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Sample records for serum glucose triglycerides

  1. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Ptriglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  2. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  3. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

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    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  4. Glucose and triglyceride lowering activity of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf extracts of P. santalinoides possess triglyceride and glucose lowering properties in dexamethasone induced hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance and could be of therapeutic value in the management of metabolic syndrome. Key words: Pterocarpus santalinoides, leaf extracts, glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, ...

  5. Increasing insulin resistance accentuates the effect of triglyceride-associated loci on serum triglycerides during 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Johanne M; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors as well as a number of environmental factors, including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim was to investigate the association between a serum triglyceride weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum...... triglyceride level over 5 years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5 year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 nondiabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5 year follow-up physical examinations...... and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline serum triglyceride, the wGRS was associated with increased serum triglyceride levels over 5 years [per allele effect = 1.3% (1.0-1.6%); P = 1.0 × 10(-17)]. This triglyceride...

  6. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  7. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

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    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria includes 3 metabolic parameters: serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements. However, the impact of each of the 3 metabolic parameters on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African American women (AAW) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated CVD risk clusters associated with each of the 3 metabolic components of MetS in adult nondiabetic, overweight/obese AAW. We studied the clinical and metabolic CVD risk factors of 258 AAW (mean age, 42.4 +/- 8.4 years; mean body mass index, 33.4 +/- 8.0 (kg/m(2)). Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels were obtained in each subject. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Insulin sensitivity (Bergman minimal model method) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) were calculated. We examined the prevalence of MetS and its components associated with each of the 3 metabolic components (ie, serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides) of the MetS as defined by ATP III. Worsening of any of the 3 metabolic parameters was associated with increasing waist circumference but not with age and body mass index nor with insulin, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity. As a group, the prevalence of MetS was 35.5% in our AAW. The prevalence of MetS increased 3-fold from first to third tertiles of serum glucose (14.1% and 42.3%, respectively). Worsening of serum HDL-C from tertiles 3 to 1 was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of MetS (1.2% vs 42.3%, respectively). Comparing first with third tertile of triglycerides, there was no significant increase in MetS in our AAW (7% vs 17%). Contrasting the 3 metabolic components, the prevalence of MetS was higher in the third tertile of glucose (43.2%) and first tertile of HDL-C (42.3%) and least with the third tertile of triglycerides (17%). In

  8. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

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    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  9. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

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    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  10. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

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    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  11. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with type 2 diabetes and altered lipid or carbohydrate metabolism in glucose tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of PPARalpha were performed in 56...... type 2 diabetic patients. Six variants were identified: IVS3 + 76T>C, IVS3-19C>T, IVS4 + 35C>T, Leu162Val, Arg178Gly and Ala268Val. In a case-control study comprising 738 type 2 diabetic patients and 524 glucose tolerant subjects, the three exon variants did not show any significant differences...... in allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects. The functional Leu162Val polymorphism was further investigated in genotype-phenotype studies involving 340 young, healthy subjects and 502 middle-aged glucose tolerant subjects. The young, healthy subjects who were heterozygous...

  12. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  13. Triglyceride synthesis in epididymal adipose tissue: contribution of glucose and non-glucose carbon sources.

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    Bederman, Ilya R; Foy, Steven; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Alexander, James C; Previs, Stephen F

    2009-03-06

    The obesity epidemic has generated interest in determining the contribution of various pathways to triglyceride synthesis, including an elucidation of the origin of triglyceride fatty acids and triglyceride glycerol. We hypothesized that a dietary intervention would demonstrate the importance of using glucose versus non-glucose carbon sources to synthesize triglycerides in white adipose tissue. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low fat, high carbohydrate (HC) diet or a high fat, carbohydrate-free (CF) diet and maintained on 2H2O (to determine total triglyceride dynamics) or infused with [6,6-(2)H]glucose (to quantify the contribution of glucose to triglyceride glycerol). The 2H2O labeling data demonstrate that although de novo lipogenesis contributed approximately 80% versus approximately 5% to the pool of triglyceride palmitate in HC- versus CF-fed mice, the epididymal adipose tissue synthesized approximately 1.5-fold more triglyceride in CF- versus HC-fed mice, i.e. 37+/-5 versus 25+/-3 micromolxday(-1). The [6,6-(2)H]glucose labeling data demonstrate that approximately 69 and approximately 28% of triglyceride glycerol is synthesized from glucose in HC- versus CF-fed mice, respectively. Although these data are consistent with the notion that non-glucose carbon sources (e.g. glyceroneogenesis) can make substantial contributions to the synthesis of triglyceride glycerol (i.e. the absolute synthesis of triglyceride glycerol from non-glucose substrates increased from approximately 8 to approximately 26 micromolxday(-1) in HC- versus CF-fed mice), these observations suggest (i) the importance of nutritional status in affecting flux rates and (ii) the operation of a glycerol-glucose cycle.

  14. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  15. Apolipoprotein E4 allele does not influence serum triglyceride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how the APOε4 allele affects the serum triglyceride response after a fatmeal in apparently healthy black South African young adults. Sixty students were successfully screened for APOE genotype using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and were divided into four groups; the ε2 allele ...

  16. Triglyceride glucose index and common carotid wall shear stress.

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    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Scavelli, Faustina B; de Franceschi, Maria S; Esposito, Teresa; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in wall shear stress contribute to both clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. Several conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity can impair shear stress, but the role of insulin resistance has never been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin resistance assessed by TyG Index associates with wall shear stress in the common carotid artery. One hundred six individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and cigarette smoking were evaluated. TyG Index was calculated as log[fasting triglycerides × fasting glucose / 2]. Subjects underwent blood viscosity measurement and echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries to calculate wall shear stress. The association between TyG Index and carotid wall shear stress was assessed by simple and multiple regression analyses. TyG Index was significantly and inversely associated with carotid wall shear stress both in simple (r = -0.44, P glucose greater than 100 mg/dL, and triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL. The present findings suggest that increasing insulin resistance, as assessed by TyG Index, associates with atherosclerosis-prone shear stress reduction in the common carotid artery.

  17. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol status in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Tabassum, H.; Shahzad, S.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the differences of lipids including total cholesterol and triglycerides among subjects with or without GDM. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out between Dec 2010 to Jun 2012 at the department of gynecology and obstetrics Pakistan Naval Ship (PNS) Shifa and department of pathology, PNS Rahat. Material and Methods: Pregnant women who presented in outpatient department of gynaecology between 24-34 weeks of gestation were randomly selected, and were requested to undergo 100 Gm oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 93 pregnant women were included in the study. Afterwards they were divided in 2 groups on basis of presence and absence of GDM. Later all the patients were analyzed for total cholesterol and triglycerides. Results of triglycerides and total cholesterol were compared among subjects with or without GDM. Results: The differences for serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were not found to be significant among subject with or without gestational diabetes mellitus, where 0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: There was no difference between serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels among subjects with or without gestational diabetes mellitus. (author)

  18. Study of Insulin Resistance in Patients With β Thalassemia Major and Validity of Triglyceride Glucose (TYG) Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arif M; Bhat, Kamalakshi G; Dsa, Smitha S; Mahalingam, Soundarya; Joseph, Nitin

    2018-03-01

    Complications like impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus due to iron overload need early identification in thalassemia. We studied the proportion of insulin resistance in thalassemia major patients on chronic transfusion, identified insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride glucose (TYG) index, compared them and validated TYG index. In total, 73 thalassemia patients on regular transfusion for 3 years with serum ferritin >1500 ng/mL were studied. Serum ferritin, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin levels were measured, HOMA-IR, and TYG index calculated and analyzed. Mean fasting glucose, triglyceride, and serum insulin values were 104 mg/dL, 164.18 mg/dL, and 19.6 m IU/mL, respectively. Mean serum ferritin was 5156 ng/mL. Insulin resistance was prevalent in one third of thalassemia patients and showed increase with age and serum ferritin. Insulin resistance by HOMA-IR was 32% as against 16% by TYG index with a cut-off value of 4.3. Using receiver operating charecteristic curve analysis, it was found that, by lowering the value of TYG index to 4.0215, sensitivity improved to 78.3% (from 39.13%) with specificity of 70%. Hence, we recommend a newer lower cut-off value of 4.0215 for TYG index for better sensitivity and specificity in identifying insulin resistance.

  19. Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are a type of fat. They are the most common type of fat in your body. They come from ... especially butter, oils, and other fats you eat. Triglycerides also come from extra calories. These are the ...

  20. Glycogen storage disease type Ia: linkage of glucose, glycogen, lactic acid, triglyceride, and uric acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-01-01

    A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides >5000 mg/dL. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease was made via the result of a liver biopsy, which showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. The patient was treated with dextrose administered orally, which was replaced by frequent feedings of cornstarch, which resulted in an improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years of age, she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3860 mg/dL) and eruptive xanthomas and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL and lactate levels triglycerides 179, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m(2). Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL is critical in the management of this disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Triglycerides and glucose index: a useful indicator of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Gisela; Benozzi, Silvia Fabiana; Perruzza, Fernando; Pennacchiotti, Graciela Laura

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance assessment requires sophisticated methodology of difficult application. Therefore, different estimators for this condition have been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index as a marker of insulin resistance and to compare it to the triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 adults of a population from Bahia Blanca, Argentina, who were divided into two groups: with MS (n=89) and without MS (n=436). The discriminating capacities for MS of the TyG index, calculated as Ln (TG [mg/dL] x glucose [mg/dL]/2), and the TG/HDL-C ratio were evaluated. Pre-test probability for MS was 30%. The mean value of the TyG index was higher in the group with MS as compared to the group without MS and its correlation with the TG/HDL-C ratio was good. The cut-off values for MS in the overall population were 8.8 for the TyG index (sensitivity=79%, specificity=86%), and 2.4 for the TG/HDL-C ratio (sensitivity=88%, specificity=72%). The positive likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities for these parameters were 5.8 vs 3.1 and 72% vs 58% respectively. The cut-off point for the TyG index was 8.8 in men and 8.7 in women; the respective values for TG/C-HDL were 3.1 in men and 2.2 in women. The TyG index was a good discriminant of MS. Its simple calculation warrants its further study as an alternative marker of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipasin, a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that regulates serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2012-08-10

    The metabolic syndrome, a common disorder including glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, poses a major public health issue. Patients with high blood lipids, such as triglycerides, are at high risk in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. To identify genes involved in metabolism, we performed RNA-seq experiments on the liver and fat in mice treated with a high-fat diet or fasting, and identified Gm6484 (named Lipasin) as a novel nutritionally regulated gene. Human LIPASIN is liver specific, while the mouse one is enriched in the liver and fat, including both brown and white adipose tissues. Obesity increases liver Lipasin, whereas fasting reduces its expression in fat. ANGPTL3 (Angiopoietin-like 3) and ANGPTL4 are critical regulators of blood lipids. LIPASIN shares homology with ANGPTL3's N-terminal domain that is needed for lipid regulation, and with ANGPTL4's N-terminal segment that mediates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding. Lipasin overexpression by adenoviruses in mice increases serum triglyceride levels, and a recombinant Lipasin inhibits LPL activity. Therefore, a potential mechanism for Lipasin-mediated triglyceride elevation is through reduced triglyceride clearance by LPL inhibition. Lipasin is thus a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that plays a role in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  4. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of glucose, triglycerides and insulin resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition remains a significant but intriguing consequence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Besides factors such as decreased food intake and malabsorption, Human immunodeficiency virus infection is typically associated with adverse metabolic events. Aim: We examine the glucose; ...

  7. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  8. Association Between Serum Triglycerides and Cerebral Amyloidosis in Cognitively Normal Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jung; Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Baek, Hye Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Ji Young; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-08-01

    Although many preclinical studies have suggested the possible linkage between dyslipidemia and cerebral amyloid deposition, the association between serum lipid measures and cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition in human brain is still poorly known. We aimed to investigate the association in cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals. Cross-sectional study. University hospital dementia clinic. 59 CN elderly. The study measures included comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment based on the CERAD protocol, magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography scans, and quantification for serum lipid biomarkers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that a higher serum triglycerides level was associated with heavier global cerebral Aβ deposition even after controlling age, sex, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype. Serum apolipoprotein B also showed significant positive association with global cerebral Aβ deposition, but the significance disappeared after controlling serum triglycerides level. No association was found between other lipid measures and global cerebral Aβ deposition. The findings suggest that serum triglycerides are closely associated with cerebral amyloidosis, although population-based prospective studies are needed to provide further evidence of the causative effect of triglycerides on cerebral amyloidosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal Fasting Time before Measurement of Serum Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsuthana, Surapun; Tivatunsakul, Naris

    2016-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major public health problem. Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Food intake interferes with the measurement of serum triglyceride levels, and in previous studies, fasting for 12 hours was recommended before blood sampling. In real-world practice, long fasting times cause patient discomfort and poor compliance, and the present study was, therefore, designed to determine the appropriate fasting time prior to measuring serum triglyceride levels. To determine the appropriate fasting time before measuring serum triglyceride levels. This was a pilot study performed using healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 30 years old from November 2013 to December 2013 at Rajavithi Hospital. The first blood sample was measured in the morning after fasting over 12 hours. The subjects then took their regular breakfast, after which they fasted for 8 hours. Blood samples were taken 6 and 8 hours later and sent to the laboratory for measurement of serum triglyceride levels. 40 volunteers, of whom 25 were female, were enrolled. Their mean age was 25.9 ± 2.81 years old, and their mean weight, height, and body mass index were 61.5 ± 12.5 kg, 167.2 ± 8.3 cm and 21.84 ± 3.1 kg/m2, respectively. Mean fasting serum triglyceride level at 12 hours was 80.23 ± 36.33 mg/dl, at 6 hours it was 110.65 ± 73.45 mg/dl, and at 8 hours it was 75.62 ± 46.81 mg/dl. The group fasting for 12 hours had significantly lower serum triglyceride levels than the group fasting for 6 hours (p-value = 0.003), but no significant difference was found between the group fasting for 12 hours and the one fasting for 8 hours (p-value = 0.493). The present study showed no significant difference in triglyceride levels in patients who had fasted or 8 hours and those who had done so for 12 hours. Fasting for only 8 hours before measurement of serum triglyceride may be sufficient.

  10. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable for the treatment of elevated hemoglobin

  11. Triglycerides/glucose index is a useful surrogate marker of insulin resistance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B; Yang, Y; Lee, E Y; Yang, H K; Kim, H-S; Lim, S-Y; Lee, J-H; Lee, S-S; Suh, B-K; Yoon, K-H

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between the triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index) and the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) among adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 221 Korean adolescents (168 males and 53 females aged 9-13 years) from May to June 2014 in Chung-ju city. The TyG index was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg dl -1 ) × fasting glucose (mg dl -1 )/2]. IR was defined using HOMA-IR >95th percentile for age and sex. In the IR group, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat, fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride levels and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) were significantly higher than that in the non-IR group. The TG index was significantly different between the IR group (n=22) and non-IR group (n=199), at 8.43±0.45 and 8.05±0.41, respectively (Pindex was well correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.41; Pindex for diagnosis of insulin resistance was 8.18. The TyG index is a simple, cost-effective surrogate marker of insulin resistance among adolescents compared with HOMA-IR.

  12. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Letícia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-02-13

    To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measures were obtained by interview and exams performed at the baseline visit of the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Median (interquartile range, IQR) for fasting glucose was 150.5 (123-198) mg/dL and for fasting triglycerides 140 (103-199) mg/dL. The median excursion for glucose was 45 (15-76) mg/dL and for triglycerides 26 (11-45) mg/dL. In multiple linear regression, a greater glucose excursion was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (10.7, 95% CI 9.1-12.3 mg/dL), duration of diabetes (4.5; 2.6-6.4 mg/dL, per 5 year increase), insulin use (44.4; 31.7-57.1 mg/dL), and age (6.1; 2.5-9.6 mg/dL, per 10 year increase); and with lower body mass index (-5.6; -8.4- -2.8 mg/dL, per 5 kg/m2 increase). In adjusted logistic regression models, a greater glucose excursion was marginally associated with the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and angina) in those with obesity. A greater postprandial glycemic response to a small meal was positively associated with indicators of a decreased capacity for insulin secretion and negatively associated with obesity. No pattern of response was observed with a greater postprandial triglyceride excursion.

  14. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study

    OpenAIRE

    Riboldi, B?rbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Let?cia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Research design and methods: Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measure...

  15. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L. I.; de Maat, M. P.; Schouten, E. G.; Kluft, C.; de Jong, P. T.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VII. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

  16. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: Differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VU[. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

  17. The triglyceride-glucose index, an insulin resistance marker in newborns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Barrios, Laura; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The study aims to assess the utility of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in neonates. TyG and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) values were compared in 196 singleton, term normoweight and without distress newborns. A Decision Tree procedure (CHAID) was used to classify cases into groups or predict values of a dependent (Ln HOMA-IR) variable. Three nodes were drawn for TyG: ≤ 6.7, > 6.7-7.8 and > 7.8 (p glucose challenge test (p = 0.138) classifications nor by the TyG node* glucose challenge test and TyG node*gender interactions (p = 0.456 and p = 0.209, respectively). Glucose, HOMA-IR, and the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio increased progressively from node 1 to 3 for TyG while QUICKI decreased. In conclusion, TyG appears to be a suitable tool for identifying IR at birth, justifying the further insulin determination in those neonates. TyG ≥ 7.8 is recommended as cut-off point in neonates. The need for a follow-up study to confirm the TyG as early IR marker is desirable. • HOMA-IR and the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) show a high correlation. • The TyG has been used as an insulin resistance marker in adults. • This is the first study where TyG has been assessed in neonates. • TyG appears to be a suitable and cheap tool for identifying insulin resistance at birth.

  18. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  19. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  20. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycerol concentrations in the postmature rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, A C; Roux, J F; Shapiro, M I

    1980-02-15

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, and glucose concentrations were measured in term and postmature rabbits. The data show that the term and postmature mothers have significantly higher glycemia than their fetuses. However, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are lower in the postmature mother than in her fetus. Postmature fetuses are characterized by very high plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The results demonstrate that postmaturity is accompanied by maternal and fetal lipid metabolic changes related to a decrease in the transfer of maternal fatty acids through the placenta and to a diminution in fetal liver glucose utilization. The postmature fetus is then in a relative state of fasting and must rely on its own supply of fuel (glycogen and lipids) to provide cells for growth and survival. The maternal metabolic changes can possibly be explained by a decreased utilization of maternal substrates by the fetus, the placenta becoming insufficient. The close interrelationship of fetal and maternal lipid metabolism with the activity of the placenta suggests that an accurate knowledge of the metabolic changes taking place in the fetus during alteration of the maternal environment is indispensable to the understanding of the short- and long-term effects of maternal disease on the fetus.

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids effect on serum triglycerides concentration in presence of metabolic syndrome components. The Alaska-Siberia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Serum fatty acids (FA) have wide effects on metabolism: Serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce them. Traditionally, Eskimos have a high consumption of omega -3 fatty acids (ω–3 FA), but the westernization of their food habits have increased their dietary SFAs, partly reflected in their serum concentrations. We studied the joint effect of serum SFAs and PUFAs on circulating levels of TG in the presence of metabolic syndrome components. We included 212 men and 240 women (age 47.9±15.7 y, BMI 26.9±5.3) from four villages located in Alaska for a cross sectional study. Generalized linear models were employed to build surface responses of TG as in functions of SFAs and PUFAs measured in blood samples adjusting by sex, BMI and village. The effects of individual FAs were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis and partial correlations (r) were calculated. The most important predictors for TG levels were glucose tolerance (r = 0.116, p = 0.018) and BMI (r = 0.42, pstructure. The long chain ω-3, even in presence of high levels of SF, was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Eicosapentanoic acid (20:5ω3) had the strongest effect against palmitic acid on TG. The total FA showed moderate association with levels of TG, while SFA was positively associated, and large chain PUFA negatively. The westernized dietary habits among Eskimos are likely to change their metabolic profile and increase comorbidities related to metabolic disease. PMID:19766268

  3. Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum fetuin-A levels are associated with serum triglycerides before and 6 months after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verras, Christos G; Christou, Georgios A; Simos, Yannis V; Ayiomamitis, George D; Melidonis, Andreas J; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2017-07-01

    The elucidation of the changes of fetuin-A in the context of bariatric surgery. Twenty obese patients (8 males, 12 females; body mass index = 42.5±3.4 kg/m2) were studied at baseline and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Serum fetuin-A levels did not differ with regard to the presence of each individual component of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) at baseline, except for hypertriglyceridaemia [increased serum fetuin-A levels (p=0.011)]. Circulating fetuin-A was positively correlated with serum triglycerides (TG) (r=0.461, p=0.047) and negatively correlated with serum globulins (r=-0.477, p=0.033) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r=-0.604, p=0.010), while it independently predicted TG at baseline. Circulating fetuin-A did not change during the 6 months either in the whole population or in the subgroups of patients who were positive for each individual component of MetS at baseline and negative for this component at 6 months of follow-up, except for hypertriglyceridaemia [reduction of serum fetuin-A levels (p=0.046)]. The subgroup of patients with a decrease in circulating fetuin-A during the 6 months was characterized by a smaller reduction of serum globulins (p=0.003) and CRP (p=0.049). The change in serum fetuin-A levels over the 6 months was positively correlated with the change in TG (r=0.592, p=0.006) and negatively correlated with the change in serum globulins (r=-0.523, p=0.018) and CRP (r=-.494, p=0.037). Circulating fetuin-A predicted serum triglycerides before as well as 6 months after bariatric surgery.

  5. Circulating asprosin concentrations are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and independently associated with fasting glucose and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Nan; Fu, Yuming; Cheng, Xingbo

    2017-11-03

    Asprosin has been identified as a novel hormone enriched in white adipose tissue and is pathologically increased in insulin-resistant mice and humans. However, information regarding the role of asprosin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unavailable. Via conducting a hospital-based study, we purposed to ascertain the potential relationship between circulating asprosin concentrations and T2DM. The study recruited 84 adults with T2DM and 86 controls with normal glucose tolerance. They matched in age, body mass index (BMI), and sex. Serum asprosin concentrations were measured via ELISA method. Compared to the controls, serum asprosin concentrations were significantly increased in the T2DM adults (Pglucose and triglyceride were independently associated with serum asprosin in T2DM. Asprosin concentrations are increased in adults with T2DM. The results suggest that asprosin might serve as a risk factor associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM, but not an ideal biomarker for predicting T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  7. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  8. Predicting the development of diabetes using the product of triglycerides and glucose: the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Ha, Hee-Sung; Jeong, Seung Hee; Yang, Hae Kyung; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) might be a valuable marker for predicting future diabetes. A total of 5,354 nondiabetic subjects who had completed their follow-up visit for evaluating diabetes status were selected from a large cohort of middle-aged Koreans in the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort study. The risk of diabetes was assessed according to the baseline TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × FPG (mg/dL)/2]. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years. During the follow-up period, 420 subjects (7.8%) developed diabetes. The baseline values of the TyG index were significantly higher in these subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects (8.9 ± 0.6 vs. 8.6 ± 0.6; Pindex quartiles. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level, a family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, education level and serum insulin level, the risk of diabetes onset was more than fourfold higher in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of the TyG index (relative risk, 4.095; 95% CI, 2.701-6.207). The predictive power of the TyG index was better than the triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of developing diabetes.

  9. Predicting the development of diabetes using the product of triglycerides and glucose: the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG might be a valuable marker for predicting future diabetes. METHODS: A total of 5,354 nondiabetic subjects who had completed their follow-up visit for evaluating diabetes status were selected from a large cohort of middle-aged Koreans in the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort study. The risk of diabetes was assessed according to the baseline TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL × FPG (mg/dL/2]. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 420 subjects (7.8% developed diabetes. The baseline values of the TyG index were significantly higher in these subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects (8.9 ± 0.6 vs. 8.6 ± 0.6; P<0.0001 and the incidence of diabetes increased in proportion to TyG index quartiles. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol level, a family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, education level and serum insulin level, the risk of diabetes onset was more than fourfold higher in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of the TyG index (relative risk, 4.095; 95% CI, 2.701-6.207. The predictive power of the TyG index was better than the triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of developing diabetes.

  10. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  11. Mice lacking ANGPTL8 (Betatrophin) manifest disrupted triglyceride metabolism without impaired glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Quagliarini, Fabiana; Gusarova, Viktoria; Gromada, Jesper; Valenzuela, David M; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2013-10-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)8 (alternatively called TD26, RIFL, Lipasin, and Betatrophin) is a newly recognized ANGPTL family member that has been implicated in both triglyceride (TG) and glucose metabolism. Hepatic overexpression of ANGPTL8 causes hypertriglyceridemia and increased insulin secretion. Here we examined the effects of inactivating Angptl8 on TG and glucose metabolism in mice. Angptl8 knockout (Angptl8(-/-)) mice gained weight more slowly than wild-type littermates due to a selective reduction in adipose tissue accretion. Plasma levels of TGs of the Angptl8(-/-) mice were similar to wild-type animals in the fasted state but paradoxically decreased after refeeding. The lower TG levels were associated with both a reduction in very low density lipoprotein secretion and an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Despite the increase in LPL activity, the uptake of very low density lipoprotein-TG is markedly reduced in adipose tissue but preserved in hearts of fed Angptl8(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data indicate that ANGPTL8 plays a key role in the metabolic transition between fasting and refeeding; it is required to direct fatty acids to adipose tissue for storage in the fed state. Finally, glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed no alterations in glucose homeostasis in mice fed either a chow or high fat diet. Thus, although absence of ANGPTL8 profoundly disrupts TG metabolism, we found no evidence that it is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  12. Fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers postprandial glucose and insulin without raising triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the effects of fructose consumption in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose on peak postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses after isoenergetic replacement of either glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages with fructose. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials measuring peak postprandial glycemia after isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both with fructose in healthy adults or children with or without diabetes. The main outcomes analyzed were peak postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. Results: Replacement of either glucose or sucrose by fructose resulted in significantly lowered peak postprandial blood glucose, particularly in people with prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Similar results were obtained for insulin. Peak postprandial blood triglyceride concentrations did not significantly increase. Conclusions: Strong evidence exists that substituting fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers peak postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Isoenergetic replacement does not result in a substantial increase in blood triglyceride concentrations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

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    Clarkson Priscilla M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation. Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004. Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001, but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002, indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004, and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037.

  14. The product of triglycerides and glucose in comparison with fasting plasma glucose did not improve diabetes prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Almasi, Siedeh Zinab; Amini, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    Previous study has reported that triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index, a product of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), might be useful in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the ability of the TyG index compared to FPG and OGTT as possible diabetes predictor in nondiabetic first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with T2D. A total of 1,488 FDRs without diabetes of consecutive patients with T2D 30-70 years old (361 men and 1,127 women) were examined and followed for a mean (SD) of 6.9 (1.7) years for diabetes incidence. We examined the incidence of diabetes across quartiles of the TyG index and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination. At baseline and through follow-up, participants underwent a standard 75-g two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. During 10,124 person-years of follow-up, 41 men and 154 women developed T2D. Those in the top quartile of TyG index were 3.4 times more likely to develop T2D than those in the bottom quartile (odds ratio 3.36; 95 % CI 1.83, 6.19). On ROC curve analysis, a higher area under the ROC was found for FPG (76.2; 95 % CI 71.9, 80.6), 1-hPG (81.0, 95 % CI 77.2, 84.9) and 2-hPG (76.5; 95 % CI 72.3, 80.8) than for TyG index (65.1; 95 % CI 60.5, 69.7). TyG index is predicted T2D in high-risk individuals in Iran but FPG, 1-hPG and 2-hPG appeared to be more robust predictor of T2D in our study population.

  15. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kok, Wim Th.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  16. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wim Th., E-mail: W.Th.Kok@uva.nl [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoenmakers, Peter J. [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  17. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  18. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W.; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:28470119

  19. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  20. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  1. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  2. Ghrelin Alleviates MDMA-Induced Disturbance of Serum Glucose and Lipids Levels in the Rat

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    Ravieh Golchoobian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatotoxicity is one of the clinically adverse effects of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA consumption. The detoxification tissue, liver, plays a central role in maintaining circulating levels of glucose and lipid. Hypoglycemia and hypotriglyceridemia have been reported due to ecstasy abuse. Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted predominantly from the stomach. It has been demonstrated that ghrelin has hepatoprotective effects and is able to increase blood glucose concentration. In the current study, we explored the effect of hepatotoxic dose of MDMA and therapeutic use of exogenous ghrelin on the serum levels of glucose and lipids in four groups of rats. MDMA caused a severe and transient reduction in circulating levels of glucose and triglyceride and increased serum LDL. However, cholesterol and HDL levels remained unchanged. Meanwhile, altered hepatic architecture was observed with intracellular vacuolation that may indicate intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. In addition, following ghrelin administration, the blood sugar levels improved and LDL levels returned to the baseline value, and ghrelin treatment did not improve triglycerides levels. These results showed that MDMA causes hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, and hyper LDL-cholesterolemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing ghrelin administration could improve hypoglycemia and normalize LDL levels induced by MDMA and partially restore hepatic architecture.

  3. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in...

  4. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  5. Preparation of Oxygen Meter Based Biosensor for Determination of Triglyceride in Serum

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    M. BHAMBI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for preparation of a dissolved oxygen meter (make Aqualytic, Germany based triglyceride biosensor employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase The biosensor measures dissolved O2 utilized in the oxidation of triglyceride (TG by membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, which is directly proportional to (TG concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-15 sec at pH 7.5 and 39.5 ºC. A linear relationship was obtained between the (TG concentration from 5mM to 20mM and oxygen consumed (mg/L. The biosensor was employed for determination of triglyceride in serum. The within and between batch coefficient of variation (CV were < 2.18 % and < 1.7% respectively. The minimum detection limit of the biosensor was 0.35 mM. A study of interference revealed that ascorbic acid, cholesterol and bilirubin caused 13%, 15%, and 12% interference, respectively.The biosensor is portable and can be used outside the laboratory.

  6. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  7. Comprehensive Experiment—Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. PMID:25521692

  8. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. © 2014 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education.

  9. Correlation of CRP, Fasting Serum Triglycerides and Obesity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: A comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Methodology: Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chisquare test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value A = 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Conclusion: Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not

  10. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  11. Potential Association of Triglyceride Glucose Index with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Md; Bhandari, Uma; Habib, Anwar; Ahmad, Razi

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common and most neglected complication of diabetes, estimated to be roughly 8% in recently diagnosed patients and greater than 50% in patients with chronic disease history. The insulin resistance (IR) itself is bidirectionally associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CAN is a predisposing factor. The primary objective of the present study was aimed to find a correlation of triglyceride glucose index (TyG index) in CAN patients along with the prevalence of CAN in T2DM patients as a secondary objective. This prevalence study was conducted on 202 patients visiting the diabetic clinic of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard (HIMSR) teaching hospital in New Delhi, India who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Ewings autonomic function test was used for diagnosis of CAN. TyG index was calculated for patients based on fasting levels of glucose and triglyceride. The CAN was diagnosed in 62 participants out of 202 T2DM patients (overall prevalence 30.7%). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for TyG index was 10.3 ± 0.2 and 9.5 ± 0.2 in CAN positive, T2DM patients, respectively. The difference of TyG index, in CAN positive and T2DM patients, was highly significant (P index, duration, and age with patient groups. TyG index showed a positive correlation with heart rate during deep breathing (HRD), heart rate variation during standing (HRS), blood pressure (BP) response to handgrip and BP response to standing. Our finding highlights the TyG index, low-cost IR index, might be useful as an alternative tool for the early screening of patients at a high risk of diabetic neuropathy. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Association between triglyceride glucose index and arterial stiffness in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bae; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; You, Ji Hong; Kim, Min Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Jong Suk

    2018-03-21

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been suggested as a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, there are limited data regarding the association between the TyG index and arterial stiffness in adults. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the TyG index and arterial stiffness as measured based on brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in Korean adults. A total of 3587 subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The TyG index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides(mg/dl) × fasting glucose(mg/dl)/2], and the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was estimated. Arterial stiffness was determined by measuring baPWV. The subjects were stratified into four groups based on the TyG index. There were significant differences in cardiovascular parameters among the groups; the mean baPWV increased significantly with increasing TyG index. According to the logistic regression analysis after adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increased baPWV (> 75th percentile) for the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index was 2.92 (1.92-4.44) in men and 1.84 (1.15-2.96) in women, and the odds ratio for increased baPWV for the highest and lowest quartiles of the HOMA-IR was 1.80 (1.17-2.78) in men and 1.46 (1.06-2.47) in women, respectively. The TyG index is more independently associated with increased arterial stiffness than HOMA-IR in Korean adults.

  13. Lipid accumulation product and triglycerides/glucose index are useful predictors of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Banach, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index), anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglycerides (TG):high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with insulin resistance (IR) in adult Americans. This study was based on data from three NHANES cycles (2005 to 2010). The TyG index was calculated as ln [TG×fasting glucose/2]. VAI was calculated using gender-specific formulas: men [waist circumference (WC)/39.68+(1.88×body mass index (BMI)]×(TG/1.03)×(1.31/HDL-C); women: [WC/36.58+(1.89×BMI)]×(TG/0.81)×(1.52/HDL-C). LAP index was calculated as [WC-65]×[TG] in men, and [WC-58]×[TG] in women. Correlation and regression analyses accounted for the complex sampling of database. A total of 18,318 subjects was included in this analysis [mean age 47.6Years]; 48.7% (n=8918) men]. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a significant positive correlation with the TyG index (r=0.502), LAP (r=0.551), apVAT (r=0.454), TG:HDL-C ratio (r=0.441) and VAI (r=451) (pindex is a simple, cheap and accurate although not perfect, surrogate marker of HOMA-diagnosed IR among adult Americans. Moreover, it has higher predictability than other screening tools which traditionally applied. Among the markers, apVAT had the highest specificity and the TG:HDL-C ratio had the highest sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between the triglyceride glucose index and coronary artery calcification in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2017-08-23

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been considered a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the TyG index and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Thus, we investigated the relationship between the TyG index and CAC in healthy Korean adults. In total, 4319 participants who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) in a health promotion center were enrolled. Anthropometric profiles and multiple cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2], and the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was estimated. The CAC was measured using multidetector CT, and CAC presence was defined as an Agatston score of >0. All subjects were stratified into four groups based on their TyG indices. Significant differences were observed in cardiovascular parameters among the groups, and the prevalence of CAC significantly increased with increasing TyG index. In the logistic regression analysis after adjustment for multiple risk factors, the odds ratio for the prevalence of CAC, when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index was 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.11; P for trend = 0.01); the odds ratio for the prevalence of CAC, when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.64 (95% CI 1.12-2.40; P for trend = 0.04). In the receiver operating characteristics analysis, the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting CAC. The TyG index is more independently associated with the presence of coronary artery atherosclerosis than is HOMA-IR in healthy Korean adults.

  15. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose and lipid profile of ..... stressor, neurons with cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei of the ... metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health problems21.

  16. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Camel Milk, Serum glucose, Lipid profile, Diabetes. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is ... all products of Randox Laboratories, Switzerland. Fresh camel milk samples .... Abbott, R.D., Wilson, P.W., Kannel, W.B. and. Castelli, W.P. (1988).

  17. Effect of aubergine (Solanum melongena on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of aubergine extract on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels in adult rats. Fisher rats were divided into three groups: the first one received a normolipidic diet and water , serving as a control; the other two received a hypercholesterolaemic diet with 30% vegetable oil and 1% cholesterol, one of these being given water while the other was given an aubergine extract. After 28 days the animals were sacrificed and serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels were assessed. The obtained results indicated that under the experimental conditions employed, the aubergine extract increased serum and decreased hepatic cholesterol and had little or no effect on both serum and hepatic triglycerides.A beringela (Solanum melongena tem sido apontada como possuidora da capacidade de reduzir o colesterol sérico. O chá do vegetal vem sendo utilizado com este propósito, devido ao interesse na descoberta de formas alternativas para o controle da hipercolesterolemia. No presente trabalho testou-se o efeito do chá de beringela nos níveis séricos e hepáticos de colesterol e triglicerídeos em ratos adultos. Ratos Fisher foram divididos em três grupos: o primeiro recebeu dieta normolipídica ad libitum e água para beber, funcionando como controle; os outros dois receberam dieta hipercolesterolêmica com 30% de óleo vegetal e 1% de colesterol, sendo dada a um destes grupos água para beber, enquanto que o outro recebeu apenas chá de beringela. Após 28 dias os animais foram sacrificados e dosaram-se os níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos séricos e hepáticos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, nas condições experimentais utilizadas, o chá de beringela eleva o colesterol sérico, reduz o hepático e tem pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre os triglicerídeos, tanto séricos quanto hepáticos.

  18. The triglyceride and glucose index is useful for recognising insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morán, M; Simental-Mendía, L E; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2017-06-01

    Although recognising insulin resistance (IR) in children is particularly important, the gold standard test used to diagnose it, the euglyceamic glucose clamp, is costly, invasive and is not routinely available in our clinical settings in Mexico. This study evaluated whether the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index would provide a useful alternative. A total of 2779 school children aged seven to 17 years, from Durango, Mexico, were enrolled during 2015-2016. The gold standard euglyceamic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test was performed in a randomly selected subsample of 125 children, and diagnostic concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was evaluated in all of the 2779 enrolled children. The best cut-off values for recognising IR using the TyG index were 4.65 for prepubertal girls and boys, 4.75 for pubertal girls and 4.70 for pubertal boys. Concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was 0.910 and 0.902 for the prepubertal girls and boys, 0.932 for the pubertal girls and 0.925 for the pubertal boys. The TyG index was useful for recognising IR in both prepubertal and pubertal children and could provide a feasible alternative to the costly and invasive gold standard test for IR in resource-limited settings. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The activity of Stichopus hermanii extract on triglyceride serum level in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Parwati Sari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of triglyceride can be used as a parameter of  hypercholesterolemia. Periodontitis can make the condition of hypercholesterolemia worse. Stichopus hermanii extract is a source of saturated fatty acid containing omega-3 which can decrease triglyceride blood level. Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of Stichopus hermanii extract in triglyceride blood level of wistar rats which got periodontitis. Methods: The samples of this research were 30 rats divided into 5 groups, namely group K(– as negative control group (without treatment, group K(+ as positive control group (induced with periodontopathogen mix, group P1 as treatment group1 (induced with periodontopathogen and Stichopus hermanii extract mix, 0.09 ml/kgW, Group P2 (induced with periodontopathogen and Stichopus hermanii extract mix, 0,18 ml/kgW, and group P3 (induced with periodontopathogen and Stichopus hermanii extract mix, 0,36 ml/kgW. Then, all of those rats were sacrificed and all serum was measured for their level of triglyceride. Results: All data was analyzed with ANOVA test showing a significant result. LSD test showed a significant different between group K(– and group K(+, and between group K(+ and group P2 and P3. Conclusion: Stichopus hermanii extract can decrease the triglyceride blood level in wistar rats with periodontitis.Latar belakang: Kadar trigliserida dalam darah dapat digunakan sebagai parameter hiperkolesterolemia. Periodontitis dapat memperburuk kondisi hiperkolesterolemia. Stichopus hermanii ekstrak mengandung asam lemak jenuh terutama omega-3 yang dapat berfungsi menurunkan kadar trigliserida dalam darah. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak Stichopus hermanii terhadap kadar trigliserida dalam darah tikus wistar yang mengalami periodontitis. Metode: Sampel penelitian ini adalah 30 ekor tikus wistar yang dibagi dalam 5 kelompok. Kelompok K(– sebagai kelompok kontrol

  20. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. Methods We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9?years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride ...

  1. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  3. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  4. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  5. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  6. The relationship of insulin resistance estimated by triglyceride glucose index and coronary plaque characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ki-Bum; Kim, Yun Seok; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Heo, Ran; Han, Donghee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Sung, Ji Min; Cho, Iksung; Park, Hyung-Bok; Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2018-05-01

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a useful surrogate marker for insulin resistance, which is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data on the relationship of the TyG index and coronary plaque characteristics are limited.This study included 2840 participants with near-normal renal function who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. CAD was defined as the presence of any plaques, and obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of plaques with ≥50% stenosis. The relationship between the TyG index and noncalcified plaque (NCP), calcified or mixed plaque (CMP), and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was evaluated.All participants were stratified into 4 groups based on the quartiles of the TyG index. The prevalence of CAD and obstructive CAD significantly increased with increasing quartiles. The risk for NCP and obstructive NCP was not different among all groups. However, compared with group I (lowest quartile), the risk for CMP was higher in groups III (odds ratio [OR]: 1.438) and IV (highest quartile) (OR: 1.895) (P index was associated with an increased risk for CAD (OR: 1.700), obstructive CAD (OR: 1.692), and CACS >400 (OR: 1.448) (P index was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAD due to an increased risk for CMP.

  7. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods: The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers and their visceral fat area (VFA (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2. Results: The serum triglyceride (TG levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3% exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4% and non-smokers (18.8%. The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9% and former smokers (14.9% demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%. In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions: Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  8. Association of Serum Triglyceride Level and Gemfibrozil Consumption With Periodontal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ferena; Akhondi, Nasrin; Fallah, Soltanali; Moalemnia, Amir Abbas; Cheraghi, Azra

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Considering the suggested association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, this study sought to assess the association, if any, between serum triglyceride (TG) levels and gemfibrozil consumption with periodontal parameters. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 participants, including 30 individuals with a normal lipid profile (group H), 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and not on medication (group N), and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and taking gemfibrozil over a 3-month period (group M). Periodontal parameters including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index were measured at four sites of each tooth. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Mean values for PD and CAL in the two hypertriglyceridemic groups were significantly higher than those of the H group (P <0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, significant linear correlations were noted between PD and BOP, PD and TC, PD and TG, and CAL and TG in each group (P <0.01). Patients with hypertriglyceridemia had worse periodontal status than healthy controls. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia who were taking gemfibrozil did not show significant differences in CAL and PD compared with untreated patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

  9. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  10. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (Pmetabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid metabolome in response to EMS consumption.

  11. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid ...

  12. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  13. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  14. Triglyceride glucose index as a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Comparison with the hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for simple surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies of obese youth because the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is not feasible on a large scale. Objectives: (i) To examine the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index (Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)'×'fasting ...

  15. Increased VLDL-triglyceride secretion precedes impaired control of endogenous glucose production in obese, normoglycemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lars P; Søndergaard, Esben; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christiansen, Jens S; Gormsen, Lars C; Nielsen, Søren

    2011-09-01

    To assess basal and insulin-mediated VLDL-triglyceride (TG) kinetics and the relationship between VLDL-TG secretion and hepatic insulin resistance assessed by endogenous glucose production (EGP) in obese and lean men. A total of 12 normoglycemic, obese (waist-to-hip ratio >0.9, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) and 12 lean (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2)) age-matched men were included. Ex vivo-labeled [1-(14)C]VLDL-TGs and [3-(3)H]glucose were infused postabsorptively and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to determine VLDL-TG kinetics and EGP. Body composition was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scanning. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Basal VLDL-TG secretion rates were increased in obese compared with lean men (1.25 ± 0.34 vs. 0.86 ± 0.34 μmol/kg fat-free mass [FFM]/min; P = 0.011), whereas there was no difference in clearance rates (150 ± 56 vs. 162 ± 77 mL/min; P = NS), resulting in greater VLDL-TG concentrations (0.74 ± 0.40 vs. 0.38 ± 0.20 mmol/L; P = 0.011). The absolute insulin-mediated suppression of VLDL-TG secretion was similar in the groups. However, the percentage reduction (-36 ± 18 vs. -54 ± 10%; P = 0.008) and achieved VLDL-TG secretion rates (0.76 ± 0.20 vs. 0.41 ± 0.19 μmol/kg FFM/min; P lean men (-17 ± 18 vs. 7 ± 20%; P = 0.007), resulting in less percentage reduction of VLDL-TG concentrations in obese men (-22 ± 20 vs. -56 ± 11%; P < 0.001). Insulin-suppressed EGP was similar (0.4 [0.0-0.8] vs. 0.1 [0.0-1.2] mg/kg FFM/min (median [range]); P = NS), and the percentage reduction was equivalent (-80% [57-98] vs. -98% [49-100], P = NS). Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was significantly reduced in obese men. Basal VLDL-TG secretion rates are increased in normoglycemic but insulin-resistant, obese men, resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Insulin-mediated suppression of EGP is preserved in obese men, whereas suppression of VLDL-TG secretion is less pronounced in obese

  16. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  17. Farnesoid X receptor: a master regulator of hepatic triglyceride and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiao-ying

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes in the absence of significant alcohol consumption, viral infection or other specific causes of liver disease. NAFLD has become a burgeoning health problem both worldwide and in China, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be the primary sensor for endogenous bile acids, and play a crucial role in hepatic triglyceride homeostasis. Deciphering the synergistic contributions of FXR to triglyceride metabolism is critical for discovering therapeutic agents in the treatment of NAFLD and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25500875

  18. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive

  19. Clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with different levels of serum triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Zhou, Huan; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-04-29

    To explore clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed drug naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with different levels of serum triglyceride (TG). Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 624) were enrolled and divided into different groups according to levels of serum TG. All patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin releasing tests. Demographic data, lipid profiles, glucose levels, and insulin profiles were compared between different groups. Basic insulin secretion function index (homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function index, HOMA-β), modified beta cell function index (MBCI), glucose disposition indices (DI), and early insulin secretion function index (insulinogenic index, IGI) were used to evaluate the beta cell function. Patients of newly diagnosed T2DM with hypertriglyceridemia were younger, fatter and had worse lipid profiles, glucose profiles, and high insulin levels than those with normal TG. There is no difference in early phase insulin secretion among groups of newly diagnosed T2DM patients with different TG levels. The basal beta cell function (HOMA-β and MBCI) initially increased along rising TG levels and then decreased as the TG levels rose further. The insulin sensitivity was relatively high in patients with a low level of TG and low with a high level of TG. Hypertriglyceridemia influences clinical characteristics and β cell function of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. A better management of dyslipidemia may, to some extent, reduce the effect of lipotoxicity, thereby improving glucose homeostasis in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.

  20. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B.; Zhang, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in whi...

  1. Evaluation of the effect of shift work on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the "Healthy Heart project" at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

  2. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = -0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = -0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = -0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = -0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.).

  3. Effects of xylitol on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Indrajit, Mitesh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of xylitol in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and xylitol (XYL). Diabetes was induced only in the DBC and XYL animal groups by feeding them a 10% fructose solution for 2 weeks followed by an injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). One week after the streptozotocin injection, the animals with a nonfasting blood glucose level of >300 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic. The XYL group was fed further with a 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 5 weeks of intervention, food and fluid intake, body weight, blood glucose, serum fructosamine and most of the serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration and glucose tolerance ability was significantly increased in the XYL group compared to the DBC group. Liver weight, liver glycogen and serum triglycerides were not influenced by feeding with xylitol. The data of this study suggest that xylitol can be used not only as a sugar substitute but also as a supplement to antidiabetic food and other food products. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinako Nanri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01 were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01. However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55. Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels.

  5. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG ind...

  6. Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lundåsen

    Full Text Available Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2 and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c. Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

  7. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of low-carbohydrate diets high in either fat or protein on thyroid function, plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Peters, P J; Albrink, M J

    1985-01-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet, frequently used for treatment of reactive hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity may affect thyroid function. We studied the effects of replacing the deleted carbohydrate with either fat or protein in seven healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive seven days of each of two isocaloric liquid-formula, low-carbohydrate diets consecutively. One diet was high in polyunsaturated fat (HF), with 10%, 55%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. The other was high in protein (HP) with 35%, 30%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and on day 8 of each diet. A meal tolerance test representative of each diet was given on day 7. The triiodothyronine (T3) declined more (P less than .05) following the HF diet than the HP diet (baseline 198 micrograms/dl, HP 138, HF 113). Thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) did not change significantly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined equally after both diets. The insulin level was significantly higher 30 minutes after the HP meal (148 microU/ml) than after the HF meal (90 microU/ml). The two-hour glucose level for the HP meal was less, 85 mg/dl, than after the HF meal (103 mg/dl). Serum triglycerides decreased more after the HF diet (HF 52 mg/dl, HP 67 mg/dl). Apparent benefits of replacing carbohydrate with polyunsaturated fat rather than protein are less insulin response and less postpeak decrease in blood glucose and lower triglycerides. The significance of the lower T3 level is unknown.

  9. Triglyceride glucose-body mass index is effective in identifying nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nonobese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Du, Tingting; Li, Mengni; Jia, Jing; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Xuan; Yu, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common condition that is highly correlated with obesity; however, it is not uncommon among nonobese individuals. Triglyceride (TG) and glucose index combined with body mass index (TyG-BMI) has been proposed as a favorable marker of insulin resistance. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of TyG-BMI in identifying NAFLD in nonobese subjects.We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonobese (BMI glucose, for identifying nonobese subjects at risk for NAFLD.In this study, the prevalence of NAFLD was over one-fifth in the nonobese population. TyG-BMI was an effective marker to detect NAFLD in nonobese subjects.

  10. The product of triglycerides and glucose, a simple measure of insulin sensitivity. Comparison with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Ramos-Zavala, María G; Hernández-González, Sandra O; Jacques-Camarena, Omar; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2010-07-01

    To meet the worldwide challenge of emerging diabetes, accessible and inexpensive tests to identify insulin resistance are needed. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the product of fasting, we compared the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, a simple measure of insulin resistance, with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the general population and outpatients of the Internal Medicine Department at the Medical Unit of High Specialty of the Specialty Hospital at the West National Medical Center in Guadalajara, Mexico. Eleven nonobese healthy subjects, 34 obese normal glucose tolerance individuals, 22 subjects with prediabetes, and 32 diabetic patients participated in the study. We performed a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Sensitivity and specificity of the TyG index [Ln(fasting triglycerides) (mg/dl) x fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2] were measured, as well as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic scatter plot and the correlation between the TyG index and the total glucose metabolism (M) rates. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the TyG index and M rates was -0.681 (P index and M rates was similar between men (-0.740) and women (-0.730), nonobese (-0.705) and obese (-0.710), and nondiabetic (-0.670) and diabetic (-0.690) individuals. The best value of the TyG index for diagnosis of insulin resistance was 4.68, which showed the highest sensitivity (96.5%) and specificity (85.0%; area under the curve + 0.858). The TyG index has high sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that it could be useful for identification of subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity.

  11. Triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) in comparison with fasting plasma glucose improved diabetes prediction in patients with normal fasting glucose: The Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the potential role of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) as a predictor of diabetes in a White European cohort, and compared it to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglycerides. 4820 patients of the Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort (VMCUN cohort) were examined and followed up for 8.84years (±4.39). We performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated-measures analyses to assess the risk of developing type 2 diabetes across quartiles of FPG, triglycerides and the TyG index (ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)×fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)/2]), and plotted a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for discrimination. There were 332 incident cases of type 2 diabetes involving 43,197.32person-years of follow-up. We observed a progressively increased risk of diabetes in subjects with TyG index levels of 8.31 or more. Among those with normal fasting glucose at baseline, index in the fourth quartile were 6.87 times more likely to develop diabetes (95% CI, 2.76-16.85; P for trendindex, 0.66 (0.60-0.72) for FPG and 0.71 (0.65-0.77) for TG, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (p=0.017). Our data suggest that the TyG index is useful for the early identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. The TyG index seems to be a better predictor than FPG or triglycerides of the potential development of type 2 diabetes in normoglycemic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemi...

  13. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-09-13

    Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9 years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride and glucose index. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyse the risk factors of hypertension. After 9 years of follow-up, 2047 subjects developed hypertension. The overall 9-year cumulative incidence of hypertension was 43.7%, ranging from 28.5% in quartile 1 to 36.9% in quartile 2, 49.2% in quartile 3 and 59.8% in quartile 4 (p for trend triglyceride and glucose index was associated with an increased risk of subsequent incident hypertension. The triglyceride and glucose index can predict the incident hypertension among the Chinese population.

  14. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2014-01-20

    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation triglycerides and total glycerides.

  15. Serum glucose and liver glycogen in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Molcanova, A.

    1988-01-01

    Overnight fasted male rats of Wistar strain were irradiated with single whole-body doses of 4.78-7.17-9.57 and 14.35 Gy of gamma rays. After decapitation at intervals 1-28 d (4.78 and 7.17 Gy), 1-7 d (9.57 Gy) and 1-3 d (14.35 Gy) glucose concentration in serum and glycogen concentration in liver of irradiated and non-irradiated animals were determined. The higher was radiation dose the more expressive extent and depth of changes (hyperglycemia, accumulation of glycogen) occured. Blood glucose and liver glycogen may serve as a reliable and dose-dependent biological indicators of metabolic changes in irradiated rats. (author)

  16. Body mass index, triglycerides, glucose, and blood pressure as predictors of type 2 diabetes in a middle-aged Norwegian cohort of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Sakshaug, Solveig; Strøm, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We wanted to assess the risk associated with these three factors alone and in combination, and the relative importance of these and several other risk factors (eg, nonfasting glucose) as predictors of T2D. Risk factors in a Norwegian population (n = 109,796) aged 40-45 years were measured in health studies in 1995-1999. Blood glucose-lowering drugs dispensed in 2004-2009 were used to estimate the incidence of T2D. Groups based on combinations of body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides were defined by using the 50% and 90% quantiles for each variable for men and women. The relative importance of BMI, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, and year of birth for predicting T2D was assessed using deviance from univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. All biomarkers were measured in nonfasting blood samples. In the various groups of BMI, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure, the incidence of T2D ranged from 0.5% to 19.7% in men and from 0.15% to 21.8% in women. BMI was the strongest predictor of incident T2D, followed by triglyceride levels in women and glucose levels in men. The inclusion of risk factors other than BMI, glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure in multivariate models only marginally improved the prediction. BMI was the strongest predictor of type 2 diabetes. At defined levels of BMI, the incidence of T2D varied substantially with triglyceride levels and blood pressure. Thus, controlling triglycerides and blood pressure in middle-aged individuals should be targeted to prevent later onset of T2D.

  17. Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W

    2011-06-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin, glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate responses to a medium-chain triglyceride-based sports supplement: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a current trend in endurance sports to move athletes towards a low-carbohydrate diet or use periods of low carbohydrate consumption to increase both health and performance. As a result, a market is developing for sports supplements to provide nutritional support during training and racing for athletes who follow a low-carbohydrate lifestyle. PHAT FIBRE (PF is a powdered sports supplement that includes medium-chain triglycerides suspended in a digestion-resistant carbohydrate and is tailored to the needs of low-carb athletes. Eleven healthy participants were administered 25 g of PF after an overnight fast. After 30 minutes, median blood glucose increased by 6 mg/dl from 94 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl (p = 0.002. At the same time points, median blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB increased from 0.3 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L. The increase in BHB was significant (p = 0.02 after excluding one outlier who had elevated levels of fasting BHB. Insulin levels did not change significantly at any point during the study. In a single participant, a revised formulation of PF (PFv2 produced a 0.6 mmol/L increase in BHB with no effect on blood glucose. These data suggest that PF can provide a source of energy for the low-carb athlete by supporting ketone production without negatively impacting insulin or blood glucose levels.

  19. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  20. Effects of medetomidine on serum glucose in cattle calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad; Kalhoro, Amir Bukhsh; Sarwar, Mian Saeed; Khan, Hamayun; Ahmad, Shakoor; Hassan, Sayed Mubashir; Zahoor, Arshad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare physiological effects (serum glucose level) of medetomidine in Red Sindhi cattle calves at three different doses i.e. 8, 10 and 12µg/kg body weight intravenously. Medetomidine produced a dose dependent significant (P<0.01) increase in serum glucose level with a maximum increase observed at 30 minutes with 8µg/kg, 10μg/kg and 12μg/kg body weight respectively. Start of sedation, degree of sedation and total duration of sedation were all dose dependent and the values obtained were significantly (P<0.01) different from each other. It was observed that the sedation was rapid, deep and longer with the higher doses of medetomidine i.e. 12μg/kg. The results of the present study shows that medetomidine is a very effective and safest drug use as sedative for calves which in lower doses (8μg/kg) can be used as a pre-anesthetic and for restraining of the animal, while higher calculated doses (10μg/kg, 12μg/kg) can be used to execute the minor surgical procedures.

  1. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  2. Comparison of FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy in determination of VLDL triglycerides in blood serum with PLS regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszko, Adam; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Wójtowicz, Anna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Huras, Hubert; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia, related with triglyceride (TG) in plasma above 1.7 mmol/L is one of the cardiovascular risk factors. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are the main TG carriers. Despite being time consuming, demanding well-qualified staff and expensive instrumentation, ultracentrifugation technique still remains the gold standard for the VLDL isolation. Therefore faster and simpler method of VLDL-TG determination is needed. Vibrational spectroscopy, including FT-IR and Raman, is widely used technique in lipid and protein research. The aim of this study was assessment of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with the isolation step omitted. TG concentration in serum and in ultracentrifugated VLDL fractions from 32 patients were measured with reference colorimetric method. FT-IR and Raman spectra of VLDL and serum samples were acquired. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for calibration and leave-one-out cross validation. Our results confirmed possibility of reagent-free determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantitative VLDL testing by FT-IR and/or Raman spectroscopy applied directly to maternal serum seems to be promising screening test to identify women with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and patient friendly method of choice based on ease of performance, accuracy and efficiency.

  3. The Triglycerides and Glucose Index rather than HOMA-IR is more associated with Hypogonadism in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yi; Liu, Lijie; Lu, Meng; Cheng, Jing; Gao, Fengbin; Wang, Ningjian; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-11-20

    Previous studies have reported that insulin resistant and low testosterone are related. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) well mirrors insulin sensitivity. No study investigated the application of TyG in male hypogonadism. We aimed to explore whether TyG was associated with hypogonadism, and also evaluate the ability of TyG compared to HOMA-IR as a possible hypogonadism predictor. A total of 4299 male subjects were enrolled from 22 sites in East China. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone HOMA-IR (0.68, 95% CI 0.66,0.70). Thus, the TyG was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypogonadism in Chinese men. TyG had a better predictive power for hypogonadism than HOMA-IR.

  4. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  5. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  6. Fructose acute effects on glucose, insulin, and triglyceride after a solid meal compared with sucralose and sucrose in a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Clare; Keogh, Jennifer B; Pedersen, Eva; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    Fructose, which is a sweetener with a low glycemic index, has been shown to elevate postprandial triglyceride compared with glucose. There are limited data on the effect of fructose in a solid mixed meal containing starch and protein. We determined the effects of sucrose, fructose, and sucralose on triglyceride, glucose, and insulin in an acute study in healthy, overweight, and obese individuals. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-seven participants with a mean age of 44 y and a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 completed the study. Fructose (52 g), sucrose (65 g), and sucralose (0.1 g) were delivered as sweet-taste-balanced muffins with a total fat load (66 g). Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 30 min for 4-h glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations, and the area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) were analyzed. No significant difference was shown between the 3 sweeteners for triglyceride and glucose concentrations and the AUC. The glucose iAUC was lower for fructose than for sucrose and sucralose (P triglyceride compared with sucrose or sucralose and lowered the glucose iAUC. These results indicate that these sweeteners, at an equivalent sweetness, can be used in normal solid meals. Fructose showed a lower insulin response, which may be beneficial in the long term in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000279527. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C

    2009-01-01

    , glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P glucose (r = -0.59, P triglycerides (r = -0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.48, P ... performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI...... of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic...

  8. The effects of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, lipids and lipoproteins in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important problem amongst human and animals. In veterinary medicine too, diabetes mellitus occurs in many animals particularly household pets. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL in rats suffering from experimental diabetes mellitus. Thirty male wistar rats with the age of 8 weeks and mean body weight of 200±20 gr were selected and divided into 5 groups so that there were 6 rats per group. The groups consisted of day one healthy control, final day healthy control, healthy treatment consuming date, diabetic treatment consuming date and diabetic control group. Diabetic treatment and control groups received 100 mg/kg of alloxan subcutaneously to create experimental diabetes. The two healthy control groups also received equal amounts of normal saline solution subcutaneously. The injections were repeated a week later in all groups. After observing the diabetes symptoms including polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria and hyperglycemia in groups that were given alloxan, feeding of healthy and diabetic treatment groups with equal ratio of date and pellet was initiated. Final day healthy control group and diabetic control group were fed only with pellet. The groups were fed for 10 days following the start of diabetes symptoms. Blood samples were collected from all groups on day 10. Evaluation of the serumic levels of glucose, cholesterol and LDL revealed statistically significant increase in diabetic control group in comparison with the healthy control groups and also in healthy and  diabetic treatment groups consuming date as compared with diabetic control and healthy groups (p

  9. Elevated serum triglycerides is the strongest single indicator for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimou Eleni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes already fulfill one diagnostic criterion for MS according to the existing classifications. Our aim was to identify one single clinical parameter, which could effectively predict the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied all patients with type 2 diabetes who attended our Diabetes Outpatient Clinic during a three-month period. Waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were measured. Establishment of MS diagnosis was based a on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria and b on International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied in order to identify the clinical parameter with the highest predictive capability for MS. Among the 500 participating patients (231 males, 269 females, MS was diagnosed in 364 patients (72.8% according to the NCEP ATP III criteria and in 408 patients (81.6% according to the IDF criteria. Results For the NCEP ATP III classification, serum triglycerides (in the overall population, waist and HDL (in female population demonstrated the highest predictive capability for MS (AUCs:0.786, 0.805 and 0.801, respectively. For the IDF classification, no single parameter reached an AUC > 0.800 in the overall population. In females, HDL displayed a satisfactory predictive capability for MS with an AUC which was significantly higher than the one in males (0.785 vs. 0.676, respectively, p Conclusion Elevated serum triglycerides strongly indicate the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. In female patients with type 2 diabetes, central obesity was the second stronger predictor of MS besides hypertriglyceridemia.

  10. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  11. The product of fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides improves risk prediction of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Park, Hyun-Young

    2018-05-30

    Screening for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important public health issue. Previous studies report that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglyceride (TG)-related indices, such as lipid accumulation product (LAP) and the product of fasting glucose and triglyceride (TyG index), are associated with incident T2DM. We aimed to evaluate whether FPG or TG-related indices can improve the predictive ability of a diabetes risk model for middle-aged Koreans. 7708 Koreans aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline were eligible from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. The overall cumulative incidence of T2DM was 21.1% (766 cases) in men and 19.6% (797 cases) in women. Therefore, the overall cumulative incidence of T2DM was 20.3% (1563 cases). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the odds ratios (ORs) for incident T2DM for each index. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC), continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated when each measure was added to the basic risk model for diabetes. All the TG-related indices and FPG were more strongly associated with incident T2DM than WC in our study population. The adjusted ORs for the highest quartiles of WC, TG, FPG, LAP, and TyG index compared to the lowest, were 1.64 (95% CI, 1.13-2.38), 2.03 (1.59-2.61), 3.85 (2.99-4.97), 2.47 (1.82-3.34), and 2.79 (2.16-3.60) in men, and 1.17 (0.83-1.65), 2.42 (1.90-3.08), 2.15 (1.71-2.71), 2.44 (1.82-3.26), and 2.85 (2.22-3.66) in women, respectively. The addition of TG-related parameters or FPG, but not WC, to the basic risk model for T2DM (including age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, current drinking, and regular exercise) significantly increased cNRI, IDI, and AROC in both sexes. Adding either TyG index or FPG into the basic risk model for T2DM increases its prediction and reclassification ability

  12. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  13. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-E Peng

    Full Text Available Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1, is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182 from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032.Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05. The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003, while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014. Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  14. Effects of dietary substitution of mixed amino acids for glucose on the splanchnic metabolism of plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and amino acids in conscious fed baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B M; Redinger, R N; Marliss, E B; Grace, D M

    1983-04-01

    Splanchnic metabolism was studied in the fed state during prolonged constant intravenous administration of tracer amounts of [9,10]-3H palmitic acid and the calculated isocaloric intraduodenal administration (13 mg/min X kg body wt0.75) of either (1) glucose, (2) 15% mixed amino acids and 85% glucose or (3) 45% mixed amino acids and 55% glucose to conscious, restrained female baboons that had been maintained on a similar diet (supplemented in essential nutrients) for the previous 9 days. Secretion of plasma triglycerides from the splanchnic region was quantified from splanchnic flow and radiochemical measurements of transsplanchnic gradients of 3H-labeled free fatty acids and triglycerides. Mean splanchnic secretion of plasma triglycerides increased significantly as the proportion of dietary calories derived from amino acids was varied from 0 to 15 to 45% (mean values 1.1 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.2 and 4.2 +/- 0.3 mumol/min kg body wt0.75, respectively, p less than 0.05). Increased triglyceride secretion was attributable to both significantly higher rates of esterification of free fatty acids taken up in the splanchnic region to triglycerides released into hepatic venous blood plasma (mean values 10 +/- 1, 16 +/- 2 and 34 +/- 5%, respectively) and to significantly higher rates of secretion of triglycerides derived from precursors other than free fatty acids. Higher intake of amino acids was also associated with both higher plasma concentrations of cholesterol and higher values for hepatic oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Grudziak, Joanne; Townsend, Raymond R; Dunn, Tamara N; Grant, Ryan W; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal-weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and metabolic substrates in obese subjects. The study had a within-subject design conducted in the clinical and translational research center. Participants included 17 obese men (n = 9) and women (n = 8), with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2). Subjects were studied under two conditions involving ingestion of mixed nutrient meals with either glucose-sweetened beverages or fructose-sweetened beverages. The beverages provided 30% of total kilocalories. Blood samples were collected over 24 h. Area under the curve (24 h AUC) for glucose, lactate, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, uric acid, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids was measured. Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, fructose consumption was associated with lower AUCs for insulin (1052.6 +/- 135.1 vs. 549.2 +/- 79.7 muU/ml per 23 h, P glucose consumption. Increases of TGs were augmented in obese subjects with insulin resistance, suggesting that fructose consumption may exacerbate an already adverse metabolic profile present in many obese subjects.

  16. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Tawfik, M.S.; Youssef, S.S.; Serry, Z.M.; Aboel magd, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  17. Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Janet A; Baer, David J; Khoo, Christina; Gebauer, Sarah K; Charron, Craig S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively. Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment × baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 ± 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 ± 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 ± 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 ± 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 ± 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035). LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684. © 2015

  18. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  19. The triglycerides and glucose index is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in normal-weight children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Hernández-Ronquillo, Gabriela; Gómez-Díaz, Rita; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    BackgroundGiven the usefulness of the product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG) to recognize individuals at high risk for developing cardiovascular events, the aim of this study was to determine whether the TyG index is associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy normal-weight children and adolescents.MethodsApparently healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, aged 6-15 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. The children were allocated into groups with and without cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular risk factors were considered as the occurrence of at least one of the following: elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or hyperglycemia.ResultsA total of 2,117 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study; of them, 1,078 (50.9%) participants exhibited cardiovascular risk. The adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that elevated TyG index was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio (OR)=96.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 48.44-192.04), low HDL-C (OR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.46-2.92), and hyperglycemia (OR=3.11, 95% CI: 2.05-4.72), but not with elevated blood pressure (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.89-2.16).ConclusionThe elevated TyG index is associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in healthy normal-weight children and adolescents.

  20. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Glucose intolerance and the amount of visceral adipose tissue contribute to an increase in circulating triglyceride concentrations in Caucasian obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Margot; Wehlou, Charline; Verrijken, An; Deschepper, Ellen; Mertens, Ilse; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Gaal, Luc F; Ouwens, D Margriet; Ruige, Johannes B

    2012-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is a risk factor for developing obesity-related metabolic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the development of lipotoxicity itself remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance aggravates lipotoxicity by evaluating the association between triglyceride (TG) concentrations and glucose tolerance status in a cross-sectional study on obese Caucasian women at risk for DM2. 913 obese females unknown to have diabetes were recruited (mean age: 41.2 ± SD 12.3; median BMI: 36.2, IQR 32.9-40.2). Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes were quantified with computed tomography. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were determined in fasting state and following a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Based on fasting and 2 h post-load glucose levels, 27% of the women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 8% had newly diagnosed DM2. Fasting TG concentrations were similar between the IGT- and DM2-groups, and increased as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Even when adjusting for age, hip circumference and VAT, fasting TG concentrations remained elevated as compared to NGT. Mixed modelling analysis of post-load responses showed that TG concentrations declined more slowly in the DM2-group as compared to IGT and NGT. However, when adjusting for VAT the difference in decline between the glucose tolerance groups disappeared. Glucose intolerance associates with elevated fasting TG concentrations in obese Caucasian women. We propose that glucose intolerance and increased VAT reduce lipid disposal mechanisms and may accelerate lipotoxicity.

  2. Glucose intolerance and the amount of visceral adipose tissue contribute to an increase in circulating triglyceride concentrations in Caucasian obese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Berings

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lipotoxicity is a risk factor for developing obesity-related metabolic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes (DM2, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the development of lipotoxicity itself remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance aggravates lipotoxicity by evaluating the association between triglyceride (TG concentrations and glucose tolerance status in a cross-sectional study on obese Caucasian women at risk for DM2. METHODS: 913 obese females unknown to have diabetes were recruited (mean age: 41.2 ± SD 12.3; median BMI: 36.2, IQR 32.9-40.2. Visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes were quantified with computed tomography. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were determined in fasting state and following a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Based on fasting and 2 h post-load glucose levels, 27% of the women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and 8% had newly diagnosed DM2. Fasting TG concentrations were similar between the IGT- and DM2-groups, and increased as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Even when adjusting for age, hip circumference and VAT, fasting TG concentrations remained elevated as compared to NGT. Mixed modelling analysis of post-load responses showed that TG concentrations declined more slowly in the DM2-group as compared to IGT and NGT. However, when adjusting for VAT the difference in decline between the glucose tolerance groups disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose intolerance associates with elevated fasting TG concentrations in obese Caucasian women. We propose that glucose intolerance and increased VAT reduce lipid disposal mechanisms and may accelerate lipotoxicity.

  3. Effects of Ghrelin on Triglyceride Accumulation and Glucose Uptake in Primary Cultured Rat Myoblasts under Palmitic Acid-Induced High Fat Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effects of acylated ghrelin on glucose and triglyceride metabolism in rat myoblasts under palmitic acid- (PA- induced high fat conditions. Rat myoblasts were treated with 0, 10−11, 10−9, or 10−7 M acylated ghrelin and 0.3 mM PA for 12 h. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by Oil-Red-O staining and the glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-peroxidase enzymatic method, and glucose uptake was determined by isotope tracer. The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Compared to 0.3 mM PA, ghrelin at 10−9 and 10−7 M reduced triglyceride content (5.855 ± 0.352 versus 5.030 ± 0.129 and 4.158 ± 0.254 mM, P<0.05 and prevented PA-induced reduction of glucose uptake (1.717 ± 0.264 versus 2.233 ± 0.333 and 2.333 ± 0.273 10−2 pmol/g/min, P<0.05. The relative protein expression of p-AMPKα/AMPKα, UCP3, and p-ACC under 0.3 mM PA was significantly reduced compared to controls (all P<0.05, but those in the 10−9 and 10−7 M ghrelin groups were significantly protected from 0.3 mM PA (all P<0.05. In conclusion, acylated ghrelin reduced PA-induced triglyceride accumulation and prevented the PA-induced decrease in glucose uptake in rat myoblasts. These effects may involve fatty acid oxidation.

  4. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Grugni, Graziano; Di Pietro, Mario; Balsamo, Antonio; Di Candia, Stefania; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Di Bonito, Procolo; Maffeis, Claudio; Valerio, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    To identify metabolic phenotypes at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Italian overweight/obese children (n = 148, age 5-10 years) and adolescents (n = 531, age 10-17.9 year). Phenotypes were defined as follows: obesity by the 95th cut-points of the Center for Disease Control body mass index reference standards, impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl), high circulating triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2, waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) >0.6, and combination of the latter with high TG or TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2. In the 148 obese children, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 20.19; 95 % CI 2.50-163.28, p = 0.005) and the combination of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 and WTHR > 0.60 (OR 14.97; 95 % CI 2.18-102.76, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with IGT. In the 531 adolescents, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 1.991; 95 % CI 1.243-3.191, p = 0.004) and the combination with WTHR > 0.60 (OR 2.24; 95 % CI 1.29-3.87, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased risk of IGT. In the whole sample, having high TG levels according to the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel was not associated with an increased risk of presenting IGT. TG/HDL-C ratio can be useful, particularly in children, to identify obese young patients at risk of IGT. Its accuracy as screening tool in a general population needs to be verified. The combination of TG/HDL-C ratio and WTHR > 0.6 did not improve prediction. Having high TG according to the NIH definition was not associated with increased risk of developing IGT.

  5. Are serum adiponectin concentrations in a population sample of 64-year-old Caucasian women with varying glucose tolerance associated with ultrasound-assessed atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, C J; Brohall, G; Hulthe, J; Wikstrand, J; Fagerberg, B

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid arteries in Caucasian women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. From a population-based cohort of 64-year-old Swedish women, 533 subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2, n=177), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=178) or normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=178) were recruited. Anthropometrics, usual cardiovascular risk factors were examined and ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries was performed. Women with low adiponectin concentrations were characterized by thick IMT, higher prevalence of DM2, history of previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, anti-hypertensive treatment and high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma insulin, serum triglycerides, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and low serum HDL cholesterol levels. Carotid IMT correlated with HbA1c (r=0.24, PDM2 (r=0.16, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.16, P<0.001), blood glucose (r=0.16, P<0.001), triglycerides (r=0.15, P<0.001), and reversely to adiponectin (r=-0.11, P=0.01), HDL cholesterol (r=-0.13, P=0.004), and alcohol intake (r=-0.087, P<0.05). A more detailed analysis of underlying associations was difficult due to a high co-linearity between these variable. Low serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with increased carotid artery IMT, and several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, mainly those constituting the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Reduced brain/serum glucose ratios predict cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Pedro; Claassen, Jan; Schmidt, J Michael; Helbok, Raimund; Hanafy, Khalid A; Presciutti, Mary; Lantigua, Hector; Connolly, E Sander; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A

    2013-12-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose to meet its energy demands. We sought to evaluate the potential importance of impaired glucose transport by assessing the relationship between brain/serum glucose ratios, cerebral metabolic distress, and mortality after severe brain injury. We studied 46 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, or cardiac arrest who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring. Continuous insulin infusion was used to maintain target serum glucose levels of 80-120 mg/dL (4.4-6.7 mmol/L). General linear models of logistic function utilizing generalized estimating equations were used to relate predictors of cerebral metabolic distress (defined as a lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR] ≥ 40) and mortality. A total of 5,187 neuromonitoring hours over 300 days were analyzed. Mean serum glucose was 133 mg/dL (7.4 mmol/L). The median brain/serum glucose ratio, calculated hourly, was substantially lower (0.12) than the expected normal ratio of 0.40 (brain 2.0 and serum 5.0 mmol/L). In addition to low cerebral perfusion pressure (P = 0.05) and baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score (P brain/serum glucose ratios below the median of 0.12 were independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic distress (adjusted OR = 1.4 [1.2-1.7], P brain/serum glucose ratios were also independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 6.7 [1.2-38.9], P brain/serum glucose ratios, consistent with impaired glucose transport across the blood brain barrier, are associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased mortality after severe brain injury.

  7. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. A Novel Index Using Soluble CD36 Is Associated with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison Study with Triglyceride-Glucose Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Jin; Moon, Jun Sung; Park, Il Rae; Kim, Joong Hee; Yoon, Ji Sung; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36) level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index which has been suggested simple index ...

  9.  The product of triglycerides and glucose as biomarker for screening simple steatosis and NASH in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Simental-Mendía, Esteban; Rodríguez-Hernández, Heriberto; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

     Introduction and aim. Given that early identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important issue for primary prevention of hepatic disease, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of the product of triglyceride and glucose levels (TyG) for screening simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in asymptomatic women, and to compare its efficacy vs. other biomarkers for recognizing NAFLD. Asymptomatic women aged 20 to 65 years were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The optimal values of TyG, for screening simple steatosis and NASH were established on a Receiver Operating Characteristic scatter plot; the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of TyG index were estimated versus liver biopsy. According sensitivity and specificity, the efficacy of TyG was compared versus the well-known clinical biomarkers for recognizing NAFLD. A total of 50 asymptomatic women were enrolled. The best cutoff point of TyG for screening simple steatosis was 4.58 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69); in addition, the best cutoff point of TyG index for screening NASH was 4.59 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.69). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.03 and 0.08 for simple steatosis, and 2.80 and 0.18 for NASH. As compared versus SteatoTest, NashTest, Fatty liver index, and Algorithm, the TyG showed to be the best test for screening. TyG has high sensitivity and low negative likelihood ratio; as compared with other clinical biomarkers, the TyG showed to be the best test for screening simple steatosis and NASH.

  10. Triglyceride Glucose-Body Mass Index Is a Simple and Clinically Useful Surrogate Marker for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Leay-Kiaw; Wu, Semon; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Lung-An; Teng, Ming-Sheng; Sun, Yu-Chen; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and the consequences of compensatory hyperinsulinemia are pathogenic factors for a set of metabolic abnormalities, which contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. We compared traditional lipid levels and ratios and combined them with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels or adiposity status for determining their efficiency as independent risk factors for IR. We enrolled 511 Taiwanese individuals for the analysis. The clinical usefulness of various parameters--such as traditional lipid levels and ratios; visceral adiposity indicators, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and lipid accumulation product (LAP); the product of triglyceride (TG) and FPG (the TyG index); TyG with adiposity status (TyG-body mass index [BMI]) and TyG-waist circumference index [WC]); and adipokine levels and ratios--was analyzed to identify IR. For all lipid ratios, the TG/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio had the highest additional percentage of variation in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; 7.0% in total); for all variables of interest, TyG-BMI and leptin-adiponectin ratio (LAR) were strongly associated with HOMA-IR, with 16.6% and 23.2% of variability, respectively. A logistic regression analysis revealed similar patterns. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that TG/HDL-C was a more efficient IR discriminator than other lipid variables or ratios. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for VAI (0.734) and TyG (0.708) was larger than that for TG/HDL-C (0.707). TyG-BMI and LAR had the largest AUC (0.801 and 0.801, respectively). TyG-BMI is a simple, powerful, and clinically useful surrogate marker for early identification of IR.

  11. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  12. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  13. Correlation of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengjun; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups. The sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were compared between the two groups. The patients in group B were further divided into the mild fatty liver (group B1), moderate fatty liver (group B2) and severe fatty liver (group B3) groups. The sex, age, BMI blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were also compared among the three groups. Finally, the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD were analyzed via logistic regression. The BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes and serum chemerin level in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (Pdiabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD is closely associated with severe glucose-lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, and BMI, FPG, TC, LDL-c, FINS, HOMA-IR and chemerin constitute risk factors of concurrent NAFLD.

  14. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Zhang, Ren

    2015-12-21

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT), suggesting that lipasin suppresses the activity of LPL specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Consistently, mice injected with the effective antibody or with lipasin deficiency had increased postprandial cardiac LPL activity and lower TAG levels only in the fed state. These results suggest that lipasin acts, at least in part, in an endocrine manner. We propose the following model: feeding induces lipasin, activating the lipasin-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles to direct circulating TAG to WAT for storage; conversely, fasting induces Angptl4, which inhibits LPL in WAT to direct circulating TAG to cardiac and skeletal muscles for oxidation. This model suggests a general mechanism by which TAG trafficking is coordinated by lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4 at different nutritional statuses.

  15. Altering source or amount of dietary carbohydrate has acute and chronic effects on postprandial glucose and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes: Canadian trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S; Gibbs, A L; Chiasson, J-L; Connelly, P W; Josse, R G; Leiter, L A; Maheux, P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Rodger, N W; Ryan, E A

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are partly guided by the postprandial responses elicited by diets varying in carbohydrate (CHO). We aimed to explore whether long-term changes in postprandial responses on low-glycemic-index (GI) or low-CHO diets were due to acute or chronic effects in T2DM. Subjects with diet-alone-treated T2DM were randomly assigned to high-CHO/high-GI (H), high-CHO/low-GI (L), or low-CHO/high-monounsaturated-fat (M) diets for 12-months. At week-0 (Baseline) postprandial responses after H-meals (55% CHO, GI = 61) were measured from 0800 h to 1600 h. After 12 mo subjects were randomly assigned to H-meals or study diet meals (L, 57% CHO, GI = 50; M, 44% CHO, GI = 61). This yielded 5 groups: H diet with H-meals (HH, n = 34); L diet with H- (LH, n = 17) or L-meals (LL, n = 16); and M diet with H- (MH, n = 18) or M meals (MM, n = 19). Postprandial glucose fluctuations were lower in LL than all other groups (p triglycerides differed among groups (p triglycerides were similar to Baseline while in MH postprandial-triglycerides were significantly higher than at Baseline (p = 0.028). In LH, triglycerides were consistently (0.18-0.34 mmol/L) higher than Baseline throughout the day, while in LL the difference from Baseline varied across the day from 0.04 to 0.36 mmol/L (p glucose and triglycerides in T2DM subjects. Thus, the composition of the acute test-meal and the habitual diet should be considered when interpreting the nutritional implications of different postprandial responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms correlate with serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein levels in Tibetan gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Bing; Chen, Peng; Jiri, Mutu; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-03-01

    Current evidence suggests heredity and metabolic syndrome contributes to gout progression. Specifically, the WDR1 and CLNK genes may play a role in gout progression in European ancestry populations. However, no studies have focused on Chinese populations, especially Tibetan individuals. This study aims to determine whether variations in these two genes correlate with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the WDR1 and CLNK genes were detected in 319 Chinese-Tibetan gout patients and 318 controls. We used one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators, such as albumin, glucose (GLU), triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), creatinine, and uric acid, from fasting venous blood samples. All p values were Bonferroni corrected. Polymorphisms of the WDR1 and CLNK genes affected multiple risk factors for gout development. Significant differences in serum GLU levels were detected between different genotypic groups with WDRI polymorphisms rs4604059 (p = 0.005) and rs12498927 (p = 0.005). In addition, significant differences in serum HDL-C levels were detected between different genotypic groups with the CLNK polymorphism rs2041215 (p = 0.001). Polymorphisms of CLNK also affected levels of albumin, triglycerides, and creatinine. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms in Chinese-Tibetan populations. Our findings provide significant evidence for the effect of genetic polymorphisms on gout-related factors in Chinese-Tibetan populations.

  17. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  18. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  19. Effect on Fasting Serum Glucose Levels of Adding Ezetimibe to Statins in Patients With Nondiabetic Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Catapano, Alberico L; Farnier, Michel; Foody, Joanne; Tomassini, Joanne E; Jensen, Erin; Polis, Adam B; Hanson, Mary E; Musliner, Thomas A; Tershakovec, Andrew M

    2016-12-15

    Statin therapy is associated with a slightly increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in patients without diabetes. Ezetimibe combined with statins may be considered for high-risk patients who do not achieve optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering on statin monotherapy or who are statin intolerant. Changes in fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels during ezetimibe, ezetimibe/statin, and statin treatments were assessed using data pooled from clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patients, who were or were not receiving statin therapy. Study types included first-line trials in statin-naive/wash-out patients and second-line add-on and uptitration studies in patients on stable statin therapy. Similar analyses of FSG changes were performed separately for each study type in patients who were nondiabetic at baseline. Across all study types and treatments, mean FSG increases from baseline were small (0.5 to 3.7 mg/dl with ezetimibe/statin; 0.2 to 4.6 mg/dl with statins) and decreased over time; between-treatment differences (0.3 to 1.4 mg/dl) were nonsignificant for all comparisons. Proportions of patients with elevated FSG ≥126 mg/dl during therapy were low and similar for all treatments in the overall cohort (1.2% to 4.3%). Elevations were highest (3.3% to 25.7%) among patients with baseline factors characteristic of metabolic syndrome and prediabetes, including higher FSG, body mass index, and triglyceride levels, and numerically lower baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, these factors were not related to FSG increases. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B were not significantly correlated with FSG increases. In conclusion, statin therapy was associated with small FSG increases, and the addition of ezetimibe did not further increase FSG levels beyond those of

  20. Serum glucose and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice extract on serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan in 5% solution. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection, if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was equal to or greater ...

  1. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

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    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  2. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight

  3. Triglyceride glucose index as a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, Noor Shafina; Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for simple surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies of obese youth because the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is not feasible on a large scale. (i) To examine the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index (Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]) and its relationship to in vivo insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents (OB) along the spectrum of glucose tolerance and (ii) to compare TyG index with triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein TG/HDL and 1/fasting insulin (1/IF ), other surrogates of insulin sensitivity. Cross-sectional data in 225 OB with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes (preDM), and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who had a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and fasting lipid measurement. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) declined significantly across the glycemic groups from OB-NGT to OB-preDM to OB-T2DM with a corresponding increase in TyG index (8.3 ± 0.5, 8.6 ± 0.5, 8.9 ± 0.6, p index to Rd was -0.419 (p index for diagnosis of insulin resistance was 8.52 [receiver operating characteristic-area under the ROC curves (ROC-AUC) 0.750, p index, 1/IF , body mass index (BMI) z-score, glycemic group, and sex. The TyG index affords an easily and widely available simple laboratory method as a surrogate estimate of insulin sensitivity that could be used repeatedly in large-scale observational and/or interventional cohorts of OB. Although not superior to 1/IF , TyG index offers the advantage of having a standardized method of measuring triglyceride and glucose, which is not the case for insulin assays. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Optimal cutoff for the evaluation of insulin resistance through triglyceride-glucose index: A cross-sectional study in a Venezuelan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan; Bermúdez, Valmore; Calvo, María; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Luzardo, Eliana; Navarro, Carla; Mencia, Heysa; Martínez, María; Rivas-Ríos, José; Wilches-Durán, Sandra; Cerda, Marcos; Graterol, Modesto; Graterol, Rosemily; Garicano, Carlos; Hernández, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) evaluation is a fundamental goal in clinical and epidemiological research. However, the most widely used methods are difficult to apply to populations with low incomes. The triglyceride-glucose index (TGI) emerges as an alternative to use in daily clinical practice. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine an optimal cutoff point for the TGI in an adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: This is a sub-study of Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive, cross-sectional study with random and multi-stage sampling. For this analysis, 2004 individuals of both genders ≥18 years old with basal insulin determination and triglycerides triglyceride (mg / dl) x Fasting glucose (mg / dl)] / 2. Results: The TGI in the general population was 4.6±0.3 (male: 4.66±0.34 vs. female: 4.56±0.33, p=8.93x10 -10 ). The optimal cutoff point was 4.49, with a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 82.1% (AUC=0.889, 95% CI: 0.854-0.924). There were no significant differences in the predictive capacity of the index when evaluated according to gender and age groups. Those individuals with TGI≥4.5 had higher HOMA2-IR averages than those with TGI index to determine atypical metabolic phenotypes, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even cardiovascular risk in our population.

  5. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, pselected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, pattention to the existence of overweight and obesity as well as the risk of non-communicable diseases among military population. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  6. Clinical usefulness of lipid ratios, visceral adiposity indicators, and the triglycerides and glucose index as risk markers of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tingting; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Muxun; Zhou, Xinrong; Sun, Xingxing; Yu, Xuefeng

    2014-10-20

    To directly compare traditional lipid ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-HDL-C/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]/HDL-C, and triglycerides [TG]/HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and the product of TG and fasting glucose (TyG) for strength and independence as risk factors for insulin resistance (IR). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7629 Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. For all lipid ratios (traditional lipid ratios and apoB/apoA-I), among both sexes, TG/HDL-C explained the most additional percentage of variation in HOMA-IR (2.9% in men, and 2.3% in women); for all variables of interest, the variability in HOMA-IR explained by VAI and TG/HDL-C were comparable; TyG had the most significant association with HOMA-IR, which explained 9.1% for men and 7.8% for women of the variability in HOMA-IR. Logistic regression analysis showed the similar patterns. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that, among both sexes, TG/HDL-C was a better discriminator of IR than apoB/apoA-I; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for VAI (0.695 in men and 0.682 in women) was greater than that for TG/HDL-C (AUC 0.665 in men and 0.664 in women); TyG presented the greatest value of AUC (0.709 in men and 0.711 in women). The apoB/apoA-I performs no better than any of the traditional lipid ratios in correlating with IR. The TG/HDL-C, VAI and TyG are better markers for early identification of IR individuals.

  7. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) is an effective biomarker to identify nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Jianhua; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Xuan; Xie, Junhui; Yang, Yan; Yu, Xuefeng

    2017-01-19

    The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) has been proposed as a marker of insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the ability of TyG, through comparing with the predictive value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), to identify individuals at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Chinese health examination cohort of 10 761 people aged above 20 years. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of TyG, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NAFLD were 1.8 (1.5-2.1), 3.0 (2.5-3.5), and 6.3 (5.3-7.5) for those in the second, the third, and the fourth quartile of TyG, whereas the corresponding ORs (95% CI) for NAFLD were 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.9 (1.6-2.2), and 3.1 (2.6-3.7) for the upper three quartiles of ALT. These results suggested that TyG was superior to ALT in association with NAFLD risk. According to the ROC analysis, the optimal cut-off point of TyG for NAFLD was 8.5 and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.782 (95% CI 0.773-0.790), with 72.2 and 70.5% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The AUC of TyG was larger than that of ALT (0.715 (95% CI 0.705-0.725), P for difference <0.0001), whereas the largest AUC was obtained when adding TyG to ALT (0.804 (95% CI 0.795-0.812), P for difference <0.0001). TyG is effective to identify individuals at risk for NAFLD. A TyG threshold of 8.5 was highly sensitive for detecting NAFLD subjects and may be suitable as a diagnostic criterion for NAFLD in Chinese adults.

  8. Effects of glucose oxidase on the growth performance, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with ... Keywords: Glucose oxidase, intestinal health, performance, swine ..... This work was supported by the National High-Tech Research and ...

  9. The effect of serum from obese and normal weight men on glucose metabolism in leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myking, O.; Kjoesen, B.; Bassoee, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pooled serum from either obese or normal weight males on glucose metabolism in human leucocytes has been studied. Leucocytes from normal weight males were incubated with 10-90% pooled serum and either [U- 14 C], or [1- 14 C]glucose. Compared to serum from the normal weight males, serum from the obese group had a more stimulating effect on the 14 CO 2 and [ 14 C]lactate production from [U- 14 C]glucose and on the 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]glucose. The two serum pools had the same stimulating effect on the Embden-Meyerhof pathway as indicated by the formation of [ 14 C]lactate from [l- 14 C]glucose. Calculations revealed that the activity in the pentose phosphate pathway was stimulated more by serum from obese, than from normal weight males. It is a possibility that increased stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway may contribute to the development of overweight. (author)

  10. The role of glucose, insulin and NEFA in regulating tissue triglyceride accumulation: Substrate cooperation in adipose tissue versus substrate competition in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, M A; Hodson, L; Guiducci, L; La Rosa, F; Salvadori, P A; Burchielli, S; Iozzo, P

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic factors initiating adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride accumulation are not completely understood. We aimed to investigate the independent role of circulating glucose, NEFA and insulin on glucose and NEFA uptake, and lipogenesis in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). Twenty-two pigs were stratified according to four protocols: 1) and 2) low NEFA + high insulin ± high glucose (hyperinsulinaemia-hyperglycaemia or hyperinsulinaemia-euglycaemia), 3) high NEFA + low insulin (fasting), 4) low NEFA + low insulin (nicotinic acid). Positron emission tomography with [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and [ 11 C]acetate, was combined with [ 14 C]acetate and [U- 13 C]palmitate enrichment techniques to assess glucose and lipid metabolism. Hyperinsulinaemia increased glucose extraction, whilst hyperglycaemia enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and SCAT. In SCAT, during hyperglycaemia, elevated glucose uptake was accompanied by greater [U- 13 C]palmitate-TG enrichment compared to the other groups, and by a 39% increase in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) compared to baseline, consistent with a 70% increment in plasma lipogenic index. Conversely, in skeletal muscle, [U- 13 C]palmitate-TG enrichment was higher after prolonged fasting. Our data show the necessary role of hyperglycaemia-hyperinsulinaemia vs euglycaemia-hyperinsulinaemia in promoting expansion of TG stores in SCAT, by the consensual elevation in plasma NEFA and glucose uptake and DNL. In contrast, skeletal muscle NEFA uptake for TG synthesis is primarily driven by circulating NEFA levels. These results suggest that a) prolonged fasting or dietary regimens enhancing lipolysis might promote muscle steatosis, and b) the control of glucose levels, in association with adequate energy balance, might contribute to weight loss. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and

  11. Association of first-trimester maternal lipid profiles and triglyceride-glucose index with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and large for gestational age newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhohan, Azar; Rezaee Moradali, Monireh; Pazhohan, Nahideh

    2017-11-20

    To evaluate the association of maternal first-trimester plasma lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and triglyceride (TyG) index with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and large for gestational age (LGA) infant in Iranian mothers. Nine hundred and fifty-four healthy pregnant women were prospectively followed till after delivery. Maternal fasting lipids and glucose concentration were measured at nine-week gestation on average. We used generalized linear models to calculate the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The incidence of GDM and LGA infants among our participants was 18.4% and 26.1%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the increase in FPG, triglyceride, TG/HDL-C ratio, as well as TyG index with the risk of GDM and LGA infant. After adjusting for potential confounders, the relative risk of GDM in women in the top tertile of FPG, triglyceride (TG), triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) and TyG index was 4.2-, 4.2-, 3.9-, and 4.9-folds of its risk in women in the bottom tertile, respectively. Also after adjusting for GDM, the relative risk of LGA infants in women in the top tertile of FPG, TG, TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index was 3.9-, 4.3-, 4.8-, and 5.3-folds of its risk in women in the bottom tertile, respectively. Based on our findings, TyG index is more robust early predictors of GDM and LGA in Iranian women.

  12. The common P446L polymorphism in GCKR inversely modulates fasting glucose and triglyceride levels and reduces type 2 diabetes risk in the DESIR prospective general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxillaire, Martine; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Dechaume, Aurélie; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver, where its activity is competitively modulated, with respect to glucose, by binding to glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes identified GCKR as a potential locus for modulating triglyceride levels. We evaluated, in a general French population, the contribution of the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism to quantitative metabolic parameters and to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia risk. Genotype effects of rs1260326 were studied in 4,833 participants from the prospective DESIR (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome) cohort both at inclusion and using the measurements at follow-up. The minor T-allele of rs1260326 was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (-1.43% per T-allele; P = 8 x 10(-13)) and fasting insulin levels (-4.23%; P = 3 x 10(-7)), lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (-5.69%; P = 1 x 10(-8)), and, conversely, higher triglyceride levels (3.41%; P = 1 x 10(-4)) during the 9-year study. These effects relate to a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.79 [95% CI 0.70-0.88]; P = 4 x 10(-5)) and of incident cases during the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [0.74-0.95]; P = 0.005). Moreover, an additive effect of GCKR rs1260326(T) and GCK (-30G) alleles conferred lower fasting glycemia (P = 1 x 10(-13)), insulinemia (P = 5 x 10(-6)), and hyperglycemia risk (P = 1 x 10(-6)). GCKR-L446 carriers are protected against type 2 diabetes despite higher triglyceride levels and risk of dyslipidemia, which suggests a potential molecular mechanism by which these two components of the metabolic syndrome can be dissociated.

  13. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  14. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  15. Solutes transport characteristics in peritoneal dialysis: variations in glucose and insulin serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Dirceu R; Figueiredo, Ana E; Antonello, Ivan C; Poli de Figueiredo, Carlos E; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2008-01-01

    Differences in small solutes transport rate (SSTR) during peritoneal dialysis (PD) may affect water and solutes removal. Patients with high SSTR must rely on shorter dwell times and increased dialysate glucose concentrations to keep fluid balance. Glucose absorption during peritoneal dialysis (PD), besides affecting glucose and insulin metabolism, may induce weight gain. The study aimed at examining acute glucose and insulin serum level changes and other potential relationships in PD patients with diverse SSTR. This cross-sectional study used a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET) that enrolled 34 prevalent PD patients. Zero, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240-minute glucose and insulin serum levels were measured. Insulin resistance index was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) formula. SSTR categories were classified by quartiles of the four-hour dialysate/serum creatinine ratio (D(4)/P(Cr)). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated, and the body mass index (BMI) was estimated. Correlations among variables of interest and categories of SSTR were explored. Glucose serum levels were significantly different at 15, 30, and 60 minutes between high and low SSTR categories (p = 0.014, 0.009, and 0.022). Increased BMI (25.5 +/- 5.1) and insulin resistance [HOMA-IR = 2.60 (1.40-4.23)] were evidenced overall. Very strong to moderate correlations between insulin levels along the PET and HOMA-IR (r = 0.973, 0.834, 0.766, 0.728, 0.843, 0.857, 0.882) and BMI (r = 0.562, 0.459, 0.417, 0.370, 0.508, 0.514, 0.483) were disclosed. CONCLUSIONS; Early glucose serum levels were associated with SSTR during a PET. Overweight or obesity and insulin resistance were prevalent. An association between insulin serum levels and BMI was demonstrated.

  16. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M.Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A.; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHLR200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wildtype VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHLR200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHLR200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc but not Pdk2 was decreased and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1 and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  17. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  18. A Novel Index Using Soluble CD36 Is Associated with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison Study with Triglyceride-Glucose Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jin; Moon, Jun Sung; Park, Il Rae; Kim, Joong Hee; Yoon, Ji Sung; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2017-09-01

    Plasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36) level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index which has been suggested simple index for insulin resistance. This was cross-sectional study, and participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM according to glucose tolerance. The formula of TyG index was 'ln [FPG (mg/dL)×triglyceride (mg/dL)/2],' and the sCD36 index was 'ln [sCD36 (pg/mL)×FPG (mg/dL)/2].' One hundred and fifty-five subjects (mean age, 55.2 years) were enrolled, and patients with T2DM were 75. Both indexes were significantly increased in prediabetes and T2DM rather than NGT, and sCD36 index was positively correlated with both glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.767 and r=0.453, respectively; Pindex for T2DM was 4.39 (95% confidential interval, 1.51 to 12.77) after adjusting age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, OR of TyG index did not remained significance after adjustment. sCD36 index has an independent association with the risk of T2DM, and showed better correlation than TyG index. These results suggest sCD36 index might be useful surrogate marker for the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  19. Differential Effects of Red Meat/Refined Grain Diet and Dairy/Chicken/Nuts/Whole Grain Diet on Glucose, Insulin and Triglyceride in a Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-10-30

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in processed meat, with a high glycemic index is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is not clear if this is due to altered insulin sensitivity or an enhanced postprandial glucose. We aimed to compare the acute metabolic response of two different types of meals after ingestion of the matching diet for four weeks. The study was a randomized, crossover acute meal study. Volunteers consumed either a red meat/refined grain meal or a dairy/chicken/nuts/wholegrain meal after four weeks of the matching diet. After a three-week washout period and four weeks of the alternate diet, they consumed the matching meal. The diets differed with respect to both protein and carbohydrate sources. Blood samples were taken for 180 min for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and triglyceride. Fifty-one participants (age: 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m², 17 with normal and 34 with impaired glucose tolerance) completed two meal tests. The area under the curve ( p glucose tolerance group ( p glucose; the red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose relative to the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet only in the normal group (+2.5 mmol/L/3 h). The red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose and insulin responses compared with the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet. This meal pattern would increase pancreatic stress long term and may account for the increased risk of type 2 diabetes with this diet.

  20. Identifying subgroups of obesity using the product of triglycerides and glucose: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Han, Kyungdo; Yang, Hae Kyung; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and glucose, may be a valuable marker for identifying metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW) or metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals. A total of 17 029 nondiabetic subjects (7185 men and 9844 women) were selected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008-2010. Individuals with a normal body mass index (BMI) (≥18·5 and index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]. The levels of the TyG index paralleled with various metabolic risk parameters. The index was significantly higher in the MONW group and lower in the MHO group when compared with the non-MONW group and the non-MHO group, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) of being categorized into the MONW group were approximately fourfold higher in the highest vs lowest quartiles of the TyG index (3·999: 95% CI, 2·508-6·376 in men; 4·737: 95% CI, 3·418-6·565 in women) among normal weight subjects. Conversely, there was a stepwise decrease in the OR of being categorized into the MHO group across the TyG index quartiles among obese subjects. These data highlight the value of the TyG index in discriminating those subjects with higher risks of metabolic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism and its relation with glucose and triglycerides levels in morbidly obese patients after undergoing sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Boix, Evangelina; Galindo, Isabel; Zubiaga, Lorea; Diez, María; Arroyo, Antonio; Calpena, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    There is an increased prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in patients with obesity. It is unclear if this biochemical abnormality may be a secondary phenomenon of obesity or a real hypothyroid state. A retrospective study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between October 2007 and November 2012 was performed. Weight loss, body mass index (BMI) and excess weight loss, baseline glucose, lipid profiles, and TSH levels were obtained before operation and postoperative determinations at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Sixty patients were included. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 16.7% preoperatively, 10% at 3 months, 3.3% at 6 months, and 1.7% at 12 months. A significant correlation could be established between TSH decrease and weight loss at 12 months (Pearson 0.603; p = 0.007). TSH decrease showed a significant correlation with glucose and glycated hemoglobin decrease from 6th month onwards. Referring to lipid profile, an association of TSH decrease with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol could not be determined. A significant association between TSH decrease and triglycerides and cardiovascular risk index triglycerides/HDL cholesterol reductions could also be established 12 months after surgery. SCH is usually corrected after bariatric surgery, while there are no significant changes in total or LDL cholesterol. This suggests that, in morbidly obese subjects, SCH is, in most patients, just a consequence of the abnormal fat accumulation and not a real hypothyroid state.

  2. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  3. Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1982-07-01

    Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.

  4. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  5. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  6. Ethamsylate (Dicynone) interference in determination of serum creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol in assays involving the Trinder reaction; in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Wiewiorka, Ondrej; Benovská, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was the quantification of interfering properties of the haemostatic drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride assays using the Trinder reaction. Blood from patients was collected before and 15 minutes after administration of 500 mg Dicynone dose i.v. and the above mentioned analytes were quantified using Roche assays (Cobas 8000). In our in vitro experiment, we measured concentrations of the analytes in pooled serum aliquots with final concentrations of Dicynone additions 0, 30, 60, 150, and 300 mg/L. Aliquots with 60 mg/L Dicynone were also measured at 2, 6, and 8 hours after initial measurement when stored in 22 degrees C and 4 degrees C for comparison. Concentrations of the measured analytes in samples from patients administered with a 500 mg dose of Dicynone were lower in all cases (n = 10) when compared to values in samples taken immediately before treatment. The in vitro samples showed that considerable negative interference occurred even with the low concentrations of Dicynone additions (30 and 60 mg/L), showing the strongest negative interference in creatinine values, followed by uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Using in vitro samples, we showed strong time and temperature dependence on Dicynone interference. We found and proved significant negative interference of the drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in the clinical analysis of blood using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Furthermore, we observed a change of this effect in serum matrix over time and at different storage temperatures.

  7. The Effect of Resveratrol Supplementation in Adjunct with Non-surgical Periodontal Treatment on Blood Glucose, Triglyceride, Periodontal Status and Some Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zare Javid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are two chronic and common diseases with close relationship together affecting public health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol supplementation in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal treatment (NST on blood glucose, triglyceride, periodontal status and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial study was conducted on 43 diabetic patients with periodontitis referred to the Endocrinology Clinic at Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All subjects were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention and control groups received either 480 mg/d resveratrol or placebo capsules (2 PCs for four weeks. All subjects underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy during the intervention period. Anthropometric parameters, 24-hour dietary recall, fasting blood sugar, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, pocket depth (PD, IL6 and TNF&alpha were evaluated in all subjects pre- and post-intervention. Results: The mean serum levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.045, respectively lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (10.42 ± 0.28 and 10.92 ± 0.9 3.66 ± 0.97 and 4.49 ± 1.56, respectively . Moreover, significant difference (P < 0.001 was obtained in the mean pocket depth (PD between the intervention and control groups (2.35 ± 0.6 and 3.38 ± 0.5, respectively post-intervention. In the intervention group, the mean serum level of IL6 was reduced significantly (P= 0.039 post-intervention (1.58 ± 1.06 and 2.19± 1.09. No significant differences were seen in the mean levels of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, IL6 and TNF&alpha between the two groups post-intervention. Conclusions: It is suggested that resveratrol may be recommended as

  8. Effects of ginger on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, and inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Hossein; Tabibi, Hadi; Najafi, Iraj; Atabak, Shahnaz; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Leila

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, and systemic and vascular inflammatory markers in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 patients on PD were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1000 mg/d ginger for 10 wk, whereas the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and the end of week 10, serum concentrations of glucose, carboxymethyl lysine, pentosidine, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), and sE-selectin were measured after a 12- to 14-h fast. Serum fasting glucose decreased significantly up to 20% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (P ginger reduces serum fasting glucose, which is a risk factor for hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease, in patients on PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  10. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  11. Serum deprivation induces glucose response and intercellular coupling in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Shapira, Yuval; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the previously described differentiating islet-like aggregates of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) develop glucose response and exhibit intercellular communication. Fura 2-loaded PANC-1 cells in serum-free medium were assayed for changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca]i) induced by depolarization, tolbutamide inhibition of K(ATP) channels, or glucose. Dye transfer, assayed by confocal microscopy or by FACS, was used to detect intercellular communication. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes of interest were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation was assayed by the MTT method. Serum-deprived PANC-1 cell aggregates developed [Ca]i response to KCl, tolbutamide, or glucose. These responses were accompanied by 5-fold increase in glucokinase mRNA level and, to a lesser extent, of mRNAs for K(ATP) and L-type calcium channels, as well as increase in mRNA levels of glucagon and somatostatin. Trypsin, a proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist previously shown to enhance aggregation, modestly improved [Ca]i response to glucose. Glucose-induced coordinated [Ca]i oscillations and dye transfer demonstrated the emergence of intercellular communication. These findings suggest that PANC-1 cells, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, can be induced to express a differentiated phenotype in which cells exhibit response to glucose and form a functional syncytium similar to those observed in pancreatic islets.

  12. Serum Insulin, Glucose, Indices of Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argirion, Ilona; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Mondul, Alison M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Although insulin may increase the risk of some cancers, few studies have examined fasting serum insulin and lung cancer risk. Methods: We examined serum insulin, glucose, and indices of insulin resistance [insulin:glucose molar ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and lung cancer risk using a case-cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish men. A total of 196 cases and 395 subcohort members were included. Insulin and glucose were measured in fasting serum collected 5 to 12 years before diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer. Results: The average time between blood collection and lung cancer was 9.6 years. Fasting serum insulin levels were 8.7% higher in subcohort members than cases. After multivariable adjustment, men in the fourth quartile of insulin had a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those in the first quartile [HR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.94]. A similar relationship was seen with HOMA-IR (HR = 1.83; 95% CI, 0.99-3.38). Risk was not strongly associated with glucose or the insulin:glucose molar ratio ( P trend = 0.55 and P trend = 0.27, respectively). Conclusions: Higher fasting serum insulin concentrations, as well as the presence of insulin resistance, appear to be associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer development. Impact: Although insulin is hypothesized to increase risk of some cancers, insulin and lung cancer remain understudied. Higher insulin levels and insulin resistance were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Although smoking cessation is the best method of lung cancer prevention, other lifestyle changes that affect insulin concentrations and sensitivity may reduce lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1519-24. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. An examination of the hexokinase method for serum glucose assay using external quality assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, A; Bullock, D G; Whitehead, T P

    1986-01-01

    Hexokinase methods for serum glucose assay appeared to give slightly but consistently higher inter-laboratory coefficients of variation than all methods combined in the UK External Quality Assessment Scheme; their performance over a two-year period was therefore compared with that for three groups of glucose oxidase methods. This assessment showed no intrinsic inferiority in the hexokinase method. The greater variation may be due to the more heterogeneous group of instruments, particularly discrete analysers, on which the method is used. The Beckman Glucose Analyzer and Astra group (using a glucose oxidase method) showed the least inter-laboratory variability but also the lowest mean value. No comment is offered on the absolute accuracy of any of the methods.

  14. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum liver enzymes level and the incidence of impaired fasting glucose in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangming; Lu, Lihong; Xiao, Yufei; Zhu, Yimiao; Pan, Wensheng; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-07-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between levels of serum liver enzymes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults and to provide a new perspective for the prevention of pre-diabetes. Serum liver enzymes of the samples including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT), as well as plasma glucose, blood lipids, and insulin, were measured. The cumulative incidences of IFG between different quartiles of liver enzymes were compared by the chi-square test. A logistic regression model (binary regression) was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of IFG with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The total incidence of IFG was 20.3% and the cumulative incidence of IFG was higher in men compared to women. In both sexes, IFG is more prevalent in higher quartiles of liver enzymes. After adjusting for age, BMI, blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC), the cumulative incidences of IFG were significantly higher in the highest quartiles of liver enzymes than in the lowest quartiles. A significantly higher cumulative incidence of IFG was found in the highest GGT quartile than in the lowest quartile for woman. The results of this study suggest that serum liver enzymes are related to the risk of IFG in Chinese adults. We infer that preserving the hepatic function may be an efficient way to prevent the development of IFG, especially in males.

  15. Efficacy of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus terrestris on the Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile of Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadaei; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-10-01

    Considering traditional use of Tribulus terrestris in diabetes and proven antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of T terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract of T terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight women with diabetes mellitus type 2 were randomly allocated to receive the T terrestris (1000 mg/d) or placebo for 3 months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Tribulus terrestris showed a significant blood glucose-lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. The study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T terrestris in women with diabetes mellitus type 2. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m2/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (pcarcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m2/bird in turkey fattening. PMID:26877630

  17. Triglyceride glucose index, a marker of insulin resistance, is associated with coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Hae Kyung; Lee, Joonyub; Kang, Borami; Yang, Yeoree; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Cha, Bong Yun; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Cho, Jae Hyoung

    2016-09-15

    Insulin resistance is one of the most important contributing factors to cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between coronary artery stenosis (CAS) and triglyceride glucose index (TyG index), a simple insulin resistance marker, in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes. We recruited asymptomatic adults with type 2 diabetes but without previous history of coronary heart disease (n = 888). Significant CAS was defined as maximum intraluminal stenosis ≥70 % by coronary CT angiography. TyG index was calculated as log [fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) x fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]. Mean age was 63.8 ± 9.5 and 58.9 % of the subjects were men. We analyzed the participants according to the tertile of TyG index. The TyG index was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.397, P index were younger but showed worse clinical and metabolic parameters. The prevalence of CAS was higher in subjects with higher tertile of TyG compared with those with lower tertile of TyG (14 % vs. 7.8 %, P = 0.022). On multiple regression analysis, the highest tertile of TyG index was an independent risk factor for CAS after adjustment for other confounders (odds ratio, 3.19 [95 % CI, 1.371-7.424]). Subgroup analysis showed that TyG index showed more significant association with CAS in patients with risk factors such as old age, longer duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control, no statin use, and male gender. Higher TyG index is associated with increased risk of CAS in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes, particularly when they have risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study was retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials. gov with the registration number of NCT02070926 in Feb 23, 2014.

  18. Differential Effects of Red Meat/Refined Grain Diet and Dairy/Chicken/Nuts/Whole Grain Diet on Glucose, Insulin and Triglyceride in a Randomized Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in processed meat, with a high glycemic index is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is not clear if this is due to altered insulin sensitivity or an enhanced postprandial glucose. We aimed to compare the acute metabolic response of two different types of meals after ingestion of the matching diet for four weeks. The study was a randomized, crossover acute meal study. Volunteers consumed either a red meat/refined grain meal or a dairy/chicken/nuts/wholegrain meal after four weeks of the matching diet. After a three-week washout period and four weeks of the alternate diet, they consumed the matching meal. The diets differed with respect to both protein and carbohydrate sources. Blood samples were taken for 180 min for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and triglyceride. Fifty-one participants (age: 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m2, 17 with normal and 34 with impaired glucose tolerance completed two meal tests. The area under the curve (p < 0.001 and incremental area under the curve (p = 0.001 for insulin was significantly higher after the red meat/refined grain diet than after the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet. There was an interaction between meal and glucose tolerance group (p < 0.05 in the area under the curve (AUC and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC of glucose; the red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose relative to the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet only in the normal group (+2.5 mmol/L/3 h. The red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose and insulin responses compared with the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet. This meal pattern would increase pancreatic stress long term and may account for the increased risk of type 2 diabetes with this diet.

  19. Optimal cutoff for the evaluation of insulin resistance through triglyceride-glucose index: A cross-sectional study in a Venezuelan population [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Salazar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance (IR evaluation is a fundamental goal in clinical and epidemiological research. However, the most widely used methods are difficult to apply to populations with low incomes. The triglyceride-glucose index (TGI emerges as an alternative to use in daily clinical practice. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine an optimal cutoff point for the TGI in an adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: This is a sub-study of Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive, cross-sectional study with random and multi-stage sampling. For this analysis, 2004 individuals of both genders ≥18 years old with basal insulin determination and triglycerides < 500 mg/dl were evaluated.. A reference population was selected according to clinical and metabolic criteria to plot ROC Curves specific for gender and age groups to determine the optimal cutoff point according to sensitivity and specificity.The TGI was calculated according to the equation: ln [Fasting triglyceride (mg / dl x Fasting glucose (mg / dl] / 2. Results: The TGI in the general population was 4.6±0.3 (male: 4.66±0.34 vs. female: 4.56±0.33, p=8.93x10-10. The optimal cutoff point was 4.49, with a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 82.1% (AUC=0.889, 95% CI: 0.854-0.924. There were no significant differences in the predictive capacity of the index when evaluated according to gender and age groups. Those individuals with TGI≥4.5 had higher HOMA2-IR averages than those with TGI <4.5 (2.48 vs 1.74, respectively, p<0.001. Conclusions: The TGI is a measure of interest to identify IR in the general population. We propose a single cutoff point of 4.5 to classify individuals with IR. Future studies should evaluate the predictive capacity of this index to determine atypical metabolic phenotypes, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even cardiovascular risk in our population.

  20. Triglyceride Glucose-Body Mass Index Is a Simple and Clinically Useful Surrogate Marker for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Leay-Kiaw; Wu, Semon; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Lung-An; Teng, Ming-Sheng; Sun, Yu-Chen; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) and the consequences of compensatory hyperinsulinemia are pathogenic factors for a set of metabolic abnormalities, which contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. We compared traditional lipid levels and ratios and combined them with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels or adiposity status for determining their efficiency as independent risk factors for IR. Methods We enrolled 511 Taiwanese individuals for the analysis. T...

  1. Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P. Reed; Holst, Jens J.; Badman, Michael K.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P fasting triglycerides (r = −0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = −0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  2. Ameliorative properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Ceiba pentandra on serum glucose, hematological and biochemical parameters of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hadiza Lami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Ceiba pentandra leaves used by some Nupe speaking community of Niger State, Nigeria in folkloric management of diabetes. Methods: Fifteen albino rats of both sexes weighing between 100 and 160 g were randomly allotted to five groups of four rats each. Alloxan monohydrate (110 mg/kg body weight was intraperitoneally administered to rats in their respective groups, and rats with blood glucose (200 mg/kg body weight were considered diabetic. Diabetic rats in their respective groups received 2.5 mg/kg body weight of standard drug (glibenclamide, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract once daily for 12 days. Normoglycemic group (reference group I received 0.5 mL normal saline, while the last group was untreated diabetic (reference group II. The blood glucose was measured by using Accu-Chek Active glucometer every three days and the experiment was terminated at 17th day. Results: Blood glucose decreased significantly (P < 0.05 in all the treated groups during the period of treatment with highest hypoglycaemic activity observed in 200 mg/kg body weight group. The diabetic untreated group showed significant reduction (P < 0.05 in body weight as it was a clinical feature of diabetes in reference to normoglycemic, and other treatment groups. Platelets showed a significant decrease and increase respectively in the untreated and treated groups in reference to the normoglycemic group. Decreased packed cell volume, red blood cells and hemoglobin count, and an increase in white blood cell were also observed in the untreated group. Body weight of the treated groups remained stable as against the reference group II. Activities of the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride and potassium increased significantly (P < 0.05 in standard drug while carbonate and sodium showed the opposite. The urea, creatinine, total and conjugated bilirubin all increased significantly (P < 0.05 in the

  3. Effects of the Brown Seaweed Laminaria japonica Supplementation on Serum Concentrations of IgG, Triglycerides, and Cholesterol, and Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Rats

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    Jae-Young Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbial communities play critical roles in various aspects of body function of the host. Prebiotics, such as dietary fiber, can affect health of the host by altering the composition of intestinal microbiota. Although brown seaweed Laminaria japonica is rich in dietary fiber, studies on its prebiotic potential are quite rare. In this study, basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with dried L. japonica (DLJ, heat-treated dried L. japonica (HLJ, or heated dried L. japonica with added fructooligosaccharide (FHLJ was fed to rats for 16 weeks. Serum concentrations of IgG, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. In addition, the intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. As compared to the control group, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed significantly higher serum IgG concentration, but had lower weight gain and serum triglyceride concentration. Moreover, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed lower Fimicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio when compared with the control group. As compared with the control group, obesity-associated bacterial genera (Allobaculum, Turicibacter, Coprobacillus, Mollicute, and Oscilibacter, and the genera with pathogenic potentials (Mollicute, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Prevotella decreased while leanness-associated genera (Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Prevotella, and lactic acid bacterial genera (Subdoligranulum, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium increased in all treatment groups. On the contrary, butyric acid producing genera including Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, and Anaerotruncus increased significantly only in FHLJ group. The overall results support multiple prebiotic effects of seaweed L. japonica on rats as determined by body weight reduction, enhanced immune response, and desirable changes in intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting the great potential of L. japonica as an

  4. Changes in serum metabolic hormone levels after glucose infusion during lactation cycles in Holstein cows

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    Aliasghar Chalmeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance can impair the metabolism of high producing dairy cows and supplying the glucose, as an energy source; can prevent the metabolic disorders in these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that bolus intravenous glucose administration may change the concentrations of metabolic hormones in order to prevent and control of metabolic dysfunctions of dairy cows. Twenty five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactations, far-off and close-up dry periods. All cows were received dextrose 50% intravenously at 500 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg/h. Blood samples were collected from all animals prior to and 1, 2, 3 and 4 after dextrose 50% infusion and sera were separated to determine glucose, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, serum free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, cortisol and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. The decreasing pattern of T3 concentration was detected in all studied animals following intravenous glucose infusion (P<0.05. The significant increasing pattern of T4 levels was seen in early and mid lactation cows after glucose administration (P<0.05. The significant decreasing pattern of IGF-1 was detected in mid and late lactations and far-off dry groups (P<0.05. There were no significant alterations in fT3, fT4 and cortisol concentrations following glucose infusion in all experimental groups. In conclusion, bolus intravenous glucose infusion could influence the metabolic hormones in high producing Holstein dairy cows. Alterations of metabolic hormones following bolus intravenous glucose administration indicated that glucose is an important direct controller of metabolic interactions and responses in dairy cows during different physiological states.

  5. Relationship between local cerebral glucose uptakes, serum prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels changes during epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang; Mao Xianghui; Tang Ganghua; Zhao Jun; Sun Aijun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation of local cerebral FDG uptake value of glucose to the changes of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol levels in serum during epilepsy. Methods: 76 epileptic patients with solitary epileptic focus were examined by 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the FDG uptake value of epileptic foci were measured. Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels of the patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and after seizures. Results: During ictal studies, all patients showed increased FDG uptake of epileptic foci compared with that in interictal phase. The serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significant higher after seizures. The changes of hormone levels correlated significantly with the lengths of seizure free intervals (SFIs) and with the types of seizures. But the variations of hormone levels had no relation with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci. In patients with absentia seizures, no significant increase was observed in serum PRL and cortisol levels. The changes of GH were not related with the types of seizures. Also, it was found that changes of hormone levels had significant relations to the lengths of SFIs. Conclusions: Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significantly different before and after seizures. This study suggests that changes of postictal hormone levels correlated significantly with the types of seizures and lengths of SFIs, but the changes of hormone levels are not related with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci

  6. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  7. Glucose-induced serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation in oncofetal fibronectin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zia A.; Barbin, Yousef P.; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    Preferential expression of oncofetal extra domain-B fibronectin (EDB + FN), a proposed angiogenic marker, has been shown in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. High levels of glucose also increase EDB + FN expression in endothelial cells (ECs) via transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK-1) in glucose-induced EDB + FN expression. Using human macro- and microvascular ECs, we show that high levels of glucose, TGF-β1, and ET-1 increase the EDB + FN expression via SGK-1 alteration at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Inhibition of TGF-β1 and ET-1 prevented glucose-induced SGK-1 activation and the EDB + FN expression. Furthermore, using siRNA-mediated SGK-1 gene silencing, we show that glucose-induced EDB + FN expression can be completely prevented. These findings provide first evidence of glucose-induced SGK-1 activation in altered EDB + FN expression and provide novel avenues for therapeutic modalities

  8. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  9. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  10. Markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. A comparison of the homeostasis model assessment and triglyceride glucose index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Carallo, C; Scavelli, F B; De Franceschi, M S; Esposito, T; Tripolino, C; Gnasso, A

    2013-07-01

    The present investigation was designed to test the association between carotid atherosclerosis and two simple markers of insulin resistance, i.e. HOMA-Index and TyG-Index. The study was performed in two different cohorts. In the first cohort, 330 individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, waist and cigarette smoking were evaluated. HOMA-IR and TyG-Index were calculated as markers of prevalent hepatic and muscular insulin resistance respectively. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. In the second cohort, limited to the evaluation of TyG-Index, 1432 subjects were studied. In the first cohort, TyG-Index was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a model including age, sex, diabetes, cigarette smoking and LDL cholesterol, while HOMA-IR was not. When components of metabolic syndrome were added to the model as dichotomous variables (absent/present), TyG-Index retained its predictive power. The same result was obtained when the metabolic syndrome was added to the model (absence/presence). The association between TyG-Index and carotid atherosclerosis was confirmed in the second cohort. The present findings suggest that TyG-Index is better associated with carotid atherosclerosis than HOMA-IR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  12. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  13. Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navekar, Roya; Rafraf, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aida; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr

    2017-01-01

    Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance. Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  14. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Triglycerides; 491–2 p. Lab Tests ...

  15. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives:Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO and peroxidase (HRP directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35 o C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4 o C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also.

  17. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid levels in a general Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance: A U-shaped curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyang Wang

    Full Text Available Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and serum uric acid (SUA levels, the results were inconsistent. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate this relationship in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance.A total of 5,726 women and 5,457 men with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Generalized additive models and two-piecewise linear regression models were applied to assess the relationship.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA was observed. After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflection points of FPG levels in the curves were 4.6 mmol/L in women and 4.7 mmol/L in men respectively. SUA levels decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose concentrations before the inflection points (regression coefficient [β] = -36.4, P < 0.001 for women; β = -33.5, P < 0.001 for men, then SUA levels increased (β = 17.8, P < 0.001 for women; β = 13.9, P < 0.001 for men. Additionally, serum insulin levels were positively associated with FPG and SUA (P < 0.05.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA levels existed in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The association is partly mediated through serum insulin levels.

  18. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD.Conclusion: The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people. Keywords: risk assessment, BMI, blood glucose, serum lipid profiles, osteoporosis

  19. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following

  20. Rosiglitazone treatment of patients with extreme insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus due to insulin receptor mutations has no effects on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Pedersen, O

    2001-01-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD), increases insulin sensitivity by reducing levels of plasma NEFA, triglycerides (TG), glucose and serum insulin. Rosiglitazone treatment decreases insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, but no data exist concerning rosiglitazone treatment...

  1. Pemulihan Kadar Glikogen Serta Peningkatan Konsumsi Glukosa dan Trigliserida Saat Aktivitas Fisik Pascapemberian Ekstrak Kulit Buah Manggis (GLYCOGEN RECOVERY AND INCREASE CONSUMPTION OF GLUCOSE AND TRIGLYCERIDE DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AFTER ADMINISTRA

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Arsana; Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen rind on the glycogen recovery of themuscle and the liver, and the glucose and the triglyceride consumption during physical activities. ARandomized Block Design was applied with four treatments: control (K), physical activity (KF), physicalactivity and extract (FE),extract (E). The extract dosage was 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day administered forfour weeks. The assessed variables were the muscle glycogen, the liver glycogen, the blood gly...

  2. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-02-15

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS.

  3. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  4. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvez, A; Ihsanullah,; Rafiq, A; Ahmad, N; Khan, E H [Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar (Pakistan). Department of Pathology

    2010-04-15

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  5. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  6. A Novel Apolipoprotein C-II Mimetic Peptide That Activates Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreases Serum Triglycerides in Apolipoprotein E–Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25395590

  7. Efficacy of vitamins a and or E as antioxidants against serum glucose, liver glycogen and lipid discrepancy induced by gamma radiation during the estrus cycle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Hussein, A.H.; El-Sayed, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    This work is directed to study the role of vitamins A and E treatment solely. or in combination against gamma-radiation effects during pro-estrus stage stage on serum glucose, liver content of glycogen, total and lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-and LDL- cholesterol) in serum measured during the estrus stage of the rat estrus cycle. Animals were divided into six groups: untreated control, injected with sesame oil as a vehicle for vitamins injection (i.p.) whole body gamma-irradiated (6 GY), injected with vitamin A Two hours before irradiation, irradiated then injected after one hour with vitamin E, and injected with vitamins A and E pre- and post irradiation. The results demonstrated that irradiation induced significant elevations in the levels of all the measured parameters except in HDL-cholesterol. BOth vitamins ameliorated the recorded elevations during the estrus stage. The combined treatment with vitamins A and E reflected a potent harmony between protective roles of these two antioxidants pre- and post irradiation respectively, that normalized the levels of the measured parameters. The authors suggest that vitamins A and E treatment could enhance and reinforce the natural endogenous defences (steroids, particulary E 2 ) in the body against gamma irradiation and/or other environmental pollutants causing lipid peroxidation, especially during the period of ovulation. Moreover, it is worthy to consider this treatment as a hypolipidemic agent for patients with obesity, atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases

  8. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  9. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Hong, Kee Suk

    1983-01-01

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean±S.D. of Group I was 91.1±3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5±4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean±S.D. of 14.7±3.0 μU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0±2.6 μU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7±10.8 μU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  10. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean+-S.D. of Group I was 91.1+-3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5+-4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean+-S.D. of 14.7+-3.0 muU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0+-2.6 muU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7+-10.8 muU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  11. A comparative study of serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Dhungana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is associated with liver function abnormalities and renal function impairment. The objective of this study is to compare serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia with normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Normal pregnant women and pre eclamptic women of age group 20-40 years were included. Serum magnesium, calcium, glucose, uric acid were analyzed.Results: Mean serum magnesium level in preeclampsia (1.83 ± 0.21mg/dl was lesser in comparison to normal pregnant women (2.03 ± 0.16 mg/dl. Serum calcium level was lower (8.10 ±0.56mg/dl than control (9.59 ±0.62 mg/dl with p<0.001. Uric acid, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase in preeclamptic women was significantly higher than that in normal pregnant women (6.14 ± 0.85 vs.4.01 ± 0.62, p=<0.001, (94.17± 18.65 vs.86.34 ± 10.19, p=0.033 and ( 466.80 ± 97.29 vs. 194.22 ± 39.76, p=<0.001 respectively.Conclusion: There were significant changes in serum magnesium, uric acid, calcium, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and total protein in pregnant women.

  12. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  13. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  14. Effect of dietary fiber in lowering serum glucose and body weight in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Chohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic perspectives and weight loss significance of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber was supplemented in commercial wheat flour (atta for the preparation of chapaties, a staple diet of South Asia. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 100 were randomly divided into 4 diet groups (n = 25 per group. The control group was fed basal diet that included commercial wheat flour chapati, cornstarch, corn oil, salt and vitamin mixture in such a way that 10% of the protein was available from the final diet. To the basal diet of other 3 groups, chapaties supplemented with 2% guar gum (GG 2%, 3% guar gum (GG 3% and 5% chickpea + 1% guar gum (CP5%+GG1% were added, respectively. All diets were fed to the rats for a period of 8 weeks to perceive the impact of respective compositions. Rats fed on CP 5% + GG1%, showed maximum glucose reduction (14.57% followed by GG 3% (11.64% and GG 2% (9.60% as compared to control diet. Likewise, rats fed on 3% GG showed maximum decline (7.90% in body weight. It was concluded that chapaties prepared from selected treatments provide an additional dietary fiber that could be supportive for diabetic and obese individuals.Results:The results indicated that addition of dietary fiber influenced the physical characteristics of chapati non-significantly. Maximum glucose concentration was found to be 112.50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL was observed in rats fed on the combination of chickpea 5 %+ guar gum 1%. Maximum serum protein concentration was found to be 6.39 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5 % + guar gum 1% whilst the remaining three groups showed non significant variations with respect to each other. Means for serum Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:261-278 protein were 6.33, 6.30 and 6.32 g/dL for control, guar gum 3%, and guar gum 2

  15. CE: Triglycerides: Do They Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, Kristine; Pickett, Kim Anne

    2017-01-01

    : Since the introduction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, as an adjunct to diet in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the greater emphasis placed on reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there has been less focus on the value of lowering serum triglyceride levels. Many patients are aware of their "good" and "bad" cholesterol levels, but they may not be aware of their triglyceride level or of the association between high triglycerides and the development of CVD. In recent years, however, in light of the increasing incidences of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, lowering triglyceride levels has gained renewed interest. In addition to the focus on lowering LDL cholesterol levels in CVD prevention, clinicians need to be aware of the role of triglycerides-their contribution to CVD, and the causes and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

  16. Gastric bypass surgery has a weight-loss independent effect on post-challenge serum glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofsø, Dag; Birkeland, Kåre I; Holst, Jens J

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test before and after either gastric bypass surgery (n = 64) or an intensive lifestyle intervention programme (n = 55), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104. The age-adjusted effects of the therapeutic procedures and percentage weight change on fasting and 2-h glucose levels at 1......BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass surgery seems to have an effect on glucose metabolism beyond what is mediated through weight reduction. The magnitude of this effect on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels remains unknown. RESULTS: Morbidly obese subjects without known diabetes performed a 75 g oral...... year were explored using multiple linear regression analysis. Mean (SD) serum fasting and 2-h glucose levels at baseline did not differ between the surgery and lifestyle groups. Weight-loss after surgical treatment and lifestyle intervention was 30 (8) and 9 (10) % (p

  17. Validity of triglyceride-glucose index as an indicator for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoorani, Pooneh; Heshmat, Ramin; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaee, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index as one of the indirect indices for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a pediatric population. This national study was conducted in 2015 on 14400 students, aged 7-18 years. They were selected by random cluster sampling from 30 provinces of our country during the fifth survey of a national school-based surveillance program. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. The cut-off values of TyG index for MetS were obtained using the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis by gender and age groups. Totally, 3843 students (52.3% boys) with mean (SD) age of 12.45 (3.04) years were assessed. The area under the ROC curve of TyG index for MetS was 0.83 in total participants. According to the ATP III criteria the cut-off values of the TyG index were 8.33 (8.21-8.45) in total students, 8.47 (8.36-8.58) in boys, and 8.33 (8.18-8.48) in girls. In the 7-12 and 13-18 years' age groups, these values were 8.47 (8.32-8.63) and 8.34 (8.22-8.45) in total, 8.39 (8.26-8.52) and 8.47 (8.33-8.61) in boys, 8.33 (8.11-8.55) and 8.35 (8.22-8.47) in girls, respectively. The findings of this study can be clinically helpful for screening MetS in children and adolescents but the effectiveness of these criteria needs to be evaluated by further longitudinal surveys. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study (National surveillance study).

  18. Association and interaction between triglyceride-glucose index and obesity on risk of hypertension in middle-aged and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Song; Su-Mei, Nie; Xue, Chen; Jie, Zhang; Xue-Sen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between triglyceride-glucose(TyG) index and the risk of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bengbu, China. The participants received relevant questionnaire survey, anthropometric tests, and laboratory examination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the possible association between TyG index and hypertension risk. The additive interaction evaluated by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index(SI) was calculated. A total of 1777 participants (748 men and 1029 women) were investigated. There was a significant increase in the risk of hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) when comparing the highest TyG index (the fourth quartile) to the lowest TyG index (the first quartile) and corresponding ORs were 2.446 (95% CI: 1.746-3.426) and 2.621(95%CI: 1.627-4.224), respectively. However, no significant relationship was observed between TyG index and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH). In males, significant interactions between TyG index and WHtR (RERI:1.978, 95%CI: 0.162-3.792; AP: 0.359, 0.113-0.605; SI:1.782, 1.017-3.122), smoking (AP: 0.437, 95%CI: 0.048-0.825), family history of hypertension (AP:0.433, 95%CI: 0.203-0.662; SI:2.248, 95%CI: 1.333-3.791) were observed. As for females, there were also significant interactions between TyG index and WHtR (RERI:1.415, 95%CI: 0.693-2.136; AP: 0.198, 95%CI: 0.104-0.291; SI:1.298, 95%CI:1.101-1.530), family history of hypertension (RERI:1.744, 95%CI: 0.221-3.267; AP:0.405, 95%CI: 0.113-0.697) on risk of hypertension. Increased TyG index was significantly associated with higher risk of hypertension and ISH, but not for IDH in middle-aged and elderly adults. Our results also demonstrated interactions of TyG index and abdominal obesity and family history of hypertension on hypertension risk.

  19. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on the lipid and glucose profile of rats fed diets containing different fat combinations. Fatty acid composition, refractive index, and iodine and saponification values were analyzed to characterize the oils. In the biological assay, Wistar rats were fed different diets, whose fat composition consisted of varying combinations of flaxseed oil, sesame oil, and animal fat. The primary constituents of the sesame oil were oleic (28.6%, linoleic (28.4%, and lauric acid (14.6%; for the flaxseed oil they were alpha-linolenic (39.90%, oleic (17.97% and linoleic acid (12.25%. The iodine and saponification values of the oils were within the reference range. Rats fed flaxseed oil-based diets had the lowest serum cholesterol values, whereas rats fed diets with flaxseed oil + sesame oil + animal fat had the highest glucose levels. HDL levels decreased significantly with flaxseed oil. Sesame and flaxseed oils are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and the flaxseed oil-based diet had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas sesame oil showed oxidative stability since it contains high levels of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

  20. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  1. Synergistic association of changes in serum uric acid and triglycerides with changes in insulin resistance after walking exercise in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Katoh, Takeaki; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and triglyceride (TG) levels are strongly correlated with insulin resistance; however, the association after a walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women has not been investigated. The present study included 100 postmenopausal women (mean ± standard deviation, 68 ± 7 years) from a rural village in Japan. The Nordic walking program of 120 min per week was performed for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, SUA, TG, various relevant factors and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline TG and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly associated with baseline HOMA-IR. After the 12-week training program, changes in TG, SUA and GGT were significantly associated with changes in HOMA-IR. In addition to their direct associations, we observed a synergistic association between changes in TG and SUA and changes in HOMA-IR. Participants were divided into three groups (tertiles) according to changes in TG and SUA. The tertiles of changes in SUA correlated significantly with changes in HOMA-IR in participants in the tertile with the greatest decrease in TG (r = 0.525, p = 0.001), but not in the other two tertiles of change in TG (r = 0.049, p = 0.699). There was a significant interaction between SUA and TG for changes in HOMA-IR (β = 0.281, p = 0.005). These results suggest that changes in TG and SUA are synergistic factors associated with changes in insulin resistance after a 12-week walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women.

  2. Effect of ionising radiation and sal of cadmium on the changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Striskova, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  3. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  4. The PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele associates with reduced fasting serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol in Danes with impaired glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Nikolaj Thure; Grarup, Niels; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition, associated with hepatic insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome including hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia. We aimed at studying the potential impact of the NAFLD-associated PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele on NAFLD-related metabolic...

  5. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  6. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (psabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26101756

  8. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  9. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riales, R; Albrink, M J

    1981-12-01

    Chromium deficiency may cause insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperlipidemia, recovered by chromium supplementation. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipids and glucose tolerance was tested in a double-blind 12-wk study of 23 healthy adult men aged 31 to 60 yr. Either 200 micrograms trivalent chromium in 5 ml water (Cr) or 5 ml plain water (W) was ingested daily 5 days each week. Half the subjects volunteered for glucose tolerance tests with insulin levels. At 12 wk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the Cr group from 35 to 39 mg/dl (p less than 0.05) but did not change in the water group (34 mg/dl). The largest increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in insulin and glucose were found in those subjects having normal glucose levels together with elevated insulin levels at base-line. The data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that Cr supplementation raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improves insulin sensitivity in those with evidence of insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance.

  10. Peri and Postparturient Concentrations of Lipid Lipoprotein Insulin and Glucose in Normal Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Abdullah; SEVİNÇ, Mutlu; OK, Mahmut

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide uniqe insight into the metabolic disturbences seen after calving cholesterol, triglycerid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and insulin levels in serum were studied before calving (group I), in aerly (group II) and late (group III) lactation in 24 normal cows. Serum lipoproteins were separeted into various density classes by repeated ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that there was a rise in glucose, trygl...

  11. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  12. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  13. Effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on serum glucose and cortisol levels in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Jon M. Arnemo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of glucose and Cortisol were measured in five adult captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus at 24 h and 10 min before, and at 0.5, 1,2,4, 8, 12 and 24 h after, treatment with 60 p.g/kg of medetomidine i.v. followed by 300 jig/kg of atipamezole i.v. 60 min later. The experiments were performed in January and repeated in July-August. The animals were used as their own controls and treated with saline in July-August. The wash-out period between experiments in summer was 2 weeks or more. No obvious seasonal differences were observed. Mederomidine induced a 2.5-fold increase in glucose (mean ± standard error of the mean being 15.4 ± 0.6 mmol/1 at 1 h and a 3.5-fold increase Cortisol (349 ± 28 nmol/1 at 0.5 h. Serum glucose reached control levels within 12 h, and Cortisol declined to baseline levels within 4 h after injection og medetomidine. The use of blood concentrations of glucose and Cortisol to assess nutritonal status, body condition and stress may be significantly biased in animals chemically immobilized with medetomidine or other alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists.

  14. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  16. The Effect of Maternal Body Composition and Triglyceride Levels on Newborn Weight in Non-Diabetic Women with Positive Diabetic Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner; Seçil Kurtulmuş; Ümit Nayki; Ayşen Kızılyar; Yasemin Baskın

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of maternal body composition and triglyceride levels on newborn weight in nondiabetic women with positive diabetic screening. STUDY DESIGN : 40 pregnant women with positive diabetic screenings and negative glucose tolerance tests were enrolled as the study group. 72 pregnant women with negative diabetic screenings were enrolled as the control group. 50-gram glucose challenge tests were performed at 24-32 weeks of gestations and serum lipid levels were mea...

  17. Serum galectin-1 levels are positively correlated with body fat and negatively with fasting glucose in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Paketçi, Ahu; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2017-09-01

    Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed. Serum galectin-1, hsCRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese children than those in normal-weight children (12.4 vs 10.2ng/mL, pobese children, galectin-1 levels correlated negatively with fasting glucose (r=-0.346, p=0.020) and positively with fat mass (r=0.326, p=0.026) and WC standard deviation score (SDS) (r=0.451, p=0.002). The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum galectin-1 levels were significantly associated with fasting glucose and WC SDS. This study showed that obese children had significantly higher galectin-1 levels in proportion to fat mass in obese cases than those in healthy children, which may be interpreted as a compensatory increase in an attempt to improve glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum glycated albumin is inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that body mass index (BMI inversely influenced serum glycated albumin (GA, which may cause an underestimation of GA-monitored short-term hyperglycemic control. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the association between anthropometric variables (BMI and waist circumference (W and accurate adiposity variables (percentage of body fat (%fat, fat mass, free fat mass (FFM, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and visceral fat area (VFA with serum GA. DESIGN: A total of 2563 subjects (1037 men, 593 premenopausal women, and 933 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance underwent bioelectrical impedance body fat content measurement and magnetic resonance imaging. Serum GA and absolute value of GA (aGA were measured by enzymatic assay. RESULTS: Compared to the BMI <25.0 kg/m(2 group, the BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2 group had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and body fat parameters including W, %fat, fat mass, FFM, SFA, and VFA, but significantly lower aGA, and GA in all the three sex- and menopause-stratified groups (all P<0.05. GA decreased with the increment of fat mass for all three groups (all P for trend <0.001. In the same BMI category, men and postmenopausal women with elevated %fat (men, ≥25%; women, ≥35% still had significantly lower GA than those with normal %fat (men, <25%; women, <35% (all P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression showed that %fat, fat mass, and VFA were independently associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GA was inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

  19. Glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion is associated with circulating alanine, triglyceride, glucagons, lactate and TNF-alfa in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, SB

    2006-01-01

    with the remaining HIV-infected patients (all Ptriglyceride, alanine, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha may be associated with alterations in the first-phase prehepatic insulin secretion response to intravenous glucose in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVES: We examined whether insulin-resistant lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with known high fasting prehepatic insulin secretion rates (FISRs) displayed alterations in first-phase prehepatic insulin response to intravenous glucose (ISREG0-10 min). METHODS: Eighteen normoglycaemic...... lipodystrophic HIV-infected (LIPO) patients and 25 normoglycaemic nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients (controls) were included in the study. The prehepatic insulin secretion rate was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations, and insulin sensitivity (SIRd) was estimated by the glucose clamp...

  20. Glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion is associated with circulating alanine, triglyceride, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Pedersen, S B

    2006-01-01

    with the remaining HIV-infected patients (all Ptriglyceride, alanine, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha may be associated with alterations in the first-phase prehepatic insulin secretion response to intravenous glucose in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVES: We examined whether insulin-resistant lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with known high fasting prehepatic insulin secretion rates (FISRs) displayed alterations in first-phase prehepatic insulin response to intravenous glucose (ISREG0-10 min). METHODS: Eighteen normoglycaemic...... lipodystrophic HIV-infected (LIPO) patients and 25 normoglycaemic nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients (controls) were included in the study. The prehepatic insulin secretion rate was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations, and insulin sensitivity (SIRd) was estimated by the glucose clamp...

  1. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  2. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

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    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  3. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  4. Curative effect of spleen homogenate against radiation injury to serum glucose, liver glycogen and plasma protein fractions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.; Edrees, G.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the spleen homogenate injection as a curative substance against gamma irradiation effects has been investigated in male albino rats. The parameters tested were, life span, serum glucose level, liver glycogen content, serum protein fractions and A/G ratio. The results obtained are as follows: Irradiated group showed 100% mortality over 22 days, this percentage dropped to 60% over 30 days for irradiated group received spleen homogenate treatment. Irradiated animals, recorded initial hyperglycaemia which diminished by time, whereas the liver glycogen concentration showed first to initially increase then to decrease abruptly. Treatment with spleen homogenate after irradiation ameliorated the magnitude of radiation induced hyperglycaemia and liver glycogen depletion. The serum Albumin/Globulin ratio decreased by irradiation due to the decrease in the serum albumin accompanied by an increase in the serum globulin content. This ratio could be restored towards its normal level in irradiated animals received spleen homogenate treatment. The data obtained suggests the possibility of using spleen homogenate for the treatment of accidental radiation syndrome

  5. The Effects of L-Asparaginase on Blood Triglycerides, Glucose, and Albumin Levels and Coagulation State in ALL Patients in Pediatric Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarian Farhad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is one of the most important agents in the treatment of ALL. However, it has some side effects including dislipidemia, hyperglycemia, coagulopathy and hepatotoxicity. We studied its side ef-fects on our patients. The effects of L-asparaginase were assessed on 25 new ALL patients (case group and 25 patients with known ALL who had completed their treatment before. Sixty two percent of cases were male and remainder was female. The mean age of patients was 7.2 ± 3.8 years. In our patients, there was a rise in triglycerides (TG was seen following L- asparaginase administration (P = 0.02. Also, PT prolongation (P = 0.02 and hypoalbominemia (P = 0.002 were detected which could PT prolongation and hypoalbuminemia may be seen with L-asparaginase therapy that can be prevented with transfusion of FFP. Hypertriglyceridemia is often asymptomatic with no need for therapy.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin-Glucose and Bovine Serum Albumin-Mannose Conjugates Prepared by Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment

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    Wenjie Jian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulsed electric fields (PEF treatment is a novel method for obtaining glycated proteins by way of a Maillard reaction between proteins and polysaccharides but its effect on the preparation of protein–monosaccharide conjugate has not been explored. This study aimed to prepare bovine serum albumin (BSA–glucose and BSA–mannose conjugates using PEF in pH 10.0 at an intensity of 10 or 20 kV/cm, frequency of 1 kHz, pulse width of 20 μs and 73.5 pulses. The conjugates were evaluated for physicochemical properties. The results indicated that PEF not only promoted Maillard reaction between BSA and glucose or mannose but also alleviated the undesirable browning. PEF treatment favored the increased surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying activity in BSA but reduced surface hydrophobicity and foaming stability and improved foaming capacity in BSA–glucose and BSA–mannose conjugates. These findings provided useful considerations in the application of PEF treatment as a potential method to prepare BSA–monosaccharide conjugates by Maillard reaction.

  7. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  8. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  9. Effects of intravenous glucose infusion and nutritional balance on serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared

  10. Glucose and phosphate modulation of intracellular 45Ca incorporated into pancreatic islets during culture in the absence and presence of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsten, P.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of glucose and phosphate on the intracellular 45 Ca content were measured in β cell-rich pancreatic islets cultured in media containing or lacking serum. Irrespective of the glucose and serum concentrations there were no or very small increments of 45 Ca contents when phosphate was raised from 0.8 to 5.8 mM during culture for 1 day. However, after 7 days of culture in serum-free medium there was a massive accumulation of 45 Ca in the islets in response to the higher phosphate concentration. Glucose markedly reduced, and serum eliminated, the extensive accumulation probably due to increased cell viability. In the cells cultured in the presence of serum, raising the glucose concentration from 1.0 to 5.5 mM resulted in an increased incorporation of 45 Ca. This effect was particularly pronounced after culture for 7 days in 5.8 mM phosphate. A further increase of glucose to 20 mM reduced the 45 Ca content. The results are consistent with the concept that glucose both stimulates 45 Ca uptake into different β-cell pools and degranulates the cell with associated loss of intracellular calcium from the granular calcium pool. (author)

  11. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  12. Differential Effects of Red Meat/Refined Grain Diet and Dairy/Chicken/Nuts/Whole Grain Diet on Glucose, Insulin and Triglyceride in a Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B.; Clifton, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in processed meat, with a high glycemic index is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is not clear if this is due to altered insulin sensitivity or an enhanced postprandial glucose. We aimed to compare the acute metabolic response of two different types of meals after ingestion of the matching diet for four weeks. The study was a randomized, crossover acute meal study. Volunteers consumed either a red meat/refined grain meal...

  13. Common variants related to serum uric acid concentrations are associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Sun

    Full Text Available Elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor and predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Whether the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on T2D remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of the uric acid-associated genes on the risk of T2D as well as glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.We recruited 2,199 normal glucose tolerance subjects from the Shanghai Diabetes Study I and II and 2,999 T2D patients from the inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1 were genotyped and serum biochemical parameters related to uric acid and T2D were determined.SF1 rs606458 showed strong association to T2D in both males and females (p = 0.034 and 0.0008. In the males, LRRC16A was associated with 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.009 and 0.009. SLC22A11 was correlated with HOMA-B and insulin secretion (p = 0.048 and 0.029. SLC2A9 rs3775948 was associated with 2-h glucose (p = 0.043. In the females, LRP2 rs2544390 and rs1333049 showed correlations with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and insulin secretion (p = 0.028, 0.033 and 0.052 and p = 0.034, 0.047 and 0.038, respectively. SLC2A9 rs11722228 was correlated with 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.049, respectively.Our results indicated that the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on the risk of T2D, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

  14. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  15. The acute impact of the intake of four types of bread on satiety and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglyceride and acylated ghrelin. A randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Seletto, M; Choc, A; Ponzo, V; Lezo, A; Demagistris, A; Evangelista, A; Ciccone, G; Bertolino, M; Cassader, M; Gambino, R

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the effects of four different breads (one commercial par-baked wheat bread, three sourdough breads prepared with commercial wheat flour, organic wheat flour, organic einkorn flour) in 16 healthy subjects. The primary outcome of this randomized cross-over trial was evaluating intra-individual changes in glycemic areas-under-the-curve (AUCs) after 50g carbohydrate portions of each bread; secondary outcomes were changes in insulin, fatty free acids (FFA), triglyceride, acylated ghrelin and satiety AUCs. Blood samples and satiety ratings were collected every 30-min for 2-h after the consumption of each bread. The einkorn flour showed the lowest amylase activity, the commercial flour the highest; commercial bread had the highest carbohydrate content and the lowest dietary fiber content. Glucose AUCs were significantly lower after the consumption of sourdough breads made with organic (12,754±1433mg/dL×h) and einkorn flour (12,216±1210mg/dL×h), with respect to the commercial bread (13,849±2193mg/dL×h). Insulin AUCs decreased after the consumption of all sourdough breads when compared to commercial bread. FFA and triglyceride AUCs did not differ by kind of breads. Median ghrelin AUC was significantly lower and satiety higher after the einkorn bread (3710pg/mL×h; 3225±2414, respectively) than after commercial bread consumption (4140pg/mL×h; 1706±1766, respectively), but not with other sourdough breads. In conclusion, the use of sourdough may improve the nutritional features of breads; einkorn bread induced the least disturbance in carbohydrate homeostasis and the greater satiety. If confirmed by further research, these results might have implications in the approach towards chronic dysmetabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  17. Nanostructured gold deposited in gelatin template applied for electrochemical assay of glucose in serum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřík, T.; Podešva, Pavel; Farka, Z.; Kovář, D.; Skládal, P.; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 188, JAN (2016), s. 277-285 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15479S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : gold nanostructures * gelatin template * glucose electrooxidation * blood analysis * non-enzymatic sensor Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  18. Protective effect of Nigella sativa extract and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S H; Tayarani-Najaran, Z; Asghari, M; Sadeghnia, H R

    2010-05-01

    The serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in cultured PC12 cells represents a useful in vitro model for the study of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) and its active component thymoquinone (TQ) has been known as a source of antioxidants. In the present study, the protective effects of N. sativa and TQ on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured PC12 cells were investigated under SGD conditions. PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 microg/ml streptomycin. Cells were seeded overnight and then deprived of serum/glucose for 6 and 18 h. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-150 microM) for 2 h. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Intracellular ROS production was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) as a probe. SGD induced significant cells toxicity after 6, 18, or 24 h (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with N. sativa (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-37.5 microM) reduced SGD-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells after 6 and 18 h. A significant increase in intracellular ROS production was seen following SGD (P < 0.001). N. sativa (250 microg/ml, P < 0.01) and TQ (2.34, 4.68, 9.37 microM, P < 0.01) pretreatment reversed the increased ROS production following ischemic insult. The experimental results suggest that N. sativa extract and TQ protects the PC12 cells against SGD-induced cytotoxicity via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of N. sativa extract and TQ for managing cerebral ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. CCQM-K11.2 determination of glucose in human serum and CCQM-K12.2 determination of creatinine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Duewer, David L.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Welch, Michael J.; Pritchett, Jeanita; Pabello, Guiomar; Avila Calderon, Marco A.; Balderas, Miryan; Qinde, Liu; Kooi, Lee Tong; Rego, Eliane; Garrido, Bruno; Allegri, Gabriella; de La Cruz, Marcia; Barrabin, Juliana; Monteiro, Tânia; Lee, Hwashim; Kim, Byungjoo; Delatour, Vincent; Peignaux, Maryline; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Bei, Xu; Can, Quan; Nammoonnoy, Jintana; Schild, Katrin; Ohlendorf, Rüdiger; Henrion, Andre; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose and creatinine are two of the most frequently measured substances in human blood/serum for assessing the health status of individuals. Because of their clinical significance, CCQM-K11 glucose in human serum and CCQM-K12 creatinine in human serum were the fourth and fifth key comparisons (KCs) performed by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). These KCs were conducted in parallel and were completed in 2001. The initial subsequent KCs for glucose, CCQM-K11.1, and creatinine, CCQM-K12.1, were completed in 2005. Measurements for the next KCs for these two measurands, CCQM-K11.2 and CCQM-K12.2, were completed in 2013. While designed as subsequent KCs, systematic discordances between the participants' and the anchor institution's results in both comparisons lead the OAWG to request reference results from two experienced laboratories that had participated in the 2001 comparisons. Based on the totality of the available information, the OAWG converted both CCQM-K11.2 and CCQM-K12.2 to 'Track C' KCs where the key comparison reference value is estimated by consensus. These comparisons highlighted that carrying out comparisons for complex chemical measurements and expecting to be able to treat them under the approaches used for formal CIPM subsequent comparisons is not an appropriate strategy. The approach used here is a compromise to gain the best value from the comparison; it is not an approach that will be used in the future. Instead, the OAWG will focus on Track A and Track C comparisons that are treated as stand-alone entities. Participation in CCQM-K11.2 demonstrates a laboratory's capabilities to measure a polar (pKow > 2), low molecular mass (100 g/mol to 500 g/mol) metabolite in human serum at relatively high concentrations (0.1 mg/g to 10 mg/g). Participation in CCQM-K12.2 demonstrates capabilities to measure similar classes of metabolites at relatively low concentrations (1 μg/g to 30 μg/g). The capabilities required for the analysis of complex

  20. Oxidative stress and triglycerides as predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2014-03-01

    The role of triglycerides in early preclinical atherosclerosis is controversial. Antioxidant markers may be associated with triglyceride levels in early preclinical atherosclerosis especially when fasting plasma glucose is raised. This cross-sectional study included 127 participants attending the Diabetes Screening Clinic, Charles Sturt University, Australia. Serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) was significantly greater in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group compared with the control group (536.7 pg/ml ± 249.8 versus 171.4 pg/ml ± 96.9, respectively). The increase in 8-OHdG was associated with a mildly non-significant elevation in low-density lipoprotein level (3.2 ± 1.1 mmol/l) and a poor level of high-density lipoprotein (1.31 ± 0.3 mmol/l) in the IFG group. However, a significant increase in triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.97 mmol/l; P triglycerides in the absence of significant changes in reduced GSH and normal levels of cholesterol in the IFG cohort, suggesting that oxidative stress may be present and indicative of subclinical atherosclerosis.

  1. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic analysis of sexual organ weight and serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone in male rats with short-term diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Donghui; Wang Zhongshan; Zhao Hui; Xu Zongge

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of short-term diabetes on the changes of sexual organ weights and serum levels of testosterone in male rats. Methods: All rats were divided into control (C) and diabetes (D). Diabetes group was observed on 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days, 14 days after injection of streptozotocin. All rats were killed for measurement of serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone and weights of sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate). Results: The serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein of diabetes group decreased significantly, compared with those of control group; the serum levels of T lowered remarkably compared with control levels after three days of injection of STZ. The weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate reduced remarkably, compared with control group. The weights of seminal vesicle, prostate negatively correlated with serum levels of glucose and glycosyl protein, and they positively correlated with serum levels of testosterone. Conclusion: The sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) of male rats with short-term diabetes were damaged, and the changes of sexual organs closely related with the serum levels of testosterone besides irregular metabolism in diabetes

  3. The Effect of Methanolic Extract of Otostegia persica on Serum Glucose Level and Renal Function Indicators in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiye Hedayati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the antioxidant property of Otostegia persica extract and the role of antioxidants in Diabetes mellitus treatment, in this study the effect of extract on serum glucose level and renal function indicators was determined in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus (type I was inducted in male rats using intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (65 mg/kg. To determine blood glucose, urea, and creatinine serum levels; fasting blood samples were collected twice (before STZ injection and 5 days later. The rats with their serum glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were considered diabetic and divided into 10 groups separately received Otostegia persica alcoholic extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day doses, glibenclamide with 600 µg/kg dose and 0.5 ml distilled water for 3 and 6 days using gavage. After 3 and 6 days, blood samples were collected again and glucose, urea, and creatinine serum levels were assessed using spectrophotometry technique by respective kits.Results: Treating diabetic rats by Otostegia persica extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day doses for 6 days results in a significant decrease of glucose and creatinine, yet an increase of serum urea with 200 mg/kg dose. Also, administration of the extract for 3 days (300 mg/kg reduced glucose, and (in various doses urea and creatinine serum levels. Conclusion: Otostegia persica extract has hypoglycemic effect and administering it in diabetes mellitus not only had no undesirable renal side effects, but also improved renal function to some extent.

  4. The natural logarithm of zinc-α2-glycoprotein/HOMA-IR is a better predictor of insulin sensitivity than the product of triglycerides and glucose and the other lipid ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunmei; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling; Liu, Hua; Liang, Zerong

    2016-03-01

    The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) is not available in most clinical settings and is costly, time consuming and invasive, and requires trained staff. Therefore, an accessible and inexpensive test to identify insulin resistance (IR) is needed. The aim of this study is to assess whether zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) index [Ln ZAG/homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR)] is a better surrogate index for estimating IR or metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with other surrogate indices. We performed a population-based cross-sectional study. Two hundred healthy subjects, 102 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, 97 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM) and 84 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were enrolled. The EHC was performed to identify IR. Circulating ZAG and adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. The ZAG index was significantly lower in participants with IR including IGT, nT2DM and PCOS than in those without IR. In addition, subjects with MetS had lower ZAG indices and higher the product of fasting triglycerides and glucose (TyG) indices than those without MetS. The ZAG index showed a significantly stronger association with M values than the other surrogate indices, whereas the TyG index showed a stronger association with MetS. The optimal cutoff value of the ZAG index for detection of IR was 2.97 with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 91%, whereas the optimal cutoff value of TyG index for detection of MetS was 4.90 with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 86%. The ZAG index is a better marker than the other surrogate indices for identifying IR, whereas the TyG index has high sensitivity and specificity for identifying MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of high glucose concentration on aspirin-induced acetylation of human serum albumin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (ASA plays a key role in protecting high risk cardiovascular patients from ischaemic events. The modifications underlying its effects are the results of the trans-acetylation that occurs between ASA and the amino groups made up of lysine and N-terminal residues. ASA's effects have also been demonstrated on several plasma proteins, including human serum albumin (HSA. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair ASA's acetylation process. Using immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, this study characterized the degree of HSA acetylation mediated by ASA in vitro, as well as the impact of high glucose concentrations. Glycation's influence on HSA acetylation might impair the latter's biological functions, leading to a potential failure of ASA to prevent cardiovascular complications in diabetes.

  6. Serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure levels in Japanese type 1 and 2 diabetic patients: BioBank Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multi-institutional data. The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on Serum Glucose, Lipids and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vosough-Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satureja khuzestanica is an endemic plant of Iran that is widely distributed in the Southern part of the country. It has antioxidant properties and thus it seems to be useful in diseases related to oxidative stress such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The present study investigates the effect of S. khuzestanica supplement in metabolic parameters of hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-one hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized in a double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial to receive either S. khuzestanica (tablets contain 250 mg dried leaves or placebo once a day for 60 days. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Samples were analyzed for levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing ability (total antioxidant power, TAP. Treatment of patients by S. khuzestanica for 60 days induced significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.008 and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03 while increased HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 and TAP (P = 0.007 in comparison with the baseline values. S. khuzestanica did not alter blood glucose, triglyceride, creatinin and TBARS levels. In comparison with baseline values, no significant change was observed in blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, TBARS and TAP in placebo-treated group. Usage of S. khuzestanica as a supplement to drug regimen of diabetic type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia is recommended.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Sun, X; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Cao, Y; Mo, G; Liang, J; Zhu, S

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that beta-glucan derived from oats or barley can reduce cardiovascular disease risk through reductions in serum lipids. However, the effects of beta-glucan on lipid changes in hypercholesterolemic patient groups are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the effect of beta-glucan, a marker of water-soluble fiber, on various lipid parameters and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses were also performed. Seventeen eligible RCTs with 916 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.18; P consumption significantly decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect TG, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  10. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  11. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  12. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  13. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; van de Zwaluw, Nikita L; in 't Veld, Paulette H; Wins, Sophie; Swart, Karin M A; Enneman, Anke W; Ham, Annelies C; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lips, Paul; Kessels, Roy P C; Steegenga, Wilma T; Feskens, Edith J M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-07-01

    First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Associations were studied using cross-sectional data of 776 (3 domains) up to 2722 (1 domain) Dutch community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years or older. Serum 25(OH)D, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations were obtained. Cognitive performance was assessed with an extensive cognitive test battery. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated to quantify the association between 25(OH)D and cognition; poor performance was defined as the worst 10% of the distribution of the cognitive scores. The overall median MMSE score was 29 (IQR 28-30). Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with better attention and working memory, PR 0.50 (95% CI 0.29-0.84) for the third serum 25(OH)D tertile, indicating a 50% lower probability of being a poor performer than participants in the lowest tertile. Beneficial trends were shown for 25(OH)D with executive function and episodic memory. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with plasma glucose or insulin. Plasma insulin only modified the association between serum 25(OH)D and executive function (P for interaction: .001), suggesting that the improvement in executive function with high 25(OH)D concentrations is stronger in participants with high plasma insulin concentrations compared with those with low plasma insulin concentrations. Higher 25(OH)D concentrations significantly associated with better attention and working memory performance. This study does not demonstrate an interplay between serum 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and 17-β Estradiol on Serum Apelin, Glucose, Lipids, and Insulin in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedinzade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopause, a natural phenomenon, is defined by the fall of ovarian hormones mainly estrogens causing major problems such as insulin resistance. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have some useful properties such as insulin sensitizing effect. Apelin is an adipokine, which has several roles such as regulation of insulin secretion. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed and 17-β estradiol on serum Apelin along with glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided to seven groups: normal control, ovariectomized control, ovariectomized treated with ethanolic and hexanic extract of fenugreek seed (50 and 150 mg/kg/daily for each, and ovariectomized treated with 17-β estradiol (10 µg/kg/daily for 42 days. Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Results Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin significantly increased in ovariectomized controls in comparison with normal controls (P < 0.05. Serum glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats treated with fenugreek seed extract and 17-β estradiol were remarkably lower than ovariectomized controls (P < 0.05. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in serum Apelin in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions It appears that fenugreek seed might be effective against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats without impact on serum Apelin. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol could have similar effects along with possible inhibitory effects on serum Apelin. The complicated role of Apelin in menopause needs to be further explored.

  15. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

  16. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Kim, Miri; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-04-28

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

  17. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van de Zwaluw, Nikita L.; In 't Veld, Paulette H.; Wins, Sophie; Swart, Karin M. A.; Enneman, Anke W.; Ham, Annelies C.; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lips, Paul; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Associations were studied using

  18. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; in 't Veld, P.H.; Wins, S.; Swart, C.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; van der Ham, A.C.; van Dijk, S.C.; van Schoor, N.M.; van der Velde, N.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; de Groot, L.C.P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Design, Setting, and

  19. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Veld, P.H. In 't; Wins, S.; Swart, K.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C. van der; Dijk, S.C. van; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, L.C. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  20. Cognitive performance: a cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D and its interplay with glucose homeostasis in Dutch older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Wins, S.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C.; Dijk, van S.C.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Design, Setting, and

  1. Cognitive performance: A cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D and its interplay with glucose homeostasis in Dutch older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Veld, P.H. in 't; Wins, S.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C.; Dijk, S.C. van; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Steegenga, W.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Design, Setting, and

  2. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core–shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Fei; Xu, Kun; Hou, Xiangshu

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core–shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H 2 O 2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core–shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum. (paper)

  3. Structured triglyceride emulsions in parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrier, C; Lauverjat, M; Bouletreau, P

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 3 decades, various concepts for IV fat emulsions (IVFE) have been developed. A randomized, structured-lipid emulsion based on an old technology has recently become available. This structured-lipid emulsion is produced by mixing medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides, then allowing hydrolysis to form free fatty acids, followed by random transesterification of the fatty acids into mixed triglyceride molecules. Studies in animals have shown an improvement in nitrogen balance with the use of these lipid emulsions. Only 8 human clinical studies with these products have been performed. The results of these human clinical studies have been less promising than the animal studies; however, an improvement in nitrogen balance and lipid metabolism exceeds results associated with infusion of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or a physical mixture of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides (LCT-MCT). Structured-lipid emulsion seems to induce less elevation in serum liver function values compared with standard IVFEs. In addition, structured-lipid emulsions have no detrimental effect on the reticuloendothelial system. Further studies are necessary in order to recommend the use of structured-lipid emulsions. The clinical community hopes that chemically defined structured triglycerides will make it possible to determine the distribution of specific fatty acids on a specific position on the glycerol core and therefore obtain specific activity for a specific clinical situation.

  4. Triglyceride glucose-waist circumference, a novel and effective predictor of diabetes in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: cross-sectional and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Shi, Sheng; Ren, Xingxing; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Chen, Yawen; Liu, Wei; Hou, Peter C; Hu, Yaomin

    2016-09-07

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adiposity index (VAI), triglyceride glucose index (TyG), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC have been reported as markers of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known about the associations between the aforementioned markers and the risk of prediabetes and diabetes in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of T2DM patients. 1544 FDRs of T2DM patients (635 men and 909 women) were enrolled in the initial cross-sectional study and all of them finished corresponding examinations. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare and identify the associations of the six parameters (BMI, WC, VAI, TyG, TyG-BMI and TyG-WC) with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Subsequently, 452 of them were followed-up for an average of 5 years. Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to confirm the predictive value of the optimal marker. Among the indices, TyG-WC was more strongly associated with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of TyG-WC, the adjusted odds ratio and 95 % CIs for prediabetes and diabetes was 11.19 (7.62-16.42) for those in the top quartile of TyG-WC. Moreover, the largest AUC was also observed in TyG-WC (0.765, 95 % CIs 0.741-0.789, P < 0.001). The robust predictive value of TyG-WC was further confirmed in the follow-up study (HR: 7.13, 95 % CIs 3.41-14.90, P < 0.001). TyG-WC is a novel and clinically effective marker for early identifying the risks of prediabetes and diabetes in FDRs of T2DM patients.

  5. Triglycerides: A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Philipp; Watson, Karol E

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are clearly independently associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Another class of lipid particles, triglycerides, is also abundant in the human body and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques. Recent observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated triglyceride levels and increased risk for future cardiovascular events. With this knowledge and the discovery of effective agents to lower triglyceride levels, the management of triglycerides is currently undergoing a renaissance. Unfortunately, no randomized, controlled clinical trials have been completed to date, proving that lowering triglycerides will reduce cardiovascular events. In this review we highlight some of the evidence that led to this stage and discuss the current data on pharmacologic intervention of triglyceride levels and the effect on clinical outcomes. Lastly, we want to give the reader insight on what the most recent lipid guidelines state about clinical triglyceride management, mention new pharmacological agents, and highlight the clinical evidence for safe and effective lowering of triglycerides levels with life style modification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile Among Algerian Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiboura Ghania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We designed this study to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in July 2014 (Ramadan 1421. The total duration of fasting was 17 hours a day. The investigation involved 80 patients. The mean age of the patients was 56± 8 years. The dietary survey lasting three days was recorded. The anthropometric and the biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects before (T1 and during (T2 the fasting month of Ramadan and results were compared using student t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c levels during T2 (0.35±0,08 g/L compared to T1 (0.38±0,11 g/L. Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 decreased significantly during fasting compared to pre-fasting days while apo B increased during T2 (p˂0.05. The dietary fat consumption increased during Ramadan; especially for the saturated one (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study suggests that fasting month of Ramadan could be beneficial for some patients with type 2 diabetes who are well controlled and balanced. However, some of them may be at risk of cardiovascular complications in which dyslipidemia can be the leading cause.

  7. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of insulin resistance but not of β cell function in a Chinese population with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meicen; Zhu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangli; Feng, Linbo; Zhao, Xuefeng; He, Shuli; Ping, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Yuxiu

    2016-06-07

    Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR > 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated different phases of insulin secretion, the subjects were divided into two groups, and the lower group was defined as having inadequate β cell compensation. Logistic regression models and accurate estimates of the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained. In all of the subjects, TG/HDL, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG were significantly associated with IR. The AUROCs of TG/HDL-C and TG were 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.66-0.75) and 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.75), respectively. The optimal cut-offs of TG/HDL-C and TG for IR diagnosis were 1.11 and 1.33 mmol/L, respectively. The AUROCs of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, but they were not acceptable for IR diagnosis. TG/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C and TG were significantly associated with HOMA-β, but AUROCs were less than 0.50; therefore, the lipid ratios could not be predictors of basal β cell dysfunction. None of the lipid ratios was associated with early-phase insulin secretion. Only TG/HDL-C and

  8. LX4211 increases serum glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels by reducing sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated absorption of intestinal glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Harris, Angela; Zhao, Sharon; DaCosta, Christopher; Mseeh, Faika; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    LX4211 [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(methylthio)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol], a dual sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 inhibitor, is thought to decrease both renal glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT2 and intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1. In clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), LX4211 treatment improved glycemic control while increasing circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). To better understand how LX4211 increases GLP-1 and PYY levels, we challenged SGLT1 knockout (-/-) mice, SGLT2-/- mice, and LX4211-treated mice with oral glucose. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice had increased levels of plasma GLP-1, plasma PYY, and intestinal glucose during the 6 hours after a glucose-containing meal, as reflected by area under the curve (AUC) values, whereas SGLT2-/- mice showed no response. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice also had increased GLP-1 AUC values, decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC values, and decreased blood glucose excursions during the 6 hours after a challenge with oral glucose alone. However, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not increased in LX4211-treated mice and were decreased in SGLT1-/- mice, 5 minutes after oral glucose, consistent with studies linking decreased intestinal SGLT1 activity with reduced GLP-1 and GIP levels 5 minutes after oral glucose. These data suggest that LX4211 reduces intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1, resulting in net increases in GLP-1 and PYY release and decreases in GIP release and blood glucose excursions. The ability to inhibit both intestinal SGLT1 and renal SGLT2 provides LX4211 with a novel dual mechanism of action for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  9. estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    *Corresponding author. E-mail: eiadeyeye@yahoo.com. ESTIMATIONS OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDES AND FRACTIONATION OF. LIPOPROTEINS IN SERUM SAMPLES OF SOME NIGERIAN FEMALE SUBJECTS. E.I. Adeyeye1* and I. Oluwadare2. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Ado Ekiti, P.M.B. 5363, ...

  10. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Glucose and triglyceride lowering activity of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of ... santalinoides (AEPS and MEPS) were administered orally to rats in four groups, respectively, after a 12 ... have disadvantages such as primary and secondary .... All administration was by oral route.

  12. Fabrication of microband glucose biosensors using a screen-printing water-based carbon ink and their application in serum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Pittson, R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-01

    Microband glucose biosensors were fabricated by screen-printing a water-based carbon ink formulation containing cobalt phthalocyanine redox mediator and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme, then insulating and sectioning through the thick (20mum) film to expose a 3mm-long working electrode edge. The performance of these biosensors for glucose analysis was investigated at 25 degrees C. Voltammetry in glucose-containing buffer solutions established that an operating potential of +0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl was suitable for analysis under both stirring and quiescent conditions. The influence of pH on biosensor performance was established and an operational pH of 8.0 was selected. Steady-state responses were obtained under quiescent conditions, suggesting a mixed mechanism predominated by radial diffusion, indicative of microelectrode behaviour. Calibration studies obtained with these biosensors showed steady-state currents that were linearly dependent on glucose concentration from the limit of detection (0.27mM) up to 2.0mM, with a precision for replicate biosensors of 6.2-10.7%. When applied to the determination of glucose in human serum, the concentration compared favourably to that determined by a spectroscopic method. These results have demonstrated a simple means of fabricating biosensors for glucose measurement and determination in situations where low-current real-time monitoring under quiescent conditions would be desirable.

  13. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Zhongchuan [Department of Anorectal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Wen, E-mail: wzhang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 {mu}M. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provided useful experimental

  14. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji; Wang Zhongchuan; Zhang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: ► A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. ► The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. ► We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. ► The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. ► It provided useful experimental evidences for diabetes-accelerate atherosclerosis. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for

  15. Effect of two different regimes of carbohydrate and protein on performance and serum level of insulin and glucose in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hozoori

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two different regimes, containing different carbohydrate to protein ratios on performance, serum glucose and insulin after exercise in soccer players in Tehran; Iran. Methods: Nineteen male soccer players under training [age = 17/5 +/- 1.5 (SE yr] were selected and completed two sequential trials separated by 1 week, in a paired cross-over study design. In each trial, subjects after running to fatigue; received one of three regimes, using a random- order design as follows: HPRO ( CHO 56%, PRO 19% & fat 25% of total energy; HCHO ( CHO 64%, PRO 11% & fat 25% of total energy or control ( CHO 60%, PRO 15% & fat 25% of total energy. The calorie of 3 regimes were equal. After consumption of meal up to120 min, blood was obtained before and at intervals. After 3 hours athlete performance was measured. Results: The study indicates no significant difference in the serum insulin and glucose response among three regimes (P > 0.05. There was no difference in performance between three regimes after 3 h (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest that post exercise regimes have no influence on performance, serum glucose and serum insulin. Thus total energy content and carbohydrate content may be important in recovery after exercise.

  16. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  17. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE and fruit pulp (PuHE of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its Prevention by Food Components

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    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.

  19. Effects of combinations of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinone on glucose/serum deprivation-induced cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Alinejad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several phytochemical agents have been known to exhibit a neuroprotective effect. Among them, curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinonewere widely investigated and neuroprotective activity of each of them was shown by several studies. This work was planned to investigate whether different combinations of them could induce better neuroprotective effect against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD-induced cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultivated for 8 h in GSD condition in both the absence and presence of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, thymoquinone, or combinations of them. At the end of the experiment, the cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Results: The cells cultured in GSD condition showed a significant decrease in viability (28±1% as compared with those cultured in standard condition (100±2%. In the presence of curcumin (10 µg/ml, linalool (16 µg/ml, rutin (200 µg/ml, safranal (50 µg/ml, and thymoquinone (1 µg/ml, the cell viability increased to 69±3.4% (p

  20. Triglycerides: Why Do They Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high level of triglycerides, a type of fat (lipid) in your blood, can increase your risk of ... triglycerides, too. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) found in your blood. When you eat, your ...

  1. Elevated triglycerides may affect cystatin C recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Samantha H; Butts, Katherine; Filler, Guido

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of triglyceride concentration on cystatin C (CysC) measurements. Serum samples collected from 10 nephrology patients, 43 to 78years of age, were air centrifuged to separate aqueous and lipid layers. The lipid layer from each patient was pooled together to create a mixture with a high triglyceride concentration. This pooled lipid layer was mixed with each of the ten patient aqueous layers in six different ratios. Single factor ANOVA was used to assess whether CysC recovery was affected by triglyceride levels. Regression analysis was used to develop a formula to correct for the effect of triglycerides on CysC measurement, based on samples from 6 randomly chosen patients from our study population. The formula was validated with the 4 remaining samples. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in measured CysC with increasing concentrations of triglycerides (Pearson r=-0.56, ptriglycerides: Subsequent Bland-Altman plots revealed a bias (mean±1 standard deviation [SD]) of -3.7±15.6% for the data used to generate the correction formula and a bias of 3.52±9.38% for the validation set. Our results suggest that triglyceride concentrations significantly impact cystatin C measurements and that this effect may be corrected in samples that cannot be sufficiently clarified by air centrifugation using the equation that we developed. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower urinary tract symptoms are associated with low levels of serum serotonin, high levels of adiponectin and fasting glucose, and benign prostatic enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghsheno, Mohammad-Ali; Mellström, Dan; Peeker, Ralph; Hammarsten, Jan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Valter; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlsson, Claes; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The association between LUTS and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) was also investigated. A cross-sectional, representative risk factor analysis of LUTS, as measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and urinary incontinence was conducted. Among 950 representative individuals, aged 69-81 years, the association between clinical, anthropometric, endocrine, metabolic and inflammatory factors on the one hand, as both major and minor aspects of MetS, and LUTS and urinary incontinence, on the other hand, was analysed. The prostate gland volume was measured in a subgroup of 155 randomly selected individuals and the association between LUTS and BPE was estimated. No significant association was found between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major aspects of the MetS. However, in a multivariate analysis, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. Furthermore, in a subgroup of 155 individuals, the prostate gland volume correlated positively with LUTS. The study did not show an association between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major components of the MetS. However, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. The data confirm the general knowledge that BPE may be one of the causative factors of LUTS.

  3. Low serum cartonectin/CTRP3 concentrations in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: in vivo regulation of cartonectin by glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ban

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cartonectin is a novel adipokine of the C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP superfamily, with glucose lowering effects, anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective properties. We sought to investigate circulating cartonectin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM as well as age and BMI matched control subjects. We also examined the effects of a 2 hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT on serum cartonectin concentrations in T2DM subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study [newly diagnosed (first discovery, not on any treatments T2DM (n = 47 and control (n = 63 subjects]. Serum cartonectin was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Serum cartonectin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with T2DM compared to controls (P0.05. There were no significant correlations in T2DM subjects (n = 47. In control subjects (n = 63, serum cartonectin was significantly negatively correlated with CRP, and significantly positively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin. However, when subjected to multiple regression analysis, none of these variables were predictive of serum cartonectin (P>0.05. Finally, serum cartonectin concentrations were significantly lower in T2DM subjects after a 2 hour 75 g OGTT (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Cartonectin may serve as a novel biomarker for the prediction and early diagnosis of T2DM patients. Furthermore, cartonectin and/or pharmacological agents that increase circulating cartonectin levels can represent a new therapeutic field in the treatment of T2DM patients. Further research is needed to clarify these points.

  4. Effect of brewer’s yeast supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in type II diabetic patients with dislipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Ravanshad; H. Khosvani Borujeni; M. Soveid; B. Zeighami

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : Chromium deficiency leads to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. Chromium supplementation in type II diabetic patients improves glucose and lipid profiles. Organic chromium, such as found in brewer’s yeast, is much better absorbed than inorganic chromium. In this study, the effect of chromium supplementation in the form of brewer’s yeast on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic patients were evaluated.Materials and methods : In a clinical trial study (before and af...

  5. 成人身体成分与血脂、血糖关系的探讨%Analysis of the relationship between body composition and fasting serum lipids, fasting blood glucose in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋桂; 姬芳勤

    2014-01-01

    triglyceride, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose simultaneously. Al measurement are operated by medical staff after unified training.Results The age has no difference between man and women (P > 0.05). In addition to body fat, the body moisture, protein, inorganic salt, body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio al has significant difference between man and women(P < 0.001). Protein, body fat, body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio were positively correlated with fasting blood glucose (P < 0.05). The body moisture, protein, inorganic salt, body fat,body weight,skeletal muscle weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio al were positively correlated with blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride) (P < 0.05). After Eliminating gender factors, body fat,body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, waist to hip fat ratio also had a significant relationship with fasting blood glucose and blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride) (P < 0.05). Conclusions Body composition had a close relationship with fasting serum lipids, fasting blood glucose in adult.It can prevent metabolic disease early by analysis of body composition.

  6. The importance of sensitive screening for abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Jingyuan; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Ya; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) and the related risk factors in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We analyzed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and clinical data of 107 IgAN patients and 106 healthy controls. Glucose metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of both groups were evaluated. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the IgAN group than in the control group (41.12% vs. 9.43%, p glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, OGTT 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower ISI than healthy controls. Triglyceride (OR = 2.55), 24-hour urine protein excretion (OR = 1.39), and age (OR = 1.06) were independent risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in IgAN patients. BMI, eGFR, 24-hour urine protein excretion, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, and OGTT 2-hour insulin were significantly higher in IgAN patients with IR than in IgAN patients without IR, while HDL and ISI were significantly lower. BMI, serum albumin, and 24-hour urine protein excretion were correlated factors of IR in IgAN patients. Our study highlighted that abnormal glucose metabolism was common in IgAN patients. Triglyceride and 24-hour urine protein excretion were significant risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, sensitive screening for glucose metabolism status and timely intervention should be carried out in clinical work.

  7. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  8. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  9. Triglyceride Metabolism under Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides is carried out by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is transported and anchored to the capillary wall by the protein GPIHBP1. Recent evidence indicates that certain individuals develop autoantibodies against GPIHBP1, impairing lipoprotein lipase function

  10. Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Mangklabruks, Ampika

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later.

  11. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO 2 ) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  12. Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-15

    For triglycerides biosensor design, protein immobilization is necessary to create the interface between the enzyme and the electrode. In this study, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with lipase-nanoporous gold (NPG) biocomposite (denoted as lipase/NPG/GCE). Due to highly conductive, porous, and biocompatible three-dimensional structure, NPG is suitable for enzyme immobilization. In cyclic voltammetry experiments, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode displayed surface-confined reaction in a phosphate buffer solution. Linear responses were obtained for tributyrin concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg dl(-1) and olive oil concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mg dl(-1). The value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for tributyrin was 10.67 mg dl(-1) and the detection limit was 2.68 mg dl(-1). Further, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode had strong anti-interference ability against urea, glucose, cholesterol, and uric acid as well as a long shelf-life. For the detection of triglycerides in human serum, the values given by the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode were in good agreement with those of an automatic biochemical analyzer. These properties along with a long self-life make the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for the construction of triglycerides biosensor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  14. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweet rolls and cinnamon toast. High fructose corn-syrup is 55% fructose, and 45% glucose - not 100% fructose. 9. Why are you singling ... on labels include: • Brown sugar • Corn sweetener • Corn ... fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose) • High-fructose corn syrup • Fruit ...

  15. Serum Trace Elements and Electrolytes Are Associated with Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Yurasov, Vasily V; Demidov, Vasily A; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA 1c levels, respectively (p women was increased by 10 and 15 % in comparison to the respective control values (p = 0.002 and DM2 pathogenesis. Further studies are required to assess the intimate mechanisms of the observed differences.

  16. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  17. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez-Garcia, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D'Mello, Anil P

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduces liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. However, the mechanisms mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The aim of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty-acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and killed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low-protein offspring, both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity, suggesting increased fatty-acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring, indicating a lack of change in fatty-acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein, were similar between low protein and control offspring. Because enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low-protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty-acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of our lifetime we spend in the postprandial state. Postprandial triglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in particular due to elevation of the plasma levels of activated factor VII (VIIa) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Therefore, disturbances of the hemostatic system might, at least partly, account for by the link between hypertriglyceridemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor VIIa is the first enzyme of the blood coagulation system and serves a priming function for triggering of the clotting cascade. The coagulant activity of factor VII (VIIc, total activity of factor VII in plasma) was identified as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction in initially healthy middle-aged men, and particularly of fatal coronary events, and both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations correlated positively with the VIIc level. Addition of fat to diet has been consistently shown to cause a rapid conversion of the factor VII zymogen into its active form (VIIa) whereas the concentration of total protein is unaffected. Postprandial activation of factor VII is dependent on lipolytic activity and it is mainly supported by large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of the VLDL class. Studies in vivo with specific coagulation factor-deficient patients indicate that factor IX is essential for the postprandial activation of factor VII. The basal generation of thrombin seems to be unaffected by increased plasma levels of VIIa. However, since VIIa-tissue factor complex is responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade, increased generation of VIIa in the postprandial state would increase the potential for thrombin production in the event of plaque rupture. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of the plasminogen activators in the circulation and thereby the principal inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. Postprandial

  19. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  20. Association of decrease in liver triglyceride content with increase in plasma adiponectin levels after pioglitazone treatment in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Kan; Kaneko, Yoshihito; Taneichi, Haruhito

    2010-01-01

    Pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione, has multiple clinical effects including improvement of insulin sensitivity, blood glucose levels and serum lipid profiles, decrease in liver triglyceride (TG) content, and increase in serum adiponectin. However, the correlation and causal relationship between these effects are not fully understood clinically. Therefore, we analyzed these relationships in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone, focusing on changes in liver TG content and serum adiponectin. Thirteen Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with pioglitazone (15 mg/day) for more than 3 months. Before and after the pioglitazone treatment, liver TG content was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and various clinical variables were also measured. The pioglitazone treatment significantly decreased the liver TG content (-12.9±8.1%, p 2 =0.53, p=0.017), implying increased serum adiponectin may have decreased liver fat content. (author)

  1. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alan; Hokanson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results: We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which baseline serum levels of triglycerides and HDL-C were included as explanatory variables in multivariate analyses with the development of CHD (coronary events or coronary death) as dependent variable. A total of 32 unique reports describing 38 cohorts were included. The independent association between elevated triglycerides and risk of CHD was statistically significant in 16 of 30 populations without pre-existing CHD. Among populations with diabetes mellitus or pre-existing CHD, or the elderly, triglycerides were not significantly independently associated with CHD in any of 8 cohorts. Triglycerides and HDL-C were mutually exclusive predictors of coronary events in 12 of 20 analyses of patients without pre-existing CHD. Conclusions: Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between triglycerides and the development of primary CHD independently of HDL-C. Evidence of an inverse relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C suggests that both should be considered in CHD risk estimation and as targets for intervention. PMID:19436658

  2. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alan; Hokanson, John E

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which baseline serum levels of triglycerides and HDL-C were included as explanatory variables in multivariate analyses with the development of CHD (coronary events or coronary death) as dependent variable. A total of 32 unique reports describing 38 cohorts were included. The independent association between elevated triglycerides and risk of CHD was statistically significant in 16 of 30 populations without pre-existing CHD. Among populations with diabetes mellitus or pre-existing CHD, or the elderly, triglycerides were not significantly independently associated with CHD in any of 8 cohorts. Triglycerides and HDL-C were mutually exclusive predictors of coronary events in 12 of 20 analyses of patients without pre-existing CHD. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between triglycerides and the development of primary CHD independently of HDL-C. Evidence of an inverse relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C suggests that both should be considered in CHD risk estimation and as targets for intervention.

  3. In vitro demonstration of anti-lipogenic activity in serum from obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.B.S.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with parabiosed rats provide evidence for a humoral factor, originating in obese animals, that specifically inhibits adipose lipogenesis. A bioassay was developed that allows serum from obese rats to be tested for this factor in vitro. Adipocytes are isolated from epididymal fat of 250g Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells are preincubated at 37 0 C for 1 or 12 hrs, in TC199 media containing 1.1 mg/ml glucose, 0.1 M Hepes and 2% serum. Following preincubation, the cells are washed 3 times and resuspended in serum-free media. Aliquots of cells are tested for metabolic activity in a subsequent 2 hour radiolabelled incubation in serum-free media with the addition of 0.5 μCi/ml U- 14 C-glucose. Basal, insulin (100 μU/ml) and norepinephrine (0.1 μg/ml) stimulated rates of glucose oxidation and conversion to triglyceride fatty acids are measured. Using serum from ad libitum fed rats as control, preincubation with serum from obese rats (20 days at 2 x normal intake) depressed basal and insulin stimulated glucose oxidation, and basal fatty acid synthesis. Serum from obese parabiotic rats and parabiotic partners of obese rats depressed basal fatty acid synthesis. This assay allows us to test serum for anti-lipogenic activity and may be used to identify the factor responsible for this activity in obese animals

  4. Fasting and nonfasting triglycerides in cardiovascular and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Blahová, T

    2015-01-01

    Moderately elevated plasma/serum triglycerides (2-10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for cardiovascular disease or presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Extremely elevated triglycerides (more than 10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The concentration of triglycerides is regulated by many genetic and nongenetic factors. Extremely elevated triglycerides not provoked by nutritional factors, especially inappropriate alcohol intake are more likely to have a monogenic cause. On the contrary, mildly to moderately elevated triglycerides are often caused by polygenic disorders; these could be also associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Concentration of triglycerides is also closely interconnected with presence of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, impaired reverse cholesterol transport and more atherogenic small LDL particles. In general, there is tight association between triglycerides and many other metabolic factors including intermediate products of lipoprotein metabolism which are frequently atherogenic. Therefore, reliable evaluation of the independent role of triglycerides especially in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease is difficult. In individual cases values of HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol (total minus HDL cholesterol), non-HDL/nonLDL cholesterol (total minus HDL minus LDL cholesterol, especially in nonfasting status), atherogenic index of plasma and/or apolipoprotein B could help in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment.

  5. Synthesis of a novel Au nanoparticles decorated Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite and electrocatalytic performance for the detection of glucose in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Shu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    A nonenzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor was constructed based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ni metal-organic-framework (MOF)/Ni/NiO nanocomposite. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step calcination of Ni-MOF. Then AuNPs were loaded onto the Ni-based nanocomposites' surface through electrostatic adsorption. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, it is found that the AuNPs were well distributed on the surface of Ni-based nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed the electrocatalytic activity of Au-Ni nanocomposite was highly improved after loading AuNPs onto it. Amperometric study demonstrated that the Au-Ni nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a high sensitivity of 2133.5 mA M -1 cm -2 and a wide linear range (0.4-900 μM) toward the oxidation of glucose with a detection limit as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, the reproducibility, selectivity and stability of the sensor all exhibited outstanding performance. We applied the as-fabricated high performance sensor to measure the glucose levels in human serum and obtained satisfactory results. It is believed that AuNPs decorated Ni MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite provides a new platform for developing highly performance electrochemical sensors in practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  7. Alterations in triglyceride rich lipoproteins are related to endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Diego; López, Graciela I; Gorzalczany, Susana; Duarte, Mariano; González Ballerga, Esteban; Sordá, Juan; Schreier, Laura; Zago, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to analyze the effect of circulating triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) on endothelial function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied 40 patients with MetS (ATPIII), divided into those presenting normal endothelial function (n=19) and those with endothelial dysfunction (n=21) by means of the evaluation of pulse wave velocity, before and after brachial artery ischemia. In fasting serum we measured lipid and lipoprotein profile, insulin and glucose (HOMA-IR). Moreover, isolated TRL (d<1006g/l) were chemically characterized. In parallel, using randomly selected TRL from MetS patients with endothelial dysfunction (n=6) and MetS patients with normal endothelial function (n=6), the ability of TRL to inhibit ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9)-10(-5)mM) on aortic rings previously pre-contracted by noradrenaline (10(-8)mM) was evaluated. Interestingly, TRL isolated from MetS patients presenting endothelial dysfunction showed triglyceride over-enrichment (59.1±4.8 vs. 54.1±4.7%; p=0.04), even after adjusting by potential confounders (p=0.05). In addition, while TRL resulting from both MetS groups significantly inhibited endothelium dependent vasorelaxation (p<0.001), TRL from MetS patients with endothelial dysfunction showed a strong tendency to a greater inhibition of vasorelaxation (p=0.06). Moreover, TRL-triglyceride (%) showed a strong tendency to correlate with the grade of vasorelaxation inhibition exerted by TRL (r=0.60; p=0.05). These results, taken together, would allow inferring for the first time that the predominance of triglyceride over-enriched TRL in circulation in MetS would induce endothelial dysfunction, contributing to the inherent cardiovascular risk of MetS. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigations with tritium-labelled glycerol of the triglyceride metabolism in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Julius, U.; Koch, R.; Schulze, J.

    1980-01-01

    Triglycerides, being components of lipoproteins, are secreted by the liver into the blood and climinated from the blood by adipose and muscle tissue. The kinetics of this metabolic pathway were studied after injection of tritium-labelled glycerol which is incorporated into triglycerides by the liver. The serum triglyceride radioactivity-time curve was analysed with a computer. 99 examinations showed a decrease of the fractional turnover rate and an increase of the turnover rate with the triglyceride level. The test enables to decide whether an increased triglyceride concentration is caued by overproduction or by disturbed climination. (author)

  9. GCKR variants increase triglycerides while protecting from insulin resistance in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults. We genotyped two GCKR variants rs1260326 and rs1260333 in children and adults, and analyzed the association between two variants and triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR using linear regression model, and estimated the effect on insulin resistance using logistic regression model. Rs1260326 and rs1260333 associated with increased triglycerides in children and adults (ptriglycerides in Chinese children and adults. Triglycerides-increasing alleles of GCKR variants reduce insulin and HOMA-IR index, and protect from insulin resistance in children. Our results suggested GCKR has an effect on development of insulin resistance in Chinese children.

  10. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  12. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Jernerén, Fredrik; Ransome, Yusuf; Karlsson, Oskar

    2017-08-01

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO 2 inhalation and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO 2 inhalation and decapitation. CO 2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods is critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  14. Comparison of three commercially available prescription diet regimens on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Sako, T; Lee, P; Nishimaki, Y; Fukuta, H; Mizutani, H; Honjo, T; Arai, T

    2009-10-01

    Dietary therapy is an important treatment component for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the impact of three different commercially available diet regiments (1 general use and 2 aimed for treating obesity and DM) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations of five healthy cats to better understand what impact each of these diets may have for diabetic cats. The diet regiments used in this study were as follows: C/D dry (General Use- Low protein, High fat, High carbohydrate, and Low fiber), M/D dry (DM- High protein, High fat, Low carbohydrate, and High Fiber), and W/D dry (DM- Low Protein, Low Fat, High Carbohydrate, and High Fiber). No significant difference in post-prandial serum glucose levels were observed with the C/D (84.6 +/- 1.5 mg/dl) and W/D (83.8 +/- 1.4 mg/dl) dry diets when compared to pre-prandial fasting levels (83.9 +/- 1.4 mg/dl). However, a significant reduction was observed with the M/D diet (78.9 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) which had 50-60% less carbohydrates than either C/D or W/D diet. Unlike what was observed with post-prandial glucose levels, an interesting pattern emerged with post-prandial insulin levels, which were increasing with W/D, C/D, and M/D diets in that order (1.1 +/- 0.2, 1.7 +/- 0.2, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml respectively). Most surprising, though, was the fact that the W/D diet did not seem to stimulate insulin secretion as compared to pre-prandial levels (1.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) in healthy cats. Interestingly, the W/D diet had high levels of carbohydrate and low levels of protein. Coincidentally, the only diet (M/D) which had a significant reduction in post-prandial glucose also showed the highest increase in post-prandial insulin in healthy cats. Therefore, dietary amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fiber can all have an individual impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels. Just as concepts regarding dietary management of people with DM are evolving, investigators are

  15. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  16. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting Cell Function as well as Production of Inflammatory Reactive Oxygen Species Is Differently Regulated by Glycated Serum and High Levels of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an intestinal hormone contributing to glucose homeostasis, is synthesized by proglucagon and secreted from intestinal neuroendocrine cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1 secretion is impaired in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we aimed at investigating whether diabetic toxic products (glycated serum (GS or high levels of glucose (HG may affect viability, function, and insulin sensitivity of the GLP-1 secreting cell line GLUTag. Cells were cultured for 5 days in presence or absence of different dilutions of GS or HG. GS and HG (alone or in combination increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and upregulated proglucagon mRNA expression as compared to control medium. Only HG increased total production and release of active GLP-1, while GS alone abrogated secretion of active GLP-1. HG-mediated effects were associated with the increased cell content of the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, while GS alone downregulated this enzyme. HG upregulated Glucokinase (GK and downregulated SYNTHAXIN-1. GS abrogated SYNTHAXIN-1 and SNAP-25. Finally, high doses of GS alone or in combination with HG reduced insulin-mediated IRS-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we showed that GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes, directly altering the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone.

  17. Serum proatrial natriuretic peptide concentrations during oral glucose-induced acute hyperinsulinemia in lean and obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2018-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily seen as a hormone involved in salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Evidence supports a link between metabolism and ANP. Circulating ANP concentrations are low in obese individuals with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia....... The dynamic relationship between insulin and ANP has been sparsely studied. We therefore measured circulating concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a stable marker of ANP secretion, and insulin in lean and obese men during an oral glucose challenge. One hundred and three...... obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥30.0 kg/m2) were compared with 27 lean men (BMI = 20.0-24.9 kg/m2). During a 75 g oral glucose challenge, circulating concentrations of MR-proANP and insulin were measured at baseline and every half hour for 2 h. Fasting MR-proANP concentrations were lower in the obese...

  18. Decreased serum glicentin concentration in patients with severe and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffort, Juliette; Panaïa-Ferrari, Patricia; Lareyre, Fabien; Blois, Mathilde; Bayer, Pascale; Staccini, Pascal; Fénichel, Patrick; Chinetti, Giulia

    2018-03-01

    Background Proglucagon-derived hormones represent a family of peptides mainly produced in the pancreas and the intestine. While several proglucagon-derived peptides play key roles in metabolic diseases, little is known about glicentin. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum glicentin concentrations in individuals with adult obesity and to study its potential link with various metabolic parameters. Methods Fifty-two individuals with normal body mass index (BMI  35 kg/m 2 ) were prospectively included at the University Hospital of Nice between January 2014 and April 2016. Clinical data were recorded, and a fasting blood sample was collected to measure glicentin, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was also calculated. Results Patients with severe and morbid obesity had significantly higher plasma glucose, together with higher serum concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, HOMA2-IR, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and lower serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol compared with individuals with a normal body mass index. The obese patients displayed significantly lower fasting serum concentrations of glicentin compared with subjects with a normal body mass index (12 pmol/L vs. 24 pmol/L, P < 0.0001). In the total population, fasting glicentin concentrations did not correlate with BMI, glycaemic parameters (glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR) or lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL-cholesterol). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting serum glicentin concentrations in healthy lean and obese adult subjects. We found that fasting serum glicentin concentrations are decreased in patients with severe or morbid obesity suggesting the potential interest of this peptide in obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  19. The Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide and using microalgae is a new approach on its treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on liver enzymes, serum glucose and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD. Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 NAFLD patients from specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from December 2011 to July 2012. The subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1 “intervention” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E plus four 300 mg tablets of Chlorella vulgaris and, 2 “placebo” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E and four placebo tablets per day for 8 weeks. Weight, liver enzymes and metabolic factors were assessed in fasting serum and dietary data was collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Weight, liver enzymes, fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profile decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. The differences in weight, ALP and FBS between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: C. vulgaris seems to improve FBS and lipid profile and therefore could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD.

  20. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...

  1. Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Zahra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 7-12

  2. Profile Triglycerides Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica After Giving Turmeric (Curcuma longa Powder

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    Sukarman Hadi jaya Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the triglyceride profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica after being given the parameters of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder; feed intake, profiles of liver triglycerides, profiles of serum triglycerides and profiles of meat triglycerides. This study uses an experimental method with A Completely Randomized Design Pattern. Test animals used were 45 female Japanese quails were divided into 3 groups, namely; P0: quail were not given turmeric powder, P1: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 54 mg/quail/day, P3: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 108 mg/quail/day. Each group with 5 replications. Each repeat consists of 3 Japanese quails. Provision of treatment every day for 30 days starting from the age of 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan's test with 95% confidence interval (α = 0.05 level. Analysis of the data used is software Minitab software 16. Results showed that the levels of turmeric powder are given in Japanese quail significant (P˂0.05 on liver triglyceride levels, serum and Japanese quail meat but had no significant effect (P˃0.05 on consumption feed. The results showed that the optimal dose of turmeric powder to lower triglyceride levels of Japanese quail is 108 mg/quail/day as evidenced by the highest decrease in liver triglyceride profiles, profiles of serum triglycerides and triglyceride profiles of Japanese quail meat compared with other treatments.

  3. Effect of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose metabolism after a fat and glucose load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Ishii, Junichi; Matsui, Shigeru; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Kenji; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    The clinical benefit of ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, for treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia was assessed in subjects who ingested a high-fat and high-glucose test meal to mimic westernized diet. We enrolled 20 male volunteers who had at least one of the following: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), or triglycerides (TG) from 150 to 400mg/dL. After 4 weeks of treatment with ezetimibe (10mg/day), the subjects ingested a high-fat and high-glucose meal. Then changes in serum lipid and glucose levels were monitored after 0, 2, 4, and 6h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the change in each parameter. At 4 and 6h postprandially, TG levels were decreased (pAUC for TG was also decreased (pAUC for apo-B48 was also significantly decreased (pBlood glucose and insulin levels at 2h postprandially were significantly decreased by ezetimibe (pAUCs for blood glucose and insulin were also significantly decreased (pglucose metabolism, this drug is likely to be beneficial for dyslipidemia in patients with postprandial metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

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    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  5. Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

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    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in animal models. The relationship between plasma levels of FGF-21 and coronary heart disease (CHD in unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum FGF-21 levels and lipid metabolism in the patients with coronary heart disease. We performed a logistic regression analysis of the relation between serum levels of FGF-21 and CHD patients with and without diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in the Departments of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Diseases at two University Hospitals. Participants consisted of one hundred and thirty-five patients who have been diagnosed to have CHD and sixty-one control subjects. Serum FGF-21 level and levels of fasting blood glucose; triglyceride; apolipoprotein B100; HOMA-IR; insulin; total cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol; LDL-cholesterol; and C-reactive protein were measured. We found that median serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in CHD than that of control subjects (P<0.0001. Serum FGF-21 levels in CHD patients with diabetes, hypertension, or both were higher than that of patients without these comorbidities. Serum FGF-21 levels correlated positively with triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, apolipoprotein B100, insulin and HOMA-IR but negatively with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 after adjusting for BMI, diabetes and hypertension. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FGF-21 showed an independent association with triglyceride and apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of FGF-21 are associated with adverse lipid profiles in CHD patients. The paradoxical increase of serum FGF-21 in CHD patients may indicate a compensatory response or resistance to FGF-21.

  6. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the ... doctor about medicines that can help. What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are the most common type of fat ...

  7. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  8. Association of canine obesity with reduced serum levels of C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Angela P M; Price, Christopher A; de Oliveira, Simone T; Dos Santos, Andréa P; Campos, Rómulo; Barbosa, Patricia R; González, Félix H D

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in dogs as well as in humans. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important tool for the detection of inflammation and/or early tissue damage and is linked to obesity in humans. The objective of the present study was to determine if serum CRP levels are altered in obese dogs. Fifteen lean (control group) and 16 overweight (obese group) dogs were examined. Blood samples were collected under fasted conditions for serum determination of CRP, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and fructosamine. Results indicated that obese dogs were insulin resistant because serum insulin and insulin/glucose ratios were higher than in lean dogs (P obese dogs than in controls (P obese group compared with the control group. Based on these results, it can be postulated that CRP production is inhibited by obesity and insulin resistance in dogs.

  9. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Ye, Jinhai; Wei, Qipeng; Yin, Xiaofang; Fan, Fangfang; Xing, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between chemerin level in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The blood samples of 212 women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were collected. After screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 19 women with GDM and 20 women randomly selected from 144 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from these women. Triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin and chemerin were measured. Gestational weight gain and body mass index was assessed. Serum levels of chemerin were significantly elevated during late gestation, and the risk of GDM was positively associated with maternal serum chemerin in the first trimester. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy has the potential to predict risk of GDM.

  10. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.; Nunes, P.; Mendes, V.M.; Manadas, B.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL(-/-)) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These

  11. Isoniazid acetylating phenotype in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and its relationship with serum sulfadoxin levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the isoniazid acetylating phenotype and measured hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities plus serum sulfadoxin levels in 39 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (33 males and 6 females aged 17 to 58 years. Twenty one (53.84% of the patients presented a slow acetylatingphenotype and 18(46.16% a fast acetylating phenotype. Glucose-6-phosphate- dehydrogenase (G6PD acti vity was decreased in 5(23.80% slow acetylators and in 4(22.22% fast acetylators. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased in 14 (66.66% slow acetylators and in 12 (66.66% fast acetylators. Serum levels of free and total sulfadoxin Were higher in slow acetylator (p Os autores avaliaram o fenótipo acetilador da isoniazida, hematócrito, hemoglobina, atividade da glicose-6- fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina de 39 doentes com paracoccidíoidomicose, senão 33 do sexo masculino e 6 do feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 17 e 58 anos. Vinte e um (53,84% doentes apresentaram fenótipo acetilador lento e 18 (46,16% rápido. A atividade da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD esteve diminuída em 5 (23,80% acetiladores lentos e 4 (22,22% rápidos. A atividade da glutationa redutase esteve diminuída em 14 (66,66% acetiladores lentos e 12 (66,66% rápidos. Os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina livre e total foram maiores nos acetiladores lentos (p < 0,02. A análise dos resultados permite concluir que os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina relaciona-se com o fenótipo acetilador. Além disso, os níveis estiveram sempre acima de 50 µg/ml, níveis estes considerados terapêuticos. Por outro lado, a deficiência de glutationa redutase pode estar relacionada com a má absorção intestinal de nutrientes, entre eles riboflavina, vitamina precursora de FAD.

  12. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

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    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  13. Decreased serum betatrophin levels correlate with improved fasting plasma glucose and insulin secretion capacity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaifeng; Yu, Haoyong; Lu, Junxi; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that serum betatrophin levels, a hormone derived from adipose tissue and liver, are elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To investigate the relationships among betatrophin and metabolic control, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function in obese Chinese patients with T2D who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). University hospital, China. This 1-year follow-up study included 34 obese individuals with T2D (18 males, 16 females) who underwent RYGB in our hospital. Anthropometric results, glucose levels, lipid profiles, and serum betatrophin levels were determined before and 1 year after RYGB. The serum betatrophin level decreased significantly after RYGB (72.0 ng/mL [33.4-180.9] versus 35.7 ng/mL [14.8-103.3]); Pfasting plasma glucose and negatively correlated with the changes in the 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide and homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function (Pfasting plasma glucose (β = .586, Pfasting C-peptide (β = -.309, P = .021). Circulating betatrophin might be involved in the regulation of glucose control and insulin secretion in obese Chinese with T2D soon after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, pacne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  15. Engineering E. coli for triglyceride accumulation through native and heterologous metabolic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Joanna; Paul, Julie; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-03-01

    Triglycerides, traditionally sourced from plant oils, are heavily used in both industrial and healthcare applications. Commercially significant products produced from triglycerides include biodiesel, lubricants, moisturizers, and oils for cooking and dietary supplements. The need to rely upon plant-based production, however, raises concerns of increasing demand and sustainability. The reliance on crop yields and a strong demand for triglycerides provides motivation to engineer production from a robust microbial platform. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to synthesize and accumulate triglycerides. Triglycerides were produced from cell wall phospholipid precursors through engineered expression of two enzymes, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to analyze the production of triglycerides by the engineered E. coli strains. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated a yield of 1.1 mg/L triglycerides (2 g/L dry cell weight) in lysogeny broth medium containing 5 g/L glucose at 8 h following induction of PAP and DGAT expression. LC-MS results also demonstrated that the intracellular triglyceride composition of E. coli was highly conserved. Triglycerides containing the fatty acid distributions 16:0/16:0/16:1, 16:0/16:0/18:1, and 18:1/16:0/16:1 were found in highest concentrations and represent ∼70 % of triglycerides observed.

  16. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target.

  17. Edaravone protects against oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration-induced apoptosis in spinal cord astrocytes by inhibiting integrated stress response

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    Bin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGSD/R induces apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes, possibly via caspase-12 and the integrated stress response, which involves protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4. We hypothesized that edaravone, a low molecular weight, lipophilic free radical scavenger, would reduce OGSD/R-induced apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes. To test this, we established primary cultures of rat astrocytes, and exposed them to 8 hours/6 hours of OGSD/R with or without edaravone (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μM treatment. We found that 100 μM of edaravone significantly suppressed astrocyte apoptosis and inhibited the release of reactive oxygen species. It also inhibited the activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced the expression of homologous CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, phosphorylated (p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4. These results point to a new use of an established drug in the prevention of OGSD/R-mediated spinal cord astrocyte apoptosis via the integrated stress response.

  18. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

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    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  19. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  20. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  1. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Schneider

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl. Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively. Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58% and butter (43% are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.Se realizó un estudio transversal en 107 mujeres, habitantes del pueblo de Cabildo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, sobre el consumo de alimentos entre mujeres de 20 a 69 años de edad, analizando su relación con la educación, colesterol total y niveles de triglicéridos. Se encuestó a las participantes sobre el tipo y frecuencia de consumo alimentario y

  2. Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Tornquist, Susan J; Jester, Rebecca M; Stelletta, Calogero

    2004-07-01

    To assess the effects of prolonged feed deprivation on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and lipid homeostasis in llamas. 9 adult female llamas. On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from the llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after IV injection of dextrose (0.5 g/kg) for determination of plasma insulin and serum glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Between experimental periods, the llamas received supplemental amino acids IV (185 mg/kg in solution). The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 23 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated. Feed restriction decreased glucose tolerance and had slight effects on insulin secretion in llamas. Basal lipid fractions were higher after feed restriction, but dextrose administration resulted in similar reductions in serum lipid concentrations with and without feed restriction. Insulin secretion was decreased on the second day of each study period, which lessened reduction of serum lipid concentrations but did not affect glucose tolerance. Despite having a comparatively competent pancreatic response, feed-restricted llamas assimilated dextrose via an IV bolus more slowly than did llamas on full rations. However, repeated administration of dextrose reduced insulin secretion and could promote hyperglycemia and fat mobilization. These findings suggested that veterinarians should use alternative methods of supplying energy to camelids with long-term reduced feed intake or consider administering agents to improve the assimilation of glucose.

  3. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 deletion impairs glucose tolerance and exacerbates hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksunes, Lauren M; Reisman, Scott A; Yeager, Ronnie L; Goedken, Michael J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-04-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces a battery of cytoprotective genes after oxidative stress. Nrf2 aids in liver regeneration by altering insulin signaling; however, whether Nrf2 participates in hepatic glucose homeostasis is unknown. Compared with wild-type mice, mice lacking Nrf2 (Nrf2-null) have lower basal serum insulin and prolonged hyperglycemia in response to an intraperitoneal glucose challenge. In the present study, blood glucose, serum insulin, urine flow rate, and hepatic expression of glucose-related genes were quantified in male diabetic wild-type and Nrf2-null mice. Type 1 diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose (200 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Histopathology and serum insulin levels confirmed depleted pancreatic beta-cells in STZ-treated mice of both genotypes. Five days after STZ, Nrf2-null mice had higher blood glucose levels than wild-type mice. Nine days after STZ, polyuria occurred in both genotypes with more urine output from Nrf2-null mice (11-fold) than wild-type mice (7-fold). Moreover, STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice had higher levels of serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and fatty acids 10 days after STZ compared with wild-type mice. STZ reduced hepatic glycogen in both genotypes, with less observed in Nrf2-null mice. Increased urine output and blood glucose in STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice corresponded with enhanced gluconeogenesis (glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase)- and reduced glycolysis (pyruvate kinase)-related mRNA expression in their livers. Furthermore, the Nrf2 activator oltipraz lowered blood glucose in wild-type but not Nrf2-null mice administered STZ. Collectively, these data indicate that the absence of Nrf2 worsens hyperglycemia in type I diabetic mice and Nrf2 may represent a therapeutic target for reducing circulating glucose levels.

  4. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  5. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen on IGF1, IGFBP3, IGFBP1, serum lipids, and glucose in patients with hypopituitarism during GH treatment: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotton, Ana Lúcia; Wender, Maria Celeste Osorio; Casagrande, Alessandra; Rollin, Guilherme; Czepielewski, Mauro Antônio

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral estradiol and transdermal 17β-estradiol on serum concentrations of IGF1 and its binding proteins in women with hypopituitarism. Prospective, comparative study. Eleven patients with hypopituitarism were randomly allocated to receive 2 mg oral estradiol (n=6) or 50 μg/day of transdermal 17β-estradiol (n=5) for 3 months. The oral estrogen group showed a significant reduction in IGF1 levels (mean: 42.7%±41.4, P=0.046); no difference was observed in the transdermal estrogen group. There was a significant increase in IGFBP1 levels (mean: 170.2%±230.9, P=0.028) in the oral group, but not in the transdermal group. There was no significant difference within either group in terms of median IGFBP3 levels. In relation to lipid profiles, there was a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the oral group after 3 months of treatment, (27.8±9.3, P=0.003). We found no differences in the anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or the homeostasis model assessment index after treatment. Our preliminary data indicate that different estrogen administration routes can influence IGF1 and IGFBP1 levels. These findings in patients with hypopituitarism have an impact on their response to treatment with GH, since patients receiving oral estrogen require increased GH dosage. These results suggest that oral estrogens may reduce the beneficial effects of GH replacement on fat and protein metabolism, body composition, and quality of life.

  6. Triglycerides as an early pathophysiological marker of endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with a previous history of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokup, Alina; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Rość, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether baseline triglyceride levels are associated with early glucose dysregulation and/or cardiovascular risk in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes. Prospective postpregnancy cohort study. Polish university hospitals. Participants included 125 women with previous gestational diabetes and 40 women with normal glucose regulation during pregnancy. All women were studied 2-24 months (mean 12 ± 10 months) after the index pregnancy. Women with previous gestational diabetes were divided into tertiles in accordance with baseline triglyceride levels. We assessed glucose regulation (oral glucose tolerance test), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble: intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen), fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen), inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and lipid levels. Women with previous gestational diabetes (78% normal glucose regulation, 22% impaired glucose tolerance) had a high cardiometabolic risk profile compared with control women (100% normal glucose regulation). Baseline triglycerides >0.83 mmol/l were associated with a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Triglycerides >1.22 mmol/l were associated with higher body fat indexes, higher insulin resistance, higher levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, higher plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen and dyslipidemia. Only E-selectin was independently associated with triglyceride levels. Baseline triglyceride levels are a cardiovascular risk marker as well as a pathophysiological parameter independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with previous gestational diabetes at 2-24 months after an index pregnancy. Normalization of

  7. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  8. Relevance of Mediterranean diet and glucose metabolism for nephrolithiasis in obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nephrolithiasis is more frequent and severe in obese patients from different western nations. This may be supported by higher calcium, urate, oxalate excretion in obese stone formers. Except these parameters, clinical characteristics of obese stone formers were not extensively explored. Aims In the present paper we studied the relationship between obesity and its metabolic correlates and nephrolithiasis. Materials and methods We studied 478 Caucasian subjects having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. The presence of nephrolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were noted. They underwent measurements of anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference, body composition), serum variables (fasting glucose, serum lipids and serum enzymes) and Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) nutritional questionnaire. Results 45 (9.4%) participants were stone formers. Subjects with high serum concentrations of triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl), fasting glucose (> 100 mg/dl) and AST (>30 U/I in F or >40 U/I in M) were more frequent among stone formers than non-stone formers. Multinomial logistic regression confirmed that kidney stone production was associated with high fasting glucose (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = 0.011), AST (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16.7, P = 0.033) and triglycerides (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7, P = 0.01). MedDiet score was not different in stone formers and non-stone formers. However, stone formers had a lower consumption frequency of olive oil and nuts, and higher consumption frequency of wine compared with non-stone formers. Conclusions Overweight and obese stone formers may have a defect in glucose metabolism and a potential liver damage. Some foods typical of Mediterranean diet may protect against nephrolithiasis. PMID:24502605

  9. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Morrison, John E Hokanson

    2008-01-01

    Alan Morrison1, John E Hokanson21SCRIBCO, Blue Bell, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado at Denver Denver, CO, USAAims: The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD).Methods and results: We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which basel...

  10. Insulin resistance in human subjects having impaired glucose regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine insulin resistance in human subjects having impaired glucose regulation (IGR) by Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 100 subjects with impaired glucose regulation were selected for evaluation of metabolic syndrome as per the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATP III), along with 47 healthy age and gender-matched controls. Physical examination to determine blood pressure and waist circumference was carried out and so was sampling for plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by the HOMA-IR. Finally, subjects with and without metabolic syndrome were compared with controls (n=47), using one-way ANOVA for studying insulin resistance between groups, with Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The frequency of finding metabolic syndrome in cases of IGR remained 47%. The insulin resistance demonstrated stepwise worsening from control population (mean=1.54, 95 % CI: 1.77 - 2.37) to subjects suffering from only IGR (mean=2.07, 95 % CI: 1.77- 2.37) to metabolic syndrome (mean=2.67, 95 %, CI: 2.34 - 3.00) (p < 0.001). Patients with impaired glucose regulation may have significant insulin resistance. It is, thus, recommended that a vigorous search be made to measure insulin resistance in all cases diagnosed to have impaired glucose regulation. (author)

  11. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed.

  12. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  13. Medium-chain triglyceride ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shanshan; Zhu, Weiwei; Xie, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoting; Wu, Jieshu; Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jianyun; Huang, Cong; Zhu, Mingming; Wu, Rui; Zhong, Caiyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) on inflammation and insulin resistance as well as the underlying potential molecular mechanisms in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 24) were fed one of the following three diets for a period of 12 weeks: (1) a modified AIN-76 diet with 5 % corn oil (normal diet); (2) a high-fat control diet (17 % w/w lard and 3 % w/w corn oil, HFC); (3) an isocaloric high-fat diet supplemented with MCT (17 % w/w MCT and 3 % w/w corn oil, HF-MCT). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by fasting serum insulin levels and the index of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by ELISA, and hepatic activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was determined using western blot analysis. Compared to HFC diet, consumption of HF-MCT did not induce body weight gain and white adipose tissue accumulation in mice. HFC-induced increases in serum fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose intolerance were prevented by HF-MCT diet. Meanwhile, HF-MCT resulted in significantly lower serum IL-6 level and higher IL-10 level, and lower expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein in liver tissues when compared to HFC. In addition, HF-MCT attenuated HFC-triggered hepatic activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK. Our study demonstrated that MCT was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory response, and NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in high fat diet-fed mice. These data suggest that MCT may exert beneficial effects against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.

  14. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  15. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

  16. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  17. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; McKenna, Cristin; Bauman, William A

    2017-01-01

    Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (plipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than that observed in the ↑T4 and the AB control groups. Thus, level of injury is an important determinate of the concentration of circulating triglyceride rich lipoproteins, which may play a role in the genesis of cardiometabolic dysfunction.

  18. Adiposity associated changes in serum glucose and adiponectin levels modulate ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx is impaired during the period of increased accumulation of white adipose tissue during winter scarcity of food. The change in the mass of white adipose tissue during adipogenesis showed significant positive correlation with the circulating glucose level. But increase in circulating glucose level during the adipogenesis showed negative correlation with circulating progesterone and adiponectin levels. The in vivo study showed increased glucose uptake by the adipose tissue during adipogenesis due to increased expression of insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 proteins. This study showed decline in the adiponectin level during fat accumulation. In the in vitro study, ovary treated with high doses of glucose showed impaired progesterone synthesis. This is due to decreased glucose uptake mediated decrease in the expression of luteinizing hormone-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, IR, GLUT4 and AdipoR1 proteins. But the ovary treated with adiponectin either alone or with higher concentration of glucose showed improvement in progesterone synthesis due to increased expression of IR, GLUT4 and AdipoR1 mediated increased glucose uptake. In conclusion, increased circulating glucose level prior to winter dormancy preferably transported to white adipose tissue for fat accumulation diverting glucose away from the ovary. Consequently the decreased availability of adiponectin and glucose to the ovary and utero-embryonic unit may be responsible for impaired progesterone synthesis and delayed embryonic development. The delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx may have evolved, in part, as a mechanism to prevent pregnancy loss during the period of decreased energy availability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Triglyceride metabolism in exercising muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Cheng, Yunsheng

    2017-10-01

    Triglycerides are stored within lipid droplets in skeletal muscle and can be hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids for energy production through β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While there was some controversy regarding the quantitative importance of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) as a metabolic substrate, recent advances in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and confocal microscopy support earlier tracer and biopsy studies demonstrating a substantial contribution of IMTG to energy production, particularly during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. This review provides an update on the understanding of IMTG utilization during exercise, with a focus on describing the key regulatory proteins that control IMTG breakdown and how these proteins respond to acute exercise and in the adaptation to exercise training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent Advances in Lipid Droplet Biology edited by Rosalind Coleman and Matthijs Hesselink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  1. Changes of glucose utilization by erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the serum and blood cells, and haematocrit value during one hour rest after maximal effort in individuals differing in physical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, M

    1982-01-01

    Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the blood and erythrocytes, and haematocrit value were determined before exercise and during one hour rest following maximal exercise in 97 individuals of either sex differing in physical efficiency. In the investigations reported by the author individuals with strikingly high physical fitness performed maximal work one-third greater than that performed by individuals with medium fitness. The serum concentration of lactic acid was in all individuals above the resting value still after 60 minutes of rest. On the other hand, this concentration returned to the normal level in the erythrocytes but only in individuals with strikingly high efficiency. Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes during the restitution period was highest immediately after the exercise in all studied individuals and showed a tendency for more rapid return to resting values again in individuals with highest efficiency. The investigation of very efficient individuals repeated twice demonstrated greater utilization of glucose by the erythrocytes at the time of greater maximal exercise. This was associated with greater lactic acid concentration in the serum and erythrocytes throughout the whole one-hour rest period. The observed facts suggest an active participation of erythrocytes in the process of adaptation of the organism to exercise.

  2. Hydrotreating of triglyceride containing gasoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krar, M.; Kasza, T.; Toth, C.; Baladincz, P.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (Hungary)), Email: krarm@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    Because of the disadvantages of biodiesel, it is necessary to develop transformation methods, where excellent quality gas oil blending components are produced from triglycerides. An especially favourable opportunity could be the combination of the conversion of the triglycerides with a simultaneous upgrading of the gas oil stream. The main goal of our experiments was to investigate the feasibility of these two processes simultaneously in one catalytic system. In our experiments, sunflower oil (max. 25 %) gas oil blends were converted into products with gas oil boiling range. On the investigated catalyst under optimal process parameter combinations, product mixtures in the gas oil boiling point range with yield and excellent quality was produced successfully. The cetane number of the product mixtures were increased by 4-16 units, the CFPP values were increased by 5-7 deg C, when feedstock with 25 % sunflower oil content was used instead of feedstocks containing no sunflower oil. The reason is that the triglycerides were converted into normal paraffins, which are having high cetane number and poor cold-flow properties. It was concluded, that the blending of the sunflower oil into the gas oil did not reduce the HDS and HDA activity of the catalyst, however, its HDN activity significantly decreased. (orig.)

  3. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  5. Changes in selected serum parameters of broiler chicken fed supplemental chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Króliczewska, B; Zawadzki, W; Dobrzanski, Z; Kaczmarek-Oliwa, A

    2004-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium (Cr) from Cr yeast on the growth performance and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, total protein and Cr concentration in the serum of broiler chicken. The birds were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with Cr at a level of 300, 500 microg/kg Cr. The supplementation of 500 mug/kg Cr increased body weight, weight gain and feed efficiency (p broiler chicken and can be used as additives in animal diet but it still needs more investigations.

  6. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment. PMID:27570415

  7. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-08-14

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment.

  8. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  9. Determinants of maternal triglycerides in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Jones, Lee; O'Rourke, Peter; Lust, Karin; Gatford, Kathryn L; De Blasio, Miles J; Coat, Suzette; Owens, Julie A; Hague, William M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie; Rowan, Janet

    2013-07-01

    Factors associated with increasing maternal triglyceride concentrations in late pregnancy include gestational age, obesity, preeclampsia, and altered glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of women in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) trial, maternal plasma triglycerides increased more between enrollment (30 weeks) and 36 weeks in those treated with metformin compared with insulin. The aim of this study was to explain this finding by examining factors potentially related to triglycerides in these women. Of the 733 women randomized to metformin or insulin in the MiG trial, 432 (219 metformin and 213 insulin) had fasting plasma triglycerides measured at enrollment and at 36 weeks. Factors associated with maternal triglycerides were assessed using general linear modeling. Mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 2.43 (95% CI 2.35-2.51) mmol/L at enrollment. Triglycerides were higher at 36 weeks in women randomized to metformin (2.94 [2.80-3.08] mmol/L; +23.13% [18.72-27.53%]) than insulin (2.65 [2.54-2.77] mmol/L, P = 0.002; +14.36% [10.91-17.82%], P = 0.002). At 36 weeks, triglycerides were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.03), ethnicity (P = 0.001), and treatment allocation (P = 0.005). In insulin-treated women, 36-week triglycerides were associated with 36-week HbA1c (P = 0.02), and in metformin-treated women, they were related to ethnicity. At 36 weeks, maternal triglycerides were related to glucose control in women treated with insulin and ethnicity in women treated with metformin. Whether there are ethnicity-related dietary changes or differences in metformin response that alter the relationship between glucose control and triglycerides requires further study.

  10. High Triglycerides Are Associated with Low Thrombocyte Counts and High VEGF in Nephropathia Epidemica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, Ekaterina V; Valiullina, Aygul H; Gusev, Oleg A; Davidyuk, Yuriy N; Garanina, Ekaterina E; Shakirova, Venera G; Khaertynova, Ilsiyar; Anokhin, Vladimir A; Rizvanov, Albert A; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Several reports have demonstrated a severe alteration in lipoprotein metabolism. However, little is known about changes in circulating lipids in NE. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in serum total cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDCL), and triglycerides. In addition to evaluation of serum cytokine activation associations, changes in lipid profile and cytokine activation were determined for gender, thrombocyte counts, and VEGF. Elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased HDCL were observed in NE, while total cholesterol did not differ from controls. High triglycerides were associated with both the lowest thrombocyte counts and high serum VEGF, as well as a high severity score. Additionally, there were higher levels of triglycerides in male than female NE patients. Low triglycerides were associated with upregulation of IFN- γ and IL-12, suggesting activation of Th1 helper cells. Furthermore, levels of IFN- γ and IL-12 were increased in patients with lower severity scores, suggesting that a Th1 type immune response is playing protective role in NE. These combined data advance the understanding of NE pathogenesis and indicate a role for high triglycerides in disease severity.

  11. Serum progranulin levels in relation to insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Sutaih, Rima H; Kamfar, Hayat Z; Alagha, Abdulmoeen E; Marzouki, Zuhair M

    2017-11-27

    Progranulin is an adipokine that is involved in the inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and may therefore be involved in chronic subclinical inflammation associated with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. We aimed to investigate the association of circulating progranulin levels with metabolic parameters in children and to assess the importance of progranulin as a biomarker for metabolic diseases. A total of 150 children were consecutively recruited from the Pediatric Nutrition Clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Children were classified into four groups based on quartile for serum progranulin. Anthropometric variables were measured in all study subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile. Children within the upper quartile for serum progranulin concentration were heavier, more insulin resistant and had higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and high sensitivity C reactive protein compared to those in the lower quartile. On correlation analysis, serum progranulin concentrations were significantly related to general and central adiposity, metabolic parameters, markers of inflammation and insulin resistance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 26.6% of the variability in serum progranulin could be explained by measures of adiposity. The increased serum progranulin concentrations were closely related to measures of adiposity, metabolic parameters, inflammatory marker and insulin resistance indices, suggesting that progranulin may be an excellent biomarker for obesity in childhood.

  12. Triglycerides and Heart Disease, Still a Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira J.; Eckel, Robert H.; McPherson, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic and clinical science relating plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. Although many aspects of the basic physiology of triglyceride production, its plasma transport and tissue uptake have been known for several decades, the relationship of plasma triglyceride levels to vascular disease is uncertain. Are triglyceride rich lipoproteins, their influence on HDL and LDL, or the underlying diseases leading to defects in triglyceride metabolism the culprit? Animal models have failed to confirm that anything other than early fatty lesions can be produced by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Metabolic products of triglyceride metabolism can be toxic to arterial cells; however, these studies are primarily in vitro. Correlative studies of fasting and postprandial triglycerides and genetic diseases implicate VLDL and their remnants, and chylomicron remnants in atherosclerosis development; but the concomitant alterations in other lipoproteins and other risk factors obscure any conclusions about direct relationships between disease and triglycerides. Genes that regulate triglyceride levels also correlate with vascular disease. Human intervention trials, however, have lacked an appropriately defined population, and have produced outcomes without definitive conclusions. The time is more than ripe for new and creative approaches to understanding the relationship of triglycerides and heart disease. PMID:21527746

  13. Triglyceride profile in dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.R.; Ayub, N.; Nawab, S.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate ratios of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels which may indicate postprandial lipid handling and to assess their role as prospective markers of dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study comprised 160 subjects, including 83 known type 2 diabetics (45 males, 38 females) and 77 age-matched controls (45 males, 32 females). Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, using automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The mean values for male and female diabetics were compared with that for the male and female non-diabetics respectively and tested for significance by paired t-test. Serum triglycerides and VLDL were raised in both male and female diabetics. No significant differences were observed in levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and the LDL/HDL ratio. The mean value of the TG/HDL ratio for male diabetics was higher than that for the male non-diabetics (p=0.39). A statistically significant difference was found in the TG/HDL ratios for the female diabetics and non-diabetics (p<0.05). In this study, type 2 diabetics showed marked hypertriglyceridaemia and raised TG/HDL ratio. The dyslipidaemia of diabetes predisposes to development of coronary heart disease and therefore, evaluation of the TG:HDL ratio may provide a good tool to monitor and manage the lipid abnormalities in diabetics. (author)

  14. Triglyceride profile in dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S R; Ayub, N; Nawab, S [Bismillah Taqee Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate ratios of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels which may indicate postprandial lipid handling and to assess their role as prospective markers of dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study comprised 160 subjects, including 83 known type 2 diabetics (45 males, 38 females) and 77 age-matched controls (45 males, 32 females). Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, using automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The mean values for male and female diabetics were compared with that for the male and female non-diabetics respectively and tested for significance by paired t-test. Serum triglycerides and VLDL were raised in both male and female diabetics. No significant differences were observed in levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and the LDL/HDL ratio. The mean value of the TG/HDL ratio for male diabetics was higher than that for the male non-diabetics (p=0.39). A statistically significant difference was found in the TG/HDL ratios for the female diabetics and non-diabetics (p<0.05). In this study, type 2 diabetics showed marked hypertriglyceridaemia and raised TG/HDL ratio. The dyslipidaemia of diabetes predisposes to development of coronary heart disease and therefore, evaluation of the TG:HDL ratio may provide a good tool to monitor and manage the lipid abnormalities in diabetics. (author)

  15. lowered serum triglyceride levels among chronic hepatitis b-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection – chronic- symptomatic and ... 2 hepatitis B disease and plasma metabolite dys- regulation has become the subject of interest by most biomedical researchers over the past dec- ade. The liver as a ..... leukin – 1, and interferon – α stimulate.

  16. Benefits of Caffeine on Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana O. P. Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína (CF é o ingrediente ativo do café e também de outros alimentos e medicamentos muito consumidos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da CF, em diferentes concentrações, sobre os valores séricos de colesterol total (CT e frações, triglicerídeos (TG e lipoproteínas HDL colesterol e VLDL colesterol em ratos. Foram analisadas 60 amostras de soro de ratos Wistar machos, submetidos à ingestão de solução aquosa de CF durante quatro dias, sendo sacrificados no quinto dia. As análises de CT e frações foram realizadas por equipamento automatizado (Technicon RA – XT e os valores de VLDL colesterol, calculados pela equação de Friedewald. Os ratos submetidos ao tratamento com CF foram divididos em três grupos: a grupo 1: 0,3 mg/ mL/100g peso; b grupo 2: 6 mg/mL/100g peso; e c grupo 3: 10 mg/mL/100g peso. Ao grupo controle não foi administrada CF. Foi observada uma diminuição altamente significativa (p<0,01 nos valores de CT dos ratos pertencentes aos grupos 2 e 3 em relação aos do grupo controle; detectou-se uma diminuição altamente significativa (p<0,01 nos valores de TG e VLDL colesterol dos ratos pertencentes ao grupo 3 quando comparados aos do grupo controle; verificou-se também uma diminuição altamente significativa (p<0,01 nos valores de HDL colesterol dos ratos pertencentes ao grupo 2 quando comparados aos do grupo controle. Foi demonstrado também um efeito dose-dependente nos grupos tratados com CF. Estudos epidemiológicos demonstram que o consumo de café fervido e não filtrado eleva o risco de doenças cardiovasculares, devido à presença de dois diterpenos, que promovem o aumento da concentração plasmática de colesterol em seres humanos. Entretanto, outros estudos mostram que o consumo de substâncias ricas em CF leva à diminuição de CT. Nosso trabalho demonstrou que a cafeína pura levou à diminuição de CT, TG e VLDL colesterol, sugerindo um efeito benéfico da CF no sistema cardiovascular, principalmente quando associada aos antioxidantes presentes no café. No entanto, em razão da diminuição nos níveis de HDL colesterol, serão necessários estudos complementares para esclarecer seu exato papel no organismo e na prevenção da placa de ateroma.

  17. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  18. Changes in triglyceride levels over time and risk of type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Bitzur, Rafael; Kochba, Ilan; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Shochat, Tzippora; Rudich, Assaf

    2008-10-01

    The association between changes in triglyceride concentrations over time and diabetes is unknown. We assessed whether two triglyceride determinations obtained 5 years apart can predict incident type 2 diabetes. Triglyceride levels at baseline (time 1) and 5 years later (time 2), followed by subsequent follow-up of 5.5 years, were measured in 13,953 apparently healthy men (age 26-45 years) with triglycerides <300 mg/dl (<3.39 mmol/l). During 76,742 person-years, 322 cases of diabetes occurred. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status revealed a continuous independent rise in incident diabetes with increasing time 1 triglyceride levels (P(trend) < 0.001). Men in the lowest tertile of time 1 triglyceride levels who progressed to the highest tertile over follow-up (low-high) exhibited a hazard ratio (HR) of 12.62 (95% CI 3.52-31.34) compared with those remaining in the lowest tertile at both time points (reference group: low-low). Whereas men who were at the top triglyceride level tertile throughout follow-up (high-high) had a HR for diabetes of 7.08 (2.52-14.45), those whose triglyceride level decreased to the lowest tertile (high-low) exhibited a HR of 1.97 (0.67-6.13). Alterations in triglyceride levels during follow-up were associated with changes in BMI, physical activity, and eating breakfast habit (P < 0.05), but remained an independent modifier of diabetes risk even after adjustment for such changes. Two measurements of fasting triglyceride levels obtained 5 years apart can assist in identifying apparently healthy young men at increased risk for diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors and of associated changes in BMI and lifestyle parameters.

  19. Triglycerides and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batluk, Jana; Leonards, Christopher O; Grittner, Ulrike; Lange, Kristin Sophie; Schreiber, Stephan J; Endres, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is an established marker for atherosclerosis. The role of triglycerides in CCA-IMT remains controversial. We sought to determine if elevated fasting and post-challenge triglycerides are associated with CCA-IMT. All acute ischemic stroke patients who participated in the Berlin "Cream & Sugar" study in the Charité Virchow and Charité Mitte Campuses between January 2009 and January 2014 and underwent carotid artery ultrasound studies were eligible for inclusion. A combined oral glucose and triglyceride tolerance test was performed 3-7 days after first ever ischemic stroke. Patients were classified according to triglyceride metabolism-namely, (1) patients reaching a maximum triglyceride levels 3 h post-challenge ("fast metabolizers," n = 37), (2) patients with increasing triglycerides 4 (medium metabolizers, n = 64), and (3) 5 h post-challenge ("slow metabolizers," n = 44; 13 missing). We included 158 patients (34% female; mean age 63 years, SD 14). Absolute non-fasting triglyceride levels were positively associated with CCA-IMT. A final multiple regression model revealed that older age, more severe strokes, and higher levels of fasting triglycerides were significantly and independently associated with higher mean CCA-IMT. Older age, higher waist-to-hip ratio, and higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone were independently associated with higher maximum CCA-IMT. Fasting triglycerides but not post-challenge triglycerides associate with CCA-IMT. An oral fat challenge may not add information on atherosclerotic status in ischemic stroke patients. The Berlin "Cream & Sugar" study is registered with EudraCT (2009-010356-97) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01378468). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of triglycerides and new lipid markers with the incidence of hypertension in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Navarro-González, David; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, there has been limited knowledge on the relationship between triglycerides and incident hypertension. The associations of incident hypertension with triglycerides and triglycerides-related indices such as triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were evaluated. Data from 3637 participants from the Vascular Metabolic Clinica Universidad Navarra cohort were followed-up during a mean of 8.49 years. A Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated measures analyses was performed to assess the risk of developing hypertension across the quintiles of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio, and TyG index. The risk of developing hypertension was 47% and 73% greater for those in the fourth and fifth quintiles of triglycerides, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, daily alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern, type 2 diabetes, antiaggregation therapy, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP, and DBP. In men, those in the top quintile of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio or TyG index were two times more likely to develop hypertension than those in the bottom quintile. In women, the effect was attenuated although the risk of hypertension rose with increasing quintiles (P for trend triglycerides-related variables and incident hypertension independently of adiposity. This association was stronger than those observed for other commonly used lipid parameters or lipid ratios, such as the TC/HDL-C ratio. : http://links.lww.com/HJH/A620.

  1. Kinesin-dependent mechanism for controlling triglyceride secretion from the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Priyanka; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Geetika; Barak, Pradeep; Das, Saumitra; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Mallik, Roop

    2017-12-05

    Despite massive fluctuations in its internal triglyceride content, the liver secretes triglyceride under tight homeostatic control. This buffering function is most visible after fasting, when liver triglyceride increases manyfold but circulating serum triglyceride barely fluctuates. How the liver controls triglyceride secretion is unknown, but is fundamentally important for lipid and energy homeostasis in animals. Here we find an unexpected cellular and molecular mechanism behind such control. We show that kinesin motors are recruited to triglyceride-rich lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver by the GTPase ARF1, which is a key activator of lipolysis. This recruitment is activated by an insulin-dependent pathway and therefore responds to fed/fasted states of the animal. In fed state, ARF1 and kinesin appear on LDs, consequently transporting LDs to the periphery of hepatocytes where the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) is present. Because the lipases that catabolize LDs in hepatocytes reside on the sER, LDs can now be catabolized efficiently to provide triglyceride for lipoprotein assembly and secretion from the sER. Upon fasting, insulin is lowered to remove ARF1 and kinesin from LDs, thus down-regulating LD transport and sER-LD contacts. This tempers triglyceride availabiity for very low density lipoprotein assembly and allows homeostatic control of serum triglyceride in a fasted state. We further show that kinesin knockdown inhibits hepatitis-C virus replication in hepatocytes, likely because translated viral proteins are unable to transfer from the ER to LDs. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Hepatic ABC transporters and triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, John S; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S

    2012-06-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates nascent HDL particle assembly. Past studies attributed the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride to intravascular lipid exchange and catabolic events. However, recent studies also suggest that hepatic signaling and lipid mobilization and secretion may explain how HDL affects plasma triglyceride concentrations. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice have markedly reduced plasma HDL and a two-fold increase in triglyceride due to failure to assemble nascent HDL particles by hepatocytes, causing increased catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and increased hepatic production of triglyceride-enriched VLDL. In-vitro studies suggest that nascent HDL particles may induce signaling to decrease triglyceride secretion. Inhibition of microRNA 33 expression in nonhuman primates augments hepatic ABCA1, genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreases expression of lipogenic genes, causing increased plasma HDL and decreased triglyceride levels. New evidence suggests potential mechanisms by which hepatic ABCA1-mediated nascent HDL formation regulates VLDL-triglyceride production and contributes to the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride.

  3. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  4. Effects of intramuscular administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with and without sedative pretreatment on plasma and serum biochemical values and glucose tolerance test results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-08-01

    To establish a safe anesthetic protocol with little effect on blood biochemical values and IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). 16 captive female Japanese black bears (5 to 17 years of age). Bears were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (4 bears/group) in which various treatment combinations were administered via blow dart: tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (9 mg/kg) alone (TZ), TZ (6 mg/kg) and acepromazine maleate (0.1 mg/kg), TZ (6 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.3 mg/kg), or TZ (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine HCl (40 μg/kg). Glucose injection for the IVGTT was started 130 minutes after TZ administration. Blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection for measurement of biochemical variables as well as plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations during the IVGTT. Rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed every 15 minutes during the experiment. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were safely achieved with little adverse effect on cardiopulmonary function when each of the 4 anesthetic regimens was used, although mild hypothermia was induced. No difference was evident between treatment groups in blood biochemical values. Blood glucose and insulin concentration profiles during the IVGTT were similar among the bears given TZ, with or without acepromazine or butorphanol, but hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia developed in bears given TZ with medetomidine. All 4 anesthetic regimens yielded chemical restraint without affecting clinical and biochemical values in bears, but medetomidine appeared to affect IVGTT results. For this reason, medetomidine should not be used when anesthetizing bears for IVGTTs.

  5. Association of Serum Ceruloplasmin Level with Obesity: Some Components of Metabolic Syndrome and High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Morteza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the mechanisms that has been suggested for obesity related metabolic disturbances is obesity-induced inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines generated in adipose tissue can increase hepatic synthesis of inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISPs including ceruloplasmin (Cp. In this study we aimed to investigate the relation between serum Cp level and obesity. Methods. 61 persons with body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (case group and 61 persons with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (control group were included in this study with a case-control design. Serum Cp levels, triglyceride level, fating blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and hsCRP were measured in both groups. Results. We did not observe any significant association between serum Cp level and BMI in all subjects [OR: 1.02 (CI, 0.967 to 1.07] and in case (β=0.012, P=0.86 and control groups (β=0.49, P=0.07 separately. However, in control group, this positive association was marginally significant. We found a positive correlation between serum Cp level and serum triglyceride level. Conclusion. Serum Cp level was not related to obesity in this group of subjects. None of the baseline variables could predict obesity in this group of subjects, including serum Cp level, FBS, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL- cholesterols and hsCRP.

  6. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  7. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Denise M; Bain, James R; Reisetter, Anna C; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Newgard, Christopher B; Lowe, William L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Metabolic and behavioural effects of sucrose and fructose/glucose drinks in the rat.

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    Sheludiakova, Anastasia; Rooney, Kieron; Boakes, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular carbonated soft drinks, promotes the development of overweight and obesity and is associated with metabolic disturbances, including intrahepatic fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. One theory proposes that drinks sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup are particularly detrimental to health, as they contain fructose in its 'free' monosaccharide form. This experiment tested whether consuming 'free' fructose had a greater impact on body weight and metabolic abnormalities than when consumed 'bound' within the disaccharide sucrose. Male Hooded Wistar rats were given free access for 56 days to 10% sucrose (Group Suc), 10%, 50/50 fructose/glucose (Group FrucGluc) or water control drinks (Group Control), plus chow. Caloric intake and body weights were measured throughout the protocol, and the following metabolic indices were determined between days 54 and 56: serum triglycerides, liver triglycerides, retroperitoneal fat and oral glucose tolerance. Animals with access to sugar beverages consumed 20% more calories, but did not show greater weight gain than controls. Nevertheless, they developed larger abdominal fat pads, higher triglyceride levels and exhibited impaired insulin/glucose homeostasis. Comparison of the two sugars revealed increased fasting glycaemia in the FrucGluc group, but not in Suc group, whereas the Suc group was more active in an open field. A metabolic profile indicating increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease was observed in animals given access to sugar-sweetened beverages. Notably, 'free' fructose disrupted glucose homeostasis more than did 'bound' fructose, thus posing a greater risk of progression to type 2 diabetes.

  9. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

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    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  10. Calorie restricted high protein diets downregulate lipogenesis and lower intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations in male rats

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    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-...

  11. Association of faecal elastase 1 with non-fasting triglycerides in type 2 diabetes.

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    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Haastert, Burkhard; Oscarsson, Jan; Berglind, Niklas; Lindkvist, Björn; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of esterified fatty acids depends on exocrine pancreatic function and influences plasma triglycerides levels. The aim was to investigate the association of reduced exocrine pancreatic function (low fecal elastase-1; FE1) with plasma triglycerides in type 2 diabetes and controls without diabetes. FE1 (μg/g stool) and non-fasting plasma triglyceride measurements were undertaken in 544 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 63 ± 8 years) randomly selected from diabetes registers in Cambridgeshire (UK), and 544 matched controls (age, sex, practice) without diabetes. Linear regression models were fitted using FE1 as dependent and log-triglycerides as independent variable adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, serum lipase, HbA1c, and smoking. FE1 concentrations were lower (mean ± SD: 337 ± 204 vs. 437 ± 216 μg/g, p triglycerides were higher (geometric mean */: standard deviation factor: 2.2*/:1.9 vs. 1.6*/:1.8 mmol/l, p triglycerides was associated with 4.5 μg/g higher FE1 concentrations (p triglycerides (significant only in controls). Non-fasting triglycerides were positively related to FE1 in both type 2 diabetes and controls suggesting that impairment of exocrine pancreas function is influencing plasma triglycerides. Marked loss of exocrine pancreatic function had the opposite effect, resulting in higher levels of plasma triglycerides. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

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    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  13. APOA5 and APOA1 polymorphisms are associated with triglyceride levels in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Sánchez, F; Klunder-Klunder, M; Valladares-Salgado, A; Gómez-Zamudio, J; Peralta-Romero, J; Meyre, D; Burguete-García, A; Cruz, M

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for the development of several diseases. The genetic component of hypertriglyceridemia has been studied in adults, but little is known in children. The objective is to evaluate the association of two variants in APOA5 (rs662799) and APOA1 (rs5072) with triglyceride (TG) levels in Mexican children. Anthropometric parameters were measured in 1559 Mexican children 5-14 years of age. DNA was isolated from blood samples. Lipid profiles and glucose concentrations were determined from serum and genotyping of rs662799, and rs5072 was performed using TaqMan® technology. Additive and dominant models adjusted for age, gender and body mass index were used to evaluate the association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms with TG levels. Children with high TG levels were found to have a higher body mass index and waist circumference as well as a worse lipids profile and glucose levels (p < 0.001). Additive and dominant models demonstrated a significant association between the rs662799 and rs5072 with TG. The dominant model showed the strongest significant association (OR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.46-2.24; p = 5.40 × 10 -08 for rs662799 and OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.05-2.25; p = 2.60 × 10 -02 for rs5072). The minor alleles of rs662799 (APOA5) and rs5072 (APOA1) modulate TG levels in Mexican children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Raised Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Vineet Kumar Khemka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8–10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77±14.29 versus 17.02±5.74 U/L; P<0.0001. Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.657; P<0.0001 level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r=-0.203; P=0.180. However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects.

  15. Serum Ferritin Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Red Meat Consumption

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    Avila Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Hyperferritinemia has been related with a wide spectrum of pathologies, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperferritinemia and iron consumption. Methods and Results. Serum ferritin concentration was evaluated in 66 presumed healthy men, along with other clinical and biochemical markers of chronic diseases. A three-day food questionnaire was applied for nutrition information. Hyperferritinemia was a condition found in 13.4% of the volunteers analyzed. Significant correlations were found between serum ferritin concentration and metabolic syndrome parameters (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose as well as an increase of the serum ferritin mean value with the number of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Also, oxidative stress markers (carbonyl groups, AOPP, and glycated hemoglobin, hepatic damage markers (GGT, SGOT, and parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA, blood insulin, and blood glucose correlate significantly with serum ferritin. Volunteers had an excessive iron intake, principally by bread consumption. Analyses of food intake showed that red meat consumption correlates significantly with serum ferritin. Conclusion. Red meat consumption, metabolic syndrome, and chronic disease markers are associated with hyperferritinemia in a population of Chilean men.

  16. The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids

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    Hady Razak Hady

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on the concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol, as well as AST and ALT levels in plasma in patients with obesity. The research includes 200 patients operated using LAGB (34 men average age 37.0 ± 12.6 years and 66 women average age 39.18 ± 12.17 years and LSG (48 men average age 47.93 ± 9.24 years and 52 women, 19 ± 9.33 years. The percentage of effective weight loss, effective BMI loss, concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST and HOMA IR values was taken preoperatively and at 7th day, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both after LSG and after LAGB, statistically significant reduction in BMI, serum insulin, glucose and HOMA IR was noticed in comparison to the preoperative values. Post LAGB, patients showed an increase of ghrelin, while LSG proved ghrelin decreased. Correlations between glucose and BMI loss, and between insulin and BMI loss in both cases are more favorable in the LSG group. Lipid parameters, AST and ALT have undergone declines or  increases in the particular time points. Both techniques cause weight loss and this way lead to changes in the concentration of ghrelin, as well as to the improvement of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism. They reduce metabolic syndrome and multiple comorbidities of obesity.

  17. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

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    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  18. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

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    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  19. Lipid regulation in lipodystrophy versus the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome: the dissociation of HDL-C and triglycerides.

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    Joseph, Jalaja; Shamburek, Robert D; Cochran, Elaine K; Gorden, Phillip; Brown, Rebecca J

    2014-09-01

    There is an inverse relationship between triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in insulin resistance, such that improvement in insulin resistance decreases triglycerides and increases HDL-C. Patients with lipodystrophy have extreme insulin resistance with high triglycerides and low HDL-C. Leptin replacement in lipodystrophy leads to a marked decrease in triglycerides (∼60%). Our objective was to study the effects of metreleptin on triglycerides and HDL-C in lipodystrophy in contrast to changes in triglycerides and HDL-C in interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. This open-label nonrandomized study at the National Institutes of Health included 82 patients with various forms of lipodystrophy. Metreleptin (0.06-0.24 mg/kg/d) was administered for 24 months in lipodystrophy. Serum triglycerides and HDL-C were measured. At baseline, lipodystrophy patients had low HDL-C (30 ± 1 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (961 ± 220 mg/dL) with an inverse relationship between the two (R = -0.37, P = .0006). There was no change in HDL-C with metreleptin despite major improvement in triglycerides, and individual changes in triglycerides only weakly predicted HDL-C change. On linear regression, in obesity, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with a 4.2 mg/dL rise in HDL-C, whereas in lipodystrophy, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with only a 0.6 mg/dL rise in HDL-C. The normal reciprocal relationship between triglyceride and HDL-C change seen in response to interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome is quantitatively different from that seen in lipodystrophy in response to metreleptin. Further work is needed to understand HDL-C regulation in this condition.

  20. Association of dyslipidemia, increased insulin resistance, and serum CA 15-3 with increased risk of breast cancer in urban areas of North and Central India

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    Poonam Kachhawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine the association of dyslipidemia and increased insulin resistance (IR with increased breast cancer (BC risk. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 110 premenopausal and 143 postmenopausal, untreated female BC patients in the age range of 29–72 years. Control group consisted of 117 premenopausal and 141 postmenopausal healthy females in the age range of 23–75. Approximately 8-ml blood samples were drawn to measure various biochemical parameters. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured. Very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and LDL-C were calculated using Friedewald's formula. Serum insulin and serum CA 15-3 were estimated by immune enzymatic assay. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment IR index (HOMA-IR. Results: Clinical variables in the case and control groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t-test. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by binary logistic regression analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the association between CA 15-3 and variables of interest. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL, serum glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum CA 15-3 were significantly higher (P < 0.001 in BC patients compared to those in controls. Significant adjusted ORs with 95% CI were found to be fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and TGs. We also found a significant positive correlation between total cholesterol, TG, LDL, serum glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum CA 15-3. Conclusion: This study confirms the association between dyslipidemia, IR, and increased BC risk.

  1. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

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    Michael F La Fountaine

    Full Text Available Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG and VLDL particles (VLDL-P was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI.One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4; 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5] and 53 able-bodied (AB subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package.Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01 and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05, respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05 and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group.Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than that observed in the ↑T4 and the AB

  2. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H Henry; Yakar, Shoshana; Muzumdar, Radhika H

    2015-08-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Evaluation of blood neutrophil to lymphocyte and platelet to lymphocyte ratios according to plasma glucose status and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in patients with acromegaly.

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    Üçler, R; Aslan, M; Atmaca, M; Alay, M; Ademoğlu, E N; Gülşen, I

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular diseases and malignancies are responsible for morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. Also these diseases are associated with chronic inflammation. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are currently gaining interest as new markers of inflammation. Moreover, increased morbidity and mortality are positively correlated with the presence of diabetes and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in acromegaly. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between these markers and acromegaly according to plasma glucose status and serum IGF-1 levels. We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 acromegaly patients who were in a newly diagnosed period (35 male, 26 female; mean age 38.13 ± 13.98). Patients with normal plasma glucose (n = 27), impaired fasting glucose (n = 18), and diabetes mellitus (n = 16) were categorized into three different groups. NLR and PLR were compared between the study groups and were evaluated according to IGF-1 levels. There were no statistically significant differences in NLR and PLR measurements among the study groups (p > 0.05). However, there were significant positive correlations between NLR and IGF-1 levels and between PLR and IGF-1 levels when all patients were evaluated (r = 0.334, p = 0.011 and r = 0.277, p = 0.035, respectively). This is the first report studying the relationship of NLR and PLR with glucose status and IGF-1 levels in acromegaly patients. Our study results suggest that subclinical inflammation may play a role in increased incidence of mortality and morbidity, which depends on uncontrolled IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Ferritin as a Risk Factor for Glucose Intolerance amongst Men and Women Originating from the Indian Subcontinent

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    Elizabeth A. Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum ferritin predicts the onset of diabetes; however, this relationship is not clear amongst South Asians, a population susceptible to glucose intolerance and anaemia. Objective. This study tests whether ferritin levels reflect glucose tolerance in South Asians, independent of lifestyle exposures associated with Indian or British residence. Methods. We randomly sampled 227 Gujaratis in Britain (49.8 (14.4 years, 50% men and 277 contemporaries living in Gujarati villages (47.6 (11.8 years, 41% men. Both groups underwent a 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance test. We evaluated lifestyle parameters with standardised questionnaires and conducted comprehensive clinical and lab measurements. Results. Across sites, the age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 9.8%. Serum ferritin was higher amongst diabetics (P=0.005, irrespective of site, gender, and central obesity (P≤0.02, and was associa