D.; Pereira, L.; da Silva, M.; Souza, T.; Toscano, A.; Vaz Pinto, I.; Chia, E.; Foo, E.; Karim, F.; Lim, P. L.; Panchalingam, A.; Quek, A.; Alcázar-Caballero, R.; Arribas, J.; Arrizabalaga, J.; de Barron, X.; Blanco, F.; Bouza, E.; Bravo, I.; Calvo, S.; Carbonero, L.; Carpena, I.; Castro, M.; Cortes, L.; del Toro, M.; Domingo, P.; Elias, M.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, V.; Fernandez-Cruz, E.; Fernández, P.; Freud, H.; Fuster, M.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, G.; Garrido, R.; Gijón, P.; Gonzalez-García, J.; Gil, I.; González-Lahoz, J.; López Grosso, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Guzmán, E.; Iribarren, J.; Jiménez, M.; Juega, J.; Lopez, J.; Lozano, F.; Martín-Carbonero, L.; Mateo, G.; Menasalvas, A.; Mirelles, C.; de Miguel Prieto, J.; Montes, M.; Moreno, A.; Moreno, J.; Moreno, V.; Muñoz, R.; Ocampo, A.; Ortega, E.; Ortiz, L.; Padilla, B.; Parras, A.; Paster, A.; Pedreira, J.; Peña, J.; Perea, R.; Portas, B.; Puig, J.; Rebollar, M.; de Rivera, J.; Roca, V.; Rodríguez- Arrondo, F.; Santos, J.; Sebastian, G.; Segovia, M.; Soriano, V.; Tamargo, L.; von Wichmann, M.; Bratt, G.; Hollander, A.; Olov Pehrson, P.; Petz, I.; Sandstrom, E.; Sönnerborg, A.; Gurtner, V.; Ampunpong, U.; Auchieng, C.; Bowonwatanuwong, C.; Chanchai, P.; Chuenyan, T.; Duncombe, C.; Horsakulthai, M.; Kantipong, P.; Laohajinda, K.; Pongsurachet, V.; Pradapmook, S.; Ruxruntham, K.; Seekaew, S.; Sonjai, A.; Suwanagool, S.; Techasathit, W.; Ubolyam, S.; Wankoon, J.; Alexander, I.; Dockrell, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Edwards, B.; Evans, E.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilleran, G.; Hand, J.; Heald, L.; Higgs, C.; Jebakumar, S.; Jendrulek, I.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, S.; Kinghorn, G.; Kuldanek, K.; Murphy, M.; O'Farrell, S.; Ong, E.; Peters, B.; Stroud, C.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Weber, J.; White, D.; Williams, I.; Wiselka, M.; Yee, T.; Allegra, D.; Aneja, B.; Anstead, G.; Banks, S.; Baxter, J.; Baum, J.; Benator, D.; Black, D.; Boh, D.; Bonam, T.; Brito, M.; Burnside, A.; Casey, K.; Cason, L.; Clark, Cl; Clifford, D.; Couey, P.; Cuervo, H.; Deeks, S.; Dennis, M.; Dickerson, D.; Diez, M.; Di Puppo, J.; Dupre, D.; Elion, R.; El-Sadr, W.; Fabre, J.; Farrough, M.; Flamm, J.; Follansbee, S.; Foster, C.; Franz, J.; Frechette, G.; Freidland, G.; Frische, J.; Fuentes, L.; Funk, C.; Geisler, C.; Giles, M.; Goetz, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Graeber, C.; Grice, D.; Hahn, B.; Hamilton, C.; Hassler, S.; Henson, A.; Hopper, S.; Johnson, R.; Jones, R.; Kahn, J.; Kolber, M.; Koletar, S.; Larsen, R.; Lasseter, F.; Lederman, M.; Ling, T.; Lusch, T.; MacArthur, R.; Machado, C.; Makohon, L.; Mandelke, J.; Markowitz, N.; Martínez, M.; Mass, M.; Masur, H.; McGregor, D.; McIntyre, D.; McMullen, D.; Mettinger, M.; Middleton, S.; Mieras, J.; Mildvan, D.; Miller, P.; Miller, T.; Mitchell, V.; Mitsuyasu, R.; Moanna, A.; Mogridge, C.; Moran, F.; Murphy, R.; Ojeda, J.; Okhuysen, P.; Olson, M.; Pablovich, S.; Patel, S.; Poblete, R.; Potter, A.; Preston, E.; Rappoport, C.; Reyelt, M.; Riney, L.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rodriguez, J.; Rosmarin-DeStefano, C.; Rossen, W.; Rouff, J.; Saag, M.; Santiago, S.; Sarria, J.; Wirtz, S.; Schmidt, U.; Shin, A.; Shrader, S.; Simon, G.; Smith, K.; Spotkov, J.; Sprague, C.; States, D.; Suh, C.; Summers, K.; Sweeton, B.; Tan, V.; Tanner, T.; Tedaldi, E.; Thompson, M.; Toro, N.; Towner, W.; Upton, K.; Valenti, S.; Vita, J.; Voell, J.; Walker, J.; Walton, T.; Wason, K.; Wellons, A.; Weise, J.; Whitman, T.; Williams, B.; Williams, N.; Windham, J.; Witt, M.; Workowski, K.; Wortmann, G.; Wright, T.; Zelasky, C.; Zwickl, B.; Aldir, M.; Baptista, C.; da Conceicao Vera, J.; Raquel, C.; dos Santos, E.
Background-In the general population, raised levels of inflammatory markers are stronger predictors of fatal than nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. People with HIV have elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer; HIV-induced
Price, A K; de Godoy, M R C; Harper, T A; Knap, K E; Joslyn, S; Pietrzkowski, Z; Cross, B K; Detweiler, K B; Swanson, K S
Our objective was to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium fructoborate (CFB) on gait, joint range of motion, serum inflammatory markers, and owner perception of pain in client-owned dogs. We used 59 osteoarthritic dogs with impairment, with dogs being randomly assigned to 4 treatments: placebo (60 mg fructose; = 15), low dose (69 mg CFB; = 14), high dose (127 mg CFB; = 14), or combination (69 mg CFB, 500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride and 200 mg chondroitin sulfate; = 16). Dogs up to 22.9 kg received 1 capsule/d, while dogs weighing 23 to 50 kg received 2 capsules/d. A physical examination, radiographs, goniometry measurements, gait analysis, blood sample collection, and a canine brief pain inventory questionnaire were performed on d 0 and 28. Change from baseline values were statistically analyzed among groups. After 28 d, dogs fed the low and high doses had an improved ( Dogs fed the high dose also had a greater ( = 0.05) increase in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentration than dogs fed the placebo. Sub-analysis of only large dogs (> 23 kg) showed that dogs fed the low dose had decreased ( dogs fed the placebo. Large dogs fed the low dose also were shown to improve ( dogs fed the placebo. Overall, CFB supplementation was well-tolerated and may aid in mitigating joint discomfort in dogs.
Delgado, Julio C; Pavlov, Igor Y; Shihab, Fuad S
Levels of sCD30 represent a biomarker for early outcome in kidney transplantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of sCD30 levels for prediction of graft loss in the late post-transplant period. Sera were collected immediately pre-transplant and yearly thereafter for up to 5-year post-transplant in 37 primary renal transplant recipients. Levels of serum sCD30 were tested using a fluorescent microsphere assay. Levels of sCD30 significantly decreased after transplantation and remained normal in 34 patients without graft loss up to 5-year post-transplant. Elevated levels of serum sCD30 preceded the increase of serum creatinine in patients with subsequent graft loss. Elevated levels of serum sCD30 post-transplant might be a marker for predicting subsequent graft loss in the post-transplant period.
Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Pødenphant, J
Carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in serum has recently been proposed as a new biochemical marker of bone resorption. In the present study we compared serum ICTP with radiopharmaceutical and histomorphometric measurements of bone turnover...... in postmenopausal women with mild osteoporosis, and assessed the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (2 mg 17 beta-estradiol plus 1 mg norethisterone daily) and anabolic steroid therapy (50 mg nandrolone decanoate (ND) i.m. every 3 weeks) on serum ICTP in two double-blind placebo-controlled studies with 55...... to 75-year-old women. Serum ICTP measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) correlated significantly with the 24-hour whole body retention of 99m-technetium diphosphonate (Rho = 0.47, P
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil on serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinases in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: From March 2012 to March 2017 a total of 248 patients with advanced esophageal cancer were selected as the study subjects. According to random data table, they were divided into control group (n=123 and observation group (n=125 according to random data table. The control group was treated with cisplatin combined with fluorouracil, leucovorin chemotherapy, and patients in the observation group received oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy, all patients were treated for 2 cycles. The changes of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase levels in the two groups before and after treatment was compared. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference of the levels of serum CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 between the control group and the observation group. Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the two groups were significantly lower. After treatment, the level of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the observation group was significantly lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy can effectively reduce the levels of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, it has important clinical value.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of surgical resection combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE on postoperative serum tumor marker levels and stem cell characteristics during tumor recurrence. Methods: A total of 98 patients with liver cancer who received radical resection in our hospital between May 2013 and July 2015 were reviewed and divided into TACE group and control group according to whether they received TACE within two months after surgical resection. Serum levels of tumor markers were detected 4 weeks after operation; the tumor recurrence was followed up within 3 years after operation, and the expression of stem cell marker molecules and cell proliferation molecules in recurrent lesions were detected. Results: 4 weeks after radical hepatectomy, serum AFP, AFP-L3, GP73 and GPC3 levels in TACE group were significantly lower than those in control group; Nanog, CD133, EpCAM, PICK1, CyclinD1, C-myc and Survivin expression in surgically removed lesions of TACE group were not different from those of control group while Nanog, CD133, EpCAM, PICK1, CyclinD1, C-myc and Survivin expression in recurrent lesions were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Surgical resection combined with TACE can more effectively remove liver cancer lesions, reduce the tumor marker levels and inhibit the tumor stem cell characteristics and cell proliferation activity in recurrent lesions.
Zhang Chunyan; Wang Linglong; Tu Liping; Yu Yuefang; Zhu Weijie; Cai Ao; Gao Shuxing
Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of assays of multiple tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung disorders. Methods: A total of 62 patients with malignant and benign lung diseases un- derwent 18 F-FDG SPECT examination and tests for serum tumor markers CEA, CA50, CA199 and CA242, alone or combined. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of these tests were examined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity accuracy of 18 F-FDG SPECT for the diagnosis of malignant lung tumors were 85.7 (30/35), 59.3 (16/27) and 74.2(46/62) respectively, those of each of serum CEA, CA199, CA50, CA242 levels in diagnosing malignant lung tumors were 22.9(8/35), 92.6(25/27), 59.7(33/62), 14.3(5/35), 100(27/27), 51.6 (32/62), 34.3 (12/35), 85.2 (23/27), 56.5 (35/62), 28.6 (10/35), 85.2 (23/27) and 53.2 (33/62) respectively, those of assays of multiple serum tumor markers for diagnosis of malignant lung tumors were 85.7 (30/35), 85.2 (23/27) and 85.5 (53/62) respectively, those of assays of multiple tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung nodules were 88.6(31/35), 85.2(23/27) and 87.1 (54/62) respectively. Conclusion: Assays of multiple serum tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung disorders can yield higher sensitivity, specialty and accuracy, making a significant contribution to clinical application. (authors)
Jumpathong, Watthanachai; Chan, Wan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Babu, I Ramesh; Dedon, Peter C
Although mechanistically linked to disease, cellular molecules damaged by endogenous processes have not emerged as significant biomarkers of inflammation and disease risk, due in part to poor understanding of their pharmacokinetic fate from tissue to excretion. Here, we use systematic metabolite profiling to define the fate of a common DNA oxidation product, base propenals, to discover such a biomarker. Based on known chemical reactivity and metabolism in liver cell extracts, 15 candidate metabolites were identified for liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification in urine and bile of rats treated with thymine propenal (Tp). Analysis of urine revealed three metabolites (6% of Tp dose): thymine propenoate and two mercapturate derivatives of glutathione conjugates. Bile contained an additional four metabolites (22% of Tp dose): cysteinylglycine and cysteine derivatives of glutathione adducts. A bis-mercapturate was observed in urine of untreated rats and increased approximately three- to fourfold following CCl4-induced oxidative stress or treatment with the DNA-cleaving antitumor agent, bleomycin. Systematic metabolite profiling thus provides evidence for a metabolized DNA damage product as a candidate biomarker of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans.
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess FGF-β, TGF-β, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves’ orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1 severe GO (n=18, the mean clinical activity score (CAS being 8.5 (SD 2.5; and (2 mild GO (n=9, the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8, and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-β, TGF-β, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF-β expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF-β expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF-β and TGF-β expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO.
Full Text Available Patients on long-term dialysis may develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT with increased serum concentrations of bone resorption markers such as the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX and type-5b tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. When SHPT proves refractory to treatment, parathyroidectomy (PTX may be needed. Renal patients on maintenance HD who received PTX for refractory SHPT (n=23 or who did not develop refractory SHPT (control subjects; n=25 were followed prospectively for 4 weeks. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, NTX, TRAP, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP concentrations were measured serially and correlation analyses were performed. iPTH values decreased rapidly and dramatically. BAP values increased progressively with peak increases observed at 2 weeks after surgery. NTX and TRAP values decreased concurrently and progressively through 4 weeks following PTX. A significant correlation between TRAP and NTX values was observed before PTX but not at 4 weeks after PTX. Additionally, the fractional changes in serum TRAP were larger than those in serum NTX at all times examined after PTX. Serum iPTH, TRAP, and NTX values declined rapidly following PTX for SHPT. Serum TRAP values declined to greater degrees than serum NTX values throughout the 4-week period following PTX.
van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie
Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva
Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641
Bao Yong; Long Wubin; Yu Ke; Zeng Ying; Liu Deying
Objective: To explore the relationship between rheumatoid activity and serum levels of the cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), hyaluronic acid (HA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum IL-2, HA(with RIA) and sIL-2R, VEGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 30 controls, 30 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission. Sensitivity and specificity for each marker were analyzed. Results: In patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, the serum levels of sIL-2R, HA, VEGF were significantly higher and serum levels of IL-2 significantly lower than those in patients in remission and controls (p<0.01). Determination of VEGF levels possessed the highest specificity (93.3%) and also a high sensitivity (93.3% as well). Conclusion: Determination of the serum levels of any of these markers was valuable for monitoring the activity of the rheumatoid process. It is more desirable to take measurements of VEGF levels due to its highest specificity
Awad, S M; Attallah, D A; Salama, R H; Mahran, A M; Abu El-Hamed, E
Psoriasin (S100A7) and koebnerisin (S100A15) are proinflammatory proteins upregulated in psoriasis, but their relation to atherosclerosis remains unclear. To evaluate the role of serum psoriasin and koebnerisin as possible markers for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis. Serum levels of psoriasin and koebnerisin were measured by ELISA in 45 patients with psoriasis and in 45 healthy controls (HCs). Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the right and left common carotid arteries was measured to detect the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Clinical severity of psoriasis was estimated using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Compared with HCs, patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of psoriasin (26.61 ± 22.45 ng/mL vs. 6.31 ± 1.68 ng/mL, P 0.01) and serum koebnerisin (r = 0.48, P psoriasis with subclinical atherosclerosis had higher serum levels of koebnerisin compared with patients without subclinical atherosclerosis (P = 0.04), which was not observed for psoriasin (P = 0.94). Serum psoriasin and koebnerisin correlate with IMT, underlining their value as a potential link between psoriasis and atherosclerosis. In particular, koebnerisin seems to be a useful marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.
Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva
Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL.
Development of gastric cancer in nonatrophic stomach with highly active inflammation identified by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody together with endoscopic rugal hyperplastic gastritis.
Watanabe, Mika; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ueda, Kazuki; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Tekeshita, Tatsuya; Mohara, Osamu; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao
This study aimed to elucidate groups at high risk of developing cancer among patients with serologically identified Helicobacter pylori infection and nonatrophic stomach. Annual endoscopy was performed for a mean of 5.4 years in 496 asymptomatic middle-aged men who were H. pylori antibody-positive and pepsinogen (PG) test-negative. Subjects were stratified according to the activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis measured by serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody, and/or by endoscopic findings of rugal hyperplastic gastritis (RHG), and cancer development was investigated. During the study period, seven cases of cancer developed in the cohort (incidence rate, 261/100,000 person-years), with 85.7% developing in the group showing a PGI/II ratio ≤ 3.0, reflecting active inflammation-based high PGII levels. Cancer incidence was significantly higher in this group (750/100,000 person-years) than in groups with less active gastritis. Furthermore, cancer incidence for this group was significantly higher in the subgroup with high H. pylori antibody titers than in the low-titer subgroup. Meanwhile, endoscopic findings revealed that 11.7% of subjects showed RHG reflecting localized highly active inflammation, and cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with RHG than in patients without. Combining the two serum tests and endoscopic examination for RHG allowed identification of subjects with more active gastritis and higher cancer risk. No cancer development was observed in these high-risk subjects after H. pylori eradication. Subjects with highly active gastritis identified by the two serological tests and endoscopic RHG constitute a group at high risk of cancer development with H. pylori-infected nonatrophic stomach. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
Full Text Available The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF, chloroform (ZJCF, ethyl acetate (ZJEAF, water (ZJWF and residue (ZJMR. In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD and CAT and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β and Il-10 in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of Z. jujuba root bark as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.
Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E
-tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....
Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Qureshi, Shahida; Amidou, Samie; Mduma, Estomih; Lee, Gwenyth; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Guerrant, Richard L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Mason, Carl; Kang, Gagandeep; Kabir, Mamun; Amour, Caroline; Bessong, Pascal; Turab, Ali; Seidman, Jessica; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Quetz, Josiane; Lang, Dennis; Gratz, Jean; Miller, Mark; Gottlieb, Michael
Enteric infections are associated with linear growth failure in children. To quantify the association between intestinal inflammation and linear growth failure three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (neopterin [NEO], alpha-anti-trypsin [AAT], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were performed in a structured sampling of asymptomatic stool from children under longitudinal surveillance for diarrheal illness in eight countries. Samples from 537 children contributed 1,169 AAT, 916 MPO, and 954 NEO test results that were significantly associated with linear growth. When combined to form a disease activity score, children with the highest score grew 1.08 cm less than children with the lowest score over the 6-month period following the tests after controlling for the incidence of diarrheal disease. This set of affordable non-invasive tests delineates those at risk of linear growth failure and may be used for the improved assessments of interventions to optimize growth during a critical period of early childhood. PMID:23185075
Borges, Álvaro H; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Collins, Gary
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional...... study. METHODS: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those...... with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV 100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir...
Nordell, Anna D; McKenna, Matthew; Borges, Álvaro H
BACKGROUND: In the general population, raised levels of inflammatory markers are stronger predictors of fatal than nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. People with HIV have elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer; HIV-induced acti...... with a greater risk of fatal CVD and a greater risk of death after a nonfatal CVD event. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov Unique identifier: SMART: NCT00027352, ESPRIT: NCT00004978, SILCAAT: NCT00013611....
Gedik, G. K.; Kiratli, P.O.; Aras, T.; Tascioglu, B.
To compare the bone scintigraphy findings with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) levels in breast carcinoma patients. We also investigated the relationship between anatomical bone type and its effect on tumor marker levels. The study was consisted of retrospective evaluation of 120 bone scans of patients with breast carcinoma admitted to the Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between January 2003 and December 2004. The mean age of the patients was 54.7 years. We grouped the results of the bone scans into 3 as normal, equivocal and metastatic. Carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 15-3 levels were recorded from the files of the patients. Upper cut levels of 4.8 U/ml for CEA and 38 U/ml for CA 15-3 was accepted. Metastatic bone areas were distributed according to their anatomical location as long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid and effect of bone type on tumor marker was investigated. In 16 of the patients, bone scintigraphy revealed metastases. Sixty-one patients had normal scans and in 47 patients metastases could not be ruled out. In patients with metastases, CA 15-3 was elevated in 8 and CEA was higher than the upper limit in 6. For CEA and CA 15-3, the anatomical type of bone has no any effect on serum tumor marker concentration between patients with normal and elevated levels of tumor markers in metastatic patients. Tumor markers are not solely enough in predicting bone metastases. Bone scintigraphy and tumor markers should be both used in management of patients with breast carcinoma. The anatomical type of bone has no any effect on elevation of serum tumor marker concentration. (author)
Full Text Available The degree of oxidized cysteine (Cys 34 in human serum albumin (HSA, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, is correlated with oxidative stress related pathological conditions. In order to further characterize the oxidation of Cys34-HSA at the molecular level and to develop a suitable analytical method for a rapid and sensitive clinical laboratory analysis, the use of electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOFMS was evaluated. A marked increase in the cysteinylation of Cys34 occurs in chronic liver and kidney diseases and diabetes mellitus. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction of plasma samples obtained from 229 patients, as determined by ESI-TOFMS, and the degree of oxidized Cys34-HSA determined by HPLC. The Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction was significantly increased with the progression of liver cirrhosis, and was reduced by branched chain amino acids (BCAA treatment. The changes in the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction were significantly correlated with the alternations of the plasma levels of advanced oxidized protein products, an oxidative stress marker for proteins. The binding ability of endogenous substances (bilirubin and tryptophan and drugs (warfarin and diazepam to HSA purified from chronic liver disease patients were significantly suppressed but significantly improved by BCAA supplementation. Interestingly, the changes in this physiological function of HSA in chronic liver disease were correlated with the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction. In conclusion, ESI-TOFMS is a suitable high throughput method for the rapid and sensitive quantification of Cys-Cys34-HSA in a large number of samples for evaluating oxidative stress related chronic disease progression or in response to a treatment.
Spil, W.E. van; Groot, J. de; Lems, W.F.; Oostveen, J.C.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.
Context: Molecules that are released into biological fluids during matrix metabolism of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovial tissue could serve as biochemical markers of the process of osteoarthritis (OA). Unfortunately, actual breakthroughs in the biochemical OA marker field are
Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y.; Huo, Xiongwei
Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the h...
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the value of immunohistochemical markers and serum CA125 in predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM in women with endometrial cancer and to identify a low-risk group of LNM. The medical records of 370 patients with endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical staging in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were collected and retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical markers were screened. A model using serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125 level, the immunohistochemical markers progesterone receptor (PR and Ki67 was created for prediction of LNM. A predicted probability of 4% among these patients was defined as low risk. The developed model was externally validated in 200 patients from Shanghai Cancer Center. The efficiency of the model was compared with three other reported prediction models. Patients with serum CA125 50% and Ki67 < 40% in cancer lesion were defined as low risk for LNM. The model showed good discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model classified 61.9% (229/370 of patients as being at low risk f