WorldWideScience

Sample records for serum ggt concentration

  1. New pediatric percentiles of liver enzyme serum levels (ALT, AST, GGT): Effects of age, sex, BMI and pubertal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussler, Sarah; Vogel, Mandy; Pietzner, Diana; Harms, Kristian; Buzek, Theresa; Penke, Melanie; Händel, Norman; Körner, Antje; Baumann, Ulrich; Kiess, Wieland; Flemming, Gunter

    2017-09-19

    The present study aims to clarify the effects of sex, age, BMI and puberty on transaminase serum levels in children and adolescents and to provide new age- and sex-related percentiles for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Venous blood and anthropometric data were collected from 4,126 cases. Excluded were cases of participants with potential hepatotoxic medication, with evidence of potential illness at the time of blood sampling and non-normal BMI (BMI  90 th ). The resulting data (N = 3,131 cases) were used for the calculations of ALT, AST, and GGT percentiles. Age- and sex-related reference intervals were established by using an LMSP-type method. Serum levels of transaminases follow age-specific patterns and relate to the onset of puberty. This observation is more pronounced in girls than in boys. The ALT percentiles showed similar shaped patterns in both sexes. Multivariate regression confirmed significant effects of puberty and BMI-SDS (β = 2.21) on ALT. Surprisingly, AST serum levels were negatively influenced by age (β = -1.42) and BMI-SDS (β = -0.15). The GGT percentiles revealed significant sex-specific differences, correlated positively with age (β = 0.37) and showed significant association with BMI-SDS (β = 1.16). Current reference values of ALT, AST and GGT serum levels were calculated for children between 11 months and 16.0 years, using modern analytical and statistical methods. This study extends the current knowledge about transaminases by revealing influences of age, sex, BMI, and puberty on the serum concentrations of all three parameters and has for these parameters one of the largest sample sizes published so far. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Rule of changes in serum GGT levels and GGT/ALT and AST/ALT ratios in primary hepatic carcinoma patients with different AFP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Gong; He, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Bing; Zhang, Hui-Ai; He, Yong-Kang

    2017-12-22

    This study aims to explore the rule of changes in serum GGT activity, as well as GGT/ALT and AST/ALT ratios, in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) patients with different alpha-fetal protein (AFP) levels. GGT, AST and ALT were detected in 370 PHC patients with positive HBs-Ag using a automatic biochemical analyzer, and AFP was detected using a Roche E170 modular analytics immunoassay analyzer. GGT level, as well as AST/ALT and GGT/ALT, ratios were compared among PHC patients with different AFP levels. As shown in Table 1, GGT levels were 109.59 ± 111.06, 151.13 ± 190.43, 135.86 ± 107.62, 151.36 ± 176.59 and 172.58 ± 188.84, respectively, in the groups of primary PHC patients with AFP levels of ⩽ 10, 10-100, 100-200, 200-400 and ⩾ 400 ng/ml; and the differences among these groups were not statistically significant (P> 0.05). AST/ALT ratios were 1.55 ± 1.02, 1.30 ± 0.81, 2.02 ± 1.89, 2.12 ± 1.11 and 1.73 ± 1.25, respectively; and the differences among these groups were not statistically significant (P> 0.05). GGT/ALT ratios were 3.43 ± 3.12, 3.57 ± 5.70, 3.57 ± 2.94, 3.89 ± 4.58 and 3.43 ± 3.61, respectively; and the differences among these groups were not statistically significant (P> 0.05). For patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis after hepatitis B, no matter how AFP level is, when liver function report reveals increased GGT, AST/ALT > 1 and GGT/ALT > 1 (that is, AST > ALT and GGT > ALT), even if AFP is negative, we should also be alert to the existence of PHC.

  3. Atividade sérica das enzimas AST, CK e GGT em cavalos Crioulos AST, CK and GGT enzymes serum activities in Crioulo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Franciscato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da idade, sexo, manejo e estado gestacional sobre a atividade sérica das enzimas: aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT em cavalos da raça Crioula. Foram utilizados 142 eqüinos, divididos em seis grupos: potros até um ano de idade; cavalos adultos em regime de atividade livre; cavalos adultos em treinamento; machos adultos; fêmeas não gestantes; fêmeas gestantes. O valor da CK foi mais elevado em animais adultos do que em potros, o mesmo tendo ocorrido em animais em atividade livre, comparados a animais em treinamento. Fêmeas não gestantes apresentaram valores das enzimas CK e GGT maiores que os machos; o valor da CK em fêmeas gestantes foi mais elevado do que em fêmeas não gestantes. A idade, o sexo, o manejo e o estado gestacional influenciam a atividade sérica da CK, e o sexo influencia a atividade sérica da GGT.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age, sex, management and pregnancy status on aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT enzymes serum activities of Crioulo horses. One hundred and forty-two horses, divided into six group were analyzed: yearlings; free activity of adult horses; training adult horses; male adult horses; nonpregnant and pregnant females. The CK enzyme activity value was higher in adult horses than in yearlings, and the same result was found when comparing free activity and training horses. Nonpregnant females had higher values for CK and GGT comparing to male horses, and CK values were higher in pregnant comparing to nonpregnant females. Age, sex, management and pregnancy status influence on CK serum activity, and sex influences on GGT serum activity.

  4. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Pei-Song

    2017-08-14

    The levels of liver function tests (LFTs) are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. In our study, the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Our purpose was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in ESCC patients. A retrospective study was performed in 447 patients with ESCC, and follow-up period was at least 60 months until death. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models. LFTs including ALT, AST, LSR, GGT, TBA and LDH were analyzed. Serum LSR (HR: 0.592, 95% CI = 0.457-0.768, p < 0.001 and GGT (HR: 1.507, 95% CI = 1.163-1.953, p = 0.002) levels were indicated as significant predictors of OS. The 5-year OS among patients with higher LSR levels was longer compared with those patients with decreased LSR levels, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T1-T2 subgroup, T3-T4 subgroup, N0 subgroup and M0 subgroup). We also found that patients with a higher GGT might predict worse OS than patients with a normal GGT, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T3-T4 subgroup and N1-N2 subgroup). Both increased levels of LSR and decreased levels of GGT might predict shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Our findings suggest that serum LSR and GGT levels could be used as a key predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  5. Common reference intervals for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in serum: results from an IFCC multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Henny, Joseph; Queraltó, Josep; Ziyu, Shen; Özarda, Yeşim; Chen, Baorong; Boyd, James C; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) measurements are important for the assessment of liver damage. The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) for these enzymes in adults, paying attention to standardization of the methods used and careful selection of the reference population. AST, ALT and GGT were measured with commercial analytical systems standardized to the IFCC-recommended reference measurement systems. Three centers (two in Italy and one in China) measured their own freshly collected samples; one of these centers also measured frozen samples from the Nordic Countries RI Project and from a Turkish center. RIs were generated using non-parametric techniques from the results of 765 individuals (411 females and 354 males, 18-85 years old) selected on the basis of the results of other laboratory tests and a specific questionnaire. AST results from the four regions (Milan, Beijing, Bursa and Nordic Countries) were statistically different, but these differences were too small to be clinically relevant. Likewise, differences between the upper reference limits for genders was only 1.7 U/L (0.03 μkat/L), allowing a single RI of 11-34 U/L (0.18-0.57 μkat/L) to be defined. Interregional differences were not statistically significant for ALT, but partitioning was required due to significant gender differences. RIs for ALT were 8-41 U/L (0.13-0.68 μkat/L) for females and 9-59 U/L (0.15-0.99 μkat/L) for males, respectively. The upper reference limits for GGT from the Nordic Country population were higher than those from the other three regions and results from this group were excluded from final calculations. The GGT RIs were 6-40 U/L (0.11-0.66 μkat/L) for females and 12-68 U/L (0.20- 1.13 μkat/L) for males, respectively. For AST and ALT, the implementation of common RIs appears to be possible, because no differences between regions were observed. However, a common RI for GGT that is

  6. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003458.htm Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme GGT in ...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  8. [Blood serum vitamin B12 concentration in dairy cows during early lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitz, K; Fürll, M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of the blood serum vita- min B12 concentration of dairy cows post partum (p. p.) and to investigate its relationship with metabolic parameters, the erythrogram and the health status of the cows. Blood samples from 157 Holstein-Friesian-cows were obtained for metabolic analysis at 2-6 days p. p. and at 4-5 weeks p. p. In addition, clinical findings were compiled to evaluate the health status (healthy/morbid). In all animals a decline in the vitamin B12 concentration (p ≤ 0.05) at 4 weeks p. p. was observed. Animals of both groups (healthy/morbid) had higher values for the erythrocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration 2-6 days p. p. when compared to 4 weeks p. p. In all cows, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity was closely correlated to the vitamin B12 concentration (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, all animals displayed elevated concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and bilirubin (p ≤ 0.05) at 2-6 days p. p. as a consequence of partus-dependent increased lipolysis. There was a smaller decrease in the vitamin B12 concentration in the morbid cows compared to the healthy cows (p   ≤   0.05). The vitamin B12 concentration is significantly dynamic during lactation and displays a close relationship with the GGT activity and the parameters of energy metabolism. Vitamin B12 may act as an indicator for increased lipolysis and cholestasis. Higher vitamin B12 concentrations may indicate clinical problems. A relationship with haematopoiesis is recognizable from the red cell readings. Decreasing red cell readings associated with reduced performance could be related to a low vitamin B12 concentration. The close correlations of vitamin B12 with GGT activity and bilirubin concentration may indicate cholestatic metabolic stress in dairy cows at blood serum concentrations ≥ 227 ng/l (3rd quartile 2-6 days p. p. healthy group). Morbid cows can already be identified at the

  9. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  10. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase as a specific indicator of bile duct lesions in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T B; Neptun, D A; Popp, J A

    1984-08-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of hepatic injury used extensively in humans, has been used rarely in rats because its specificity has not been previously defined. Studies were designed for investigation of the specificity of serum GGT activity with the use of cell type specific hepatotoxicants in Fischer 344 rats. Single necrogenic doses of CCl4, allyl alcohol (AA), and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were used to produce cell specific injury in centrilobular hepatocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and bile duct cells, respectively. Administration of CCl4 markedly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and serum bile acid concentrations within 24 hours but had no effect on serum GGT activity. ANIT treatment increased serum GGT and AP activities and bile acid concentration 24 hours following administration. Allyl alcohol administration increased serum ALT activity but had no effect on GGT activity. Administration of ANIT in the diet at 0.01%, 0.022%, 0.047%, and 0.1% for 2, 4, and 6 weeks produced dose- and time-dependent increases in serum GGT activity which strongly correlated with quantitative increases in hepatic bile duct volume, which was determined morphometrically. These observations support the use of serum GGT activity in the rat as diagnostic of bile duct cell necrosis when increases are detected shortly after the insult and as an indicator of possible bile duct hyperplasia.

  11. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, padults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  13. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  14. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  15. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  16. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FPG). Lower serum chromium concentrations and poor chromium status are common in type 2 diabetics in Osogbo, Nigeria. Keywords: Diabetes, serum chromium, glucose tolerance, insulin. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ...

  18. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  19. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer......-1988. SUBJECTS: Nonpregnant and nonlactating women aged 18-44 y (n = 610). RESULTS: Overall, the use of oral contraceptives was positively associated with serum copper concentration in by bi- and multivariable linear regression models with log-transformed values of serum copper concentration as dependend...... variable and oral contraceptive preparations and potential confounding variables as independent variables. Serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives varied more strongly by different progestin compounds than by estrogen contents. The highest increase of serum copper was seen in women...

  20. Serumic concentration of cardiac troponin and some enzymes in horses with strangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hassanpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on horses to investigate the effect of strangles on cardiac troponin fluctuations and activity of some serum enzymes. The research was done on 30 horses with strangles and 29 normal horses. Sick horses were confirmed on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs (culture of nasal and lymph nodes discharges for Streptococcus equi. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. The serum activity of cardiac troponin was measured by ELISA kit and gama gluthamil transferase (GGT, alanine amino tramsferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured by biochemical kits. The mean heart rate increased significantly (p

  1. High levels of both serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase are independent preictors of mortality in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Bayo, Miguel Ángel; Gonzales-Candia, Boris; Luna, Enrique; Caravaca, Francisco

    High serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are associated with increased mortality in the general population. However, this association has scarcely been investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of CKD patients with abnormally elevated serum GGT, and its value for predicting mortality. Retrospective observational study in a population cohort of adults with stage 4-5 CKD not yet on dialysis. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters of prognostic interest were recorded and used to characterise CKD patients with high levels of GGT (>36 IU/l). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse the influence of baseline serum GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on mortality for whatever reason. The study group consisted of 909 patients (mean age 65±15 years). Abnormally elevated GGT or ALP levels at baseline were observed in 209 (23%) and 172 (19%) patients, respectively, and concomitant elevations of GGT and ALP in 68 (7%). High GGT levels were associated with higher comorbidity burden, and a biochemical profile characterised by higher serum concentration of uric acid, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, and C-reactive. During the study period, 365 patients (40%) died (median survival time=74 months). In adjusted Cox regression models, high levels of GGT (hazard ratio [HR]=1.39;CI 95%: 1.09-1.78, P=.009) and ALP (HR=1.31; CI95%: 1.02-1.68, P=.038) were independently associated with mortality. High serum levels of GGT are independent predictors of mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN. Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR. Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development.

  3. Does a Reduction in Serum Sodium Concentration or Serum Potassium Concentration Increase the Prevalence of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donal; Miller, Kevin C; Edwards, Jeffrey E

    2016-08-01

    Although exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are common in ultradistance runners and athletes in general, their etiology remains unclear. EAMC are painful, sudden, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle occurring during or after exercise and are recognized by visible bulging or knotting of the whole, or part of, a muscle. Many clinicians believe EAMC occur after an imbalance in electrolyte concentrations, specifically serum sodium concentration ([Na+]s) and serum potassium concentration ([K+]s). Studies that have established a link between EAMC occurrence and serum electrolyte concentrations after an athletic event are unhelpful. Focused Clinical Question: Are [Na+]s and [K+]s different in athletes who experience EAMC than noncrampers?

  4. Serum dioxin concentration and age at Menarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.; Samuels, S.; Eskenazi, B. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Biococca (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2004-09-15

    To date, no epidemiologic studies have examined the association of TCDD exposure and age at menarche. Three studies, however, have examined the relation of dioxin-like compounds to pubertal development, with inconsistent conclusions. A study of daughters of Michigan women who had consumed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in food in 1973, found an earlier age at menarche among daughters whose mothers had higher serum PBB levels 8. No differences were found in age at menarche of Taiwanese women who were exposed postnatally (but premenarche) to PCBs and PCDFs via consumption of contaminated rice oil (Yu-Cheng) compared to unexposed 9. In Flemish adolescents, there was no relation of age at menarche with current serum levels of dioxin-like compounds as measured by Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression bioassay toxic equivalents (CALUX-TEQ) or individual PCB congeners 118, 153, and 180 10. On July 10, 1976, as a result of a chemical explosion, residents of Seveso, Italy experienced the highest levels of TCDD exposure in a human population. Twenty years later (1996-1998), the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a retrospective cohort study, was initiated to determine whether the women were at higher risk for reproductive disease. Among participants in SWHS, we have observed that TCDD levels are associated with an increase in menstrual cycle length among those who were premenarcheal at exposure, but not in those who were postmenarcheal at exposure 11. Consistent with animal studies 12, this suggests that females may be particularly susceptible to the effects of TCDD during early stages of development, e.g. in utero or pre-pubertal. Thus, here we examine the association of individual serum TCDD and age of menarche among women who were premenarcheal in 1976, at the time of explosion.

  5. Influence of feeding on serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jörg M Steiner, Craig G Ruaux, David A Williams Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Measurement of serum concentration of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for the diagnosis of canine pancreatitis. Currently, it is recommended that food be withheld for at least 12 hours before collecting a blood sample for analysis from dogs. However, it is unknown whether feeding has any influence on serum canine PLI concentration. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding on serum canine PLI concentrations in healthy dogs. Food was withheld from eight healthy adult Beagle dogs for at least 17 hours and a baseline serum sample (0 minutes was collected. Dogs were fed and serum samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes. There was no significant difference in serum canine PLI concentrations at any time after feeding (P=0.131. We conclude that feeding has no significant influence on serum canine PLI concentrations. Keywords: dog, pancreatic function, pancreatitis, biomarker, diagnostic test

  6. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action.

  7. Serum CA 125 concentrations in women with endometriosis or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist analogue therapy in women with endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Serum concentrations of this cell surface antigen did not correlate with uterine volume and appeared to have no value in the assessment of ...

  8. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood....

  9. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...... groups. It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity and serum gastrin concentrations are not influenced by sham feeding in contrast to the influence of insulin hypoglycemia.......Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  10. GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  11. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  12. Associations of uric acid and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A P S; Choi, K C; Ho, C S; Chan, M H M; Ozaki, R; Chan, C W H; Chan, J C N

    2013-10-01

    The combined effect of uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and cardiovascular risk factors clustering in the youth remains under-explored. The objective of this study was to examine the association between uric acid, GGT, obesity and the individual components of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 2067 children and adolescents (875 boys and 1192 girls) aged 6-20 years who were healthy volunteers and were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong between 2007 and 2008. Subjects were divided into two strata (75th percentile as cut-off) for comparison between odds of cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, subjects in upper stratum, i.e., >75th percentile, of either serum uric acid or GGT levels were associated with obesity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and high blood pressure (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranged from 1.63 to 5.82, all P uric acid and GGT in the association with obesity, low HDL-C and high blood pressure (AOR ranged from 2.60 to 10.69, all P Uric acid and GGT have combined effect in association with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Hair mercury association with selenium, serum lipid spectrum, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the research is to estimate the dependence between hair mercury content, hair selenium, mercury-to-selenium ratio, serum lipid spectrum, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in 63 adults (40 men and 23 women). Serum triglyceride (TG) concentration in the high-mercury group significantly exceeded the values obtained for low- and medium-mercury groups by 72 and 42 %, respectively. Serum GGT activity in the examinees from high-Hg group significantly exceeded the values of the first and the second groups by 75 and 28 %, respectively. Statistical analysis of the male sample revealed similar dependences. Surprisingly, no significant changes in the parameters analyzed were detected in the female sample. In all analyzed samples, hair mercury was not associated with hair selenium concentrations. Significant correlation between hair mercury content and serum TG concentration (r = 0.531) and GGT activity (r = 0.524) in the general sample of the examinees was detected. The respective correlations were observed in the male sample. Hair mercury-to-selenium ratios significantly correlated with body weight (r = 0.310), body mass index (r = 0.250), serum TG (r = 0.389), atherogenic index (r = 0.257), and GGT activity (r = 0.393). The same correlations were observed in the male sample. Hg/Se ratio in women did not correlate with the analyzed parameters. Generally, the results of the current study show the following: (1) hair mercury is associated with serum TG concentration and GGT activity in men, (2) hair selenium content is not related to hair mercury concentration, and (3) mercury-to-selenium ratio correlates with lipid spectrum parameters and GGT activity.

  14. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mona; Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad Emami; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved......, demographic and clinical data (e.g. gender, age, duration of disease and expanded disability status scale) were obtained. Serum Klotho concentration was measured using ELISA method. The results showed no statistically meaningful difference between new cases of RRMS (585.56 pg/ml ± 153.99) and control group...

  15. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P.; Andersen, E. W.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    in follow-up through 2008. Main Outcome Measures Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Results Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS......) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of -39% (95% CI, -55% to -17%) in the diphtheria antibody.......44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years. Conclusion Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years. JAMA. 2012;307(4):391-397...

  16. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, J; Kang, J-H; Kim, H-S; Lee, I; Seo, K W; Yang, M-P

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the role of adipokines in the development and progression of acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs. To determine whether the circulating concentrations of adipokines differed between healthy dogs and dogs with AP, and whether the circulating concentrations differed between AP survivors and AP nonsurvivors. Twenty-eight healthy dogs and 25 client-owned dogs with AP. Prospective observational cohort study of 25 client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed AP and 28 otherwise healthy dogs with similar body condition scores. The serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. The serum concentrations of leptin (P = .0021), resistin (P = .0010), visfatin (P dogs with AP than healthy dogs, whereas the adiponectin concentration (P = .0011) was significantly lower. There were significant differences in the serum concentrations of leptin (P = .028) and adiponectin (P = .046) in survivors and nonsurvivors. After the disappearance of clinical signs, the concentrations of resistin (P = .037) and IL-1β (P = .027) decreased significantly, whereas the serum concentrations of leptin (P > .999), adiponectin (P = .11), visfatin (P = .83), IL-6 (P = .82), IL-10 (P = .82), IL-18 (P = .56), and TNF-α (P = .94) did not differ significantly. This study showed that dysregulation of adipokines might be involved in the pathogenesis of AP. In addition, leptin and adiponectin are likely to be associated with mortality rate in AP. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  18. Serum vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) concentrations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rania Naguib Abdel Mouteleb Abdel Reheem

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Vitamin D is suggested to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis. The degree of severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may be related to serum vitamin D concentration. Aim: Investigating vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) concentrations as predictors of the devel- opment and severity of ...

  19. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    types of oral contraceptives, elevation was more pronounced among women taking oral contraceptives with antiandrogen effective progestins like antiandrogens or third generation oral contraceptives containing desogestrel. Further investigation is required to shed light on the possible role of high serum......OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer...... progestin compounds in oral contraceptives on serum copper concentration. This issue is of particular interest in the light of recent findings of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing newer progestins like desogestrel compared to users of other oral...

  20. Major determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jeong Uk; Ha, Hun Young; Choi, Bo Youl

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that determine serum homocysteine concentrations in Korean population. In a community-based study, 871 participants completed detailed questionnaires and physical examination. We found that increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine significantly increased the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. However, hormonal and behavioral factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, and sedentary time) were not associated with the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was steeply increased in subjects with two or more risk factors among four selected risk factors (deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, elevated creatinine, and family history of stroke) compared to subjects who did not have any risk factors, especially subjects over the age of 65 yr (odds ratio [OR], 33.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.71-302.0 in men; OR, 39.2; 95% CI, 7.95-193.2 in women). In conclusion, increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine are important determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations with interaction effects between these factors.

  1. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (ptestosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  2. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference.

  3. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  4. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  5. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations

  6. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ohlsson (Claes); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); L. Stolk (Lisette); J.R.B. Perry (John); A. Koster (Annemarie); A.K. Petersen; J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); I.T. Huhtaniemi (Ilpo); G.L. Hammond (Geoffrey); M. Maggio (Marcello); A.D. Coviello (Andrea); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Heier (Margit); A. Hofman (Albert); K.L. Holliday (Kate); J.O. Jansson; M. Kähönen (Mika); D. Karasik (David); M.K. Karlsson (Magnus); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); Y. Liu (YongMei); Ö. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); T. Meitinger (Thomas); D. Mellström (Dan); D. Melzer (David); I. Miljkovic (Iva); M. Nauck (Matthias); M. Nilsson (Maria); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); S.R. Pye (Stephen); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Reincke (Martin); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Tajar (Abdelouahid); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J. Ulloor (Jagadish); J. Viikari (Jorma); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); T.-S. Wu; W.V. Zhuang; E. Ziv (Elad); O. Raitakari (Olli); M. Bidlingmaier (Martin); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A. Murray (Anna); F.H. de Jong (Frank); J. Murabito (Joanne); S. Bhasin (Shalender); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); R. Haring (Robin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTestosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from

  7. Radioimmunoassay to determine thyroglobulin concentration in the human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherban', A.I.; Shol'kina, L.V.; Ivanov, P.K.; Chinareva, I.V.; Piven', N.V.; Bogdanovich, A.F.; Guzov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    An assay for determining thyroglobulin (TG) concentration in human blood serum has been developed. TG content in patients with thyroid cancer was determined before and after operation. Good correlation of TG level with prevalence of tumoral process is noted. This system meets the requirements of WHO to radioimmune assays and can be used in medical practice

  8. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, e-mail: eralves@ipen.br, e-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas.Central Lab. Division and Laboratories of Medical Investigation (LIM-03)], e-mail: dlc.bioquimica@hcnet.usp.br; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: jaluul@uol.com.br, wiljac@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  9. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  10. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  12. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  14. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations are negatively correlated with serum 25(OHD concentrations in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan Mary E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OHD, an accurate measure of vitamin D status, is markedly greater in individuals with increased exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB light via sunlight or the use of artificial UV light. Aside from the known relationship between vitamin D and bone, vitamin D has also been implicated in immune function and inflammation. Furthermore, a mass of evidence is accumulating that vitamin D deficiency could lead to immune malfunction. Our overall objective was to study the relationship between vitamin D status (as determined by serum 25(OH D concentrations and inflammatory markers in healthy women. Methods This observational study included 69 healthy women, age 25–82 years. Women with high UVB exposure and women with minimal UVB exposure were specifically recruited to obtain a wide-range of serum 25(OHD concentrations. Health, sun exposure and habitual dietary intake information were obtained from all subjects. Body composition was determined by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. A fasting blood sample was collected in the morning and analyzed for serum 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (iPTH, estradiol (E2, cortisol, and inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 and -10 (IL-6, IL-10, and C-reactive protein (CRP]. Results Women with regular UVB exposure (Hi-D had serum 25(OHD concentrations that were significantly higher (p p Conclusion Serum 25(OHD status is inversely related to TNF-α concentrations in healthy women, which may in part explain this vitamin's role in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Results gleaned from this investigation also support the need to re-examine the biological basis for determining optimal vitamin D status.

  16. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    : In 516 subjects (79% of eligible cohort members) who were 13 years old, serum concentrations of PFASs and of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus were measured and were compared with data from the previous examination at 7 y. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models were applied...... showed higher vaccine antibody concentrations at 13 y than at 7 y. Therefore, separate analyses were conducted after exclusion of these two subgroups. Diphtheria antibody concentrations decreased at elevated PFAS concentrations at 13 y and 7 y; the associations were statistically significant...... for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 7 y and for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at 13 y, both suggesting a decrease by ∼25% for each doubling of exposure. Structural equation models showed that a doubling in PFAS exposure at 7 y was associated with losses in diphtheria antibody concentrations at 13 y of 10–30% for the five PFASs...

  17. Reduction in serum sphingosine 1-phosphate concentration in malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchard Punsawad

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin which is involved in the endothelial permeability and inflammation. Although the plasma S1P concentration is reportedly decreased in patients with cerebral malaria, the role of S1P in malaria is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malaria on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with clinical data in malaria patients. Serum S1P levels were measured in 29 patients with P. vivax, 30 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum, and 13 patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria on admission and on day 7, compared with healthy subjects (n = 18 as control group. The lowest level of serum S1P concentration was found in the complicated P. falciparum malaria group, compared with P. vivax, uncomplicated P. falciparum patients and healthy controls (all p < 0.001. In addition, serum S1P level was positively correlated with platelet count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in malaria patients. In conclusions, low levels of S1P are associated with the severity of malaria, and are correlated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. These findings highlight a role of S1P in the severity of malaria and support the use of S1P and its analogue as a novel adjuvant therapy for malaria complications.

  18. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  19. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Dragoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jason L Dragoo1, Tiffany N Castillo1, Tatiana A Korotkova1, Ashleigh C Kennedy1, Hyeon Joo Kim1, Dennis R Stewart21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Corthera Inc. San Mateo, CA, USAPurpose: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL strength in animal models.Methods: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears – basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball – were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05.Results: 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL. The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002. Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL; these differences were not significant (P = 0.53. Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2

  20. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona

    2017-04-01

    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  1. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  2. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-11-06

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Tarhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS. Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control. After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA, free (fPSA and complexed PSA (cPSA levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively. Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively. The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA.

  4. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  5. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of adipokines in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Schenck, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats. 56 healthy adult client-owned cats. Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. 1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin. EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

  6. The significance of serum concentration of PRL determination in schizophrenia cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhigang; Li Yuzhen; Wang Hongzhi; Cui Guofu

    1997-01-01

    The serum concentration of PRL is determined by radioimmunoassay on 32 patients with schizophrenia before and 4 or 8 weeks after treatment. The results show that the serum concentration of PRL in patients who have with schizophrenia is higher than normal control. The serum concentration of PRL in patients who have received chlorpromazine therapy is significantly higher than those who have received chlozepine therapy

  7. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated alkylates: calculation of benchmark doses based on serum concentrations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort were used. Serum-PFC concentrations were measured at age 5 years, and serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids were obtained at ages 7 years. Benchmark dose results were calculated in terms of serum concentrations for 431 children...

  8. Serum concentrations of PCBs and OCPs among prepubertal Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Hong, Young Sun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-02-01

    Although children are more vulnerable than adults to environmental hazards, due to their physiological and behavioral characteristics, few studies have assessed their internal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) among pre-pubertal children in Korea and examine their variation with age and gender. We analyzed a total of 51 POPs in 214 children (age range, 7-9 years), using data from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. To examine change over time, POP concentrations were measured at both 7 and 9 years of age in a sub-cohort of 26 children. The median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th to 75th percentiles) data for the sum of PCB congeners was 26.44 ng/g lipid (18.27-37.63 ng/g lipid). The median (IQR) concentration for the sum of OCPs was 74.82 ng/g lipid (51.11-112.45 ng/g lipid). Our results showed significant increases in serum concentrations of total PCBs with age (p = 0.0001), no gender dependence of total PCBs (p = 0.38) and total OCPs (p = 0.12), and strong correlations between individual POPs. Childhood exposure to POPs was relatively low compared to other studies carried out in different countries. However, even though the use of POPs has been banned since 2001, our results indicated that children in the general population are still exposed to various POPs. Because long-term, low-level exposure to POPs in the general population remains a concern for human health, future research should examine major routes of exposure and identification of risk factors.

  9. Dietary calcium intake influences the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) concentration and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna; Mughal, M Zulf; Patel, Pinal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary calcium intake will modify the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) with intact serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in apparently healthy Indian adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Apparently healthy adolescents aged 10-14 years (n=181), from Gujarat, western India. Study conducted from January 2012 to March 2014. Serum 25OHD concentrations and intact serum PTH concentrations (both using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay) were measured. Diet was recorded through 24 h diet recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V.2.1). To assess relationship between 25OHD and PTH, data were dichotomised according to median calcium intakes (520 mg/day) and relationship between serum 25OHD and PTH in the two subgroups was plotted. Subjects with calcium intakes above median (>520 mg/day) had lower intact serum PTH values for given serum 25OHD concentration while those with calcium intakes below median (PTH values for given serum 25OHD concentration. Serum 25OHD concentration was negatively correlated with intact serum PTH concentration at lower as well as higher calcium intakes (r=- 0.606 and -0.483, respectively, pPTH concentration for the given serum 25OHD concentrations were plotted. The plot revealed a negative shift with increasing calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake modifies the relationship between serum 25OHD concentrations and intact serum PTH concentrations. Thus, dietary calcium intake should be taken into account when assessing an individual's vitamin D status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, JöRg M.; Burgener, Iwan A.

    2015-01-01

    Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum a1-proteinase inhibitor

  11. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  12. Association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density measurements in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Turkish women. One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study in a University hospital clinic. Blood was drawn from women who had bone mineral density (BMD) measurements during routine visits. BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The serum paraoxonase concentration and serum lipid levels were measured. Women were divided into two groups: those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD and those with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae. Serum paraoxonase concentration was compared between the groups. The correlation between serum paraoxonase concentration and bone mass parameters was performed using Pearson's test. The paraoxonase concentration in the osteopenic group was significantly lower than in the group with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. The paraoxonase concentration was moderately correlated with total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels among early postmenopausal Turkish women. Early postmenopausal women with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae have significantly lower paraoxonase concentration than those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the osteoporosis risk factors and paraoxonase concentration during late postmenopausal years.

  13. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: Evidence for correlated genetic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J.H.D.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Sinke, M.R.T.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Lubke, G.H.; Kluft, C.; Neuteboom, J.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT

  14. Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are reduced in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    with general symptoms with abnormalities on biochemical tests that indicated acute liver disease. Furthermore, serum tryptase concentrations were negatively correlated with markers of acute liver damage or alcohol consumption (serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase). Atopy (skin prick...

  15. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons.Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB.Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method.Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients.Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  16. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons. Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB. Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method. Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients. Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  17. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  18. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  19. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) in experimental liver cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide: a biochemical and enzymehistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, M; Machnik, G; Oesterle, D; Zimmermann, T; Klinger, W

    1991-01-01

    Micro- and macronodular experimental cirrhosis-like liver lesion was induced in female rats by administration of 0.03% thioacetamide (TAA) in drinking water for 3 or 6 months. The activity of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and the distribution pattern of this enzyme within the liver structure were investigated 14 d after withdrawal of TAA in comparison to neonatal and adult normal liver. GGT activity was extremely high at birth. Chronic TAA administration led to a strong increase in hepatic GGT activity in dependence on duration of TAA administration in comparison to adult controls. In accordance to these results we observed by enzyme-histochemistry a small to moderate hepatocellular GGT activity after 3 months of TAA treatment. GGT activity was also demonstrable in epithelia of proliferated ductuli biliferi of single enlarged portal tracts. After 6 months of TAA administration the hepatocellular GGT activity was moderate to strong. It was demonstrable both in parenchymal (preneo-plastic) nodules and in cholangiocellular/cholangioductular proliferates. A GGT activity of mesenchymal cells was not demonstrable. We conclude that the increased hepatic GGT activity after chronic TAA administration can be correlated with the process of development of preneoplastic nodules. A relation between increased GGT activity and the process of cirrhogenesis does not seem to be probable in this animal cirrhosis model.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome, Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Factors Are Associated with Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. Methods The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18–65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and ...

  1. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish this, 19 dogs with newly diagnosed DM were compared to 20 otherwise healthy dogs. The serum concentrations of visfatin, leptin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly higher in diabetic dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in diabetic dogs. However, there were no significant differ...

  2. Serum Concentrations of Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Almes, K; Jewell, D E

    2016-05-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats an average of 17.0 months before serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations increased above the reference interval. To report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in dogs for detection of CKD before diagnosis by measurement of serum Cr. CKD dogs (n = 19) included those persistently azotemic for ≥3 months (n = 5), dogs that were azotemic at the time of death (n = 4), and nonazotemic dogs (n = 10). CKD dogs were compared with healthy control dogs (n = 20). Retrospective study, whereby serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry and serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in dogs with necropsy confirmed CKD. Serum SDMA increased before serum Cr in 17 of 19 dogs (mean, 9.8 months; range, 2.2-27.0 months). Duration of elevations in serum SDMA concentrations before the dog developed azotemia (N = 1) or before the dog died (N = 1) was not determined. Serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were linearly related (r = 0.84; P Serum SDMA (r = -0.80) and serum Cr (r = -0.89) concentrations were significantly related to glomerular filtration rate (both P serum SDMA as a biomarker for CKD allows earlier detection of kidney dysfunction in dogs than does measurement of serum Cr. Earlier detection might be desirable for initiating renoprotective interventions that slow progression of kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballada, F; Alonso, M; Vizcaino, L; Coutinho, V; Núñez, R; Vidal, C; Boquete, M; González-Quintela, A

    2013-01-01

    Increased tryptase concentrations are a risk marker for the severity of reactions to Hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy To investigate serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured in adult patients with HVA (n = 91, 37 of whom were beekeepers), beekeepers without HVA (n = 152), and control individuals from the general adult population (n = 246). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum tryptase levels were positively associated with beekeeping activities (P Beekeeping and HVA are independently associated with increased concentrations of serum tryptase.

  4. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Elissa K; Malik, Richard; Ilkin, William J; Snow, David; Sullivan, David R; Govendir, Merran

    2008-10-15

    To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (i.e., fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (> or = 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs. Cross-sectional study. 57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n=28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score. Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone. 19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration. Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

  6. Serum pepsinogen I and gastrin concentrations in children positive for Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, G; Vaira, D; Dell'Olio, D; Holton, J; Forni, M; Altare, F; Ansaldi, N

    1990-09-01

    Serum pepsinogen I, serum gastrin concentration, and inflammatory scores were measured in a population of 71 children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for investigation of upper abdominal pain. Forty four were initially colonised with Helicobacter pylori. The indices were measured before treatment (in 71 children), one month (in 41 children), and six months (in 21 children) after stopping treatment. Before treatment there was a significant correlation between serum pepsinogen concentration, total inflammatory score, and H pylori state, but no correlation between serum gastrin concentrations and H pylori state. Similarly, the total inflammatory score and serum pepsinogen concentrations were significantly correlated. There was no such correlation in children negative for H pylori. After treatment the inflammatory score improved in those patients in whom H pylori had been eradicated. There was also a significant fall in serum pepsinogen I and serum gastrin concentration in those patients in whom H pylori had been eradicated. These results were similar to those found six months after treatment had been stopped. These findings suggest that the serum pepsinogen I concentration could be considered a useful marker for gastritis and can be used as an index of severity of gastritis in H pylori positive subjects. The measurement of serum gastrin concentrations does not give useful information.

  7. The Genetic Architecture of Liver Enzyme Levels: GGT, ALT and AST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J.H.D.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Lubke, G.H.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often

  8. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.H.D.H. van; Moor, M.H.M. de; Geus, E.J.C. de; Lubke, G.H.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    %High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often

  9. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption, smok...

  10. Lower serum albumin concentration and change in muscle mass: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low albumin concentrations in older persons increase the risk of poor health outcomes, including functional decline. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum albumin concentration and skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) in old age. DESIGN: Serum

  11. Association of serum chemerin concentrations with the presence of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Xiao, Mochao; Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Qinghui

    2017-05-01

    Objective Chemerin, a newly discovered adipokine, is correlated with hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of serum chemerin concentrations with the presence of atrial fibrillation. Methods Serum chemerin concentrations were determined in 256 patients with atrial fibrillation and 146 healthy subjects. Atrial fibrillation patients were then divided into paroxysmal, persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation. Results Serum chemerin concentrations were significantly higher in atrial fibrillation patients compared with healthy controls. In subgroup studies, patients with permanent atrial fibrillation had higher serum chemerin concentrations than those with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, significant higher serum chemerin concentrations were observed in persistent atrial fibrillation patients compared with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations were associated with the presence of atrial fibrillation after logistic regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive relation of serum chemerin concentrations with body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, C-reactive protein and left atrial diameter. Conclusion Serum chemerin concentrations are associated with the presence of atrial fibrillation and atrial remodelling.

  12. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. D’Adamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10−9. Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841 in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations.

  13. Association of serum omentin-1 concentrations with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lianbing; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Hao, Tianyu

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Omentin is a newly discovered adipokine that possesses an anti-inflammatory function. The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum omentin-1 concentration with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. Serum concentrations of omentin-1 were measured in 128 women with preeclampsia and 96 women with uncomplicated pregnancies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Patients with preeclampsia had significantly lower serum concentrations of omentin-1 compared to healthy controls. In addition, those patients with severe preeclampsia had significantly lower concentrations of serum omentin-1 compared to those with mild preeclampsia. Simple linear regression analysis showed that in patients with preeclampsia the serum concentrations of omentin-1 showed significant correlation with body mass index (P preeclampsia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  15. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly refined diet that contains too few micronutrients has been recognized as the dominant factor in the rising incidence of diabetes and other insulin related conditions. Among the missing micronutrients, chromium has the greatest impact on insulin response. The objective of this study was to determine serum chromium ...

  16. Urinary ascorbic acid and serum concentrations of circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence or absence of ascorbic acid in urine and serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and albumin in HIV infected subjects. A total of 90 participants (30 Symptomatic HIV infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 30 Symptomatic HIV infected ...

  17. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-07-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age.

  18. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  19. Aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysate, urine and bone among patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Olsen, F; Heaf, J G

    1989-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) concentration in serum, urine, and dialysate was estimated in 21 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In 12 of the patients bone Al concentration was measured as well. Mean serum Al level was 32.4 +/- 21.0 micrograms/l. The Al concentrations...... to the dialysate was observed in all patients (-44.0 +/- 28.8 micrograms/24 h). There was a highly significant correlation between peritoneal Al MT and serum Al (p less than 0.001), actual Al consumption (p less than 0.05) and bone Al concentration (p less than 0.005) supporting the existence of an overflow...

  20. Genome-wide association study of serum selenium concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jian; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this ...

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with suspected acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-In; Kim, Hakhyun; Son, Purum; Kang, Ji-Houn; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2017-08-10

    The present study aimed to determine whether circulating serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) D] differed between healthy dogs and dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP). Twenty-two healthy dogs and twenty client-owned dogs with AP were enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of 25-(OH) D, blood ionized calcium (iCa), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Concentrations of serum 25-(OH) D and blood iCa in dogs with AP were significantly lower than those of healthy dogs, and serum concentrations of CRP in dogs with AP were significantly higher than those of healthy dogs. A significant difference in 25-(OH) D serum concentrations was observed between survivor and non-survivor dogs with AP. After resolution of clinical signs, concentrations of serum 25-(OH) D, blood iCa, and serum CRP did not differ compared to those before treatment. This study shows that dogs with AP exhibit decreased 25-(OH) D levels, which might be associated with calcium imbalances and mortality rate in canine AP.

  2. Serum uric acid concentration in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus during diet or glibenclamide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate serum uric acid concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a case control study conducted in Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul over a period of one year starting from January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2006. Serum glucose concentration and uric acid concentration were measured in both control and patient's groups (group 1 patients on diet therapy, group 2 patients on glibenclamide therapy and group 3 involve naturopathic patients). Serum glucose concentration was high in the diabetic groups as compared with the control group (P 0.2) except in group-3 (P<0.05). A negative correlation was reported between hyperglycemia and uric acid concentration of the different groups. Serum uric acid concentration is slightly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients particularly in the complicated patients with peripheral neuropathy and this may be due to the oxidative stress that decreases the antioxidant capacity of the body involving uric acid. (author)

  3. Gamma glutamyl transferase is an independent determinant for the association of insulin resistance with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Bangladeshi adults: Association of GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Rahman Shah, Md Mijanur; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and is frequently associated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) syndrome. Recently serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) has been considered as surrogate marker of NAFLD leading to oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. In the present study we examined the association of serum GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 subjects were recruited who came for their routine health check up in the BIHS Hospital, Darussalam, Dhaka, Bangladesh. After whole abdomen ultrasonography, 62 were diagnosed as non-NAFLD and 48 were NAFLD subjects. Serum glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase method, lipid profile and liver enzymes by enzymatic colorimetric method, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), serum insulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HOMA-IR was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). NAFLD subjects had significantly higher levels of GGT and HOMA-IR as compared to their non-NAFLD counterparts. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association of HOMA-IR with GGT after adjusting the effects of waist circumference (WC) and HbA1c. In binary logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and GGT were found to be significant determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the effects of WC and HbA1c. These results suggest that elevated levels of GGT and insulin resistance are more likely to develop NAFLD and thus support a role of these determinants in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrow, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Thomas A; Houde, Susan Crocker; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Scollin, Patrick A; Handelman, Garry; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2006-10-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are reported to be associated with a reduced incidence of age-related macular degeneration. A rich source of lutein and zeaxanthin in the American diet is the yolk of chicken eggs. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5 wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids, and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals >60 y of age. In a randomized cross-over design, 33 men and women participated in the 18-wk study, which included one run-in and one washout period of no eggs prior to and between two 5-wk interventions of either consuming 1 egg or egg substitute/d. Serum lutein 26% (P egg/d compared with the phase prior to consuming eggs. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were not affected. These findings indicate that in older adults, 5 wk of consuming 1 egg/d significantly increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations without elevating serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

  5. The determination of serum and urinary endocan concentrations in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloglu, Esra; Aksoy, Hulya; Aksoy, Yılmaz; Ozkaya, Fatih; Akcay, Fatih

    2016-11-01

    Background Endocan (endothelial cell-specific molecule-1) is a proteoglycan and plays an important role in angiogenesis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate of serum and urinary concentrations of endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 in bladder cancer. Methods The study included 50 bladder cancer patients, 50 with urinary tract infection and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results In bladder cancer group, serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were significantly higher than in the healthy subjects ( P = 0.003 and P bladder cancer and urinary tract infection groups in terms of serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations. Urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were higher than those of corresponding serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations ( P bladder cancer and urinary tract infection groups, P = 0.002 for healthy subjects). In bladder cancer group, there was a positive correlation between serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations ( r = 0.32, P = 0.002). For serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1, sensitivity and specificity were 50%, and 77%, and for urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1, 62%, and 71%, respectively. Conclusion Serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations increase in bladder cancer. This parameter also increases in serum and urine of cases with urinary tract infection. That urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 values were higher than serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 values in all groups may be attributed to direct exfoliation of epithelial cells in bladder to urine.

  6. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  7. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  8. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after 131 I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before 131 I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats

  9. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  10. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii) the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii) selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C), SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A) and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A). A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  11. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals.The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables.The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations.Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Serum-Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Atherosclerotic Diseases in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Soltau

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic changes of arteries are the leading cause for deaths in cardiovascular disease and greatly impair patient's quality of life. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a signaling sphingolipid that regulates potentially pro-as well as anti-atherogenic processes. Here, we investigate whether serum-S1P concentrations are associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD and carotid stenosis (CS.Serum was sampled from blood donors (controls, N = 174 and from atherosclerotic patients (N = 132 who presented to the hospital with either clinically relevant PAD (N = 102 or CS (N = 30. From all subjects, serum-S1P was measured by mass spectrometry and blood parameters were determined by routine laboratory assays. When compared to controls, atherosclerotic patients before invasive treatment to restore blood flow showed significantly lower serum-S1P levels. This difference cannot be explained by risk factors for atherosclerosis (old age, male gender, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes or smoking or comorbidities (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney insufficiency or arrhythmia. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that S1P has more power to indicate atherosclerosis (PAD and CS than high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. In 35 patients, serum-S1P was measured again between one and six months after treatment. In this group, serum-S1P concentrations rose after treatment independent of whether patients had PAD or CS, or whether they underwent open or endovascular surgery. Post-treatment S1P levels were highly associated to platelet numbers measured pre-treatment.Our study shows that PAD and CS in humans is associated with decreased serum-S1P concentrations and that S1P may possess higher accuracy to indicate these diseases than HDL-C.

  13. Current halogenated flame retardant concentrations in serum from residents of Shandong Province, China, and temporal changes in the concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yulong; Li, Peng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qinghua

    2017-05-01

    The residents of Shandong Province, China, are exposed to high concentrations of halogenated flame retardants because large amounts of halogenated flame retardants are produced in the province. We determined the concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), seven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and the two dechlorane plus isomers (DPs) in serum from residents of Shandong Province. The aim was to identify temporal trends in the concentrations of these pollutants. The mean total concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs and DPs were 41, 2.2 and 2.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2014, and were 32, 3.5 and 3.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2015, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether was the dominant PBDE congener in all of the samples. The novel brominated flame retardant and dechlorane plus concentrations were between one and two orders of magnitude lower than the PBDE concentrations. The PBDE concentrations in serum decreased significantly between 2007 and 2015, but the pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and dechlorane plus concentrations were relatively stable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish this, 19 dogs with newly diagnosed DM were compared to 20 otherwise healthy dogs. The serum concentrations of visfatin, leptin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly higher in diabetic dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in diabetic dogs. However, there were no significant differences in the IL-10 and resistin levels between groups. The serum leptin concentrations in diabetic dogs with and without concurrent disorders differed significantly. Treatment with insulin induced a significant decrease in IL-6 in diabetic dogs without concurrent disorders. These results show that the clinical diabetic state of dogs could modulate the circulating visfatin and adiponectin concentrations directly, while upregulation of leptin was probably a result of concurrent disorders rather than an effect of persistent hyperglycemia as a result of DM.

  15. Serum concentrations of buprenorphine after oral and parenteral administration in male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the most commonly used drug for peri-operative pain relief in laboratory rodents. The systemic concentrations of buprenorphine were measured in mice following administration intravenously (IV), subcutaneously (SC), orally by gavage and by voluntary ingestion, to determine the post-administration...... serum concentration of buprenorphine. Voluntarily ingested buprenorphine resulted in long-lasting high serum concentrations, as did oral gavage administration (24h serum concentration: 110ngh/mL for both routes of administration). In contrast, buprenorphine administered parenterally remained...... in the circulation for a substantially shorter time (24h serum concentration for IV and SC were 40ngh/mL and 30ngh/mL, respectively). This marked difference was probably due to the higher dose used for oral administration, which is regarded necessary for sufficient analgesic effect, and to the slower absorption...

  16. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  17. Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation

  18. Determination of Voriconazole Concentrations in Serum by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alisha; Leung-Pineda, Van

    2016-09-01

    Voriconazole is a broad spectrum triazole antifungal drug used to treat systemic fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole is necessary for achieving maximal efficiency without inducing toxic side effects. Other publications have reported methods for measuring voriconazole in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we report for the first time a method for the measurement of voriconazole in serum samples using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Protein precipitation with methanol was used to extract the antifungal that was derivatized with BSTFA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and analyzed by GC-MS. Linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and drug interferences were evaluated for this assay. Our method was linear up to 10 μg/ml of voriconazole. The LOQ was determined to be 0.4 μg/ml. CV for between-day precision was 10% error in measurement. To our knowledge, we report here the first GC-MS method for voriconazole measurement with acceptable performance. We hope that this method allows clinical laboratories without HPLC or LC-MS/MS instrumentation to measure voriconazole. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Liver Enzyme Levels: GGT, ALT and AST

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were ass...

  20. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wei; Yang Yuzhi; Li Xianhou; Feng Kun; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The serum adiponectin concentrations were measured with RIA in 163 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 50 controls. Results: In the diabetic patients, serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with macro albuminuria (n = 54) than those inpatients with microalbuminuria (n = 57) (P <0.01), normal albuminuria (n = 52) and controls (P < 0.001). Adiponectin concentrations were higher in patients with micro albuminuria than in patients with normal albuminuria (P < 0.05 ). Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly positively correlated with serum creatinine, HbA1c, TC, SBP, DBP, TG and UAER levels (P < 0.05), and adiponectin concentrations were not obviously correlated with age, HDL-C levels and BMI (P > 0.05). Adiponectin concentrations were higher in women than in men, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin concentrations are increased in type 2 diabetic patients with advanced nephropathy. The kidney seems to be involved in the metabolism and excretion of adiponectin. Adiponectin may play important roles in the onset and development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  1. Nutrient and food intake in relation to serum leptin concentration among young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Mitsuyo; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Goda, Toshinao; Oka, Jun; Baba, Keiko; Ohki, Kazuko; Watanabe, Reiko; Sugiyama, Yoshiko

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating leptin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We examined cross-sectional associations between nutrient and food intake and serum leptin concentration in young Japanese women. Subjects were 424 female Japanese dietetic students 18-22 y of age. Intake of macronutrients (protein, total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and carbohydrate), dietary fiber, and 12 food groups was assessed with a validated, self-administered, comprehensive, diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. For nutrients, only dietary fiber was a significant determinant of serum leptin concentration. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with lower serum leptin concentration independent of potential confounding factors, including body mass index (mean serum leptin concentrations in the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary fiber intake were 8.6 and 7.5 ng/mL, respectively; P for trend = 0.026). Vegetables and pulses were the only foods significantly associated with serum leptin concentration, with higher intakes independently associated with lower concentrations (mean serum leptin concentrations in the lowest and highest quintiles of intake were 8.1 and 7.0 ng/mL, P for trend = 0.007, for vegetables and 8.8 and 7.6 ng/mL, P for trend = 0.019, for pulses, respectively). Intake of dietary fiber, vegetables, and pulses showed an independent inverse association with serum leptin concentration in a group of young Japanese women.

  2. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  3. Factors Influencing Serum Concentrations of Immunoglobulin D in the Adult Population: An Observational Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, I; Rabuñal, N; Alvela, L; Pérez, L-F; Vidal, C; Alonso, M; Sopeña, B; Gude, F; Gonzalez-Quintela, A

    2017-04-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunological factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (100 mg/l in 39 cases (9.4%). Median IgD was 21.9 mg/l. Serum IgD concentrations were negatively associated with age and positively associated with smoking, after adjustment for potential confounders. Overweight individuals showed lower concentrations of IgD than did normal-weight individuals. Atopy (positivity of skin tests to aeroallergens) was not significantly associated with IgD concentrations, although non-symptomatic atopics showed higher IgD concentrations. No consistent association was observed between serum IgD concentrations and gender, metabolic syndrome, or alcohol consumption. No significant association was found between baseline IgD concentrations and development of either allergic or immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  4. Alterations in serum amino acid concentrations in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; Allenspach, Karin; Fascetti, Andrea J; Larsen, Jennifer A; Hall, Edward J

    2018-03-31

    Certain amino acids are decreased in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and supplementation with the same amino acids has shown beneficial effects in animal models of IBD. Currently, the amino acid status of dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is unknown. To determine if serum amino acid concentrations are abnormal in dogs with PLE and correlated with clinical and laboratory variables and outcome. Thirty client-owned dogs diagnosed with PLE and 12 apparently healthy dogs seen at Bristol Veterinary School. Retrospective study using stored residual serum from fasted dogs with PLE, collected at the time of diagnostic investigation and from apparently healthy dogs. Serum was analyzed for 30 amino acids using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Serum tryptophan concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with PLE (median, 22 nmol/mL; range, 1-80 nmol/mL) compared with apparently healthy control dogs (median, 77.5 nmol/mL; range, 42-135 nmol/mL, P PLE and apparently healthy. Serum tryptophan concentrations were also significantly correlated with serum albumin concentrations in dogs with PLE (P = .001, R 2 = 0.506). Decreased serum tryptophan concentration might play a role in the pathogenesis of canine PLE or be a consequence of the disease. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Relationship between normal serum creatinine concentration and periodontal disease in Japanese middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Kushiyama, Mitoshi; Murakami, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis has been shown to be closely related to diabetes, which was recently found to be associated with lower serum creatinine. Conversely, several studies have suggested a positive relationship between periodontitis and abnormally high concentrations of serum creatinine associated with renal dysfunction, seemingly contradicting the above. This study evaluates periodontal status and serum levels of creatinine within the normal range to resolve this apparent contradiction. A comprehensive health examination of 907 Japanese males, 49 to 59 years old, was performed from 2000 to 2002. A blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein after an overnight fast. The periodontal parameters were periodontal probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL). We examined the association between serum creatinine concentration within the normal range and periodontal parameters. Serum creatinine concentration within the normal range was inversely correlated with mean PD and mean AL. In multivariate linear regression analyses, every 0.1-mg/dL increment in serum creatinine concentration was associated with a 0.064-mm decrease in both mean PD and mean AL (P serum creatinine concentration and periodontal disease.

  6. Determination of chicken and turkey plasma and serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, C B; Latimer, K S; Kircher, I M; Brown, J

    1989-01-01

    Plasma and serum protein concentrations were determined in chickens and turkeys by refractometry (with human and veterinary refractometers) and by the biuret method. Chicken and turkey serum protein values were significantly lower than respective plasma protein values according to both methods. Refractometer readings for both plasma and serum correlated closely with the results of the biuret test (r2 = 0.72 to 0.97). These findings indicate that plasma and serum protein values may be determined accurately in chickens and turkeys with a handheld refractometer.

  7. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon; Rim, Hark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimate...

  8. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty?eight client?owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...

  9. Synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and body mass on serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Tomé, Santiago; Fernandez-Merino, Carmen; Rey, Jesus; Meijide, Luis; Gude, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Cytokeratin-18 is an essential component of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells (including hepatocytes). Serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen [TPS]) are used as a marker of epithelial neoplasms. Here, we investigated the potential interaction between alcohol and obesity in relation to serum TPS concentrations. Alcohol consumption, body mass index, and components of metabolic syndrome were measured in a random sample (n = 420) of the adult population (aged 18 to 92 years, 45% men) from a single municipality. Regular alcohol intake of >20 g/d (women) or >30 g/d (men) was considered risky drinking. Serum TPS was measured with a commercial immunoassay. Risky drinking was associated with increased serum concentrations of TPS, which was particularly evident among obese individuals. Among individuals without risky drinking, TPS concentrations were similar for all levels of body mass. Conversely, among risky drinkers, serum TPS concentrations increased in parallel with body mass (p = 0.002). The odds ratio of a high (>100 U/l) TPS concentration for the combination of risky drinking and obesity was greater than the additive effect of the 2 separate factors, after adjusting for age and sex. A similar interaction was observed between risky drinking and abdominal adiposity, a major component of the metabolic syndrome. Serum TPS concentrations were correlated with markers of liver damage. Serum TPS was not superior to standard markers (gamma-glutamyl transferase and red blood cell mean volume) for the detection of risky drinking. There is a synergism between risky alcohol consumption and common metabolic disorders (particularly obesity) in relation to serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (TPS), which probably reflect liver disease. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

  11. Association of serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gehua; Ji, Xiaoyan; Jin, Ji; Bu, Shuyang

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Osteoprotegerin, a recently identified glycoprotein belonging to the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated to be correlated with angiogenesis. This study aims to determine whether serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin are associated with diabetic retinopathy. This study consisted of 254 diabetic patients (100 without diabetic retinopathy, 64 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 90 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 62 control subjects. Serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients were significantly elevated compared with those of the other three groups. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients showed elevated concentrations of serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin compared with patients without diabetic retinopathy. In addition, control subjects had significantly lower serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations compared with diabetic patients without retinopathy, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients and proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations are associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Serum lipid and glucose concentration in relation to some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Srum lipide et niveau du glucose sont en grande partie dtermins par ou lis aux certains physique physiologique et variables/paramtres biochimiques. Donc, l\\'objet de cette tude est de dterminer les niveaux de srum lipide et du glucose et le rapport entre le srum lipide et concentration du glucose et des ...

  13. Physiological serum copper concentrations found in malignancies cause unfolding induced aggregation of human serum albumin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Asim; Furkan, Mohd; Naseem, Imrana

    2017-12-15

    Malignancies are characterized by several drastic metabolic changes, one of which is a progressive rise in the levels of serum copper. This rise in serum copper is documented across all malignancies and across malignancies in several species. This study aims to explore in vitro the effect of increased copper levels on the structure of the blood protein human serum albumin. Exposure of human serum albumin to physiologically relevant copper concentrations for 21 days resulted in structural modifications in the protein which were evident by changes in the intrinsic florescence. A loss of the predominantly alpha helical structure of human serum albumin was recorded along with a tendency to form protein aggregates. This aggregation was characterized by Thioflavin T and Congo Red assays. Rayleigh light scattering and turbidity assays confirmed aggregation. The aggregates were visually confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report implicating increased copper levels as a cause of aggregation of blood proteins in malignancies. The physiological and biochemical implications of this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Serum free amino acid concentration in hepatic lipidosis of dairy cows in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibano, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-04-01

    Blood samples were taken from eight multiparous cows at a dairy farm on eight occasions between the prepartum period and peak lactation to study the serum concentrations of amino acids and biochemical constituents. The cows were classified as having either severe hepatic lipidosis (HL) or non-hepatic lipidosis (non-HL) according to their clinical condition after calving and changes in serum biochemical parameters. The serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were higher in the HL group than in the non-HL group (ANOVA: plipidosis.

  15. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  16. Serum leptin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malecha-Jedraszek Arleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of early type 2 diabetes (DM2 and obesity detection, it is useful to reevaluate leptin role in these conditions. Our study aimed at investigating circulating leptin concentrations in a group of patients with DM2, and at assessing in detail whether leptin concentrations correlate with selected biochemical, clinical parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with DM2 and in healthy volunteers. In our work, we analysed samples and data drawn from 71 patients aged 61.4 ± 11.7 years, who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, as well as from a healthy control group (HC consisting of 51 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.8 ± 13.7 years. Therein, the concentration of leptin in the DM2 patients was significantly higher than in the HC (p < 0.01, with median value of 16.59 (IQR 8.58-33.39 ng/ml in the DM2, vs median value of 6.66 (IQR 4.52-21.40 ng/ml in the HC. In the analysis of variance, higher leptin concentrations were revealed in the DM2 group as compared to the HC, and this figure remained significant after adjusting for gender and age (p < 0.001. Moreover, it was independent of HOMA-IR (p = 0.003. However, the differences in leptin levels between the groups disappeared when additional adjustments for anthropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference were applied (p = 0.088. Beyond the aforementioned, significant positive correlations were found in the DM 2 group between leptin level and CRP (r=0.256; p < 0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.345; p < 0.01. Among the selected variables, only gender and BMI were included in the predictive model explaining the variability of leptin, and, in total, were responsible for 72.6% of the original variation of the studied adipocytokine. The results of this study have led to conclusion that leptin may participate in the complex pathogenesis of DM2 and be a predictor of the development of this disease. As higher concentrations of leptin coexist with obesity, and this

  17. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...

  18. Correlation between serum homocysteine concentration and severity of mitral valve disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Min; Jeong, Da-Min; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Seung-Gon; Han, Jae-Ik; Park, Hee-Myung

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure serum homocysteine concentrations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and identify any association between this variable and stage of MMVD. ANIMALS 53 client-owned dogs with MMVD and 10 healthy control Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs with MMVD were allocated to 3 groups in accordance with the staging system for chronic valvular heart disease in dogs and cats of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Blood samples were collected from all dogs, and serum homocysteine and cardiac troponin 1 concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay and chemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. Analyte values were tested for associations with each other and with stage of MMVD. RESULTS A significant correlation was identified between serum homocysteine concentration and stage of MMVD. Mean ± SD concentrations were 6.72 ± 1.65 μmol/L for control dogs, 13.37 ± 4.16 μmol/L for dogs with stage B MMVD, 18.86 ± 6.73 μmol/L for dogs with stage C disease, and 28.26 ± 4.48 μmol/L for dogs with stage D disease. In addition, serum homocysteine concentration was correlated with serum cardiac troponin 1 (r = 0.34) and creatinine (r = 0.46) concentrations, systolic blood pressure (r = 0.57), and left atrium-to-aortic root ratio (r = 0.28), all of which were positively correlated with stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serum homocysteine concentrations of dogs with MMVD were significantly higher than those of control dogs, and significant correlations were identified between these values and several risk factors for heart failure. Measurement of serum homocysteine concentration may be useful in the prediction of severity of disease in dogs with MMVD.

  19. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall......BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...

  20. Serum canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia rossi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S. Köster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L – 475.5 µg/L on admission (n = 87 and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L – 434.0 µg/L on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40. Twenty-four dogs (28% had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L at admission with 13 dogs (32.5% presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L – 571.5 µg/L; n = 53, which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L – 131.8 µg/L; n = 32 (P = 0.018. This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.

  1. Serum canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia rossi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Liza S; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-08-13

    Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL) in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L - 475.5 µg/L) on admission (n = 87) and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L - 434.0 µg/L) on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40). Twenty-four dogs (28%) had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L) at admission with 13 dogs (32.5%) presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L - 571.5 µg/L; n = 53), which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L - 131.8 µg/L; n = 32) (P = 0.018). This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.

  2. Concentration of amoxicillin in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta after vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba-Szczudlik, Julia; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Różańska, Hanna; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta, 2 h following vaginal administration and the factors influencing the drug level. Twenty-eight full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective cesarean delivery were included in the study. Vaginal suppositories containing 250 mg of amoxicillin were administered 2 h prior to the operation. Amoxicillin levels were determined using the diffusion microbial assay. The amoxicillin level in amniotic fluid was significantly higher in comparison to that of maternal serum, cord blood or the placenta. Maternal age positively and gestational weight gain negatively correlated with the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum. The maternal serum hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were positively correlated with amoxicillin concentration in the amniotic fluid. Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal serum and cord blood amoxicillin levels. Hypertensive women had significantly higher amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, and women with thrombocytopenia presented significantly higher cord blood amoxicillin concentrations. Amoxicillin presented poor concentration in maternal-fetal compartments after vaginal administration, but the factors influencing the drug level in different compartments require further investigation.

  3. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; P<.0001), and higher TmP per GFR (2.77 ± 0.72 vs. 2.43 ± 0.78 mg/dl; P<.0001) than those not treated with diuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  4. Cross sectional study of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Natalie R; Burgert, Stephen L; Murphy, Gwen A; Brockman, John D; White, Russell E; Lando, Justus; Chepkwony, Robert; Topazian, Mark D; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Mwachiro, Michael M

    2017-12-08

    Low serum selenium status has been associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). East Africa is a region of high ESCC incidence and is known to have low soil selenium levels, but this association has not previously been evaluated. In this study we assessed the association of serum selenium concentration and the prevalence of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC, in a cross-sectional study of subjects from Bomet, Kenya. 294 asymptomatic adult residents of Bomet, Kenya completed questionnaires and underwent endoscopy with Lugol's iodine staining and biopsy for detection of ESD. Serum selenium concentrations were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between serum selenium and ESD were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean serum selenium concentration was 85.5 (±28.3) μg/L. Forty-two ESD cases were identified (14% of those screened), including 5 (12%) in selenium quartile 1 (Q1), 5 (12%) in Q2, 15 (36%) in Q3, and 17 (40%) in Q4. Higher serum selenium was associated with prevalence of ESD (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.05-8.74) and this association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.06-14.19). This is the first study to evaluate the association of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in an African population at high risk for ESCC. We found a positive association between higher serum selenium concentration and prevalence of ESD, an association contrary to our original hypothesis. Further work is needed to better understand the role of selenium in the etiology of ESCC in this region, and to develop effective ESCC prevention and control strategies.

  5. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy-induced rise in serum C-peptide concentrations in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rehfeld, Jens F; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy induces increased insulin production as a marker of improved beta-cell function in women with long-term type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 90 consecutive pregnant women with type 1...... diabetes. At 8, 14, 21, 27, and 33 weeks blood samples were drawn for measurements of A1C, C-peptide, and serum glucose. C-peptide (detection limit: 6 pmol/l) was considered stimulated at a corresponding serum glucose concentration >or=5.0 mmol/l. GAD antibody concentration was determined at 8 and 33 weeks...... in 35 women. RESULTS: C-peptide concentrations gradually increased throughout pregnancy regardless of serum glucose concentrations in the 90 women with a median duration of diabetes of 17 years (range 1-36 years). Among 35 women with paired recordings of stimulated C-peptide, C-peptide production...

  7. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  8. Analysis of 25(OHD serum concentrations of hospitalized elderly patients in the Shanghai area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Mao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find an association between basic characteristics, seasons as well as disease types and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations in Chinese patients. METHODS: We randomly selected 5470 Chinese patients with various diseases, who were hospitalized between May 2012 and August 2013 in Shanghai and analyzed their serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 (25 (OHD2 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentrations with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as well as their parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum creatinine blood levels. The resulting data were analyzed by linear regression and variance analyses or multivariate analysis with covariance. RESULTS: The 25(OHD serum concentrations were lowest in December. Among the subjects with a median age of 83.0 ± 16.0, the median 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3 and total 25(OHD serum concentrations were 1.00 ± 1.80 ng/ml, 12.20 ± 8.50 ng/ml and 14.80 ± 9.80 respectively, indicating a prevalent 25(OHD deficiency. According to our multivariate analysis of covariance, the factors affecting 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3 serum concentrations included age, creatinine, PTH, season and type of disease, whereas gender correlated only with 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD2 and D3 values correlated negatively with each other. Our results further revealed that 25(OHD3 levels were low while 25(OHD2 levels were high among patients with lung diseases, dyskinesia and coronary heart diseases. In addition, participants with diabetes and cerebral infarction had higher 25(OHD3 serum concentrations compared with lung disease patients. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D intake particularly during winter and summer seasons is important especially for elderly lung disease, dyskinesia and coronary heart disease patients to improve their quality of life.

  9. Changes of serum angiogenic factors concentrations in patients with diabetes and unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chun; Li, Shi-kang; Nong, Qin-ling; Du, Fang; Zhu, Li-guang; Zeng, Zhi-yu

    2013-02-19

    Diabetic microvascular changes are considered to be influenced by angiogenic factors. As a compensatory mechanism, the expression of some angiogenic factors are elevated in ischemic myocardium. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum angiogenic factors, and the association among these angiogenic factors, the severity of coronary artery stenosis and collateral vessels form in patients with diabetes and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). 42 patients with diabetes (diabetes group), 57 patients with UAP (UAP group), and 36 age-matched healthy people (control group) were selected. Serum concentrations of angiogenic factors were measured using cytokine array technology. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was scored using the angiographic Gensini score. Coronary collateral vessels were scored according to Rentrop's classification. No significant differences in the serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), angiogenin, angiostatin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were detected between control group and diabetes group. But in patients with diabetes complicated with UAP and in patients with UAP without diabetes, serum concentrations of VEGF and Ang-2 were elevated (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). Only serum Ang-2 concentrations were significantly correlated with Gensini score (r=0.585, p < 0.001), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r=0.501, p < 0.001), left ventricular end systolic diameter (r=0.563, p < 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.523, p < 0.001). Serum concentrations of VEGF and Ang-2 were increased, and diabetes didn't affect this increases in patients with UAP. Serum Ang-2 concentrations were correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis.

  10. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Avila, Jaqueline C; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P

    2017-01-31

    Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study's aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27-2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40-2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12-2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults.

  11. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  12. Association between serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primasari, A.; Sihombing, K. P.

    2018-03-01

    Serum concentration of [25(OH)D] in Indonesia is at low level although Indonesia is one of Asia country which has a tropical climate. Vitamin D as an immunomodulatory agent invitro and in animal studies. However, data from clinical studies involvement vitamin D to chronic periodontitis are still controversy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum concentration of [25(OH)D] and chronic periodontitis. Totally 45 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed. Spearman correlation models adjusted for subject and parameter included periodontal pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) are analyzed. Totally 51.11% person have serum concentration of [25(OH)D] 21-50ng/mL were called insufficiency, and 15.56% is deficiency. Mean values of PPD >3mm indicating moderate criteria, CAL >4mm meaning severe criteria, and mean grade of BOP >2 degrees means the interdental papilla appears to be filled with little or much blood. Spearman correlation test results showed an inverse correlation between serum concentration of [25(OH)D] to the value of PPD, CAL, and BOP, however, was not statistically significant (r PPD -0.09; r CAL -0.118; r BOP 0.001, p>0.05). Insufficiency serum concentration of 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was not associated significantly with PPD, CAL, and BOP of chronic periodontitis.

  13. Basal Serum Cortisol Concentration as a Screening Test for Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bovens, C.; Tennant, K.; Reeve, J.; Murphy, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. Objectives To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Animals Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Methods Retro...

  14. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations and atrophic gastritis in older New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T J; Venn, B J; Skeaff, C M; Williams, S M

    2005-02-01

    To determine the serum vitamin B(12) status of older New Zealanders and to assess the impact of atrophic gastritis on vitamin B(12) status. A cross-sectional nationally representative population-based survey. Serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were used to assess vitamin B(12) status. The presence and severity of atrophic gastritis was classified using serum pepsinogen I and II. A total of 466 noninstitutionalized urban and rural dwelling New Zealanders aged 65 y or older who participated in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of deficient (gastritis was 6.7% (severe 3.1%, mild-moderate 3.6%). While atrophic gastritis increased the relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of having a deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentration by 21-fold (6-67) and five-fold (1-17), respectively, those who had atrophic gastritis made up only 33 and 6% of the participants with deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations. An intake of vitamin B(12) from food that exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (2.4 mug/day) did not protect against deficient (RR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2) or marginal (RR 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.7) serum vitamin B(12) status. Vitamin B(12) supplement users had a reduced risk of having deficient and marginal vitamin B(12) status (RR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There is a relatively high prevalence of deficient and marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations among older New Zealanders. However, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis was low in the New Zealand elderly compared with other surveys. Although atrophic gastritis was a risk factor for low vitamin B(12) status, it did not fully explain the prevalence of low serum vitamin B(12).

  15. Variability in lipoprotein concentrations in serum after prolonged storage at -20°C.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiedink, H.G.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of freezing and storage at − 20° C of serum on the measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation were investigated. Fresh, fasting, normolipidemic sera from 24 healthy individuals were divided into aliquots and stored, using different conditions. After storage, serum lipoproteins were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation, and cholesterol and triglycerides assayed enzymatically. Fr...

  16. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG refractometry of nonfractionated calf serum provides a strong estimate of IgG concentration and 7.8% Brix may be used as the cut point to identify failure of passive transfer in 1-d-old calves. Copyright © 2013 American

  17. Serum adiponectin concentration in relation to macronutrient and food intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating adiponectin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between macronutrient and food intake and serum adiponectin concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1047 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 y. Using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, we assessed intake of nutrients (protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and foods (rice, bread, noodles, potatoes, confectioneries, fats and oils, pulses, fish and shellfish, meats, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, coffee, green and oolong tea, black tea, and soft drinks) and glycemic index and load. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, none of the nutrients examined was a significant determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. There was no association for glycemic index or load. Coffee was the only food significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin concentration. Mean (SE) values of serum adiponectin concentration for each quartile of coffee intake were 12.4 (0.2), 12.4 (0.5), 12.5 (0.3), and 13.2 (0.3) μg/mL, respectively (P for trend = 0.04). In a group of young Japanese women, higher coffee intake was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  19. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-07-14

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid), as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of ART outcomes in relation to organochlorine exposure.

  20. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  1. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...

  2. Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, A.J.; Langlois, D.K.; Refsal, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies that included limited numbers of affected dogs have suggested basal cortisol concentrations ?55 nmol/L (2 ?g/dL) are sensitive, but nonspecific, for a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. A detailed assessment of the diagnostic utility of basal cortisol concentrations is warranted. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the utility of basal cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in a large number of dogs, including those with and without serum ele...

  3. Serum Concentrations of Leptin and Adiponectin in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H.?S.; Kang, J.?H.; Jeung, E.?B.; Yang, M.?P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) have not been investigated in detail. Objectives To determine whether serum concentrations of adipokines differ between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD and whether circulating concentrations depend on the severity of heart failure resulting from MMVD. Animals In the preliminary study, 30 healthy dogs and 17 client?owned dogs with MMVD, and in the subsequent study, 30 healthy dogs and 46...

  4. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....... concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate...

  5. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon; Rim, Hark

    2011-06-28

    The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. The values of eGFR urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356) and 40.5% (n = 553) of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612) of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  6. Markedly increased serum and urinary fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Igarashi, Kanji; Ogata, Nobuyuki; Oka, Yoko; Ichiyanagi, Kaoru; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2012-04-01

    To investigate fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis, serum fructose concentrations and daily urinary fructose excretion were measured in 23 patients with ketoacidosis (n = 16) and ketosis (n = 7) on the first day of admission. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with type 1, one patient with mitochondrial, and 4 patients with atypical diabetes. In 16 of the 23 patients, serum and urinary fructose could be assessed after starting treatments. Mean serum fructose concentration was 71.6 ± 108.1 μmol/l, and mean daily urinary fructose excretion was 352.1 ± 473.7 μmol/day. Serum fructose levels in patients with atypical diabetes were much higher (205.0 ± 213.3 μmol/l) than those in patients with type 1 diabetes (45.1 ± 44.5 μmol/l), while urinary fructose levels in atypical diabetes (249.7 ± 92.4 μmol/day) tended to be lower than those in type 1 diabetes (382.6 ± 533.2 μmol/day). Serum fructose concentrations decreased significantly (P diabetics with ketoacidosis and ketosis.

  7. Predicting age at menopause from serum antimüllerian hormone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Shakeri, Nezhat; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to estimate age at menopause using serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentration. We randomly selected 266 study participants from a pool of 1,265 eligible women in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort. We measured AMH levels three times at about 3-year intervals. There were 63 occurrences of menopause in our participants over an average of 6-year follow-up. We built an accelerated failure time model using serum AMH level at the start of follow-up to estimate age at menopause. The goodness of fit for the model was tested using Cox-Snell residuals and the Bland-Altman plot. We estimated ages at menopause for different levels of serum AMH concentration among women aged 20 to 49 years. For those who reached menopause, serum AMH concentrations about 6 years before the event provided fairly accurate estimates of the age at menopause. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable agreement between predicted and observed values. Serum AMH concentrations can reasonably forecast the age at menopause for individual women.

  8. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA ( P =0.02) and PGA ( P =0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum immunoglobulin G and M, and salivary immunoglobulin A concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develioglu, Omer Necati; Kucur, Mine; Ipek, Havva Duru; Celebi, Saban; Can, Gunay; Kulekci, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM, and salivary IgA concentrations. Blood and saliva samples were collected one week before and during the last week of Ramadan from healthy male volunteers. Albumin, total lymphocyte count, electrolytes, and IgG and IgM concentrations were determined in serum; salivary IgA concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements were also recorded. Samples were collected from 35 subjects (mean age 35.86 years, range 20-59 years). Weight, body mass index, albumin levels and the nutritional risk index decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting compared with before fasting. In addition, Na(+) and Cl(-) electrolyte levels were significantly decreased during Ramadan. Serum IgG concentrations decreased significantly during Ramadan compared with before fasting, but were still within the normal range. Salivary IgA concentrations also decreased significantly, whereas serum IgM levels did not change. Lymphocyte numbers increased significantly, but there was no correlation between Ig levels and lymphocyte count. Ramadan fasting did not result in severe immunological disturbances.

  10. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco; Rey, Jesus; Meijide, Luis; Fernandez-Merino, Carmen; Linneberg, Allan; Vidal, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption, smoking, and common metabolic abnormalities in adults. This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample from an adult population (n=420, age 18-92 years, 45% males) from a single municipality. Serum total tryptase was measured using a fluoro-enzyme immunoassay. The median tryptase concentration was 5.1 microg/L (range, 80 years. Female gender and heavy ethanol use were negatively and independently associated with tryptase concentrations. Tryptase was higher in individuals that were non-atopic, overweight, or had metabolic syndrome compared to individuals that were atopic, normal weight, or did not have the metabolic syndrome. However, these associations were attenuated after adjusting for age. Serum total tryptase concentrations in adults are not significantly modified by atopy status, but may be modified by lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption and gender. Serum total tryptase concentrations are particularly dependent on age.

  11. Serum γ-Glutamyl Transferase Is Inversely Associated with Bone Mineral Density Independently of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundγ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women, who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated.ResultsAs serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1 to the highest tertile (tertile 3, BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002.ConclusionSerum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.

  12. Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Arenas

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism's anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT.

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sabater, Sebastià; Bonet, Marta; Gascón, Marina; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Joven, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT) on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism’s anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT. PMID:29176871

  14. Effect of low doses of cosyntropin on serum cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda G; Behrend, Ellen N; Mealey, Katrina L; Carpenter, D Mark; Hickey, Kathy C

    2007-05-01

    To determine the lowest of 5 doses of cosyntropin (1.0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.05, or 0.01 microg/kg) administered IV that stimulates maximal cortisol secretion in clinically normal dogs. 10 clinically normal dogs. 5 dose-response experiments were performed in each of the dogs. Each dog received 5 doses of cosyntropin (1.0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 microg/kg) IV in random order (2-week interval between each dose). Serum samples for determination of cortisol concentrations were obtained before (baseline) and at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after cosyntropin administration. Compared with baseline values, mean serum cortisol concentration in the study dogs increased significantly after administration of each of the 5 cosyntropin doses. Mean peak serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower after administration of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 microg of cosyntropin/kg, compared with findings after administration of 0.5 and 1.0 microg of cosyntropin/kg. After administration of 0.5 and 1.0 microg of cosyntropin/kg, mean peak serum cortisol concentration did not differ significantly; higher doses of cosyntropin resulted in more sustained increases in serum cortisol concentration, and peak response developed after a longer interval. Administration of cosyntropin IV at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg induced maximal cortisol secretion in healthy dogs. Serum cortisol concentration was reliably increased in all dogs after the administration of each of the 5 doses of cosyntropin. These data should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill dogs.

  15. Various Oscillation Patterns of Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Concentrations in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ah Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 was originally identified as a paroxysm proliferator activated receptor-α target gene product and is a hormone involved in metabolic regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal variation of serum FGF21 concentration in obese and non-obese healthy volunteers.MethodsBlood samples were collected from five non-obese (body mass index [BMI] ≤23 kg/m2 and five obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 healthy young men every 30 to 60 minutes over 24 hours. Serum FGF21 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Anthropometric parameters, glucose, free fatty acid, insulin, leptin, and cortisol concentrations were also measured.ResultsThe serum FGF21 concentrations displayed various individual oscillation patterns. The oscillation frequency ranged between 6 and 12 times per day. The average duration of oscillation was 2.52 hours (range, 1.9 to 3.0 hours. The peaks and troughs of FGF21 oscillation showed no circadian rhythm. However, the oscillation frequency had a diurnal variation and was lower during the light-off period than during the light-on period (2.4 vs. 7.3 times, P<0.001. There was no difference in the total frequency or duration of oscillations between non-obese and obese subjects, but obese individuals had increased numbers of larger oscillations (amplitude ≥0.19 ng/mL.ConclusionVarious oscillation patterns in serum FGF21 concentration were observed, and reduced oscillation frequencies were seen during sleep. The oscillation patterns of serum FGF21 concentration suggest that FGF21 may be secreted into systemic circulation in a pulsatile manner. Obesity appeared to affect the amplitude of oscillations of serum FGF21.

  16. Serum Fructosamine Concentration in Uncontrolled Hyperthyroid Diabetic Cats Is within the Population Reference Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Gal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic cats with and without uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. A secondary goal was to determine the effect of sex, age, different populations of cats, and diabetes on the variability of fructosamine. We found that the mean (±SE serum fructosamine of hyperthyroid diabetic cats (332 ± 24 µmol/L, 95% CI 291–379 µmol/L was within the population-based reference interval (200–360 µmol/L and significantly lower in comparison to euthyroid diabetic cats (527 ± 10 µmol/L, 95% CI 515–553 µmol/L. Additionally, in this study, diabetes accounted only for approximately 50% of the variance in serum fructosamine, while age, sex, and population made a minor contribution to this variance. In conclusion, finding serum fructosamine that is within the population-based reference interval in an uncontrolled diabetic cat should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of concurrent hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the veterinary clinician should consider that serum fructosamine might be substantially affected by factors other than diabetes.

  17. Serum Fructosamine Concentration in Uncontrolled Hyperthyroid Diabetic Cats Is within the Population Reference Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Arnon; Trusiano, Brie; French, Adrienne F; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; MacNeill, Amy L

    2017-03-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic cats with and without uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. A secondary goal was to determine the effect of sex, age, different populations of cats, and diabetes on the variability of fructosamine. We found that the mean (±SE) serum fructosamine of hyperthyroid diabetic cats (332 ± 24 µmol/L, 95% CI 291-379 µmol/L) was within the population-based reference interval (200-360 µmol/L) and significantly lower in comparison to euthyroid diabetic cats (527 ± 10 µmol/L, 95% CI 515-553 µmol/L). Additionally, in this study, diabetes accounted only for approximately 50% of the variance in serum fructosamine, while age, sex, and population made a minor contribution to this variance. In conclusion, finding serum fructosamine that is within the population-based reference interval in an uncontrolled diabetic cat should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of concurrent hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the veterinary clinician should consider that serum fructosamine might be substantially affected by factors other than diabetes.

  18. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  19. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  20. Human Milk and Matched Serum Demonstrate Concentration of Select miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenyi; Dasgupta, Santanu; Corradi, John; Sauter, Edward R

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancers (PABCs), especially those diagnosed after childbirth, are often aggressive, with a poor prognosis. Factors influencing PABC are largely unknown. Micro(mi)RNAs are present in many human body fluids and shown to influence cancer development and/or growth. In six nursing mothers, we determined if breast cancer-associated miRNAs were (1) detectable in human breast milk and (2) if detectable, their relative expression in milk fractions compared to matched serum. We evaluated by quantitative PCR the expression of 11 cancer-associated miRNAs (10a-5p, 16, 21, 100, 140, 145, 155, 181, 199, 205, 212) in breast milk cells, fat and supernatant (skim milk), and matched serum. miRNA expression was detectable in all samples. For 10/11 miRNAs, mean relative expression compared to control (ΔCt) values was lowest in milk cells, the exception being miR205. Relative concentration was highest in the skim fraction of milk for all miRNAs. Expression was higher in skim milk than matched serum for 7/11 miRNAs and in serum for 4/11 miRNAs. miR205 expression was higher in all milk fractions than in matched serum. In conclusion, the expression of breast cancer-associated miRNAs is detectable in human breast milk and serum samples. The concentration is highest in skim milk, but is also detectable in milk fat and milk cells.

  1. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  2. Maternal age and serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavaldsen, Camilla; Fedorcsak, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Eskild, Anne

    2014-12-01

    To study whether maternal age is associated with serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. All vital pregnancies in gestational week 8 conceived by in vitro fertilization between February 1996 and February 2013 (n = 4472). Serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin were measured on day 12 after embryo transfer/day 16 following ovulation induction. Trends in geometric means of human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations by maternal age group were tested by linear regression analysis. We also studied the association of maternal age (years) with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations, and adjustments were made for number of embryos transferred, method of in vitro fertilization and year (period) of embryo transfer. Serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin. Geometric mean concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin decreased with increasing maternal age (p = 0.024, test for trend by weighted linear regression). Also, we estimated a significant negative association of maternal age with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (adjusted regression coefficient -0.011, standard error 0.003, p human chorionic gonadotropin in very early pregnancy decreased with maternal age. Since human chorionic gonadotropin is synthesized in trophoblast cells only, the lower human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in women of advanced age may reflect functional impairment or delayed proliferation of trophoblast cells in early pregnancy in these women. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of serum concentrations of melatonin in sheep exposed to different lighting regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollag, M.D.; Niswender, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    A specific and sensitive double-antibody radioimmunoassay for melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was developed. The least detectable concentration of melatonin standard was 10 pmolar (2.3 pg/tube) with 50 percent inhibition resulting when the concentration was 100 pmolar (23 pg/tube). Inhibition curves obtained with increasing quantities of melatonin or increasing quantities of chloroform extracts of ovine sera were parallel. Concentrations of melatonin could be accurately determined when 31 to 1000 pg were added to 1 ml ovine serum. Serum samples with melatonin concentrations of 1000 pg/ml, 500 pg/ml and 75 pg/ml had intra-assay coefficients of variation of 9.1 percent, 8.6 percent, and 17.4 percent, respectively. The respective inter-assay coefficients of variation were 22.7 percent, 18.1 percent, and 37.1 percent. Ewes exposed to a 12 h light:12 h dark lighting regimen demonstrated a circadian rhythm in serum concentrations of melatonin. Concentrations ranged from 10 to 30 pg/ml during periods of light to 100 to 300 pg/ml during periods of dark. During exposure to continuous light, the circadian rhythm was abolished and concentrations of melatonin were maintained at 10 to 50 pg/ml. When exposed to conditions of continuous dark the circadian rhythm persisted. A precipitous drop in serum concentrations of melatonin resulted when ewes experiencing peak melatonin concentrations were exposed to light. Concentrations returned to peak levels when the lights were turned off 3.5 h later

  4. Predictors of Serum Dioxin, Furan and PCB Concentrations among Women from Chapaevsk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. METHODS Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23–52 years were collected between 2003–2005 as part of the Russian Children’s Study. Serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs. PMID:20578718

  5. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  6. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chung Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR: 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.26–3.57; P=0.004. Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99–4.48, P=0.051. Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM.

  7. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Ren; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-3.57; P = 0.004). Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99-4.48, P = 0.051). Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM.

  8. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  9. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  10. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study. PMID:23392368

  11. Baseline serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L; Dean, J Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. None. Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study.

  12. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin (IL-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females, who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively. The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively. Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, primary progressive (PPMS, and secondary progressive (SPMS forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations.

  13. Breakthrough Pain Associated with a Reduction in Serum Buprenorphine Concentration during Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salili, Ali Reza; Müller, Daniel; Skendaj, Roswitha; Jehle, Andreas W; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    To describe a case of breakthrough pain associated with a reduction in serum buprenorphine concentration during dialysis. Pharmacokinetic sampling of total and free buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in an 80 year old male undergoing haemodialysis three times per week who received 5760 µg oral and transdermal buprenorphine daily was performed. The patient's serum albumin concentration was 23g/l (reference range: 35-52 g/l). Pharmacokinetic sampling revealed a free buprenorphine fraction of 32% (consistent with the hypoalbuminaemia), which was markedly reduced at the end of dialysis (free buprenorphine concentration 2.4 µg/l before vs. buprenorphine doses during dialysis to prevent significant falls in the concentration of active drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High YKL-40 serum concentration is correlated with prognosis of Chinese patients with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients' characteristics were compared using Pearson Chi-square test for rates of intratumoral staining, one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc comparison, or two-sample t-test for mean YKL-40 serum concentrations. Factors associated with overall survival were identified by univariate and multivariate cox-regression analyses. YKL-40 was elevated in approximately 75% of Chinese patients with breast cancer. A significantly higher percentage of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, and/or lymph node metastasis. Significantly higher mean YKL-40 serum concentrations were observed in patient subgroups with invasive lobular carcinoma (P<0.0167, higher TNM stage (P<0.001, and positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001. The estimated mean survival time of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors was significantly shorter than for patients with YKL-40 negative tumors (55.13 months vs 65.78 months, P = 0.017. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis identified a significant association of overall survival time with YKL-40 serum concentration. Patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had significantly shorter disease free survival times than those with YKL-40 negative tumors. We propose that the potential utility of YKL-40 intratumoral staining or serum concentration as a biomarker for breast cancer is greatest within 5 years of diagnosis.

  15. High YKL-40 Serum Concentration Is Correlated with Prognosis of Chinese Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Jinpeng; Xu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions) was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients’ characteristics were compared using Pearson Chi-square test for rates of intratumoral staining, one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc comparison, or two-sample t-test for mean YKL-40 serum concentrations. Factors associated with overall survival were identified by univariate and multivariate cox-regression analyses. YKL-40 was elevated in approximately 75% of Chinese patients with breast cancer. A significantly higher percentage of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, and/or lymph node metastasis. Significantly higher mean YKL-40 serum concentrations were observed in patient subgroups with invasive lobular carcinoma (P40 positive tumors was significantly shorter than for patients with YKL-40 negative tumors (55.13 months vs 65.78 months, P = 0.017). Multivariable Cox-regression analysis identified a significant association of overall survival time with YKL-40 serum concentration. Patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had significantly shorter disease free survival times than those with YKL-40 negative tumors. We propose that the potential utility of YKL-40 intratumoral staining or serum concentration as a biomarker for breast cancer is greatest within 5 years of diagnosis. PMID:23227243

  16. Serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, Folke; Vessby, Bengt; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in women of Amerindian origin. The risk of developing diabetes has been found to be related to the serum fatty acid composition in whites. We prospectively investigated the relation between the serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and changes in fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Peruvian Indian women who are characterized by hyperinsulinemia in comparison to white women. A 5-y follow-up study of 73 women with normal fasting plasma glucose values was undertaken by performing a survey in 1999 and a follow-up survey in 2004. The studied variables included anthropometric measurements, plasma insulin and leptin, dietary food consumption from 24-h recall, blood pressure, and serum fatty acid composition. The participants developed significantly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in 2004 compared with 1999 (P percentage of body fat, systolic blood pressure, and circulating triacylglycerol, insulin, leptin, and 16:1n-7 as independent determinants, 16:1n-7 and systolic blood pressure were the only significant determinants of plasma glucose concentration 5 y later. A high proportion of 16:1n-7 in serum is an independent predictor of high plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women. The reason for this association remains to be elucidated.

  17. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with

  18. Chicken mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene variants with influence on MBL serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Skjødt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    by southern blot analyses, and the differences in the serum concentrations of MBL were found to be of transcriptional origin according to real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. Several SNPs were discovered in the promoter and the 5' untranslated region of the chicken MBL gene which...

  19. Concentration of TNF-α in the peritoneal fluid and serum of endometriotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEDJA DANUDJA OEPOMO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to expose the relation between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in the peritoneal fluid and in the serum of endometriosis patients. It was conducted at Dr. Muwardi Hospital Surakarta. Twenty patients undergoing laparoscopic operation because of endometriosis indication (Endometriosis Group, 20 women (aged 23 to 40 who undergo interval sterilization by means of laparoscopic technique. During laparoscopic operation, peritoneal fluid is taken to examine TNF-α by ELISA technique. At the same time, the serum is also taken to examine TNF-α by the same technique. The research result indicated that by independent sample t-test, the TNF-α concentration in the Endometriosis Group is quite different from the control group (P=0.00. The simple linear regression test shows a strong positive one-way correlative relation between TNF-α concentration in the peritoneal fluid and TNF-α concentration in the serum in the Endometriosis Group. The research result indicated that the TNF-α concentration in the serum can be used as a reflection of endometriosis. A statistical test is done to find the limit value based on sensitivity and specification.

  20. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major

  1. Effects of aerobic activity on serum IgG concentration in male physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Arshadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic activity on Serum IgG concentration. Consequently, 10 male physical education students with age ranging from 21 to 24 years old and mean body mass index 22.22 kg m2 volunteered to participate in this study. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were obtained from subjects before and after aerobic activity. Changes in serum IgG concentration in pre-test and post-test were analyzed by dependent t-test using spss software. The results showed that aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. This study concludes that sub maximal aerobic activity does not affect on serum IgG concentration and there is no concern for athletes and coaches that sub maximal aerobic activity can impair immune function.

  2. Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sportsmen and untrained male adults. F.A. Niyi-Odumosu, O. A. Bello, S.A. Biliaminu, B.V. Owoyele, T.O. Abu, O.L. Dominic ...

  3. Studies on steroid hormones : V - periparturient progesterone concentration in the serum of zebu cows and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Ahmad, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the pattern of changes in progesterone concentration in zebu cows and buffaloes from India around the time of parturition. Blood samples from nine Haryana cows and nine Murrah buffaloes were collected through jugular vein puncture on different days before calving intervals. Serum samples were analysed for progesterone concentration by technique of RIA. It was found that the mean progesterone concentration during the last months of pregnancy was 2.0384 and 1.480 ng/ml serum in cows and buffaloes, respectively. The level was maintained till 48 hr prior to parturition and showed an abrupt fall to a basal level of 0.3 to 0.4 ng/ml serum within 24 hr after parturition in both these species. This basal level was maintained upto two weeks after delivery. The results of this study suggest that a sudden precipitous fall in serum progesterone concentration at the terminal stages of pregnancy may indicate impending premature delivery. (auth.)

  4. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...

  5. Cure of tuberculosis despite serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs below published reference ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Monica; Corti, Natascia; Müller, Daniel; Henning, Lars; Gutteck, Ursula; von Braun, Amrei; Weber, Rainer; Fehr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic target serum concentrations of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been well defined in clinical studies in tuberculosis (TB) patients. We retrospectively investigated the estimated maximum serum concentrations (eC max) of antituberculosis drugs and clinical outcome of TB patients with therapeutic drug monitoring performed between 2010-2012 at our institution, and follow-up until March 2014. The eC max was defined as the highest serum concentration during a sampling period (2, 4 and 6 hours after drug ingestion). We compared the results with published eC max values, and categorised them as either "within reference range", "low eC max", or "very low eC max".Low/very low eC max-levels were defined as follows: isoniazid 2-3/max levels were classified as "low" or "very low". The eC max was below the relevant reference range in 80% of isoniazid, 95% of rifampicin, 30% of pyrazinamide, and 30% of ethambutol measurements. All but one patient were cured of tuberculosis. Although many antituberculosis drug serum concentrations were below the widely used reference ranges, 16 of 17 patients were cured of tuberculosis. These results challenge the use of the published reference ranges for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  6. Increased serum neuron specific enolase concentrations in patients with hyperglycemic cortical ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1998-01-01

    A detrimental effect of hyperglycemia in ischemic brain has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments and it has been found that hyperglycemia in ischemic stroke is a predictor of poor outcome. We determined serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in 41 consecutive patients with a

  7. Variability in lipoprotein concentrations in serum after prolonged storage at -20°C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedink, H.G.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of freezing and storage at − 20° C of serum on the measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation were investigated. Fresh, fasting, normolipidemic sera from 24 healthy individuals were divided into

  8. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  9. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  10. Serum leptin concentration, obesity, and insulin resistance in Western Samoans: cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmet, P.; Hodge, A.; Nicolson, M.; Staten, M.; de Courten, M.; Moore, J.; Morawiecki, A.; Lubina, J.; Collier, G.; Alberti, G.; Dowse, G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure serum leptin concentrations in the Polynesian population of Western Samoa and to examine epidemiological associations of leptin with anthropometric, demographic, behavioural, and metabolic factors in this population with a high prevalence of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Cross sectional study, leptin concentration being measured in a subgroup of a population based sample. SUBJECTS: 240 Polynesian men and women aged 28-74 years were selected...

  11. Serum uric acid concentrations in a Xhosa community in the Transkei of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, P; Daynes, G; Soskolne, C L

    1976-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations were measured in specimens obtained from 479 respondents aged 15 and over during an epidemiological survey of bone and joint conditions in a tribal Xhosa community living in the Transkei, Southern Africa. Population SUA levels in the Xhosa were significantly lower than those previously observed in South Africa Negro groups in rural and urban environments. This finding agrees with the observations that population SUA concentrations tend to rise with increasing complexity of life style. PMID:1275585

  12. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p ... performance had significantly increased plasma concentrations of SAP, while the values for cognitive intact centenarians were within the normal range.......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...

  13. The Effect of Phytosterol on Serum Beta-Carotene Concentration of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dina-Keumala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of optic neuritic as recommended by the Optic Neuritic Treatment Trial (ONTT was intravenous methylprednisolon followed by oral prednisone. This study aims to describe characteristics and response to intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone treatment of optic neuritic patient in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. Method: The study was a parallel clinical trial, forty subjects with hipercholesterolaemia were selected using certain criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. Twenty subjects in phytosterol group received phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day and dietary counseling (P, while twenty subjects in counseling group received only dietary counseling (C. Serum total cholesterol and β-carotene concentration were assessed on day 0 and 42. Before and after treatment, dietary intake were assessed with 2x24 hour recall methods. Results: Seventeen subjects in P group and fourteen subjects in C group completed the study. There was no significant differences in baseline data both groups. After 42 days treatment, there was no significant differences in nutrients intakes in two groups except for β-carotene and phytosterol intakes in P group. There was a 9.17% significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentration in P group while no change was observed in the C group (p<0.05. Serum β-carotene concentration was increased significantly in P group, 0.44±0.376 μmol/L to 0.536(0.21–1.95 μmol/L, while there was no significant increased in C group, 0.493±0.349 μmol/L to 0.56±0.33 μmol/L. There was a significant difference in serum β-carotene concentration after adjusted with serum total cholesterol concentration between two groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dietary advice to consume an additionally of high β-carotene sources when consuming phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day for 42 consecutive days maintains serum β-carotene concentration while lowering serum total cholesterol concentration

  14. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  15. Specificity and sensitivity of serum canine pancreatic elastase-1 concentration in the diagnosis of pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Caroline S; Watson, Penny D; Jones, Boyd R

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of serum canine pancreatic elastase-1 (cPE-1) for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs. The study was prospective, assessing dogs presenting with clinical signs similar to pancreatitis. Sixty-one dogs were recruited (49 with pancreatic disease and 12 with non-pancreatic disease). There was no significant difference in serum cPE-1 between dogs with pancreatic disease and non-pancreatic disease. However, there was a significant difference in serum cPE-1 between severe acute pancreatitis and non-pancreatic disease. A cut-off value for serum cPE-1 > 17.24 ng/ml resulted in sensitivity of 61.4% and specificity of 91.7% for diagnosis of all types of pancreatic disease. The sensitivity rose to 65.85% and 78.26% for the diagnosis of all types of acute pancreatitis and severe acute pancreatitis, respectively. Serum cPE-1 is more sensitive at diagnosing severe acute pancreatitis than chronic or mild acute pancreatitis, and has a high positive likelihood ratio. Dogs with chronic pancreatitis tended to have lower serum cPE-1 concentration, suggesting decreased exocrine function.

  16. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  17. Radioimmunologic determination of the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The serum concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 95 normal individuals (41 women and 54 men), 20 to 65 years of age. Depending on sex and age, the tested individuals were divided in four groups: gr. I - 27 women, 20 to 40 years of age; gr. II - 14 women, 4O to 65 years of age; gr. III -35 men, 20 to 40 years of age, and group IV - 19 men, 40 to 65 years of age. The following mean serum CEA levels were obtained in normal individuals: Group I -6.8 +- 1.07 ng/ml; group II - 9.71 +- 1.46 ng/ml; group III - 4.9 +- 0.73 ng/ml; group IV - 7.5 +- 1.5 ng/ml. The CEA levels in the serum of normal individuals varied with age and sex, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p> 0.10). Normal values fo serum CEA concentrations in normal individuals were determined. These values are meant to be used for comparison with serum CEA values in patients with malignant diseases. (author)

  18. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A

    2016-01-01

    Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (<0.11 mmol/L) in 6/28 cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P < .001 for all groups). Elevations were mild in CKD and HT groups (median BHB 0.1 mmol/L for both groups, 80th percentile 0.12 and 0.11 mmol/L, respectively), but more marked in HL cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG <10 g/L). The sensitivity and specificity of STP at 5.5 g/dL were 76.3 and 94.4%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to plot the true positive rate against the false positive rate for consecutive %Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison of PBDE serum concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American children living in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers' levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child's breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits.

  1. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  2. Association of serum fetuin-A with valvular calcium concentration in rheumatic mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, Kumral; Basar, Nurcan; Cagli, Kerim; Armutcu, Ferah; Aylak, Firdevs; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Erden, Gonul; Kadirogullari, Ersin

    2010-09-01

    Fetuin-A is an acute-phase glycoprotein that inhibits ectopic calcification. The study aim was to assess serum fetuin-A levels in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD), and to evaluate the association of fetuin-A with the extent of mitral valve calcification, determined either echocardiographically or by the measurement of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the resected valve tissues. The study group comprised 21 patients (14 females, seven males; mean age 48 +/- 12.4 years) with RMVD, who were scheduled for mitral valve replacement surgery, while 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (17 females, 13 males; mean age 43.6 +/- 11.1 years) served as a control group. Baseline serum fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels using immunonepholometry. A Wilkins score was calculated using transesophageal echocardiography, and the resected valve tissues were analyzed for concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower and hs-CRP levels higher in the study group than in controls (300.4 +/- 92.5 microg/ml versus 352.6 +/- 55.3 microg/ml, p = 0.028; and 1.9 +/- 1.2 mg/dl versus 0.3 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, p < 0.0001, respectively). An inverse correlation was found between serum fetuin-A and hs-CRP levels (r = -0.690, p = 0.001). A significant association of either serum fetuin-A or hs-CRP was also found to occur with calcium concentration in the mitral valve tissue (r = -0.684, p = 0.001, and r = 0.510, p = 0.018, respectively), but not with the Wilkins calcium score. Serum fetuin-A and phosphorus concentrations in the MV tissue were independent predictors of calcium concentration in the MV tissue. Serum fetuin-A, which is significantly decreased in patients with RMVD, is an independent predictor of calcium concentration in the mitral valve tissue.

  3. Second-trimester serum chorionic gonadotropin concentrations and complications and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D L; Norem, C T; Schoen, E J; Ray, G T; Colby, C J

    1999-12-30

    Maternal serum chorionic gonadotropin is measured to screen for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Whether the results can also be used to predict the risk of complications or an adverse outcome of pregnancy is not known. We reviewed the medical records of 28,743 girls and women in whom chorionic gonadotropin was measured during the second trimester of pregnancy (between July 1, 1995, and January 31, 1997), seeking information about the complications and outcome of their pregnancies. We excluded girls and women who had preexisting risk factors for complications or an adverse outcome of pregnancy. Higher serum chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were associated with higher rates of stillbirth (odds ratio for every increase in chorionic gonadotropin of 1 multiple of the median, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.9). There was no relation between higher serum chorionic gonadotropin concentrations and the risk of gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes or intrauterine growth retardation or small size for gestational age (odds ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.2). Higher serum chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were associated with a risk of placental abnormalities (odds ratio, 1.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), pregnancy-induced hypertension (odds ratio, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5), and preterm delivery without pregnancy-induced hypertension (odds ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.2). Inclusion in certain racial or ethnic categories (black, Filipino or Pacific Islander, unknown race or ethnic group, and "other," which included those of Middle Eastern descent and Native Americans) was a better predictor of the risk of an adverse outcome than serum chorionic gonadotropin values. Measurements of serum chorionic gonadotropin are of little clinical value for predicting the risk of complications and the outcome of pregnancy.

  4. The association between HIV (treatment), pregnancy serum lipid concentrations and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J

    2017-07-11

    Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.

  5. Correlation between diagnostic 59Fe2+-absorption and serum ferritin concentration in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.C.; Brueggemann, J.; Gabbe, E.E.; Glaeser, M.

    1977-01-01

    A high correlation coefficent r = -0.832 (Psub(r not equal to 0) 59 Fe 2+ -absorption and the serum ferritin concentration which is very close to the correlations r = -0.88 59 Fe 2+ -absorption and the diffuse cytoplasmic storage iron in the bone marrow macrophages. The increase of the diagnostic 59 Fe 2+ -absorption seems to be an earlier and more sensitive indicator of depleted iron stores whereas the serum ferritin decreases somewhat later during the development of iron deficiency. (orig.) [de

  6. Acute changes of peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and serum thyroglobulin during radio-iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, K.R.; Steinbaecher, M.; Heilig, B.

    1986-01-01

    TT3, FT3 and FT4 concentrations were measured in 28 patients with hyperthyroidism before and during therapy with radioiodine. In addition, in some patients serum thyroglobulin was evaluated, too. Only in the patients with immunogenic hyperthyroidism FT3, FT4 and serum TG were elevated significantly within the first two days after radioiodine application. In the residual patients with diffuse autonomy, autonomous adenoma, and multifocal autonomy during the whole time of investigation there was no significant increase of the respective values. From these data it can be deducted that hyperthyroid storm is more likely to be provoked in patients with immunogenic hyperthyroidism compared to thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  7. Serum Metal Ion Concentrations in Paediatric Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Megaprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Friesenbichler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum in the serum of paediatric tumour patients after fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty. Further, these metal ion levels were compared with serum metal ion levels of patients with other orthopaedic devices such as hip and knee prostheses with metal-on-metal or metal-on-polyethylene articulation to find differences between anatomical locations, abrasion characteristics, and bearing surfaces. After an average follow-up of 108 months (range: 67 to 163 of 11 paediatric patients with fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty, the mean concentrations for Co and Cr were significantly increased while Mo was within the limits compared to the upper values from the reference laboratory. Furthermore, these serum concentrations were significantly higher compared to patients with a standard rotating hinge device (P=0.002 and P<0.001 and preoperative controls (P<0.001. On the other hand, the serum levels of patients following MoM THA or rotating hinge arthroplasty using megaprostheses were higher. Therefore, periodic long-term follow-ups are recommended due to the rising concerns about systemic metal ion exposure in the literature. Upon the occurrence of adverse reactions to metal debris the revision of the fixed hinge implant should be considered.

  8. Serum humanin concentrations in women with pre-eclampsia compared to women with uncomplicated pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Panagiotis; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Zepiridis, Leonidas; Vavilis, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    To compare serum humanin concentrations in pregnant women with and without pre-eclampsia (PE). A case-control study where pregnant women (PE group, n = 37; control group, n = 34) studied through history parameters (gynecological, obstetrical, personal, and family), physical and sonographic examination parameters [body mass index (BMI), blood pressure obstetrical ultrasound], and biochemical/hormonal assays [creatinine, urea, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), uric acid, platelets, urinary protein, and humanin]. There was no difference in basic characteristics between women with PE and control, except in parity and gravidity. Humanin concentrations were higher in women with PE compared to controls (422.2 ± 33.5 vs. 319.1 ± 28.1 pg/ml, p = 0.023). In a binary logistic analysis, humanin was associated with the presence of PE [odds ratio 1.003, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.000-1.006]. The ability of humanin to discriminate between women with PE and controls was evaluated by receiver operation characteristics (ROC) analysis [area under the curve (AUC) 0.639, 95% CI; 0.510-0.768, p = 0.045]. Serum humanin concentrations are increased in women with PE, compared to women with uncomplicated pregnancies, suggesting a potential protective role of humanin against the oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction occurring in PE.

  9. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J C; Havens, P L; Sowell, A L; Huff, D L; Peterson, D E; Day, S E; Chusid, M J; Bennin, R A; Circo, R; Davis, J P

    1993-06-01

    Studies in developing countries have shown that children with measles have low serum retinol concentrations and that lower retinol levels are associated with measles-related mortality. Vitamin A therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among African children with acute measles. To determine whether serum retinol concentration is low among children with measles in the United States and to determine whether retinol concentration is associated with illness severity. Pediatric referral hospital and clinic in Milwaukee, WI, during the measles outbreak of 1989-1990. One hundred fourteen patients < or = 5 years of age evaluated for serologically confirmed measles with serum obtained within 5 days following rash onset. Serum retinol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical data were collected by hospital record review. A modified Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was used to assess physiologic instability as a measure of illness severity. Retinol concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 1.18 mumol/L (median 0.58 mumol/L); 82 (72%) patients had low retinol concentration (< or = 0.70 mumol/L). Median retinol concentrations were lower among hospitalized patients (0.56 vs 0.70, P = .006) and patients with pneumonia (0.52 vs 0.64, P = .02) but higher among children with otitis media (0.63 vs 0.54, P = .01). Higher modified PRISM scores, reflecting greater physiologic instability, were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0147, P = .025). In multivariate analysis, higher modified PRISM scores were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0144, P = .025) even after controlling for hospitalization, presence of complications, race, age, receipt of Aid to Families With Dependent Children, gender, and interval from rash onset until serum was collected. Among these children with measles in an urban United States community, retinol concentrations were depressed, and the degree of depression

  10. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  11. Neutropenia is independently associated with sub-therapeutic serum concentration of vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Hyuk; Choe, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Sang-Guk; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to identify the impact of the presence of neutropenia on serum vancomycin concentration (SVC). A retrospective study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2015. The study population was comprised of adult patients who were performed serum concentration of vancomycin. Patients with renal failure or using non-conventional dosages of vancomycin were excluded. A total of 1307 adult patients were included in this study, of whom 163 (12.4%) were neutropenic. Patients with neutropenia presented significantly lower SVCs than non-neutropenic patients (Pvancomycin concentrations (trough SVC valuesvancomycin therapy should be monitored with TDM-guided optimization of dosage and intervals, especially in neutropenic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Variability in lipoprotein concentrations in serum after prolonged storage at -20 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedink, H G; Katan, M B

    1989-02-28

    The effects of freezing and storage at -20 degrees C of serum on the measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation were investigated. Fresh, fasting, normolipidemic sera from 24 healthy individuals were divided into aliquots and stored, using different conditions. After storage, serum lipoproteins were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation, and cholesterol and triglycerides assayed enzymatically. Freezing as such had no effect on the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in the various lipoproteins; changes averaged 0.00 mmol/l (range, -0.02 to 0.02 mmol/l). The concentration of cholesterol in the major cholesterol fractions (LDL, HDL2 and HDL3) changed on average by less than 4.1% over the full period of 27 wk. The percentage changes in the triglyceride concentrations over the first 11 wk were less than 5% for the major triglyceride fractions (VLDL and LDL) except for LDL after 11 weeks of storage (change +9.4%). By 27 weeks of storage, triglyceride concentrations had changed by -13.0% in VLDL and by +13.0% in LDL. It is concluded that fasting normolipidemic serum can be stored at -20 degrees C for at least 11 wk before lipoproteins are separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed for cholesterol and triglycerides.

  14. Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Malondialdehyde Serum Concentrations Remain Unaffected in Response to Hydroxyurea Therapy in β-Thalassemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Saqib H; Hashim, Zehra; Shamsi, Tahir S; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-07-01

    β-Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disorder characterized by reduced production of β-globin chains of hemoglobin A (HbA). In recent years, hydroxyurea (HU) has shown promising therapeutic benefits in patients with β-thalassemia by fetal hemoglobin augmentation. We have analyzed effects of hydroxyurea treatment on oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients by assessing activities of paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Blood samples from 159 individuals including 56 HU-treated and 58 untreated β-thalassemia patients and 45 healthy controls were analyzed. PON activity was found to be highest in healthy individuals (177.76 ± 4.44 U/mL) as compared to treated (52.67 ± 3.65 U/mL) and untreated (55.11 ± 3.26 U/mL) patients. A similar trend was observed in the case of arylesterase activity in normal, β-thalassemia-treated, and untreated (210.0 ± 11.25 U/mL, 163.03 ± 9.04 U/mL, 139.77 ± 10.10 U/mL) subjects. Serum MDA concentrations (2.59 ± 0.09 nmol/mL, 2.45 ± 0.08 nmol/mL, and 1.15 ± 0.05 nmol/mL) and total ROS concentrations (3.73 ± 0.20 nmol/mL, 3.54 ± 0.23 nmol/mL, and 2.45 ± 0.14 nmol/mL) were significantly elevated in both groups (untreated and treated) as compared to healthy individuals (P paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, serum MDA concentration and total ROS concentrations between HU-treated and untreated patients. We propose that HU therapy alone seems to be ineffective in managing oxidative stress and is likely to offer a better clinical outcome when supplemented with efficient iron chelation therapy and antioxidants. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Relationships of serum illicit drug concentrations during pregnancy to maternal nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, E M; James, H; Edwards, C H; Spurlock, B G; Oyemade, U J; Johnson, A A; West, W L; Cole, O J; Westney, L S; Westney, O E

    1994-06-01

    Findings reported are for a subset of African American subjects, residing in the urban area of Washington, D. C., who participated in a Program Project designed to study nutrition, other factors, and the outcome of pregnancy. Fasting blood samples, drawn during each trimester of pregnancy and at delivery, were screened for concentrations of cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP) and marijuana. Since substance abusers are expected to consume inadequate diets, these samples were also analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12, ferritin and ascorbic acid. Data for these biochemical variables were compared for subjects whose serum values for drugs were either above or below the drug screening threshold concentrations established by ADAMHA/NIDA. Pearson's correlations were used to determine relationships between pregnancy outcome variables and maternal serum drug concentrations. Blood samples drawn at delivery showed higher maternal: cord ratios (mean +/- SEM) for marijuana (3.3 +/- 2.2) and PCP (2.9 +/- 1.0) than for cocaine (1.0 +/- 0.2). The subjects whose serum values were above the ADAMHA/NIDA ranges for marijuana, PCP and cocaine had concentrations of folate and ferritin that were significantly less than those of subjects with lower serum drug levels (P illicit drugs were accompanied by a significant increase in leukocyte count (P < or = 0.05). The level of maternal cocaine during the third trimester was inversely correlated with birthweight (r = -0.29; n = 52; P = 0.038) and head circumference (r = -0.28; n = 52; P = 0.047).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Concentrations of thyroid hormones and iodothyronine binding proteins in serum of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, V J; Curtis, A J; Michelangeli, V P; Stockigt, J R; Carrick, F N; Barlow, J W

    1996-07-01

    To examine circulating total and free thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) concentrations, determine serum iodothyronine binding characteristics and estimate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) activity in sera of coastal and inland koalas. A prospective study. Koala serum T3 and T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. T4 binding parameters were determined by radioligand binding and electrophoresis. Koala TSH values were determined by bioassay. Mean total T4 concentrations were 3.2 +/- 2.1 nM although values were significantly higher in inland-dwelling females in comparison to coastal-dwelling males. Free T4 was 3.3 +/- 2.1 pM. Total and free T3 were 0.4 +/- 0.2 nM and 1.4 +/- 0.9 pM respectively, although these values were at the lower end of the assay detection limit and should be viewed with reservation. Electrophoresis of [125I]-T4-labelled serum revealed only two proteins of electrophoretic mobility similar to human transthyretin (TTR) and albumin. Scatchard analysis of T4 binding to serum gave a curvilinear plot, which could be resolved into two binding sites with affinities identical to that of TTR and albumin but both of low concentration. The bioactivity of the TSH present in the sera was measured using a cell line (JP09) transfected with the human TSH receptor. The mean level of stimulation found in the sera corresponded to a bovine TSH activity of less than 10 mU/L. These results suggest that the serum concentrations of free and total thyroid hormones in koalas are low compared to other marsupials and very low compared to eutherian mammals. The mechanism of maintenance of euthyroidism in this species remains to be determined.

  17. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Soon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. Results The values of eGFR 2 and 24-hour urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356 and 40.5% (n = 553 of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612 of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  18. Pain involving the motor system and serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-22

    Since the role of vitamin D is essential in numerous biological processes its deficiency was suggested to be a risk factor for e.g. osteoporosis, musculoskeletal pain and spine pain. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether serum vitamin D concentration is related to pain involving the motor system in Polish postmenopausal women working in agriculture. The study group consisted of 1,751 post-menopausal women, aged 45-65, at least 12 months from the last menstrual period, living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The research method was self-assessment of pain involving the motor system using VAS, laboratory test of serum vitamin D concentration and a medical interview. Statistical methods included generalized linear models, analysis of variance, t test for two means in two independents, χ2 test of stochastic independence. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture and suffering from pain in at least one part of the motor system were younger and lower educated, they also had higher abdominal obesity and lower serum vitamin D, compared to those without pain in any part of the motor system. Decreased serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture is important from the aspect of a higher prevalence of pain in the thoracic spine and more severe pain in the neck spine, but not for severity of pain in the lumbar spine; higher occurrence of pain in both hands or wrists; higher prevalence and more severe pain in at least one knee; and no prevalence or severity of pain in the shoulders and elbows. Serum vitamin D concentration is important for the prevalence and severity of pain in the neck and thoracic spine, knees and hands or wrists, but not for the lumbar spine, shoulders and elbows.

  19. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  20. Blood serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in men from Greenlandic Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Christian H; Rylander, Lars; Toft, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used in large quantities. They are persistent and found in measurable levels in human serum around the world. They have been associated with developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic...... effects in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of PFCs in serum among Inuits from Greenland and inhabitants from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine. Furthermore, the aim was to define social- and lifestyle related determinants of exposure for these compounds. Serum levels...... of seven PFCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were the highest of all PFCs in all three populations with a total amount of almost 90% of the PFCs. The mean levels of PFOS and PFOA were in the Greenlandic Inuits 52 and 4.8 ng m...

  1. Relevance of Serum Leptin and Leptin-Receptor Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin was implicated to link inflammation and metabolic alterations. We investigated the potential role of leptin components in critically ill patients, because systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are common features of critical illness. Upon admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU, free leptin and soluble leptin-receptor serum concentrations were determined in 137 critically ill patients (95 with sepsis, 42 without sepsis and 26 healthy controls. Serum leptin or leptin-receptor did not differ between patients or controls and were independent of sepsis. However, serum leptin was closely associated with obesity and diabetes and clearly correlated with markers of metabolism and liver function. Leptin-receptor was an unfavourable prognostic indicator, associated with mortality during three years follow-up. Our study indicates a functional role of leptin in the pathogenesis of severe illness and emphasizes the impact of complex metabolic alterations on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients.

  2. The concentration of serum zinc in celiac patients compared to healthy subjects in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Fariba; Ektefa, Fatemeh; Tafazzoli, Mohsen; Rostami, Kamran; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohsen; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Oskouie, Afsaneh Arefi; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated serum levels of zinc in patient with CD compare to healthy subjects. Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by small intestinal malabsorption of nutrients as a consequence of ingestion of wheat gluten. Zinc is an essential trace element that it has vital biological functions. Sera of 30 celiac cases and 30 healthy normal cohorts as control group were obtained. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for estimating serum zinc level. Zinc concentrations in patients diagnosed with CD were significantly lower than healthy subjects (75.97±12 compared with 92.83±18, P-value celiac patients compare to healthy controls. Serum zinc may thus be a marker of CD in adults presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Determination of urinary GGT and ultrasonography Doppler in renal evaluation of anemic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Ramos Barboza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barboza S.R., dos Santos R.V., Alves A., Rassele A.C., Dessaune Filho N., Barbosa T.S., Hiura E. & Machado F.M. [Determination of urinary GGT and ultrasonography Doppler in renal evaluation of anemic dogs.] Determinação da GGT urinária e ultrassonografia Doppler na avaliação renal de cães anêmicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(2:137-142, 2016. Setor de Clínica Médica de Animais de Pequeno Porte, Universidade Vila Velha, Av. Comissário José Dantas de Melo, 21, Boa Vista, Vila Velha, ES 29102-920, Brasil. Email: suellenramosvet@hotmail.com The anemia is the most common disorder in dogs erythrocytes, may cause acute renal failure, as the kidneys are very sensitive to ischemia, requiring extensive blood supply. Sonner the IRA induction phase is detected, the greater chance of success in the reversibility of the injury. The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase urinary and renal blood flow from the Doppler ultrasound in order to detect tissue hypoxia in 21 anemic dogs of 8 months to 14 years old, who were divided into two groups according to the degree of anemia: Group I with moderate to severe anemia; and group II with mild anemia. In this experiment the degree of anemia little interference elimination urinary GGT; It was verified that the resistivity index was greater in animals with lower hematocrit; and that the greater the increased urinary elimination of GGT was the resistivity index.

  4. The relation between liver histopathology and GGT levels in viral hepatitis: more important in hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminler, Ahmet Tarik; Irak, Kader; Ayyildiz, Talat; Keskin, Murat; Kiyici, Murat; Gurel, Selim; Gulten, Macit; Dolar, Enver; Nak, Selim Giray

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels and histopathological status determined by biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C who were referred to the Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine Gastroenterology outpatient clinic between January 2005-January 2011 and underwent liver biopsy were included in the study. Overall, 246 patients with hepatitis B and 151 patients with hepatitis C were enrolled. According to the evaluation based on the Ishak score, patients with a histological activity index (HAI) between 0-12 were defined as low activity, and those with an HAI between 13-18 were defined as high activity. In addition, patients with a fibrosis score of 0-2 were defined as low fibrosis, and those with a score between 3-6 were defined as high fibrosis; comparisons were made accordingly. In patients with hepatitis B, the mean GGT level was 38.86±42.4 (IU/L) in the low activity group and 60.44±44.4 (IU/L) in the high activity group (p<0.05). In hepatitis B patients, the mean GGT level was 26.89±14.83 (IU/L) in the low fibrosis group, whereas it was 65.60±59.7 (IU/L) in the high fibrosis group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between HAI and fibrosis group with regard to GGT levels in the hepatitis C patients. In conclusion, it is proposed that in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, GGT levels can be taken into consideration to predict advanced histological liver damage, especially in patients with hepatitis B.

  5. Serum IgG4 Concentration in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Shigeyuki; Skold, Markus; Ramsden, David B; Parker, Antony; Harding, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated and chronic fibroinflammatory condition that affects almost any organ and often involves multiple organs in the same patient. In this review article, we address the clinical utility of measuring serum immunoglobulin G subclass 4 concentration ([IgG4]) in IgG4-RD diagnosis and in disease monitoring. We discuss the latest literature on the relevance of [IgG4] to the investigation and management of IgG4RDs. In addition, we discuss the potential role of serum [IgG4] measurements in other inflammatory conditions and cancers. Increasing awareness of IgG4-RD among clinicians has led to a growing list of organ systems that can be affected by this chronic condition and the development of new organ-specific diagnostic guidelines. Diagnosis of IgG4-RD depends on multiple clinical and laboratory tests, including serology. Quantification of serum [IgG4] is included in all IgG4-RD diagnostic guidelines available to-date. The scientific literature supports the idea that elevated serum [IgG4], typically > 135 mg/dL, identifies patients with a more active form of the disease, which correlates with increased concentrations of inflammatory serum biomarkers and hypocomplementemia, increased number of organs affected by the disease, and more extensive organ involvement. These patients seem more resistant to treatment and experience a shorter time to disease relapse compared to IgG4-RD patients with normal serum [IgG4] at the time of diagnosis. Despite better understanding of how to diagnose IgG4-RD, monitoring for accurate prediction of disease relapse, which may involve organs not affected at the time of presentation, is poorly understood. Timely diagnosis and early detection of disease relapse is important to avoid delayed treatment and potential organ damage.

  6. Basal serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, C; Tennant, K; Reeve, J; Murphy, K F

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Retrospective case-control study. The records of all dogs having had an ACTH stimulation test performed between January 2005 and September 2011 at the University of Bristol were reviewed. Dogs were included if the test was performed as a screening for hypoadrenocorticism. The sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol concentration to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were calculated using 2 cut-offs and compared to the gold standard ACTH stimulation test. Using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of basal cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism were 100% and 63.3%, respectively, whereas for a cut-off of ≤1 μg/dL (≤28 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.8%, respectively. Measurement of basal serum cortisol is useful as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), and the disease is unlikely with a basal serum cortisol >2 μg/dL (>55 nmol/L). A basal serum cortisol ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L) cannot be used to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism, and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed in these cases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Hou, S; Riley, C B; Shaw, R A; Jewett, N; McClure, J T

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, economical, and quantitative assays for measurement of camelid serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are limited. In camelids, failure of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins has a reported prevalence of up to 20.5%. An accurate method for quantifying serum IgG concentrations is required. To develop an infrared spectroscopy-based assay for measurement of alpaca serum IgG and compare its performance to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. One hundred and seventy-five privately owned, healthy alpacas. Eighty-two serum samples were collected as convenience samples during routine herd visits whereas 93 samples were recruited from a separate study. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by RID assays and midinfrared spectra were collected for each sample. Fifty samples were set aside as the test set and the remaining 125 training samples were employed to build a calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) regression with Monte Carlo cross validation to determine the optimum number of PLS factors. The predictive performance of the calibration model was evaluated by the test set. Correlation coefficients for the IR-based assay were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, for the entire data set and test set. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) ([IgG] <1,000 mg/dL) was 71.4% and specificity was 100% for the IR-based method (test set) as gauged relative to the RID reference method assay. This study indicated that infrared spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, is an effective method for measurement of IgG in alpaca serum. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Serum iron, zinc, and copper concentration in premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi Naieni, Farahnaz; Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Vakilian, Hamid Reza; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah

    2012-04-01

    Premature graying of hair with unclear etiology, which is known as premature canities, is a common cause of referrals to the dermatologists. We assessed the relationship between serum iron, copper, and zinc concentrations with premature canities. This study was conducted on patients under 20 years old suffering from premature canities, having a minimum of ten gray hair fibers, and referring to university hospitals of Isfahan (Iran). The results were compared with age-sex-matched controls. Demographic data and disease characteristics were recorded for two groups. We studied serum iron, copper, and zinc concentrations of 66 patients and 66 controls using atomic absorption and Ferrozine methods. The mean age of studied cases was 17.8 ± 2.0 years, and the mean age of the onset of canities was 15.5 ± 3.2 years with no significant difference between males and females (P > 0.05). Serum copper concentration was significantly lower in patients compared with controls (90.7 ± 37.4 vs. 105.3 ± 50.2 μg/dL, P = 0.048), but serum iron concentration was significantly lower in controls compared to patients (88.8 ± 39.5 vs. 108.3 ± 48.4 μg/dL, P = 0.008). Also, there was no significant difference between patients and controls in serum zinc concentration (114.8 ± 67.8 vs. 108.2 ± 49.9 μg/dL, P = 0.285). According to these results, among copper, zinc, and iron, a low serum copper concentration may play a role in premature graying of hairs in our society. Further studies are needed to find the underlying mechanism of this relationship.

  9. Marijuana use and serum testosterone concentrations among U.S. males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, J E; Graubard, B I; Braunlin, M; Vesper, H; Trabert, B; Cook, M B; McGlynn, K A

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Information on marijuana use was collected by a self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire. Serum testosterone was determined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of marijuana use on serum testosterone concentrations were examined by frequency, duration, and recency of use. Adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum testosterone across levels of marijuana use were estimated using multiple linear regression weighted by the survey weights. The majority (66.2%) of the weighted study population reported ever using marijuana with 26.6% reporting current marijuana use. There was no difference in serum testosterone between ever users (adjusted mean = 3.69 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.93) and never users (adjusted mean = 3.70 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.45, 3.98) upon multivariable analysis. However, serum testosterone was inversely associated with time since last regular use of marijuana (p-value for trend = 0.02). When restricted to men aged 18-29 years, this relationship strengthened (p-value for trend testosterone was also inversely associated with time since last use (p-value for trend testosterone levels. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in men with more recent marijuana use. Studies are needed to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone concentrations mediate the relationship of marijuana use with male reproductive outcomes. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government

  10. Serum uric acid concentrations are directly associated with the presence of benign multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Esteban; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    It has been reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit lower serum uric acid levels; however, the association between uric acid concentrations and benign MS (BMS) has not been assessed. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the serum concentrations of uric acid are associated with the presence of BMS. Men and non-pregnant women over 16 years of age with diagnosis of MS were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Expanded Disability Status Scale score acid were exclusion criteria. According to subtype of disease, the eligible patients were allocated into groups with BMS and other varieties of MS. A logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the association between serum concentrations of uric acid and BMS. A total of 106 patients were included, 39 in the group with BMS and 67 in the group with other varieties of MS. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, and disease duration showed that increased concentrations of uric acid, indeed within the physiological levels, are significantly associated with the presence of BMS (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.55-4.38, p uric acid, indeed within the physiological range, are likely linked to the presence of BMS.

  11. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of interleukin-27 in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssen, Maha E; El-Hussiny, Mona Abo Bakr; El-Kannishy, Amr; Sabry, Dalia; El Mahdy, Rasha; Shaker, Mohamed E

    2017-07-24

    Interleukin (IL)-27 has been reported to possess anti- and proinflammatory properties in several immune related-disorders, but its role in diabetic retinopathy is still elusive. Here, we aimed to (i) evaluate IL-27 concentrations in serum and aqueous humor of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy and (ii) test whether IL-27 is correlated with some risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. The study comprised 60 diabetic patients with and without retinopathy along with 20 healthy controls. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of IL-27 were assessed by ELISA. The mean of IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor in patients with diabetic retinopathy (6.7 ± 2.7 ng/L) was significantly elevated in comparison with either diabetic patients without retinopathy (4.6 ± 0.5 ng/L) or healthy control group (4.1 ± 0.8 ng/L). Besides, IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor was positively correlated with serum glucose, lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Based on this study, IL-27 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and positively correlates with the disorder progression.

  12. [Concentration of selected angiogenic factors in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Gałczyński, Krzysztof; Romanek-Piva, Katarzyna; Winkler, Izabela; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak-Godlewska, Aneta

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis is a sex hormone-dependent and successively progressing gynecological disease, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The etiology of endometriosis is known to be multifactorial, and its growth depends on immunological, hormonal, genetic and environmental factors. Angiogenesis plays a key role in implantation and growth of endometriotic lesions, as well as in adhesion formation. Physiologically angiogenesis is responsible for neoangiogenesis and recruitment of new capillaries from the already existing capillaries. It is well-documented that altered angiogenesis provokes improper follicular maturation, infertility recurrent miscarriages, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and carcinogenesis. Factors stimulating angionesis include angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). The aim of the study was to analyze angiogenic factor concentration (angiogenin, VEGF, FGF) in blood serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with diagnosed endometriosis and idiopathic infertility. A total of 39 patients were recruited for the study including 19 patients (study group) diagnosed with endometriosis during the laparoscopic procedure and 20 patients (control group) with idiopathic infertility and no morphologic changes within the pelvis revealed during the laparoscopic procedure. All patients underwent laparoscopy during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Vein blood sample was obtained before the procedure and during laparoscopy the entire peritoneal fluid was aspirated for further measurement of VEGF, FGF and angiogenin concentrations. Angiogenin concentration in peritoneal fluid was statistically higher in patient with idiopathic infertility in comparison to endometriosis (pendometriosis, but no statistical significance was found. VEGF and FGF concentration in blood serum and peritoneal fluid was similar in both groups (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between serum

  13. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  14. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  15. Serum Galanin Concentration is Increased in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yan; Li, Yin; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Gu, Xuewen; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Although extensive data have shown that galanin can regulate the food intake and glucose metabolism of animals, little is known regarding the galanin concentration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether serum galanin levels and other metabolic parameters are changed in patients with IGT compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Data regarding serum galanin levels and relative metabolic parameters were collected in 12 patients with IGT and 12 healthy patients with NGT. At 1 hour and 2 hours after dinner, serum galanin, insulin and glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with IGT than in controls with NGT. Additionally, the body weights of patients with IGT was higher than those of the controls. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose concentrations (r=-0.580; p=0.048) in patients with IGT. The higher serum galanin levels as well as the negative correlation between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose content in patients with IGT may result from the interaction between insulin and galanin in differing conditions, suggesting that the galanin level may be used as a potential biomarker for the prediction of IGT in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  17. Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A J; Langlois, D K; Refsal, K R

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies that included limited numbers of affected dogs have suggested basal cortisol concentrations ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are sensitive, but nonspecific, for a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. A detailed assessment of the diagnostic utility of basal cortisol concentrations is warranted. To evaluate the utility of basal cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in a large number of dogs, including those with and without serum electrolyte abnormalities. Five hundred and twenty-two dogs, including 163 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism, 351 dogs with nonadrenal gland illness, and 8 dogs with equivocal results. Retrospective study. Basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations and sodium and potassium concentrations were collected from medical records. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for basal cortisol concentrations by standard methodologies. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined for various cut-points. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 and was similarly excellent regardless of serum electrolyte concentrations. At the most discriminatory cut-point of 22 nmol/L (0.8 μg/dL), sensitivity and specificity were 96.9 and 95.7%, respectively. A basal cortisol concentration of ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) resulted in a sensitivity of 99.4%. Conversely, a basal cortisol concentration of ≤5.5 nmol/L (0.19 μg/dL) resulted in a specificity of 99.1%. Similar to findings in previous studies, basal cortisol concentrations >55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are useful in excluding a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. Interestingly, excellent specificities and positive predictive values were observed at lower cut-point cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10-100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F

  19. Comparison of free serum oxylipin concentrations in hyper- vs. normolipidemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schmidt, Simone; Kressel, Gaby; Dong, Hua; Willenberg, Ina; Hammock, Bruce D; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2013-07-01

    Oxylipins, the oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), are potent endogenous mediators being involved in the regulation of various biological processes such as inflammation, pain and blood coagulation. Compared to oxylipins derived from arachidonic acid (AA) by cyclooxygenase action, i.e. prostanoides, only limited information is available about the endogenous levels of hydroxy-, epoxy- and dihydroxy-FA of linoleic acid (LA), AA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans. Particularly, it is unknown how metabolic disorders affect endogenous oxylipin levels in humans. Therefore, in the present study we compared the serum concentrations of 44 oxylipins in 20 normolipidemic with 20 hyperlipidemic (total cholesterol >200 mg/dl; LDL-C>130 mg/dl; TG>150 mg/dl) men (age 29-51 y). The serum concentration varied strongly among subjects. For most hydroxy-, epoxy- and dihydroxy-FA the concentrations were comparable to those in plasma reported in earlier studies. Despite the significant change in blood lipid levels the hyperlipidemic group showed only minor differences in oxylipin levels. The hyperlipidemic subjects had a slightly higher serum concentration of 8,9-DiHETrE, 5-HEPE, 10,11-DiHDPE, and a lower concentration of 12,13-DiHOME, 12-HETE, 9,10-DiHODE, and 12,13-DiHODE compared to normolipidemic subjects. Overall the hydroxy-, epoxy- and dihydroxy-FA levels were not changed suggesting that mild combined hyperlipidemia has no apparent effect on the concentration of circulating oxylipins. By contrast, serum levels of several hydroxy-, epoxy-, and dihydroxy-FA are dependent on the individual status of the parent FA. Particularly, a strong correlation between the EPA content in the erythrocyte membrane and the serum concentration of EPA derived oxylipins was observed. Given that the synthesis of EPA from other n-3 FA in humans is low; this suggests that oxylipin levels can be directly influenced by the diet

  20. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  1. Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilicic acid. Effect on the Si, Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomme, M R; Vanden Berghe, D A

    1997-02-01

    The bioavailability of silicon in stabilized orthosilicic acid was investigated in a double blind, placebo controlled supplementation study of calves maintained on a normal diet. The total dietary Si intake was increased by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid. After 23 wk of Si supplementation, the serum Si concentration increased (p = 0.0001, n = 29) by 70% compared to control animals in spite of the low Si dose administered and the Si adequate diet. The individually administered Si dose was significantly associated with the serum Si concentration (r = 0.44, p = 0.016, n = 29). The collagen concentration in dermis was significantly higher (p = 0.019, n = 4) in the Si group and a positive correlation (r = 0.72, p = 0.018, n = 9) was found between the Si concentration in serum and the collagen concentration in cartilage. The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in serum were marginally higher for animals supplemented with Si compared to control animals. In serum, a significant linear relationship was found between the Si and the Ca concentration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019, n = 59), whereas the magnesium concentration correlated marginally with the Si concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.068, n = 59). In summary, increasing the total dietary Si intake by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid resulted in a 70% higher Si concentration in serum indicating a high bioavailability of Si in this supplement. The positive correlation between the serum Si concentration and the collagen concentration in cartilage and the serum Ca concentration, respectively, suggest the involvement of Si both in the formation of extracellular matrix components and in Ca metabolism.

  2. Evaluation of the use of serum lathosterol concentration to assess whole-body cholesterol synthesis in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.W.; Palen, J.G. van der; Vries, H. de; Kempen, H.J.; Voort, H.A. van der; Zutphen, L.F. van; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Serum lathosterol concentration in rabbits was assessed as a possible indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. In random-bred New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits fed a control diet or a diet containing either cholesterol, simvastatin, or cholestyramine, neither serum lathosterol concentration nor

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in serum sex steroid hormone concentrations in US adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, David S; Peskoe, Sarah B; Joshu, Corinne E; Dobs, Adrian; Feinleib, Manning; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rohrmann, Sabine; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contrary to the hypothesis that the racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer has a hormonal basis, we did not observe a difference in serum testosterone concentration between non-Hispanic black and white men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), although non-Hispanic black men had a higher estradiol level. Unexpectedly, Mexican-American men had the highest testosterone level. Next, we evaluated whether the same patterns are observed during ad...

  4. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations. PMID:21711174

  5. Serum leptin concentration, obesity, and insulin resistance in Western Samoans: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, P; Hodge, A; Nicolson, M; Staten, M; de Courten, M; Moore, J; Morawiecki, A; Lubina, J; Collier, G; Alberti, G; Dowse, G

    1996-10-19

    To measure serum leptin concentrations in the Polynesian population of Western Samoa and to examine epidemiological associations of leptin with anthropometric, demographic, behavioural, and metabolic factors in this population with a high prevalence of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Cross sectional study, leptin concentration being measured in a subgroup of a population based sample. 240 Polynesian men and women aged 28-74 years were selected to cover the full range of age, body mass index, and glucose tolerance. Serum leptin, insulin, and glucose concentrations; anthropometric measures; physical activity; and area of residence. Leptin concentrations were correlated with body mass index (r = 0.80 in men, 0.79 in women) and waist circumference (r = 0.82 in men, 0.78 in women) but less so with waist to hip ratio. At any body mass index, leptin concentration was higher in women than men (geometric mean adjusted for body mass index 15.3 v 3.6 pg/l, P < 0.001). Leptin concentration also correlated with fasting insulin concentration (r = 0.63 in men, 0.64 in women) and insulin concentration 2 hours after a glucose load (r = 0.58 in men, 0.52 in women). These associations remained significant after controlling for body mass index; effects of physical activity and of rural or urban living on leptin concentration were eliminated after adjusting for obesity, except values remained high in urban men. 78% of variance in leptin was explained by a model including fasting insulin concentration, sex, body mass index, and a body mass index by sex interaction term. Similar results were obtained if waist circumference replaced body mass index. The strong relation of leptin with obesity is consistent with leptin production being proportional of mass to adipose tissue. The relation with insulin independent of body mass index suggests a possible role for leptin in insulin resistance or hyperinsulinaemia.

  6. Effect of Breed on Plasma Endothelin-1 Concentration, Plasma Renin Activity, and Serum Cortisol Concentration in Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, K; Lequarré, A-S; Ljungvall, I; Mc Entee, K; Merveille, A-C; Wiberg, M; Gouni, V; Lundgren Willesen, J; Hanås, S; Wess, G; Mejer Sørensen, L; Tiret, L; Kierczak, M; Forsberg, S K G; Seppälä, E; Lindblad-Toh, K; Lohi, H; Chetboul, V; Fredholm, M; Häggström, J

    2016-01-01

    There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall, breed differences were found in ET-1 and cortisol concentrations, and renin activity (P cortisol, and 19% for renin activity, respectively. Within centers, breed differences were found at 5/5 centers for ET-1, 4/5 centers for cortisol, and 2/5 centers for renin activity. Newfoundlands had highest median ET-1 concentration, 3 times higher than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds. Median renin activity was highest in Dachshunds, twice the median value in Newfoundlands and Boxers. Median cortisol concentration was highest in Finnish Lapphunds, almost 3 times higher than in Boxers. Breed variation might be important to take into consideration when interpreting test results in clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Serum vaspin concentrations in relation to insulin sensitivity following RYGB-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, Ammon; Riedl, Michaela; Vila, Greisa; Maier, Christina; Clodi, Martin; Prikoszovich, Thomas; Ludvik, Bernhard; Prager, Gerhard; Luger, Anton; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    Recently, vaspin was identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects that might be implicated in endogenous glucose regulation. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of acute weight loss and metabolic changes on serum vaspin concentrations in morbidly obese subjects following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Longitudinal, clinical intervention study in 33 morbidly obese subjects before and 12 months after RYGB was conducted. Fasting serum concentrations of vaspin were measured by a commercially available ELISA and correlated with BMI, parameters of insulin sensitivity, and other biochemical measurements. Fasting insulin sensitivity was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance. RYGB-induced weight loss resulted in a reduction of circulating vaspin, leptin, insulin, and C-peptide levels as well as of BMI, HbA1c, and HOMA (p RYGB-induced changes in BMI. Following RYGB surgery, changes in serum vaspin concentrations correlate significantly with the reduction of circulating leptin, insulin, and C-peptide levels and with the amelioration of insulin sensitivity. However, further studies have to elucidate whether vaspin is only a biomarker for body-weight-related changes of insulin sensitivity or whether it is implicated in the regulation of human glucose homeostasis.

  8. Influence of diurnal variation and fasting on serum iron concentrations in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A low serum bicarbonate concentration as a risk factor for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ik Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR, while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p < 0.001. In addition, compared to patients with a TA-Bic level of 24-26 mEq/L, those with a TA-Bic level < 22 and between 22-24 mEq/L conferred a 13.10- and 2.13-fold increased risk of death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a low serum bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  10. Comparative evaluation of postmortem serum concentrations of neopterin and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takaki; Hamel, Marianne; Zhu, Bao-Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2008-08-06

    The cellular immune response is accompanied by the release of neopterin. The level of neopterin in serum is increased in patients suffering from viral infections, autoimmune diseases, systemic inflammation, allograft rejection and malignant diseases, while that of C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to rise during inflammatory diseases and traumas. To investigate postmortem neopterin and CRP concentrations with regard to the cause of death, we examined cardiac and peripheral blood samples in 474 autopsy cases without advanced decomposition (0-96 years of age, 343 males and 131 females), 2.8 h to 3 days (median, 18.0 h) after death. Survival time was 0.1 h to 5 months (median, 3.0 h) for traumatic death, and 0.1-1, 440 h (median, 2.5 h) for natural death. In autopsied subjects, neopterin concentrations were higher than the clinical reference, independent of the time after death, and depended on the survival time. In cases of acute and subacute death due to trauma, the neopterin level in right heart blood was mildly to moderately elevated (about 50-200 nmol/l) except for sharp instrument injury, whereas the CRP concentration usually remained low (in the CRP level (around 1-10 mg/dl) was observed in fatal cases of hypothermia (cold exposure). Markedly elevated serum CRP and neopterin levels (>10 mg/dl and >500 nmol/l, respectively) were detected in cases of delayed death due to trauma involving systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and of fatal bacterial infections. For sepsis, the serum CRP level was markedly elevated but the neopterin level was low in some cases. Fatal viral infections usually resulted in a marked elevation in the serum neopterin level (>500 nmol/l) with a mild to moderate rise in the CRP level. Combined analyses of neopterin and CRP may be useful to investigate viral infections and delayed traumatic death involving SIRS to support pathological findings.

  11. Peritoneal dialysate effluent and serum CA125 concentrations in stable peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redahan, Lynn; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    CA125 in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent dialysate has been used as a surrogate biomarker for the health of the peritoneum in PD patients. However CA125 is synthesised by epithelial cells and as such is not specific for the peritoneum, and most studies have only measured peritoneal CA125, without serum CA125 values. As such we wished to determine the factors which influenced PD effluent CA125 in a large contemporaneous cohort. We measured dialysate effluent CA125 in PD patients attending for routine assessment of peritoneal membrane function with a peritoneal equilibration test (PET), with corresponding serum CA125. Serum and dialysate CA125 were measured in 205 PD patients; 59.0 ± 16.8 years, median PD treatment 3 (2-20) months, 59 % male, 42.4 % diabetic, with 31.2 % treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, 22 % by automated overnight peritoneal dialysis cycler (APD) and 46.8 % by APD with a day time exchange. The median serum CA125 was 21 (13-38) U/ml, with an effluent 4 h PD PET effluent of 20 (11.5-36.5) U/ml. PET PD effluent dialysate was associated with PET dialysate total protein (β 12.9, p peritonitis episodes. PD effluent CA125 concentrations were associated with peritoneal protein losses and increased by the usage of higher glucose dialysates to compensate for loss of residual renal function.

  12. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations in Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Silmara S.; Mastroeni, Marco F.; Loehr, Sarah A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Both lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated homocysteine concentrations are potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with homocysteine, however, the longitudinal relationship has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized and examined whether a temporal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations is paralleled by a reduction in the risk for elevated homocysteine. We analyzed data of 4475 participants with repeated assessments of serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations who enrolled in a preventive health program that encourages vitamin D supplementation and monitors serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations. We defined elevated homocysteine as concentrations greater than 13 micromoles per liter. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of temporal changes in serum 25(OH)D with the risk of elevated homocysteine. We observed an inverse gradient whereby greater increases in 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated homocysteine. Relative to those without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, participants who showed improvements in their serum 25(OH)D concentrations of “homocysteine, respectively. These observations suggest that temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations, and therefore may potentially contribute to the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:27548258

  13. Ethosuximide in epileptic women during pregnancy and lactation period. Placental transfer, serum concentrations in nursed infants and clinical status.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnz, W; Koch, S; Jakob, S; Hartmann, A; Helge, H; Nau, H

    1984-01-01

    A total of 10 epileptic mothers treated with ethosuximide (ES) as well as their 13 newborns were included in this study. At birth foetal/maternal serum concentration ratios were 0.97 +/- 0.02 (n = 7) and ES half-lives in three neonates were 32, 37 and 38 h. The breast milk concentrations of ES were similar to those in maternal serum (milk/serum: 0.86 +/- 0.08, n = 12) and the nursed infants maintained serum levels between 15 and 40 micrograms/ml. Two major malformations (bilateral clefting, h...

  14. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Concentration of field and skim latex by microfiltration - membrane fouling and biochemical methane potential of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongmak, Narumol; Sridang, Porntip; Puetpaiboon, Udomphon; Grasmick, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration was used to concentrate field and skim latex suspensions and recover the smallest compounds (proteins, sugars, etc.) in permeate (serum solutions). The experiments were performed in a lab-scale microfiltration unit equipped with ceramic membranes. In continuous mode, the operations were performed at constant trans-membrane pressure (0.5 bars), constant cross-flow velocity (3 m/s) and constant temperature (28 ± 2°C). In retentate, the volumetric concentration factor was only close to 2 (about 54% of total solid content, TSC) when concentrating the field latex suspensions, and it reached 10 (close to 40% TSC) when concentrating skim latex suspensions. The quality of retentate suspensions let envisage a significant potential of industrial valorization. The membrane fouling rates appeared as an increasing function of dry rubber content suspension, and the main fouling origin (94%) was linked to a reversible accumulation of suspended compounds on the membrane surface. Permeate appeared as a clear yellow solution containing the smallest soluble organic fractions that show a high degree of biodegradability when using biochemical methane potential tests. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was then higher than 92% and the methane production yield was close to 0.29 NLCH4/gCODremoved. The association of a membrane separation step and anaerobic digestion appeared, then, as a relevant solution to recover rubber content from skim latex suspensions and energy from the anaerobic digestion of serum.

  16. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Miquel; Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  17. Serum Endostatin Concentrations Are Higher in Men with Symptoms of Intermittent Claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A cleavage fragment of collagen XVIII, endostatin, is released into the circulation and has been demonstrated to have antiangiogenic effects in animal models. We hypothesized that circulating endostatin would be increased in patients with symptoms of lower limb peripheral artery disease. Design. Cross-sectional study. Participants. Community dwelling older men. Measurements. Intermittent claudication was defined using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ. Serum endostatin was measured by a commercial ELISA. The association of serum endostatin with intermittent claudication was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Results. Serum endostatin was measured in 1114 men who completed the ECQ. 106 men had intermittent claudication, 291 had atypical pain, and 717 had no lower limb pain. Mean (±standard deviation serum endostatin concentrations (ng/mL were 145.22 ± 106.93 for men with intermittent claudication, 129.11 ± 79.80 for men with atypical pain, and 116.34 ± 66.57 for men with no lower limb pain; P<0.001. A 70 ng/mL increase in endostatin was associated with a 1.17-fold rise in the adjusted odds of having intermittent claudication (OR 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.37, and P=0.050. Conclusions. Serum endostatin is raised in older men who have symptoms of intermittent claudication. The role of endostatin in the genesis and outcome of peripheral artery disease requires further investigation.

  18. The effect of omega-3 on the serum visfatin concentration in patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hajianfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visfatin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissue and can affect on the diabetes inflammatory reaction and also serum lipids level. On the other hand, Omega-3 can also prevent formation of insulin resistance. In the present study, the effect of Omega-3 on the serum visfatin concentration was evaluated. Methods: 71 women with type II diabetes were randomly assigned to the group that took Omega-3 capsules or control group with placebo capsules. In the first step, study subjects filled a questionnaire collecting their age, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Also their blood samples were taken for blood tests. In the second step, the intervention was done for 8 weeks and in the third step the aforementioned were collected again. In the blood samples visfatin and lipid profiles (low density lipoprotein [LDL], high density lipoprotein [HDL], triglyceride [TG], and cholesterol, glucose and HbA1c were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in serum visfatin level between Omega-3 and placebo groups before the intervention (p = 0.14, while after the intervention, the mean serum visfatin level in the Omega-3 group was significantly higher (p < 0.001. In addition, the mean difference between the serum visfatin level before and after the intervention in both groups was significant (p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study showed an increase in visfatin level following consuming Omega-3 fats but according to controversial issues on insulin-like function of visfatin, the effects of Omega-3 on diabetes should be studied more in further studies.

  19. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in patients with thyroid dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, F; Marsili, A; Mammoli, C; Valeriano, R; Scartabelli, G; Pelosini, C; Giannetti, M; Centoni, R; Vitti, P; Pinchera, A

    2004-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with metabolic changes that affect mass and adipocyte function, as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Adipose tissue performs complex metabolic and endocrine functions. Leptin and adiponectin are two of the most important adipocytokines, both involved in the regulation of intermediate metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between thyroid status and circulating levels of the two adipose tissue hormones. We studied 15 patients with hyperthyroidism, 15 patients with hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid subjects, all matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI). Serum concentrations of free thyroxine, free tri-iodothyronine, thyrotropin, leptin and adiponectin and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI) were assessed. No significant difference was found among the 3 groups, as assessed by Student's t-test, both for adiponectin and leptin. We conclude that metabolic changes associated with thyroid dysfunction are not related to variations in serum levels of adiponectin or leptin.

  20. Effect of age and castration on serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in male alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Tibary, Ahmed; Campbell, Alexis J; Conley, Alan J

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) by the Sertoli cells in males is crucial for sexual differentiation. There are no studies on AMH in Camelids. The objectives of this research were to 1) compare AMH serum concentrations in prepubertal and adult male alpacas and 2) determine the effect of castration on these concentrations in adult males to provide a validation of a commercial AMH test in alpacas. Serum samples were obtained from 15 prepubertal animals (5 for each age groups of 6, 7 and 8 months) and from 5 adult males (age 5-9 years), pre- and 24 h post-castration. AMH was determined with a quantitative ELISA according to the manufacture's instructions. There was not significant difference (P < 0.05) in AMH level (pg/ml) between pre-pubertal (549.9 ± 120.8, 789.4 ± 172.3, 597.5 ± 177.3 for ages 4, 7, and 8 months, respectively) and adult alpacas (938.7 ± 175.9). In adult males, AMH concentration decreased significantly following castration (P < 0.05) (938.7 ± 383.5 pg/ml) pre-castration, and 222.1 ± 116.5 pg/ml) after castration). There was a positive correlation between testosterone levels and AMH. In conclusion, the quantitative assay used is a reliable test to determine AMH in alpacas. The AMH level in prepubertal and adult alpacas appear to not differ, contrarily from other mammals, this requires further investigation. The decrease in serum AMH concentrations after castration suggests that measurement of this hormone can be used to diagnose bilateral cryptorchid or hemicastrated unilateral cryptorchid animals in this species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Circadian serum concentrations of tylosin in broilers after feed or water medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilia, G; Aguilera, R; Cortés-Cuevas, A; Rosario, C; Sumano, H

    2008-09-01

    1. Because tylosin is a time-dependent antibacterial agent, and because feeding and drinking of broilers decreases in late afternoon and ceases in the dark, it was hypothesised that serum concentrations of this drug are greatly reduced during the dark period. 2. The trial was carried out in a commercial poultry house, under standard broiler husbandry conditions, with food and water withdrawn from 22:00 until 07:00 h next morning and exposed to a natural light cycle of 13L:11D. 3. Broilers were given tylosin tartrate, in either feed or water, for 5 d as follows: 100, 200 and 300 ppm in feed, equivalent to 12.6, 25.2 and 37.8 mg/kg/d, respectively; and 200 and 400 mg/l in drinking water, equivalent to 51 to 102 mg/kg/d, respectively. 4. At 07:00 h on d 4, and for the next 40 h, hourly serum samples were obtained and analysed for tylosin by means of a microbiological assay. 5. Day vs night concentrations of tylosin expressed as area under the curve (AUC) in all groups revealed greater values during the day. The highest AUC and AUC(24)/minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio were obtained in the group medicated with 400 mg/l and the corresponding lowest values were found in the group medicated with 100 ppm in feed. 6. In conclusion, tylosin did not reach therapeutic serum concentrations during the dark period, at all dose rates tested when administered in feed or water. A sustained release form of this drug is needed to solve this inadequacy of tylosin medication in broilers.

  2. Increased Serum and Urinary Oxytocin Concentrations after Nasal Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesi, Andrea; Thuróczy, Julianna; Balogh, Lajos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs. In our experiment, four dogs received three puffs, 12 IU intranasal oxytocin treatment, two dogs received three puffs intranasal placebo treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately prior to the administration then regularly during 4 h. After nasal oxytocin application, the serum oxytocin concentration increased, reached a maximum 15 min after the treatment and then rapidly returned to baseline levels 45 min later. The peak urinary oxytocin concentration occurred between 45 and 60 min after administration and returned to baseline levels slowly. We found considerable differences among individuals in the secretion of oxytocin in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements. Our results confirm that intranasally administered oxytocin passes into the blood stream. The time course of intranasally administered oxytocin secretion is similar to the time course of intravenously administered oxytocin secretion, and the peak values are also similar in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements, although there are large individual differences. PMID:28929104

  3. Increased Serum and Urinary Oxytocin Concentrations after Nasal Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Temesi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs. In our experiment, four dogs received three puffs, 12 IU intranasal oxytocin treatment, two dogs received three puffs intranasal placebo treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately prior to the administration then regularly during 4 h. After nasal oxytocin application, the serum oxytocin concentration increased, reached a maximum 15 min after the treatment and then rapidly returned to baseline levels 45 min later. The peak urinary oxytocin concentration occurred between 45 and 60 min after administration and returned to baseline levels slowly. We found considerable differences among individuals in the secretion of oxytocin in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements. Our results confirm that intranasally administered oxytocin passes into the blood stream. The time course of intranasally administered oxytocin secretion is similar to the time course of intravenously administered oxytocin secretion, and the peak values are also similar in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements, although there are large individual differences.

  4. Serum zinc concentrations and depression in persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: The positive living with HIV (POLH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Palmer, Paula H; Poudel, Krishna C

    2016-07-30

    Low levels of serum zinc concentrations and depression are common in persons infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Low levels of serum zinc concentrations may increase risk of depression in general population. However, research on the role of zinc in depression among HIV- infected person is limited. We assessed the association between serum zinc concentrations and depression in HIV-infected persons. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 311 HIV-positive people (177 men and 134 women) aged 18-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. The atomic absorption method was used to measure serum zinc concentrations and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-Ia method was used to measure depression, with cut off score 20 or higher consistent with clinically significant depression. Relationships were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Serum zinc concentrations were significantly inversely associated with depression in all participants and in men but not in women. Participants with the highest tertile of serum zinc concentrations had a significantly decreased risk of depression in men but not in women. Serum zinc concentrations were inversely associated with depressive symptoms scores in HIV-infected men. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the role of zinc in depression among persons infected with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The concentration of homocysteine in blood serum among indigene and outsider population of priamurye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    riabova, T I; Popova, T V; Sirotin, B Z

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the concentration of homocysteine in the most numerous groups of indigene population of Priamurye (Even, Ultch, Nanai) as compared with adjacent to them outsider population. The technique of random sampling was applied to select 82 Even, 89 Ultch, 95 Nanai and for comparing the representatives of outsider male and female population in statistically comparable numbers. The concentration of homocysteine was determined with luminescence immunoassay using the analyzer immulite 1000 (Diagnostic Products Corporation, USA) and applying Siemens kits (USA). The mean population values of homocysteine were reliably lower among indigene males and females as compared with representatives of outsider population. The lowest values of homocysteine were established among Even males and females, dwelling on the shore of Sea of Okhotsk. Whereas no reliable differences in concentrations ofhomocysteine in blood serum were established among Ultch dwelling in downstream of Amur river and Nanai dwelling in middle course of Amur river 240 km from Khabarovsk.

  6. Excessive Pro-Inflammatory Serum Cytokine Concentrations in Virulent Canine Babesiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether...... it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior...... to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were...

  7. Day/night changes in serum S100B protein concentrations in acute paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario

    2017-04-03

    There are day/night and seasonal changes in biological markers such as melatonin and cortisol. Controversial changes in serum S100B protein levels have been described in schizophrenia. We aim studying whether serum S100B levels present day/night variations in schizophrenia patients and whether S100B levels are related to psychopathology. Sixty-five paranoid schizophrenic inpatients participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at admission and discharge. Blood was drawn at 12:00 (midday) and 00:00 (midnight) hours at admission and discharge. Sixty-five healthy subjects matched by age, gender and season acted as control group. At admission and discharge patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations at midday and midnight than healthy subjects. At admission, patients showed a day/night variation of S100B levels, with higher S100B levels at 12:00 than at 00:00h (143.7±26.3pg/ml vs. 96.9±16.6pg/ml). This day/night difference was not present in the control group. Midday and midnight S100B at admission decreased when compared to S100B at discharge (midday, 143.7±26.3 vs. 83.0±12, midnight 96.9±16.6 vs. 68.6±14.5). There was a positive correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and S100B concentrations at admission. This correlation was not present at discharge. acute paranoid schizophrenia inpatients present a day/night change of S100B serum levels at admission that disappears at discharge. The correlation between serum S100B concentrations and the PANSS positive scores at admission as well as the decrease of S100B at discharge may be interpreted as an acute biological response to the clinical state of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  10. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... MBL serum concentrations were found to have less viral load in the trachea than chickens with low MBL serum concentrations indicating that these chickens were less severely affected by the infection. This study is the first to show that MBL expression is present in the lungs of healthy chickens...

  11. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Huang, Shue; Cong, Hongliang; Li, Zheng; Li, Junjuan; Keller, Kathleen L; Shearer, Gregory C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations. Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54.4 y) who did not take hypolipidemic agents. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of smell and taste dysfunctions, ranging from 0 (best) to 2 (worst). A general linear model was used to test differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) across groups with different smell and taste status after adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, smoking, drinking, obesity, and history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and head injury. Results: The prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction was 2.4% and 1.2%, respectively. Worse smell and taste dysfunction was associated with higher total cholesterol concentrations ( P -trend = 0.005). No significant differences were observed in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG concentrations across groups with different numbers of chemosensory dysfunctions ( P -trend > 0.1 for all). The associations between chemosensory dysfunction and total cholesterol concentrations were more pronounced in participants aged ≤60 y and in those who were nonsmokers relative to their counterparts ( P -interaction < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: In this large cross-sectional study, chemosensory dysfunction was associated with higher serum total cholesterol concentrations among Chinese adults. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the temporal relation between these chemosensory

  12. Serum Albumin Concentrations in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from South East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James Jy; Fragaszy, Ellen; Dukes, Oliver; Cason, John; Kozlakidis, Zisis

    2015-01-01

    Human albumin is the most abundant protein in sera and a valuable biomarker in monitoring a variety of diseases. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum albumin concentrations and effects of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Serum albumin concentrations amongst 70 HIV-infected patients from diverse ethnicities were analyzed, in the absence of any other confounding comorbidities, over a period of 8 years in South East London, United Kingdom. Serum albumin data was collected, on average, every 4-6 weeks during routine visits. Serum albumin was measured prior to starting HAART, and measured at the first clinic visit after commencing HAART. These were compared to a control group of untreated individuals. Based on our analyses we conclude that serum albumin concentrations increase significantly after the initiation of therapy.

  13. Analysis of serum interleukin-27 and interleukin-35 concentrations in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin-Jie; Guo, Hui-Yue; Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Li-Min; Suo, Dong-Mei; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. Interleukin (IL)-27 and IL-35 have been recognized as novel members of IL-12 family. We evaluated the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CFS) concentrations of IL-27 and IL-35 in GBS and analyze their correlations with clinical characteristics. Serum samples from 50 patients with GBS including 9 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), 33 acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and 8 unclassified and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Thirty CSF samples from these patients and 25 patients with other noninflammatory neurological disorders (ONNDs) as disease controls were collected after lumbar puncture. Serum and CSF IL-27 and IL-35 concentrations were measured using human IL-27 or IL-35 ELISA. Serum IL-27 concentrations were elevated (p=0.002) whereas serum IL-35 concentrations were decreased (p=0.031) in patients with GBS comparing with healthy controls, particularly in patients exhibiting AMAN (p=0.012). Additionally, serum IL-35 concentrations were negatively correlated with disease severity and outcomes in patients with AMAN (r=-0.358, p=0.041; r=-0.416, p=0.016). IL-27 might be pathogenic, whereas IL-35 be protective in GBS. Additionally, serum IL-35 concentrations may be important biomarkers for the severity and outcomes of AMAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transient elevation of serum cystatin C concentrations during perioperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy in esophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Manabu; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Horinouchi, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori; Nakamura, Tsutomu

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, the time-concentration profile of platinum (Pt) in plasma was compared to that of serum cystatin C (Cys C) in Japanese esophageal cancer patients receiving perioperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Five male and one female patients receiving 2 successive cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy combined with 5-fluorouracil, the treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, participated in this study. The pharmacokinetic parameters in each patient were calculated from the individual plasma Pt concentration-time curve after intravenous infusion of cisplatin using the one-compartment model. Within a week of starting the first cycle of chemotherapy, serum Cys C concentrations increased in all patients from 122.6 to 143.0%, subsequently returning to baseline levels in approximately 10 days. A similar increase in serum Cys C levels also occurred during the second treatment cycle. However, no increase in serum creatinine levels was observed during either treatment cycle. In addition, the concentration of plasma Pt 2 days after treatment in the first and second cycles did not correlate with those of either serum Cys C or creatinine. Finally, the half-life of Pt in plasma during the first treatment cycle was not significantly different from that in the second cycle. These findings suggest that concentration fluctuations in serum Cys C are unlikely to correlate with Pt elimination from the plasma and that renal function estimates based on serum Cys C concentration might be underestimated during perioperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  15. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  16. Serum triglyceride concentrations in Miniature Schnauzers with and without a history of probable pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, P G; Levinski, M D; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M

    2011-01-01

    The association between hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis remains obscure in dogs. A possible role of hypertriglyceridemia as a cause of pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers has been suspected. To compare serum triglyceride concentrations between Miniature Schnauzers with and without a recent history of pancreatitis. Seventeen Miniature Schnauzers with a history of pancreatitis (group 1) and 34 age-matched Miniature Schnauzers without a history of pancreatitis (group 2) were prospectively enrolled. Prospective case-control study. Two samples were collected from each of the 17 Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis: 1 during pancreatitis and 1 after clinical and biochemical resolution of pancreatitis. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were compared between group 1 (after resolution of pancreatitis) and group 2. Miniature Schnauzers in group 1 were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (>108 mg/dL) (71%) after resolution of pancreatitis than Miniature Schnauzers in group 2 (33%; odds ratio = 5.02; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-17.8; P = .0163). Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in dogs of group 1 (median: 605.0 mg/dL) after resolution of pancreatitis than in dogs of group 2 (median: 73.5 mg/dL; P = .002). Miniature Schnauzers with a history of pancreatitis were 5 times more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia than controls. Hypertriglyceridemia might be associated with the development of pancreatitis in some dogs of this breed. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the role of hypertriglyceridemia in the development of pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers as well as other dog breeds. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  18. Variable estimates of serum growth hormone concentrations by different radioassay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, E.O.; Morris, A.H.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Weber, D.

    1988-01-01

    Many different assays are being used to measure serum GH concentrations in children with disorders of growth. We assessed four readily available methods to determine the comparability of the immunopotency estimates: standard double antibody RIA with pituitary standards from the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (assay 1) and from a commercial source (assay 2), a double antibody RIA with serum standards (assay 4), and a commercial immunoradiometric assay (assay 3). There was a high degree of relative correlation between assays (r = 0.95-0.98), but absolute potency estimates differed. Assays 1 and 2 were almost identical. Assay 3 yielded serum GH levels about 65% those of assay 1 or 2 and 80% those of assay 4. Assay 4 gave intermediate values between the low readings in assay 3 and higher values in assay 1 and 2. We conclude that substantial variation occurs in potency estimates in different GH assays. Such differences can affect the interpretation of many GH provocative and sampling studies

  19. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  20. Caspase-3 Expression and ALT, AST, and GGT Activity After 24 Hours of Porcine Liver Cold Storage, Depending on the Type of Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, P; Budziński, G; Suszka-Świtek, A; Caban, A; Oczkowicz, G; Czech, E; Ryszka, F; Wiaderkiewicz, R; Smorąg, Z; Cierpka, L

    2016-06-01

    Because of an insufficient number of human organs for transplantation, xenotransplantation may become an effective alternative. We aimed to analyze if the type of transgenesis has an influence on the hepatic caspase-3 expression, the enzyme that executes apoptosis as well as ALT, AST, and GGT activity after 24 hours of cold storage. The experiment was carried out on the 24 livers of Polish White Landrace pigs carrying human α1,2-fucosyltransferase and/or α-galactosidase (GAL) genes and livers without this genetic modification (control). Livers were perfused, stored for 24 hours in solution, and subsequently re-flushed. Hepatic concentration of the caspase-3 protein and its mRNA expression were measured just after the animal was killed as well as after 30 minutes of perfusion and after 24 hours of cold storage followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Caspase-3 mRNA level was detected with the RT-PCR method. Protein concentration (capsase-3 active and inactive) was assessed with the Western blotting technique. Kinetic methods were applied for the analysis of the ALT, AST, and GGT activity. The highest increase of the ALT activity after cold storage was observed in the group with GAL transgenesis, whereas the GGT activity was highest in the unmodified livers. There was no difference in the caspase-3 expression and AST activity after cold storage as compared with the respective initial results (P = .57 and P = .97, respectively). It appears that transgenesis does not aggravate ischemic injury of the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Concentration of Growth Factors in Dogs under Different Conditions of Distraction Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Tushina, N V; Emanov, A A

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2), stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in the blood serum of dogs subjected to experimental lengthening of shin bones. In animals subjected to shin bone lengthening at a rate of 1 mm/day in 4 steps, the concentrations of SCF and TGF-β1 significantly increased in the middle of distraction and IGF-1 concentration increased by the end of distraction. In animals subjected to lengthening at a rate of 1.5 mm/day in 6 steps, the levels of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in the middle of distraction and the concentration of IGF-2 at the end of distraction. In animals subjected to lengthening at a rate of 3 mm/day in 120 steps, the concentrations of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 significantly decreased in the middle of distraction and concentrations of IGF-1, VEGF, and TGF-β1 increased by the end of distraction.

  2. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  3. Effects of immune challenge on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and growth performance in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Hevener, W; Routh, P A; Almond, G W

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the long-term effects of repeated endotoxin treatment or immunization against human serum albumin on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and other indicators of growth performance in growing pigs. Thirty gilts (38.5 +/- 0.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (n = 6 animals/group): 1) lipopolysaccharide injections, 2) lipopolysaccharide pair-fed, 3) human serum albumin immunization, 4) human serum albumin pair-fed, and...

  4. The concentration of copper, zinc and molybdenum in serum and red blood cells of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la; Lansangan, L.M.; Asprer, G.A.; Paradero, R.R.; Acuna, T.T.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-two samples of serum and red blood cells from 32 normal subjects and 50 patients with hypertension, old myocardial infarct and diabetes mellitus were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for copper, zinc and molybdenum. The mean value of copper in the normal serum (0.56 μg/g) was found to be lower than the reported mean values of 1.13 μg/g and 1.15 μg/g for foreign subjects. The mean value of copper in the normal red blood cells (0.55 μg/g) was also found to be lower than the reported values of 0.92 μg/g and 0.95 μg/g among foreigners. The mean concentration of copper in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.02+-0.25 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.06+-0.02 μg/g) were higher than the normal value of 0.56+-0.15 μg/g. The mean concentration of zinc in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.74+-0.38 μg/g) and in diabetes mellitus (0.61+-0.33 μg/g) were lower than the normal value of 1.25+-0.58 μg/g. The level of copper in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.99+-0.62 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (0.75+-0.39 μg/g) were found to be higher than the normal value of (0.55+-0.41) μg/g). The mean concentration of molybdenum in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.16+-0.73 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.55+-0.91 μg/g) were higher than the normal level of 0.73+-0.43 μg/g. The results are discussed

  5. Drug concentrations in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated with norvancomycin after craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Kang, J; Wang, Q

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial infection by gram-positive cocci is commonly found after craniotomy. Norvancomycin was independently developed in China, and had demonstrated therapeutic capability against gram-positive infection. This study investigated the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in patients that received intravenous injection of norvancomycin after craniotomy. Patients with an indwelling catheter in the operational area/ventricle after craniotomy were administered norvancomycin by two approaches: (1) The conventional group consisted of 14 cases that were infused with 0.8 g norvancomycin for 1 h, every 12 h; (2) The continuous administration group consisted of 14 cases that were infused with 0.8 g norvancomycin for 1 h, and then another 0.4 g for 11 h with extended infusion, followed by continuous infusion of 0.4 g norvancomycin for 12 h. Samples of serum and CSF were collected at different time-points to measure norvancomycin levels after administration. In the conventional and continuous administration groups, the peak serum concentrations of norvancomycin were 55.52 ± 26.04 and 59.22 ± 41.88 mg/L, respectively, while those at 24 h were 8.21 ± 6.04 and 8.01 ± 4.17 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, peak CSF concentrations were 16.31 ± 11.15 and 8.82 ± 8.91 mg/L, respectively, while those at 24 h were 6.12 ± 2.34 and 6.24 ± 4.38 mg/L, respectively. This preliminary study showed that for the early administration of standard doses of norvancomycin post-neurosurgery, the CSF concentration in both the conventional and continuous administration groups reached or exceeded the 90 % minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 90 , 2 mg/L) of target bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

  6. Evaluation of serum concentrations of the selected cytokines in patients with localized scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Budzyńska-Włodarczyk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin. The cause of disease remains unexplained although environmental factors are implicated, which are likely to be responsible for activation of the endothelium and subsequent inflammation leading to excessive synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix components. Aim: To determine concentrations of interleukin (IL-27, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, IL-6, and sIL-6R in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls and to assess the relations between their levels and laboratory markers. Material and methods: The study encompassed 17 females with localized scleroderma (aged 25–67. The control group consisted of 30 age-matched healthy women. The blood was sampled from the basilic vein. Serum levels of cytokines were determined using ELISA. Results : The TGF-β2 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls. Concentrations of TGF-β1 were decreased in scleroderma patients when compared to controls but without statistical significance. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6, sIL-6R and IL-27 levels between patients and the control group; however, we found a significant positive correlation between the level of sIL-6 and ESR among subjects with localized scleroderma. Conclusions : The findings of decreased serum levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in patients with localized scleroderma demonstrate a possible association of these cytokines with pathogenesis of the disease. The results suggest also that sIL-6R is likely to be involved in inflammation in patients with localized scleroderma.

  7. Evaluation of serum concentrations of the selected cytokines in patients with localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Michalska-Jakubus, Małgorzata M; Kowal, Małgorzata; Krasowska, Dorota

    2016-02-01

    Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin. The cause of disease remains unexplained although environmental factors are implicated, which are likely to be responsible for activation of the endothelium and subsequent inflammation leading to excessive synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix components. To determine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-27, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-6, and sIL-6R in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls and to assess the relations between their levels and laboratory markers. The study encompassed 17 females with localized scleroderma (aged 25-67). The control group consisted of 30 age-matched healthy women. The blood was sampled from the basilic vein. Serum levels of cytokines were determined using ELISA. The TGF-β2 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls. Concentrations of TGF-β1 were decreased in scleroderma patients when compared to controls but without statistical significance. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6, sIL-6R and IL-27 levels between patients and the control group; however, we found a significant positive correlation between the level of sIL-6 and ESR among subjects with localized scleroderma. The findings of decreased serum levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in patients with localized scleroderma demonstrate a possible association of these cytokines with pathogenesis of the disease. The results suggest also that sIL-6R is likely to be involved in inflammation in patients with localized scleroderma.

  8. Evaluation of the use of serum C-reactive protein concentration to predict outcome in puppies infected with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClure, Vanessa; van Schoor, Mirinda; Thompson, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis. Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus.......7%, respectively (considered moderately accurate). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Although serum CRP concentration was associated with outcome in puppies with canine parvovirus enteritis, it did not prove to be a good predictor of outcome when used alone....

  9. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...... with vitamin D status 50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant length...

  10. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Z; Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Li, Q; Zhang, K S; Zhong, H; Wang, Q G

    2017-03-22

    The poor egg-laying rate of geese hinders the development of the goose industry; therefore, the reproductive performance of geese is an important area of investigation. To evaluate the relationship between photoperiod, reproductive hormones, and reproductive activity during the egg-laying cycle in geese under natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also calculated the rate of egg laying for the two populations during the egg-laying cycle. We show that the egg-laying rate and the serum concentration of some hormones (PRL, E2, VIP, FSH, GnIH, and LH) differed significantly between the two populations during the pre-laying, laying, and ceased-laying periods. Serum LH concentrations may be associated with maturation of the ovary and oviducts, whereas FSH, PRL, and GnIH play important roles in egg laying. These results provide a useful resource for future studies examining the laying rate in geese.

  11. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P Theobromine independently increased serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.16 mmol/L. The lack of significant cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  12. Establishing reference intervals for galectin-3 concentrations in serum requires careful consideration of its biological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Fabiszak, Tomasz; Kubica, Jacek; Panteghini, Mauro; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Appropriately established reference intervals for laboratory biomarkers may help the interpretation of their results and facilitate clinical utilization. i) To determine reference intervals for serum galectin-3 measured using the Architect STAT immunoassay, and ii) to identify factors affecting galectin-3 concentrations. We recruited 533 questionnaire-identified apparently healthy individuals, in which laboratory biomarkers were used to detect asymptomatic myocardial injury and dysfunction, ongoing inflammation, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and renal dysfunction. A final reference group of 180 subjects was selected. 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of distribution of galectin-3 concentrations in the reference group (90% confidence interval) were 5.9 (5.0-6.8) and 18.1 (17.2-19.0) μg/L, respectively. Older age contributed to higher galectin-3 concentrations, but influenced derived reference intervals to a lesser extent. Other major determinants of galectin-3 concentrations observed in the questionnaire-screened population were not linked to galectin-3 in reference individuals. In aiming to decide if reference limits should be partitioned by age, we compared galectin-3 concentrations in subjects reference intervals for galectin-3 in which the effects of biological determinants were irrelevant. Although in healthy subjects age may affect galectin-3 release, this does not appear to necessitate age-related reference limits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Analysis of the results of serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentrations in bone imagines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xingyong; Jiang Min; Geng Jun; Hu Desheng; He Jian; Fan Xiandong

    2008-01-01

    To study the serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in whole body bone imagine, 73 patients with malignancy were under a whole body bone scan. The serum tumor markers levels of AFP, CEA, CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 were measured in 73 patients and 37 normal people. The results showed that there was significant difference only on serum CEA level (P<0.005), and no significant difference on CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 levels (P<0.05) between 36 patients with multiple abnormal concentration and the others with normal bone imagine. The serum levels of CEA, CA125 and CA19-9 in patients were significant higher than that of normal controls (P<0.005). Combined the whole body bone scan and detection of serum tumor markers might be regarded as clinical significance for the diagnosis of bone metastases. (authors)

  14. Pivotal Role of Mediterranean Dietary Regimen in the Increase of Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimah Bahreini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.

  15. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  16. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  17. Common genetic variants are associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations across the year among children at northern latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which...... reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P...

  18. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations before and after treatment of an ovarian granulosa cell tumour in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Laura A; Scudder, Christopher J; Lipscomb, Vicky J; Steinbach, Sarah Ml; Priestnall, Simon L; Martineau, Henny; Szladovits, Balazs; Fowkes, Robert C; Garden, Oliver A

    2017-01-01

    A 15-year-old female cat was presented for investigation of progressive behavioural changes, polyuria, polydipsia and periuria. An ovarian granulosa cell tumour was identified and the cat underwent therapeutic ovariohysterectomy (OHE). The cat's clinical signs resolved, but 6 months later it was diagnosed as having an anaplastic astrocytoma and was euthanased. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration prior to OHE was increased vs a control group of entire and neutered female cats. Following OHE, serum AMH concentration decreased to <1% of the original value. Serum AMH measurement may represent a novel diagnostic and monitoring tool for functional ovarian neoplasms in cats.

  19. Wnt/β-catenin expression does not correlate with serum alkaline phosphatase concentration in canine osteosarcoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Piskun

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of the bone and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase concentration has clinical prognostic value in both humans and canines. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration at the time of diagnosis has been associated with poorer outcomes for osteosarcoma patients. The biology underlying this negative prognostic factor is poorly understood. Given that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblasts, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway would be differentially activated in osteosarcoma tissue based on serum ALP status. Archived canine osteosarcoma samples and primary canine osteosarcoma cell lines were used to evaluate the status of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity through immunohistochemical staining, western immunoblot analyses, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a Wnt-responsive promoter activity assay. We found no significant difference in β-catenin expression or activation between OSA populations differing in serum ALP concentration. Pathway activity was mildly increased in the primary OSA cell line generated from a patient with increased serum ALP compared to the normal serum ALP OSA cell line. Further investigation into the mechanisms underlying differences in serum ALP concentration is necessary to improve our understanding of the biological implications of this negative prognostic indicator.

  20. Cardiovascular Response and Serum Interleukin-6 Level in Concentric Vs. Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank; Singh, Shraddha; Narayan, Jagdish; Pandey, Shivani; Tiwari, Sunita; Sharma, Priyanka

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Resistance exercise is strongly recommended for implementation in CVD prevention programs. Dynamic resistance exercise comprises of concentric (muscle shortening) and eccentric (muscle lengthening) phase. The contraction of skeletal muscle promotes the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and peptides from myocytes, known as 'myokines'. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the first myokine to be released in the blood in response to exercise. To compare the cardiovascular response and serum IL-6 level in concentric and eccentric exercise done at same absolute workload. In this non-randomised crossover study 24, apparently healthy and young male adults performed an acute bout of concentric and eccentric exercise. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Pulse Pressure (PP) and serum IL-6 were measured just before and immediately after exercise. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied to compare the data within-group and in-between group. SBP, HR, MAP, PP, DBP and IL-6 level increased significantly after both, concentric and eccentric exercise. The mean change in SBP, HR, MAP, PP, and IL-6 after concentric exercise (18.54±3.06, 57.21±10.73, 8.35±1.40, 15.25±5.29, 5.40±3.13 respectively) was significantly higher than after eccentric exercise (13.38±1.72, 43.25±8.34, 6.50±1.0, 10.21±3.16, 4.36±2.54 respectively). A non-significant rise in DBP was obtained after concentric exercise (3.25±2.79) as compared to eccentric exercise (3.08±1.89). Eccentric exercise not only caused a lesser cardiovascular demand as compared to concentric exercise but also a significant increment in IL-6 level. Exercise-induced IL-6 may prevent the initiation and development of CVD. Hence, eccentric exercise training might be recommended for reducing morbidity and mortality in individuals with- or at a risk of developing CVD.

  1. Lack of a nocturnal rise in serum concentrations of melatonin as gilts attain puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, A L; Wilson, M E; Pusateri, A E; Green, M L; Martin, T G; Diekman, M A

    1997-07-01

    Twenty prepubertal crossbred gilts (Yorkshire x Hampshire x Duroc) weighing 98.1 +/- 4.2 kg at 5 mo of age were placed in an environmentally controlled room having a temperature of 18 degrees C and light:dark cycle of 12 h:12 h. Light intensity measured 700 lx at eye level to the gilts. Three mature ewes were penned adjacent to the gilts to serve as positive controls for the light-dark cycles. After a 30-d acclimation period, 10 gilts from the pool determined to be prepubertal (serum progesterone light), 1130, 1200, 2300 (4 h after onset of darkness), 2330, and 2400 for 4 d. On d 5 of sampling, gilts were transported in an open-bed truck for 15 min, returned to their original environment, and exposed to boars for 20 min. Boar exposure was repeated every day throughout the remainder of the experimental period. Blood samples were drawn from each gilt until 7 d after estrus or for 12 d in those gilts that did not exhibit estrus. Blood samples were drawn by venipuncture from the ewes during the entire experimental period. For each sampling day, within an individual gilt or ewe, means of serum concentrations of melatonin (MEL) for night (scotophase) and day (photophase) samples were calculated. After three replications were conducted, four classes of animals were obtained: ewes (n = 9); nonpubertal gilts (n = 10); and two classes of gilts that ultimately reached puberty (prepubertal [n = 16] and postpubertal [n = 16]). Across all gilts, only 65 of 406 bleeding periods (16.0%) had a nocturnal (scotophase) rise in serum MEL. The proportion of gilts expressing a nocturnal rise in serum MEL did not differ as gilts approached puberty (P > .05). Incidence of nocturnal rises of MEL was similar (P > .05) in gilts that attained puberty and gilts that did not attain puberty. Nocturnal rises in MEL were observed in 86.2% of the bleeding periods of ewes housed in the same environment. These data indicate clearly that nocturnal rises in serum MEL are not necessary for a gilt to

  2. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie M; Kidney, Beverly A; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Myers, Sherry L; Jackson, Marion L

    2011-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker for inflammation in people and dogs. In people, an association between CRP concentration and atherosclerosis has been reported. Atherosclerosis is rare in dogs, but the Miniature Schnauzer breed may be at increased risk for developing this vascular disease. It is not known if CRP concentrations in Miniature Schnauzer dogs differ from those in other dog breeds. Our objectives were to validate an automated human CRP assay for measuring CRP in dogs and compare CRP concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs with those in non-Miniature Schnauzer breeds. Sera from 37 non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs with inflammatory disease were pooled and used to validate a human CRP immunoturbidimetric assay for measuring canine CRP. Blood was collected from 20 healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs and 41 healthy dogs of other breeds. Median serum CRP concentration of healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs was compared with that of healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The human CRP assay measured CRP reliably with linearity between 0 and 20 mg/L. CRP concentration for healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 4.0 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-18.2 mg/L) was significantly higher than for the healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 0.1 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-10.7 mg/L); 17 of the 20 Miniature Schnauzer dogs had values that overlapped with those of the non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Median CRP concentration of Miniature Schnauzer dogs was slightly higher than that of other breeds of dogs. A relationship between higher CRP concentration in Miniature Schnauzer dogs and idiopathic hyperlipidemia, pancreatitis, and possible increased risk for atherosclerosis remains to be determined. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Serum pentosidine concentration is associated with radiographic severity of lumbar spondylosis in a general Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Daisuke; Wada, Kanichiro; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Gentaro; Sasaki, Eiji; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the radiographic severity of lumbar spondylosis (LS) and serum bone metabolic markers. A total of 681 individuals volunteered for this study (269 men, 412 women; age: 54.9 ± 14.3; body mass index [BMI]: 23.1 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ). Lateral lumbar radiographs were evaluated in each intervertebral section (L1/2 to L5/S1) using the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (KL). If at least one intervertebral section was graded as KL 2 or greater, the participants were considered to have LS. The summation of each section of intervertebral section was used as the radiographic severity value of LS. In addition, bone status was evaluated with an osteo-sono assessment index (OSI) at the calcaneus. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (μg/mL), N-telopeptide of type I collagen (nMBCE/L), and pentosidine (pmol/mL) concentrations were examined and used as the bone metabolism index. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with the radiographic severity value of LS as the dependent variable and age, sex, BMI, OSI, and the value of serum bone metabolic markers as the independent variables. The total number of LS participants was 470 (69.0 %); the frequency of LS was higher in men (n = 198) than in women (n = 272; P = 0.036, χ 2 test). The mean severity value of LS was 7.1 ± 4.4, and the mean value of pentosidine was 120.7 ± 54.8 pmol/mL. On multiple regression analysis, age (B = 0.190, β = 0.611), sex (men = 1, women = 2; B = -0.900, β = -0.099), BMI (B = 0.185, β = 0.136), and pentosidine (B = 0.009, β = 0.115) were significantly correlated with the severity of LS. Serum pentosidine concentration was positively correlated with the radiographic severity of LS in this cross-sectional study.

  5. Maternal and early postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in relation to total serum immunoglobulin concentrations in 6-month-old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Animal data indicate that developmental tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters immune function; however, the potential immunotoxicity of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the developing infant is an understudied area. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to total infant serum immunoglobulin concentrations determined at 6-months-of-age. We selected 384 mother-infant pairs participating in a birth cohort study in Eastern Slovakia. PCB concentrations of several congeners were determined in maternal and cord serum samples and in infant serum samples collected at 6-months-of-age using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A, and M concentrations were determined by nephelometry, and IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to estimate the associations between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and total serum immunoglobulins. The median maternal serum concentration of PCB-153 was 140 ng/g lipid, ≈10-fold higher than concentrations in childbearing-age women in the United States during the same period. Maternal, cord, or 6-month infant PCB concentrations were not associated with total serum immunoglobulin levels at 6 months, regardless of the timing of PCB exposure, PCB congener, or specific immunoglobulin. In this population, which has high PCB concentrations relative to most populations in the world today, we did not observe any association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations and total immunoglobulin measures of IgG, IgA, IgM, or IgE. PMID:21299357

  6. Predictors of Risperidone and 9-Hydroxyrisperidone Serum Concentration in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Del D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Little is known about risperidone metabolism in a clinical sample, where polypharmacy is common. Such knowledge is important since several of its side effects are dose dependent. Methods Medically healthy patients aged 7 to 17 years old treated with risperidone for at least 6 months were enrolled. Trough serum risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations were measured. Results One hundred seven participants (92% males) were recruited, representing a heterogenous clinical group with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders, or psychotic disorders. Risperidone had been used at a mean dose of 0.03 mg/kg, for a mean 2.5 years, predominantly to treat irritability and aggression. Cytochrome CYP2D6 inhibitors were divided into prominent (fluoxetine, bupropion, and lamotrigine), intermediate (sertraline), and weak inhibition groups (citalopram or escitalopram). The concentrations of risperidone and its metabolite were strongly associated with the dose of risperidone and time since the last dose and, to a lesser extent, with male sex. In addition, risperidone concentration increased with pubertal stage (p risperidone concentration (p risperidone depends on the stage of sexual development, whereas that of 9-hydroxyrisperidone varies with body fat. Moreover, CYP2D6 inhibitors more strongly affect risperidone metabolism than that of its metabolite. The clinical implications of these findings, in relation to efficacy and tolerability, deserve further investigation. PMID:21486167

  7. Prediction of Individual Serum Infliximab Concentrations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease by a Bayesian Dashboard System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Alexander; Primas, Christian; Reinisch, Sieglinde; Vogelsang, Harald; Novacek, Gottfried; Mould, Diane R; Reinisch, Walter

    2018-01-30

    Despite a robust exposure-response relationship of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), attempts to adjust dosing to individually predicted serum concentrations of infliximab (SICs) are lacking. Compared with labor-intensive conventional software for pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling (eg, NONMEM) dashboards are easy-to-use programs incorporating complex Bayesian statistics to determine individual pharmacokinetics. We evaluated various infliximab detection assays and the number of samples needed to precisely forecast individual SICs using a Bayesian dashboard. We assessed long-term infliximab retention in patients being dosed concordantly versus discordantly with Bayesian dashboard recommendations. Three hundred eighty-two serum samples from 117 adult IBD patients on infliximab maintenance therapy were analyzed by 3 commercially available assays. Data from each assay was modeled using NONMEM and a Bayesian dashboard. PK parameter precision and residual variability were assessed. Forecast concentrations from both systems were compared with observed concentrations. Infliximab retention was assessed by prediction for dose intensification via Bayesian dashboard versus real-life practice. Forecast precision of SICs varied between detection assays. At least 3 SICs from a reliable assay are needed for an accurate forecast. The Bayesian dashboard performed similarly to NONMEM to predict SICs. Patients dosed concordantly with Bayesian dashboard recommendations had a significantly longer median drug survival than those dosed discordantly (51.5 versus 4.6 months, P dashboard helps to assess the diagnostic performance of infliximab detection assays. Three, not single, SICs provide sufficient information for individualized dose adjustment when incorporated into the Bayesian dashboard. Treatment adjusted to forecasted SICs is associated with longer drug retention of infliximab. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Associations of serum carotenoid concentrations and fruit or vegetable consumption with serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Anja; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention may alter the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and thereby cancer risk. In a qualitative review, eleven of twenty studies showed a link between one or more carotenoids, vegetable or fruit intake and the IGF system, however, with partly contrary findings, such that no firm conclusion can be drawn. Therefore, we evaluated associations between serum carotenoid concentrations or the intake of fruits and vegetables with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (BP)-3 and their molar ratio (IGF-1:IGFBP-3) within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). In our analysis, we included 6061 NHANES III participants and used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. IGF-1 concentrations were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin in men and women. Statistically significant positive associations were observed for serum concentrations of α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin and intake of fruits with serum IGFBP-3 concentrations in women, but not in men. The IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio was significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene and α-carotene in men and with β-carotene in women. In conclusion, dietary interventions with carotenoids, fruits and vegetables may affect the IGF system, although the direction of these effects is currently unclear.

  9. Measurement of myostatin concentrations in human serum: Circulating concentrations in young and older men and effects of testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Kishore M; Bhasin, Shalender; Corcoran, Christopher; Collins-Racie, Lisa A; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Forlow, S Bradley; St Ledger, Katie; Burczynski, Michael E; Dorner, Andrew J; Lavallie, Edward R

    2009-04-10

    Methodological problems, including binding of myostatin to plasma proteins and cross-reactivity of assay reagents with other proteins, have confounded myostatin measurements. Here we describe development of an accurate assay for measuring myostatin concentrations in humans. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to distinct regions of myostatin served as capture and detector antibodies in a sandwich ELISA that used acid treatment to dissociate myostatin from binding proteins. Serum from myostatin-deficient Belgian Blue cattle was used as matrix and recombinant human myostatin as standard. The quantitative range was 0.15-37.50 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay CVs in low, mid, and high range were 4.1%, 4.7%, and 7.2%, and 3.9%, 1.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. Myostatin protein was undetectable in sera of Belgian Blue cattle and myostatin knockout mice. Recovery in spiked sera approximated 100%. ActRIIB-Fc or anti-myostatin antibody MYO-029 had no effect on myostatin measurements when assayed at pH 2.5. Myostatin levels were higher in young than older men (mean+/-S.E.M. 8.0+/-0.3 ng/mL vs. 7.0+/-0.4 ng/mL, P=0.03). In men treated with graded doses of testosterone, myostatin levels were significantly higher on day 56 than baseline in both young and older men; changes in myostatin levels were significantly correlated with changes in total and free testosterone in young men. Myostatin levels were not significantly associated with lean body mass in either young or older men. Myostatin ELISA has the characteristics of a valid assay: nearly 100% recovery, excellent precision, accuracy, and sufficient sensitivity to enable measurement of myostatin concentrations in men and women.

  10. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p = 0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p = 0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians.

  11. Machine-Learned Data Structures of Lipid Marker Serum Concentrations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Differ from Those in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Thrun, Michael; Lerch, Florian; Brunkhorst, Robert; Schiffmann, Susanne; Thomas, Dominique; Tegder, Irmgard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ultsch, Alfred

    2017-06-07

    Lipid metabolism has been suggested to be a major pathophysiological mechanism of multiple sclerosis (MS). With the increasing knowledge about lipid signaling, acquired data become increasingly complex making bioinformatics necessary in lipid research. We used unsupervised machine-learning to analyze lipid marker serum concentrations, pursuing the hypothesis that for the most relevant markers the emerging data structures will coincide with the diagnosis of MS. Machine learning was implemented as emergent self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) combined with the U*-matrix visualization technique. The data space consisted of serum concentrations of three main classes of lipid markers comprising eicosanoids ( d = 11 markers), ceramides ( d = 10), and lyosophosphatidic acids ( d = 6). They were analyzed in cohorts of MS patients ( n = 102) and healthy subjects ( n = 301). Clear data structures in the high-dimensional data space were observed in eicosanoid and ceramides serum concentrations whereas no clear structure could be found in lysophosphatidic acid concentrations. With ceramide concentrations, the structures that had emerged from unsupervised machine-learning almost completely overlapped with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects. This was only partly provided by eicosanoid serum concentrations. Thus, unsupervised machine-learning identified distinct data structures of bioactive lipid serum concentrations. These structures could be superimposed with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects, which was almost completely possible with ceramides. Therefore, based on the present analysis, ceramides are first-line candidates for further exploration as drug-gable targets or biomarkers in MS.

  12. Comparison of macular pigment and serum lutein concentration changes between free lutein and lutein esters supplements in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizako, Hiroko; Hara, Katunori; Takai, Yasuyuki; Kaidzu, Sachiko; Obana, Akira; Ohira, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    To compare changes in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum lutein concentration between free lutein and lutein esters supplements in healthy Japanese individuals. Twenty healthy subjects (age range, 22-47 years) were recruited into this prospective, randomized, doubled-blind comparative study. Individuals were evenly divided into two groups: free lutein group, supplementation with 10 mg of free lutein; or lutein esters group, supplementation with 20 mg of lutein esters equivalent to 10 mg of free lutein. Each participant took either type of oral lutein daily for 3 months. The serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months after the start of supplementation. There were no significant differences in the serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels at baseline between the groups. The increased serum lutein concentration and MPOD levels at 3 months were respectively, 89% and 38% in the free lutein group and 97% and 17% in the lutein esters group. The serum lutein concentrations in both groups and MPOD levels in the free lutein group increased significantly (p lutein concentrations and MPOD levels were seen between the groups. Three months after supplementation ended, the serum lutein concentration decreased; the MPOD remained elevated in both groups. The serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels increased significantly with either free lutein or lutein esters, and no significant differences were found between the two. Both were considered useful as lutein supplements. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of tryptophan supplementation on cashmere fiber characteristics, serum tryptophan, and related hormone concentrations in cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Zhang, W; Song, W H; Sun, P; Jia, Z H

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of tryptophan (Trp) supplementation on cashmere fiber characteristics and on serum Trp, melatonin (MEL), prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) concentrations in cashmere goats during the cashmere fast-growth period. Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere wether goats were stratified on the basis of body weight (28±0.8 kg) and assigned randomly to 1 of the following 4 rumen-protected Trp treatments: 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 g per goat per day. The experimental period lasted 137 d. Blood samples were collected monthly during the daytime (8:00 AM) and at night (8:00 PM). Tryptophan supplementation improved cashmere growth rates, cashmere weight, and body weight (P=0.001) and increased serum Trp levels, nighttime MEL concentrations, IGF-1, and T3 and T4 concentrations (Pcashmere growth rate and nighttime serum MEL concentrations was observed (r=0.879, P=0.001). A moderately negative correlation between cashmere growth rates and serum PRL concentrations during the day and at night (rday=-0.645, P=0.007; rnight=-0.583, P=0.018) was observed. A moderately positive correlation between the cashmere growth rate and the daytime serum IGF-1 concentration (r=0.536, P=0.032) was observed, and no correlation was found between the cashmere growth rate and the other serum hormone concentrations. These data indicate that changes in serum concentrations of MEL, IGF-1, and PRL are related to cashmere growth in Liaoning cashmere goats during the cashmere fast-growth period. Under the experimental conditions of the current trial, we suggest that Trp may promote cashmere growth by increasing daytime IGF-1 and nighttime MEL secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of serum metabolite concentrations over a 4-month period using a targeted metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Floegel

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a promising tool for discovery of novel biomarkers of chronic disease risk in prospective epidemiologic studies. We investigated the between- and within-person variation of the concentrations of 163 serum metabolites over a period of 4 months to evaluate the metabolite reliability expressed by the intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC: the ratio of between-person variance and total variance. The analyses were performed with the BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQ™ targeted metabolomics technology, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose in 100 healthy individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study who had provided two fasting blood samples 4 months apart. Overall, serum reliability of metabolites over a 4-month period was good. The median ICC of the 163 metabolites was 0.57. The highest ICC was observed for hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ICC = 0.85 and the lowest was found for acylcarnitine C3:1 (ICC = 0. Reliability was high for hexose (ICC = 0.76, sphingolipids (median ICC = 0.66; range: 0.24-0.85, amino acids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.41-0.72 and glycerophospholipids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.03-0.81. Among acylcarnitines, reliability of short and medium chain saturated compounds was good to excellent (ICC range: 0.50-0.81. Serum reliability was lower for most hydroxyacylcarnitines and monounsaturated acylcarnitines (ICC range: 0.11-0.45 and 0.00-0.63, respectively. For most of the metabolites a single measurement may be sufficient for risk assessment in epidemiologic studies with healthy subjects.

  15. Reference intervals for serum concentrations of three bone turnover markers for men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, J; Wallaschofski, H; Friedrich, N; Spielhagen, C; Rettig, R; Ittermann, T; Nauck, M; Hannemann, A

    2013-12-01

    Bone turnover markers (BTMs) reflect the metabolic activity of bone tissue and can be used to monitor osteoporosis therapy. To adequately interpret BTMs, method-specific reference intervals are needed. We aimed to determine reference intervals for serum concentrations of intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). We established a healthy reference population of 1107 men as well as 382 pre- and 450 postmenopausal women, who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum PINP, BAP and CTX concentrations were measured on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range. We determined age-specific reference intervals for PINP, BAP, and CTX for men by quantile regression. Reference intervals for women were age-independent. Reference intervals for men for PINP and CTX decreased with age (25-29year-old men: PINP 31.1-95.9ng/mL, CTX 0.12-0.83ng/mL; 75-79year-old men: PINP 15.7-68.1ng/mL, CTX 0.05-0.58ng/mL). The reference interval for men for BAP did not significantly change with age (25-29year-old men: 7.4-27.7ng/mL; 75-79year-old men: 7.6-24.4ng/mL). The reference intervals for 30-54year-old premenopausal women were: PINP 19.3-76.3ng/mL, BAP 6.0-22.7ng/mL, and CTX 0.05-0.67ng/mL. The reference intervals for 50-79year-old postmenopausal women were: PINP 18.2-102.3ng/mL, BAP 8.1-31.6ng/mL, and CTX 0.09-1.05ng/mL. An intensively characterized, large reference population free of bone-related diseases allowed us to determine robust reference intervals for serum concentrations of PINP, BAP and CTX. Our normative data may aid to interpret bone turnover in adult men and pre- and postmenopausal women. © 2013.

  16. Concentrations and trends of halogenated flame retardants in the pooled serum of residents of Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Li, Mingyuan; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Bu, Yunjie; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xianfeng; Liu, Anming

    2013-06-01

    The south coast of Laizhou Bay, in northeastern China, is a production area for halogenated flame retardants (HFR). In 2007, the authors measured serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Laizhou Bay residents. To assess the PBDE concentration trend, and determine the concentrations of the emerging flame retardants Dechlorane Plus (DP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), the authors measured the concentrations of 8 PBDE congeners, 2 DP isomers, and TBPH in 10 composite samples, which were pooled from the serum collected from 305 Laizhou Bay residents in October 2011. The average concentration of the total PBDE (∑8 PBDE) concentration in all serum pools was 240 ng/g lipid weight, and the highest serum pool concentration (in the 30- to 39-yr-old male group) was 780 ng/g lipid weight. Brominated diphenyl ether-209 was the dominant congener, accounting for 87% of ∑8 PBDE. Compared with a previous study, ∑8 PBDE serum concentrations in the present study showed no change in order of magnitude, but the relative contribution of BDE-209 to ∑8 PBDE was higher. The average concentration of ∑DP in all serum pools was 3.6 ng/g lipid weight, ranging from 1.4 ng/g lipid weight (in the 50- to 59-yr-old male group) to 11 ng/g lipid weight (in the 20- to 29-yr-old male group). The concentration of DP was lower than in other reported studies. The study also detected TBPH in the 30- to 39-yr-old female group, suggesting that TBPH, as an emerging HFR, requires further monitoring. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  18. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L. McKnight

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg. Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12 to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11. Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12. MH significantly (p < 0.05 increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1 to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  19. Endocan concentrations in postmortem serum, vitreous humor and urine in victims of lethal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Emilienne; Augsburger, Marc; Teresiński, Grzegorz; Hejna, Petr; Grouzmann, Eric; Scarpelli, Maria Pia; Hervet, Tania; Palmiere, Cristian

    2017-08-01

    Endocan is a soluble molecule secreted from vascular endothelial cells of various organs. Its exact function in humans remains to be elucidated, though it has been postulated that increased tissue expression or serum levels of this molecule may be an indicator of endothelial activation and neovascularization. In the realm of forensic pathology, studies pertaining to endothelial activation following exposure to cold exclusively focused on thrombomodulin, a transmembrane protein specific to endothelial cells. In the study herein described, endocan concentrations were determined in postmortem serum, urine and vitreous humor samples collected during autopsy in a series of cases that underwent medicolegal investigations. A total of 76 autopsy cases were selected and three study groups (hypothermia group, sepsis group and non-hypothermia/non-sepsis group) prospectively formed during the study period. The obtained results seem to indicate that exposure to cold and subsequent death is not distinguished by significant endothelial dysfunction causing enhanced endocan secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Serum 3-Bromotyrosine Concentrations in Dogs with Steroid-Responsive Diarrhea and Food-Responsive Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattasathuchana, P; Allenspach, K; Lopes, R; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M

    2017-07-01

    The clinical usefulness of serum 3-BrY concentrations for subclassifying dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD) has not been studied. To compare serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with FRD, dogs with SRD, and healthy control dogs. 38 dogs with FRD, 14 dogs with SRD, and 46 healthy dogs. Prospective study. Measurement of 3-BrY concentration in serum samples was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. There was no association of peripheral eosinophilia in dogs with FRD, SRD, and healthy control dogs (P = 0.069). There was no significant correlation between peripheral eosinophil counts and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = -0.15, P = 0.13). Serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with SRD (median [range] = 3.27, 0.9-26.23 μmol/L) were significantly higher than in dogs with FRD (median [range] = 0.99, 0.62-8.82 μmol/L; P = 0.007) or in healthy dogs (median [range] = 0.62, 0.62-1.79 μmol/L; P dogs with FRD were significantly higher than in healthy dogs (P = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.23). Measurement of serum 3-BrY concentrations, but not the peripheral eosinophil count, is helpful for detecting dogs with SRD and FRD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentration, PSA Mass, and Obesity: A Mathematical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2018-02-17

    To provide a mathematical background for understanding the phenomenon of analyte hemodilution using a kinetic analysis. The first assumption for this analysis is that change in concentration of any analyte, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is due to the flux of the analyte from an organ into the blood minus its flux from the blood. What results is a relatively simple differential equation that emphasizes the importance of plasma volume, organ mass, and two rate constants. The analyses demonstrate how serum PSA can be affected by plasma volume as well as body mass and how hemodilution due to obesity can be at least partly corrected for by expressing PSA in units of total mass or total mass density. At a time when obesity is prevalent, expressing analytes in units of total mass may make them relate more closely to disease status and prognosis.

  2. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Meeker, John D; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in 2 disparate US populations: partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families...... and partners in infertile couples from Massachusetts General Hospital infertility clinic. The observed associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormones were robust and insensitive to the characteristics of the subpopulation or the laboratory in which the hormones were measured, despite...... the fact that these 2 populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites, and reproductive hormone levels. We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones-follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone (T), inhibin B...

  3. Diurnal variation of the serum leptin concentration in patients with anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoving, R.K.; Vinten, Jørgen; Handberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    , however, this has been reported to be absent in normal weighted amenorrheic athletes. Anorexia nervosa is associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. Hypothalamic amenorrhoea often precedes the weight loss and may persist after weight recovery. We hypothesized that leptin could be involved...... in the regulation of eating behaviour and gonadal function in anorexia nervosa. DESIGN: We measured the concentration of leptin in serum samples taken after an overnight fast in 18 female anorexia nervosa patients and 11 controls. To study diurnal variation, eight patients and 11 controls were hospitalized for 24 h...... and had a standardized diet at regular times. Seven blood samples were obtained at 4 h intervals from each subject. PATIENTS: The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. The mean body mass index for the patients was 14.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and for controls 20.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m2. RESULTS...

  4. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  5. Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lun Huang

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2, which is mainly expressed from adipose tissue, is demonstrated to be involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Because several adipocytokines are known to be associated with heart failure (HF, here we investigated the association of ANGPTL2 and HF in Taiwanese subjects.A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myocardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Circulating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creatinine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-α, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and negatively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.24-7.08, P = 0.01 higher than those in the lowest tertile.Our results demonstrate a higher circulating ANGPTL2 level in patients with HF, and the upregulating ANGPTL2 levels might be associated with metabolic derangements and inflammation.

  6. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (age and lower cognitive function (Pinteractioncognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies.

  7. Highly elevated serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in fishery employees from Tangxun lake, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    Increasing production and use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported from China, and a few studies have shown there are subpopulations in China with high and increasing exposure to these chemicals. In this paper, we present a comprehensive exposure assessment of PFASs in fishery employees from Tangxun Lake, China. Exceptionally high serum concentrations of C4 to C12 PFASs were observed in fishery employees (n = 39, median perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) 10 400 ng/mL) compared to a reference group from the same city (n = 9, median PFOS 18.7 ng/mL). On the basis of the comparison of different exposure pathways, it was concluded that contaminated fish from Tangxun Lake was the primary source of PFAS exposure to fishery employees, and there was a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and time of employment in the fishery. PFOS isomer profiles in fishery employees showed a significantly higher proportion of linear PFOS (78.4%) compared to the background-exposed reference group (66.8%), reflecting the highly linear PFOS isomer profile (>90%) of lake fish. Median renal clearance rates (CLrenal) of C4 to C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) ranged from 0.020 to 16.5 mL/day/kg and 0.013 to 9.43 mL/day/kg, respectively. PFCAs with less than eight perfluoroalkyl carbons were primarily eliminated via urine, whereas other routes of excretion may have contributed to the elimination for long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs. Calculated daily PFOS exposures of fishery employees significantly exceeded tolerable daily intake limits, but clinical blood chemistry parameters were mostly within normal reference ranges. However, additional epidemiological studies are needed to address potential associations between PFAS exposure and health effects in the Tangxun Lake area.

  8. Effects of magnetic treated water on serum concentration parameters and fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnetic water on blood cells counts, biochemical profile, blood gas level and subcutaneous fat thickness of Jersey cows. This research was carried out at Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios - APTA, SP. Twenty six Jersey cows from the APTA were allotted into two groups: control (n=13, drinking regular water and the group consuming magnetic water (n=13. The animals were lactating around 150 days and pregnant around 60 days. Blood samples were collected from caudal auricular artery and jugular vein. The water treatment had no effect on hemogram (p>0.05. Higher pH (7.448 vs 7.407 mmHg, p<0.05 and lower PaCO2 (37.97 vs 42.47 mmHg, p<0.05 levels were detected in arterial blood of the group drinking magnetic water. The concentration of Na ion (138.8 vs 145.5 mmol/l, p<0.05 and serum triglycerides (10.4 vs 22.6 mg/dL, p<0.05 were significantly lower, resulting in smaller osmolality (273.30 vs 280.99 mOsm/kg, p<0.05 and subcutaneous fat thickness (0.2 vs 1.3 mm, p<0.05. In summary, the water treatment, evaluated in this study, may have decreased the risk of some metabolic disorders, such as acidosis and high serum concentration of Na and carbon dioxide.

  9. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Akira; Tanito, Masaki; Gohto, Yuko; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan) and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem). The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured. The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. "retinal responders", who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13), "retinal non-responders", who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20), and "retinal and serum non-responders", who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3). The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133). Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in contrast sensitivity. No statistically

  10. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Obana

    Full Text Available To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used.Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem. The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured.The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. "retinal responders", who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13, "retinal non-responders", who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20, and "retinal and serum non-responders", who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3. The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133. Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in contrast sensitivity

  11. Paracetamol serum concentrations in preterm infants treated with paracetamol intravenously: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ganzewinkel Christ-jan JLM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Until now, studies on paracetamol given intravenously have mainly been performed with the pro-drug propacetamol or with paracetamol in preterm babies above 32 weeks of gestation. Studies in these babies indicate that intravenous paracetamol is tolerated well, however studies on the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol are lacking. There are no pharmacokinetic data on the administration of multiple doses of paracetamol in preterm babies with a gestational age below 32 weeks. Case presentation We present a case series of nine Caucasian preterm babies, six boys and three girls, with a mean gestational age of 28.6 weeks (range 25.9 to 31.6 weeks. Case one, a girl with a gestational age of 25 weeks and six days, presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. In the second case, a female baby with a gestational age of 26 weeks and two days presented with hematoma. In case three, a female baby with a gestation of 26 weeks and one day developed intraventricular hemorrhage. In case four, a male baby with a gestational age of 31 weeks and four days presented with pain after vacuum delivery. Case five, a female baby born after a gestation of 29 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case six, a male baby with a gestation of 30 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case seven, a male baby, born with a gestational age of 30 weeks and six days, presented with caput succedaneum and hematoma. In case eight, a male baby, born after a gestation of 28 weeks and four days, developed abdominal distention. Case nine, a female baby, born with a gestational age of 27 weeks and three days presented with hematoma. These babies were treated with intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg every six hours. Serum concentrations and aspartate transaminase were determined after prolonged administration. Pain scores were assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Conclusion Paracetamol serum concentrations ranged from 8 to 64 mg/L after eight to 12

  12. Paracetamol serum concentrations in preterm infants treated with paracetamol intravenously: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ganzewinkel, Christ-Jan Jlm; Mohns, Thilo; van Lingen, Richard A; Derijks, Luc Jj; Andriessen, Peter

    2012-01-04

    Until now, studies on paracetamol given intravenously have mainly been performed with the pro-drug propacetamol or with paracetamol in preterm babies above 32 weeks of gestation. Studies in these babies indicate that intravenous paracetamol is tolerated well, however studies on the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol are lacking. There are no pharmacokinetic data on the administration of multiple doses of paracetamol in preterm babies with a gestational age below 32 weeks. We present a case series of nine Caucasian preterm babies, six boys and three girls, with a mean gestational age of 28.6 weeks (range 25.9 to 31.6 weeks). Case one, a girl with a gestational age of 25 weeks and six days, presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. In the second case, a female baby with a gestational age of 26 weeks and two days presented with hematoma. In case three, a female baby with a gestation of 26 weeks and one day developed intraventricular hemorrhage. In case four, a male baby with a gestational age of 31 weeks and four days presented with pain after vacuum delivery. Case five, a female baby born after a gestation of 29 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case six, a male baby with a gestation of 30 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case seven, a male baby, born with a gestational age of 30 weeks and six days, presented with caput succedaneum and hematoma. In case eight, a male baby, born after a gestation of 28 weeks and four days, developed abdominal distention. Case nine, a female baby, born with a gestational age of 27 weeks and three days presented with hematoma. These babies were treated with intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg every six hours. Serum concentrations and aspartate transaminase were determined after prolonged administration. Pain scores were assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Paracetamol serum concentrations ranged from 8 to 64 mg/L after eight to 12 doses of intravenous paracetamol. Adequate analgesia was obtained in

  13. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables, highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years, indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05, whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8% cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02 only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more

  14. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  15. A study of the association between serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus concentration or dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraikawa, Mayu; Tanabe, Rieko; Sogabe, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Aoi; Kawamura, Yuka; Michigami, Toshimi; Hosoi, Takayuki; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes a variety of monophosphate esters into phosphoric acid and alcohol at a high optimum pH (pH 8-10). Human ALPs are classified into four types: tissue-non specific (TNSALP, liver/bone/kidney), intestinal, placental, and germ cell types. Based on studies of hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is a systemic bone disease caused by the presence of either one or two pathologic mutations in ALPL that encodes TNSALP, TNSALP was suggested to be indispensable for skeletal mineralization. In this study, we explored the possibility that dietary nutrients contribute to regulate serum bone-specific ALP (BAP) activity. Serum biochemical parameters, such as serum ALP, BAP, osteocalcin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), were measured in healthy young subjects (n=193). Dietary nutrient intakes were measured based on 3-d food records before the day of blood examinations. The presence of a carrier of the deletion of T at nucleotide 1559 (c.1559delT), which has been reported to be the most frequent in Japanese HPP, was not detected in any subject. By the analysis of BAP activity and other biochemical parameters or dietary nutrient intakes, we obtained significant correlations between BAP activity and serum phosphorus (r=-0.165, p=0.022), calcium intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.186, p=0.010), or phosphorus intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.226, p=0.002). Further study on the regulation of BAP activity and calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis will provide useful data for improving skeletal health.

  16. The relationship between normocytic, hypochromic anaemia and iron concentration together with hepatic enzyme activities in cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahzadeh, S; Mohri, M; Bahadori, Sh Ranjbar; Dezfouly, M R Mokhber; Tajik, P

    2008-03-01

    Erythrograms determined from whole blood analyses and serum analyses for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and iron concentration, were used in infected and uninfected cattle to determine the type of anaemia and degree of hepatic damage caused by Fasciola hepatica. Blood samples from 86 infected and 30 uninfected cattle were taken at slaughter. Haematological analyses revealed decreased levels of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in infected compared with uninfected cattle (P hepatic and bile duct injuries associated with chronic infection with F. hepatica.

  17. Summer/winter changes in serum S100B protein concentration as a source of research variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Henry-Benitez, Manuel; Yelmo-Cruz, Silvia; Diaz-Mesa, Estefania

    2013-06-01

    S100B is a calcium binding protein that can be measured in cerebral and extra cerebral biological tissues and fluids. Circadian and seasonal variations have been described in several biological molecules such as melatonin, cortisol and testosterone. Healthy subjects do not have a circadian rhythm of S100B. There is no information on seasonal variations of S100B levels. The aim of this research is to study whether healthy subjects present summer/winter changes in serum S100B protein concentrations. Ninety-eight subjects were studied in summer, of those, 64 participated in the winter evaluation. Blood was drawn by venipuncture at 09:00 h, 12:00 h and 00:00 h in summer and winter. Serum was separated from blood by centrifugation and stored at -70° until analysis. Serum S100B concentrations were measured by ELISA. Serum S100B concentrations were significantly higher in summer than winter (09:00 h: 43.4 ± 24.6 ng/ml vs. 29.3 ± 22.7 ng/ml, p vs. 23.0 ± 22.1 ng/ml, p vs. 28.5 ± 24.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Age, gender, body mass index and time points when blood was extracted did not affect serum S100B concentrations neither in summer nor in winter. Our results point to the fact that there is an important difference in serum S100B concentrations between summer and winter. It is strongly advisable to consider this summer/winter difference in serum S100B concentrations when researching into this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  19. Daily intake and serum concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyskida, Katarzyna; Żak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Suchy, Dariusz; Ficek, Rafał; Pośpiech, Kornel; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Okopień, Bogusław; Więcek, Andrzej; Chudek, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Decreased concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) seems to be an important risk factor of vascular calcification in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Optimal dietary intake, as well as serum MK-4 reference range, in HD has not been determined, yet. The aim of the present study was to assess daily vitamin K1 and MK-4 intakes and their relation to serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients. Daily vitamin K1 and MK-4, micro- and macronutrients and energy intakes were assessed using 3-day food diary completed by patients and serum MK-4 concentration was measured by HPLC [limit of quantification (LOQ): 0.055 ng/mL] in 85 HD patients (51 males) and 22 apparently healthy subjects. Daily MK-4 intake was significantly lower (by 29%) among HD, while K1 consumption was similar in both groups. Daily MK-4 intake was associated with fat and protein consumption in HD (r=0.43, pintakes were weaker in HD (r=0.38 and r=0.30 respectively) than in the control group (r=0.47 and r=0.45, respectively). In multiple regression analysis the variability of serum MK-4 concentrations in HD patients was explained by its daily intake. Decreased serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients is caused by lower dietary MK-4 intake, mainly due to diminished meat consumption, and in addition, probably reduced K1 conversion. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Concentration of p-Cresol and Indoxyl Sulfate in Elderly Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jui Lin

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the elderly hemodialysis patients do not have higher serum p-cresol and IS levels. Diabetes was associated with serum total p-cresol level in elderly dialysis patients.

  1. Serum cortisol concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and atypical hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L A; Henry, G A; Whittemore, J C; Enders, B D; Mawby, D I; Rohrbach, B W

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC) is considered when dogs have clinical signs of hypercortisolemia with normal hyperadrenocorticism screening tests. To compare cortisol concentrations and adrenal gland size among dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC), and healthy controls. Ten healthy dogs, 7 dogs with PDH, and 8 dogs with AHAC. Dogs were prospectively enrolled between November 2011 and January 2013. Dogs were diagnosed with PDH or AHAC based on clinical signs and positive screening test results (PDH) or abnormal extended adrenal hormone panel results (AHAC). Transverse adrenal gland measurements were obtained by abdominal ultrasound. Hourly mean cortisol (9 samplings), sum of hourly cortisol measurements and adrenal gland sizes were compared among the 3 groups. Hourly (control, 1.4 ± 0.6 μg/dL; AHAC, 2.9 ± 1.3; PDH, 4.3 ± 1.5) (mean, SD) and sum (control, 11.3 ± 3.3; AHAC, 23.2 ± 7.7; PDH, 34.7 ± 9.9) cortisol concentrations differed significantly between the controls and AHAC (P cortisol concentrations differed between AHAC and PDH dogs. Average transverse adrenal gland diameter of control dogs (5.3 ± 1.2 mm) was significantly less than dogs with PDH (6.4 ± 1.4; P = .02) and AHAC (7.2 ± 1.5; P dogs with AHAC and PDH. Serum cortisol concentrations in dogs with AHAC were increased compared to controls but less than dogs with PDH, while adrenal gland diameter was similar between dogs with AHAC and PDH. These findings suggest cortisol excess could contribute to the pathophysiology of AHAC. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Evaluation of serum fructosamine concentration as an index of blood glucose control in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, J J; Kawamoto, M; Heusner, A A; Feldman, E C; Koizumi, I

    1992-10-01

    Fructosamine, a glycated serum protein, was evaluated as an index of glycemic control in normal and diabetic cats. Fructosamine was determined manually by use of a modification of an automated method. The within-run precision was 2.4 to 3.2%, and the day-to-day precision was 2.7 to 3.1%. Fructosamine was found to be stable in serum samples stored for 1 week at 4 C and for 2 weeks at -20 C. The reference range for serum fructosamine concentration in 31 clinically normal colony cats was 2.19 to 3.47 mmol/L (mean, 2.83 +/- 0.32 mmol/L). In 27 samples from 16 cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, the range for fructosamine concentration was 3.04 to 8.83 mmol/L (mean, 5.93 +/- 1.35 mmol/L). Fructosamine concentration was directly and highly correlated to blood glucose concentration. Fructosamine concentration also remained high in consort with increased blood glucose concentration in cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus over extended periods. It is concluded that measurement of serum fructosamine concentration can be a valuable adjunct to blood glucose monitoring to evaluate glycemic control in diabetic cats. The question of whether fructosamine can replace glucose for monitoring control of diabetes mellitus requires further study.

  3. Serum total bilirubin concentration is negatively associated with increasing severity of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekioka, Risa; Tanaka, Masami; Nishimura, Takeshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Serum bilirubin concentration is associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relationships between serum bilirubin concentration and the severity of diabetic retinopathy. In addition, the importance of bilirubin was compared with factors that were previously shown to be associated with the incidence of diabetic retinopathy. A total of 674 patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated in this cross-sectional study. Serum total bilirubin concentration was compared between patients with and without diabetic retinopathy, and according to the severity of retinopathy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of retinopathy with total bilirubin concentration, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and haemoglobin A1c. Serum total bilirubin concentration was significantly lower in patients with retinopathy than in those without. Patients with severer retinopathy showed lower total bilirubin concentration, longer diabetes duration, and higher systolic blood pressure. These three parameters were independent explanatory factors for diabetic retinopathy. Total bilirubin concentration is lower in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with severer retinopathy. Thus, bilirubin might protect against retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of serum 25(OHVitD concentration with metabolism parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Qing Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the correlation of serum 25(OHVitD concentration with the metabolism parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 80 patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2014 to March, 2015 were included in the study and served as the observation group, while 80 healthy individuals who came our hospital for physical examination were served as the control group. The serum 25(OHVitD concentration and metabolism parameters in the two groups were detected. The correlation of serum 25(OHVitD concentration with the metabolism parameters was analyzed. Results: The body weight, height, and BMI in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05. The serum 25(OHVitD and HDL-C levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05, while SBP, FBG, TG, and DBP levels were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The serum 25(OHVitD was negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, SBP, DBP, FBG, LDL-C, TG, and HbAlc. Conclusions: The serum 25(OHVitD level is closely associated with TG, LDL-C, and HbAlc, providing a reference value for the study on type 2 diabetes.

  5. Clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen and laminin in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wang Ping; Li Yongpei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen (IV C) and laminin (LN) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Methods: Serum concentrations of IV C, LN were measured by RIA in 35 diabetic patients with normalbuminuria (group A), 28 cases of microalbuminuria (group B), 15 cases of macroalbuminuria (group C) and 30 normal subjects as control . Results: The serum concentrations of IV C, LN in total 78 diabetic patients [(97.6 ± 19.2), (132.4 ± 31.5) μg/L] were higher than that of the controls [(77.4 ± 8.2), (101.5 ± 17.6) μg/L, P<0.05], especially in group B and C, it was remarkably higher compared with the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was significant positive correlation of serum IV C, LN to diabetic duration and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Conclusions: The results suggest that the joint measurement of serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients might better evaluate the development process of DN, and be of help for early diagnosis and treatment of DN. Serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients may become the reliable clinical markers for assessing the severity and predicting the prognosis of DN

  6. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Jesus, Rosangela Passos de; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele Dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients.

  8. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  9. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with hypovitaminosis D. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH D and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentration with body mass index (BMI in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects and their predicting role in obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects (100 type 2 diabetics and 100 healthy controls. Concentration of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was determined in the fasting samples. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI were also measured. Results Eighty-five percent of type 2 diabetics and 79% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Serum concentration of 25(OH D (22.08 ± 15.20 ng/ml (r = −0.11, P = 0.04 and calcium (8.94 ± 0.59 mg/dl (r = −2.25, P = 0.04 has significant statistically with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum concentration of PTH has non-significantly associated with BMI in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Serum levels of vitamin D inversely and PTH positively are associated with BMI after adjusted for age, gender and serum calcium in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. These associations were statistically significant for serum concentration of vitamin D and calcium only in diabetic patients. So the status of vitamin D is considered as an important factor in type 2 diabetic patients.

  10. The Utility of Serum IgG4 Concentrations as a Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Kawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease entity involving IgG4 in its clinical presentation and having 6 characteristic features: (1 systemic involvement; (2 solitary or multiple lesions showing diffuse or localized swelling, masses, nodules, and/or wall thickening on imaging; (3 high serum IgG4 concentration >135 mg/dL; (4 abundant infiltration of lymphoplasmacytes and IgG4-bearing plasma cells; (5 a positive response to corticosteroid therapy; and (6 complications of other IgG4-related diseases. To date, most IgG4-related diseases have been recognized as extrapancreatic lesions of autoimmune pancreatitis. This paper will discuss the utility of IgG4 as a biomarker of IgG4-related diseases, including in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differentiation from pancreatic cancer, in the prediction of relapse, in the long-term follow-up of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and normal or elevated IgG4 concentrations, and in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and extrapancreatic lesions, as well as the role of IgG4 in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

  11. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  12. Serum IGFBP4 concentration decreased in dairy heifers towards day 18 of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholz, Marie M; Mense, Kirsten; Lietzau, Michael; Kassens, Ana; Linden, Matthias; Knaack, Hendrike; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Raliou, Mariam; Richard, Christophe; Sandra, Olivier; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the main components of the somatotropic axis change during the early phase of pregnancy in the maternal blood system and whether differences exist on day 18 after pregnancy recognition by the maternal organism. Blood samples of pregnant heifers (Holstein Friesian; n = 10 after embryo transfer) were obtained on the day of ovulation (day 0), as well as on days 7, 14, 16 and 18 and during pregnant, non-pregnant and negative control cycles. The oncentrations of progesterone (P4), oestrogen, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2 (IGF1, -2) and IGF-binding protein-2, -3 and -4 (IGFBP2, -3, -4) were measured. The mRNA expressions of growth hormone receptor 1A, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 were detected using RT-qPCR in liver biopsy specimens (day 18). In all groups, total serum IGF1 decreased from day 0 to 16. Notably, IGFBP4 maternal blood concentrations were lower during pregnancy than during non-pregnant cycles and synchronized control cycles. It can be speculated that the lower IGFBP4 in maternal blood may result in an increase of free IGF1 for local action. Further studies regarding IGFBP4 concentration and healthy early pregnancy are warranted. PMID:26243597

  13. Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  15. Both high and low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with tuberculosis: a case-control study in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Skifte, Turid; Andersson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    ), sex and district. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured and OR of TB were the outcome. Compared with individuals with 25(OH)D concentrations between 75 and 140 nmol/l, individuals with concentrations l (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.8, 23.5) or > 140 nmol/l (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1...

  16. Effects of a policosanol supplement on serum lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyling, A; De Witt, C; Oosthuizen, W; Jerling, J C

    2006-05-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols that is extracted from purified sugar cane wax or a variety of other plant sources, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on serum lipid concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a policosanol supplement (Octa-60) on lipid profiles of hypercholesterolaemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Nineteen hypercholesterolaemic and familial hypercholesterolaemic subjects completed this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The subjects received either a daily dose of 20 mg policosanol or placebo for 12 weeks. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks, the interventions were crossed over. Lipid levels were measured at baseline and at the end of each intervention period. No significant differences in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol from baseline to end or between policosanol and placebo were seen in the hypercholesterolaemic or familial hypercholesterolaemic groups. There were small reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol from baseline to end in the hypercholesterolaemic group, but these changes did not differ significantly from the changes with the placebo, indicating that the observed decrease in cholesterol in the policosanol group was not due to the specific effect of policosanol treatment. The differences in response may be ascribed to the differences in composition of the higher aliphatic primary alcohols in the previously used products, compared with the local policosanol supplement. An intake of 20 mg/d policosanol for 12 weeks had no significant effect on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolaemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic patients when compared with placebo intake.

  17. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism

  18. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Effect of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Critical and Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hong-Xing; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Shi-Jiao; Xu, Feng

    2017-05-10

    To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD. This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Another 59 healthy children undergoing outpatient medical examinations during the same period were chosen as the control group. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all the subjects, and each group was subdivided by serum 25(OH)D concentration into 25(OH)D normal (≥30 ng/mL); insufficiency (20-29.9 ng/mL), and deficiency (HFMD group upon admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children with critical and severe HFMD were also monitored for blood lactate (LAC), serum calcium ions (Ca++), D-dimer (DD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels; the incidences of brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and circulatory failure; and the 14-day mortality rate. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were generally low in all groups. The critical HFMD group showed a significantly lower serum 25(OH)D mean concentration (20.0 ± 8.4 ng/mL) and a higher proportion of deficiency (18%) compared with the control group (28.1 ± 6.6 ng/mL, 8%), common (29.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL, 10%) and severe (31.9 ± 9.7 ng/mL, 8%) HFMD groups ( p HFMD groups, the 25(OH)D deficiency group had lower PCISs than the 25(OH)D normal and insufficiency groups ( p HFMD. In this study, we find the serum 25(OH)D concentrations are substantially reduced in children with critical and severe HFMD and are associated with the severity of HFMD. The serum 25(OH)D concentrations may have clinical value for determining the progression of critical HFMD and predicting the risk of death. Further evidence is needed before it can be stated that 25(OH)D concentrations

  19. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-08-02

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015-1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084-1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM.

  20. The Prognostic Significance of the Serum p53 Protein Concentration in Chinese Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities, staging, patient factors, and the serum p53 protein concentration in Chinese non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL patients. METHODS: The study included 43 patients with NHL that were identified between August 2003 and December 2008. Patient clinical characteristics patients were determined based on morphological, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic analysis, and the serum p53 protein concentration was measured quantitatively. RESULTS: Following conventional chemotherapy, the complete/partial remission (CR/PR rate was significantly higher and overall survival (OS was significantly longer in the patients with early-stage (stage I-II lymphoma, normal karyotype, and a low serum p53 protein concentration than in those with advanced-stage (stage III-IV lymphoma, cytogenetic abnormalities, and a high serum p53 protein concentration (≥0.35 U/mL. Bone marrow infiltration was also a predictor of poor response and OS. There weren’t any significant differences in disease remission between the male and female patients, older and younger patients (aged <70 years vs. ≥70 years, or B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma patients. CONCLUSION: Staging is an effective means of assessing the severity of NHL. Cytogenetic examination can provide useful information for diagnosis, staging, and prognostication. The serum p53 protein level may be a potential prognostic marker in patients with NHL.

  1. Urinary concentrations of parabens and serum hormone levels, semen quality parameters, and sperm DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Yang, Tiffany; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2011-02-01

    Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. Widespread human exposure to parabens has been recently documented, and some parabens have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal studies. However, human epidemiologic studies are lacking. We investigated relationships between urinary concentrations of parabens and markers of male reproductive health in an ongoing reproductive epidemiology study. Urine samples collected from male partners attending an infertility clinic were analyzed for methyl paraben (MP), propyl paraben (PP), butyl paraben (BP), and bisphenol A (BPA). Associations with serum hormone levels (n = 167), semen quality parameters (n = 190), and sperm DNA damage measures (n = 132) were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Detection rates in urine were 100% for MP, 92% for PP, and 32% for BP. We observed no statistically significant associations between MP or PP and the outcome measures. Categories of urinary BP concentration were not associated with hormone levels or conventional semen quality parameters, but they were positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). When urinary BPA quartiles were added to the model, BP and BPA were both positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). Assessment of paraben concentrations measured on repeated urine samples from a subset of the men (n = 78) revealed substantial temporal variability. We found no evidence for a relationship between urinary parabens and hormone levels or semen quality, although intraindividual variability in exposure and a modest sample size could have limited our ability to detect subtle relationships. Our observation of a relationship between BP and sperm DNA damage warrants further investigation.

  2. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Serum Hormone Levels, Semen Quality Parameters, and Sperm DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Yang, Tiffany; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. Widespread human exposure to parabens has been recently documented, and some parabens have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal studies. However, human epidemiologic studies are lacking. Objective We investigated relationships between urinary concentrations of parabens and markers of male reproductive health in an ongoing reproductive epidemiology study. Methods Urine samples collected from male partners attending an infertility clinic were analyzed for methyl paraben (MP), propyl paraben (PP), butyl paraben (BP), and bisphenol A (BPA). Associations with serum hormone levels (n = 167), semen quality parameters (n = 190), and sperm DNA damage measures (n = 132) were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Results Detection rates in urine were 100% for MP, 92% for PP, and 32% for BP. We observed no statistically significant associations between MP or PP and the outcome measures. Categories of urinary BP concentration were not associated with hormone levels or conventional semen quality parameters, but they were positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). When urinary BPA quartiles were added to the model, BP and BPA were both positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). Assessment of paraben concentrations measured on repeated urine samples from a subset of the men (n = 78) revealed substantial temporal variability. Conclusions We found no evidence for a relationship between urinary parabens and hormone levels or semen quality, although intraindividual variability in exposure and a modest sample size could have limited our ability to detect subtle relationships. Our observation of a relationship between BP and sperm DNA damage warrants further investigation. PMID:20876036

  3. The effect of weight loss on serum concentrations of nitric oxide induced by short - term exercise in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to examine the effect of weight loss comprising regular moderate physical activity on resting serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites and exercise induced NO release. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 43 obese women without additional diseases (age 41.8±11.9y, body weight 94.5±15.1kg, BMI 36.5±4.6kg/m2. All obese patients participated in a 3-month weight reduction programme that consisted of 1 a group instruction in behavioural and dietary methods of weight control every two weeks; 2 1000-1400kcal/day balanced diet, and 3 moderate physical exercises (30 minutes, 3 times a week. Before and after treatment body mass and height were measured, body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body composition was determined by impedance analysis using a Bodystat analyser. The serum concentration of nitric oxide metabolites before and after exercise was measured using spectrophotometry method by Griess. The serum concentrations of lactate before and after exercise were measured with the use of strip test (ACCUSPORT analyzer. Serum concentration of insulin was measured with the use of RIA. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglicerydes were determined by enzymatic procedure. Results: The mean weight loss during treatment was 8.3±4.3 kg. We did not observe differences between resting serum concentrations of NO and lactate before and after weight loss. During exercise serum NO concentrations increased significantly both before and after weight loss treatment. After the weight reduction treatment, the time of exercise test increased significantly P<0.005, but there were no significant differences between the value of NO before and after weight loss. Conclusion: 3 – month regular physical activity and weight loss did not influence exercise-induced nitric oxide production.

  4. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1985-01-01

    The causes of individuality of the plasma enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) were investigated in a study of 206 pairs of twins. Between-person variance was greater in men than women, while within-person variation was similar in both sexes. Plasma ALT and AST levels were affected by genetic factors, while GGT was affected by some environmental factor shared by co-twins. In the men, alcohol intake had a significant but small effect on all three enzyme levels, and since alcohol consumption was highly heritable, this appeared as a genetic influence on enzyme activities. The major factors involved in the observed correlations between these enzymes were a non-shared environmental factor other than alcohol affecting ALT, AST and GGT, and a genetic factor affecting only ALT and AST.

  5. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Keisler, D H; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S

    2007-09-01

    Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene that is synthesized and predominantly expressed by adipocytes. This study estimated the genetic variation in serum leptin concentration and evaluated the genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit. There were 464 steers with records for serum leptin concentration, performance, and efficiency of gain and 381 steers with records for carcass traits. The analyses included a total of 813 steers, including those without phenotypic records. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates were obtained using SAS and ASREML, respectively. Serum leptin concentration was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.34 +/- 0.13) and averaged 13.91 (SD = 5.74) ng/mL. Sire breed differences in serum leptin concentration correlated well with breed differences in body composition. Specifically, the serum leptin concentration was 20% greater in Angus-sired steers compared with Charolais-sired steers (P 0.10). Serum leptin concentration was correlated phenotypically with ultrasound backfat (r = 0.41; P < 0.001), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.42; P < 0.001), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.25; P < 0.01), carcass marbling (r = 0.28; P < 0.01), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.19; P < 0.01), carcass LM area (r = -0.17; P < 0.05), lean meat yield (r = -0.38; P < 0.001), and yield grade (r = 0.32; P < 0.001). The corresponding genetic correlations were generally greater than the phenotypic correlations and included ultrasound backfat (r = 0.76 +/- 0.19), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.54 +/- 0.23), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.27 +/- 0.22), carcass marbling (r = 0.76 +/- 0.21), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.71 +/- 0.19), carcass LM area (r = -0.75 +/- 0.20), lean meat yield (r = -0.59 +/- 0.22), and yield grade (r = 0.39 +/- 0.26). Serum leptin concentration can be a valuable tool that can be incorporated into appropriate selection programs to favorably improve the carcass merit of cattle.

  6. Serum and intraocular concentrations of erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F; Cancarini, A; Morescalchi, F; Romano, M R; dell'Omo, R; Ruggeri, G; Agnifili, L; Costagliola, C

    2014-12-01

    This study compared systemic and intraocular concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with levels in patients without diabetes, and looked for possible correlations between the concentrations found and other variables analyzed. Concentrations of EPO and VEGF were measured in the aqueous and vitreous humours and serum of patients undergoing vitrectomy for PDR (33 patients) or for macular holes or puckers (20 control patients). EPO was assayed by radioimmunoassay, with a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0 mIU/mL. VEGF was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a lower LOD of 10.0 pg/mL. EPO concentrations in serum did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas EPO in vitreous and aqueous were higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients. VEGF in serum was lower in diabetic patients than in non-diabetics; conversely, VEGF concentrations in vitreous were significantly higher in diabetic patients. A direct correlation was found between vitreous and aqueous EPO concentrations, and between vitreous EPO and blood glucose concentrations. A significant, negative correlation between vitreous EPO concentration and age was also recorded. High EPO concentrations in the vitreous of patients with PDR and its correlation with blood glucose suggest that EPO could play a role in the pathogenesis of PDR. All possible factors affecting serum and ocular concentrations of EPO and VEGF should be determined to identify compounds able to prevent and control this serious microvascular complication of diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute hyperinsulinemia is followed by increased serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian; Nybo, Mads; Vind, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    and type 2 diabetic individuals. Methods. The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic patients, ten weight-matched glucose-tolerant obese subjects, and ten healthy lean subjects. All subjects underwent a 4-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp using physiological hyperinsulinemia (40 mU/min per m(2......)) to determine glucose disposal rates. Blood samples for measurement of serum FGF23 and insulin, plasma phosphate and glucose, and HbA(1c) were drawn before and after insulin infusion. Results. The three groups did not differ in baseline levels of serum FGF23. Insulin infusion increased serum FGF23...... in the diabetic group (p = 0.009), but not in the other groups. The increase in serum FGF23 correlated strongly with increase in insulin levels in the diabetic group (r = 0.83; p = 0.003). In the overall group insulin infusion suppressed plasma phosphate concentrations (p = 0.006), but with no differences between...

  8. Serum cathepsin K and cystatin C concentration in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer during chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Chyczewska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic implication of cathepsin K (Cath K and its inhibitor - cystatin C (Cyst C occur to be of growing importance in the mechanisms of tumor invasiveness in lung cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic role and the effects of chemotherapy on serum Cath K and Cyst C (ELISA in patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The study entered 40 patients (32 men and 15 healthy volunteers (control group. Peripheral blood samples were taken before and after four cycles of chemotherapy. The mean serum Cyst C levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced NSCLC than in controls (p=0.003. The levels of Cath K in serum of NSCLC are comparable to those in controls. No correlation was found between Cath K and Cyst C concentrations and the histological type and staging of lung cancer. Patients with T4-stage had a lower level of Cyst C, than those with T2 (p=0.033. No correlation was found between the concentrations of Cath K, Cyst C and the effect of chemotherapy. However, Cyst C level positively correlated with serum creatinine concentration (R=0.535; p=0.005 in patients who responded to chemotherapy and with patient's age (R=0.456; p=0.018 in whole group. When the cut-off values of serum Cath K and Cyst C (23.35 pmol/l, 1.29 mg/l, respectively were used, the prognoses of high and low groups were not different. Concluding, patients with lung cancer have a higher serum concentration of Cyst C compared to healthy people. In our opinion, determination of Cath K and Cyst C concentrations has no clinical significance in the prognosis of the survival time in lung cancer.

  9. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstructive Effects of Percutaneous Electrical Stimulation Combined with GGT Composite on Large Bone Defect in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown the electromagnetic stimulation improves bone remodeling and bone healing. However, the effect of percutaneous electrical stimulation (ES was not directly explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of ES on improvement of bone repair. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for cranial implantation. We used a composite comprising genipin cross-linked gelatin mixed with tricalcium phosphate (GGT. Bone defects of all rats were filled with the GGT composites, and the rats were assigned into six groups after operation. The first three groups underwent 4, 8, and 12 weeks of ES, and the anode was connected to the backward of the defect on the neck; the cathode was connected to the front of the defect on the head. Rats were under inhalation anesthesia during the stimulation. The other three groups only received inhalation anesthesia without ES, as control groups. All the rats were examined afterward at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Radiographic examinations including X-ray and micro-CT showed the progressive bone regeneration in the both ES and non-ES groups. The amount of the newly formed bone increased with the time between implantation and examination in the ES and non-ES groups and was higher in the ES groups. Besides, the new bone growth trended on bilateral sides in ES groups and accumulated in U-shape in non-ES groups. The results indicated that ES could improve bone repair, and the effect is higher around the cathode.

  11. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. Design: We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. Results: We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h2 ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10−11] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10−16 and 10−7). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. PMID:25833971

  13. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h(2) ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10(-11)] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10(-16) and 10(-7)). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  15. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables, controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition. Dogs (n = 210 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05 across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6% had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog. The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03 only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  16. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  17. The concentration of free amino acids in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk, J; Brodzki, P; Brodzki, A; Kurek, Ł

    2018-03-01

    Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. This study contributes to better understanding of the role of amino acids in pathogenesis of ketosis. A total of 30 cows, divided into two groups: experimental (15 cows with ketosis) and control (15 healthy cows), were included in the study. The concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, and free amino acids were determined in peripheral blood. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of glutamine, glutamic acid, isoleucine (p≤0.001), and tyrosine (p≤0.05) were found in cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. Significant decrease in the concentrations of asparagine, histidine, methionine, and serine (p≤0.001), alanine, leucine, lysine and proline (p≤0.05) was observed. Significant increase of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids (p≤0.05), and an increased ratio of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids to total amino acids (p≤0.001) were noted in cows with ketosis. In our study, the changes, in particular observed in amino acid concentration in cows with primary ketosis, indicate its intensive use in both ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis processes. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the role that amino acids play in gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis will improve ketosis diagnostics and monitoring the course of a ketosis episode. Perhaps, the

  18. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot

  19. Lack of utility of measuring serum bilirubin concentration in distinguishing perforation status of pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, William; Bruno, Santina; Attaway, David; Dharmar, Logesh; Tam, Derek; Homel, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric appendicitis is a common, potentially serious condition. Determining perforation status is crucial to planning effective management. Determine the efficacy of serum total bilirubin concentration [STBC] in distinguishing perforation status in children with appendicitis. Retrospective review of 257 cases of appendicitis who received abdominal CT scan and measurement of STBC. There were 109 with perforation vs 148 without perforation. Although elevated STBC was significantly more common in those with [36%] vs without perforation [22%], the mean difference in elevated values between groups [0.1mg/dL] was clinically insignificant. Higher degrees of hyperbilirubinemia [>2mg/dL] were rarely encountered [5%]. Predictive values for elevated STBC in distinguishing perforation outcome were imprecise [sensitivity 38.5%, specificity 78.4%, PPV 56.8%, NPV 63.4%]. ROC curve analysis of multiple clinical and other laboratory factors for predicting perforation status was unenhanced by adding the STBC variable. Specific analysis of those with perforated appendicitis and percutaneously-drained intra-abdominal abscess which was culture-positive for Escherichia coli showed an identical rate of STBC elevation compared to all with perforation. The routine measurement of STBC does not accurately distinguish perforation status in children with appendicitis, nor discern infecting organism in those with perforation and intra-abdominal abscess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) serum levels in major depressive disorder during antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank M; Nowak, Claudia; Kratzsch, Juergen; Sander, Christian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Schönknecht, Peter

    2015-07-15

    In preclinical studies, the hypothalamic polypeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) has been shown to be involved in depression-like behavior and modulations of MCH and MCH-receptors were proposed as potential new antidepressant drug targets. For the first time, MCH serum levels were explored in 30 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) prior to (T1) and after 2 (T2) and 4 weeks (T3) of antidepressant treatment and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by applying a fluorescence immunoassay. Levels of MCH did not differ significantly between un-medicated patients (444.11±174.63pg/mL SD) and controls (450.68±210.03pg/mL SD). In MDD patients, MCH levels significantly decreased from T1 to T3 (F=4.663; p=0.013). Post-hoc analyses showed that these changes were limited to patients treated with mirtazapine but not escitalopram and female but not male patients. MCH-levels showed high correlations from T1 to T3 (r≥0.964, pdepression but possibly reflecting depression-related state properties that can be modulated by sleep, medication and sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of sex steroid hormones and menopause on serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, C; Tommaselli, G A; Nappi, C

    2002-12-01

    Leptin is a protein secreted by adipocytes; its circulating levels are correlated to fat mass and it acts on the hypothalamic centers regulating body weight. Leptin may also play an important role in regulating reproductive function. Indeed, ob/ob mice, lacking leptin due to a genetic mutation, are obese and infertile; administration of recombinant leptin to these animals reduces body weight and restores fertility. A sexual dimorphism in serum leptin levels has also been observed, with higher concentrations in women. Studies in vitro seem to indicate that estrogens stimulate leptin secretion, while in vivo studies are extremely discordant. In humans, several studies showed increased, unmodified and decreased leptin levels after the menopause. Furthermore, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause was reported to result in unmodified, increased or decreased leptin levels. It is likely that the effects of postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on leptin levels are masked by the postmenopausal changes in body composition. Indeed, after menopause, there is an increase in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass with a centralization of fat distribution. Administration of HRT may stop these changes and even restore a premenopausal pattern, leading then to decreased leptin levels.

  2. Quantitative bias analysis for epidemiological associations of perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and early onset of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Christopher D; Song, Gina; Yoon, Miyoung; Verner, Marc-André; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2017-02-01

    An association between increased serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and early menopause has been reported (Knox et al., 2011; Taylor et al., 2014). This association may be explained by the fact that women who underwent menopause no longer excrete PFAS through menstruation. Our objective was to assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and altered timing of menopause might be explained by reverse causality. We extended a published population life-stage physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFOS and PFOA characterized by realistic distributions of physiological parameters including age at menopause. We then conducted Monte Carlo simulations to replicate the Taylor population (Taylor et al., 2014) and the Knox population (Knox et al., 2011). The analysis of the simulated data overall showed a pattern of results that was comparable to those reported in epidemiological studies. For example, in the simulated Knox population (ages 42-51) the odds ratio (OR) for menopause in the fifth quintile of PFOA compared to those in the first quintile was 1.33 (95% CI 1.26-1.40), whereas the reported OR was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Using our model structure, a substantial portion of the associations reported can be explained by pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SERUM-CONCENTRATIONS OF Dehydroepyandrosterone-sulfate IN MEN WITH ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Tsvetanova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AA is considered as a genetically determinate androgen (DHT-dependent disorder. Theoretically Dehydroepyandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S is the first main metabolite in the androgen metabolism. The aim of the study was to determine the serum-levels of DHEA-S (DHEA-S(s in patients with AA and the possible correlation between clinical stage of AA and DHEA-S(s. Forty-four men (37 with male pattern baldness and 7 healthy controls aged 19 to 55 had DHEA-S(s measured. Determination of the hormone was performed by standard radioimmunoassay. Only nine of the men with AA showed high levels of DHEA-S(s. In 3 of the patients were detected a boundary high levels of DHEA-S(s. No correlation between the clinical stage of AA and DHEA-S(s -levels was established. There was relationship only between increase of the age and decrease of the concentrations of DHEA-S(s. In contrast to previous studies, in our investigation, no elevation of DHEA-S(s in men with AA was found. Our results indirect support the current understanding of the importance of some follicular enzymes (STS, 3-beta-HSD, 17-beta-HSD etc. that could increase the amount of the alternative DHT-sources in AA, as well as the theory for the “endocrinology of hair follicle”.

  4. Predicted serum folate concentrations based on in vitro studies and kinetic modeling are consistent with measured folate concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Havenaar, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The nutritional quality of new functional or fortified food products depends on the bioavailability of the nutrient(s) in the human body. Bioavailability is often determined in human intervention studies by measurements of plasma or serum profiles over a certain time period. These studies are time

  5. Normocalcemia and persistent elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 parathyroid hormone after operation for sporadic parathyroid adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Henrik; ØStergaard Kristensen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 parathyroid hormone (PTH) after operation for sporadic parathyroid adenoma have been reported in previous studies, years after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). The cause and significance of this finding have not been elucidated. Primary...... hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 195 patients from January 1987 to December 1998. Operation for pHPT was performed in 124 patients. To evaluate long-term effects of elevated serum 1-84 PTH, biochemical variables and pre- and postoperative diseases were investigated from hospital case records. Of the 124 patients...... of diagnosis concerning clinical characteristics. More that 12 months after operation for pHPT, the patients in group B, with persistent elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 PTH, had a significantly (c2 = 11, p = 0.005, and power of test 0.66) higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases from ischemic heart...

  6. Serum Paraoxonase-1 Concentration as a Potential Predictor of Urinary Bladder Cancer Recurrence. A Five Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, Simona; García-Heredia, Anabel; Pujol-Bosch, Francesc; Pont-Salvadó, Antoni; López-Azcona, Ana Felisa; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Castro, Antoni; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2018-04-23

    This study provides preliminary information on the usefulness of measuring serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) concentration and activity (and other inflammatory markers) to predict tumor recurrence in patients with urinary bladder cancer. We studied a total of 39 hospitalized patients in whom the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer was confirmed by transurethral resection. After five years of follow-up, 29 patients presented with tumor recurrence. As control subjects, we also studied 61 healthy subjects and a further 132 hospitalized patients who had a urinary catheter-related infection due to causes other than cancer. Results showed that urinary bladder patients had lower serum PON1 concentration and activity, and higher chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin concentrations than the control individuals. Patients with tumor recurrence had significantly lower serum PON1 concentration than patients without tumor recurrence. The mean area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics plot for serum PON1 concentration in discriminating patients with and those without tumor recurrence was 0.755 and the best combination of sensitivity and specificity was obtained at PON1 = 100 mg/L (0.72 and 0.80, respectively). Establishing this value as a cut-off, positive predictive value was = 0.91, and negative predictive value was = 0.50. These results suggest that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration may be a high-sensitivity marker of tumor recurrence in urinary bladder cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cheddar Cheese Ripening Affects Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid and Serum Insulin Concentrations in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Jensen, Søren K; Ardö, Ylva; Tholstrup, Tine; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. The objective of this study was to investigate by means of a porcine model how cheeses with different ripening times affect blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and fecal-fat excretion. A parallel-arm randomized intervention study with 36 Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred 3-mo-old female pigs was conducted. The pigs were fed a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and insulin; plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose; fecal-fat excretion; and body weight were measured. Plasma NEFAs were lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P = 0.001). Serum insulin was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (1.04 ± 0.09 mmol/L) than in the 4-MRC diet group (1.44 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.002), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC diet group (1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L). Likewise, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (0.030 ± 0.003) than in the 4-MRC diet group (0.041 ± 0.005; P < 0.01), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC group (0.036 ± 0.004). Intake of long-term ripened cheddar improved indicators of insulin sensitivity in growing pigs compared with short-term ripened cheddar. This may also be important for human health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Association of serum adiponectin concentration with aortic arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: from the KNOW-CKD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Park, Sue K; Lee, Ju Yeon; Chung, Wookyung; Lee, Kyubeck; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2017-08-01

    High serum adiponectin levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and arterial stiffness in CKD is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess this relationship by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CKD patients. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured in 716 CKD patients in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. The study group consisted of 415 men and 301 women; mean age was 53.1 years, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 51 ± 29 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . Heart to femoral PWV (hfPWV) and mean brachial to ankle PWV (baPWV) served as indicators of aortic artery stiffness and arterial stiffness, respectively. Increasing quartiles of serum adiponectin levels were associated with women, lower eGFRs and body mass indices, and higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratios. Serum adiponectin concentration also correlated with hfPWV and mean baPWV, even after adjusting for age and sex. It independently associated with hfPWV (B 0.028; 95 % confidence interval, 0.004-0.051; P = 0.020) but not mean baPWV in a multivariable linear regression analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, it correlated significantly with the highest quartile of hfPWVs but not mean baPWVs. The independent and significant correlation of serum adiponectin concentration with hfPWV in CKD patients implicates adiponectin in CKD-associated aortic stiffness.

  9. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  10. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older persons and the risk of nursing home admission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Deeg, Dorly J H; Puts, Martine T E; Seidell, Jaap C; Lips, Paul

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in nursing home patients is high. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain whether lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations increase the risk of future nursing home admission and early death. DESIGN: We included 1260 independent,

  11. Evaluation of RANKL/OPG Serum Concentration Ratio as a New Biomarker for Coronary Artery Calcification: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is a strong need for biomarkers to identify patients at risk for future cardiovascular events related with progressive atherosclerotic disease. Osteoprotegerin (OPG protects the skeleton from excessive bone resorption by binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL and preventing it from binding to its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB. However, conflicting results have been obtained about association of serum level of OPG or RANKL with coronary artery disease (CAD. Based on their role in inflammation and matrix degradation and the fact that atherosclerotic plaque formation is an inflammatory process, we hypothesized that RANKL : OPG ratio could be a better biomarker for CAD. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, the correlation between RANKL : OPG ratio serum concentration and coronary artery calcification (CAC in 50 patients with ischemic coronary disease has been investigated. We used ELISA method for measuring RANKL and OPG serum concentrations. Results. There was a significant correlation between RANKL : OPG serum concentration ratio and CAC in our study population (P=0.01. Conclusion. Our results suggested that RANKL : OPG ratio concentration has a potential of being used as a marker for coronary artery disease.

  12. Suspected ectopic pregnancy: expectant management in patients with negative sonographic findings and low serum hCG concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Lammes, F. B.

    1995-01-01

    Between July 1989 and December 1994, we performed a prospective study in 265 patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy to assess the value of expectant management in patients with negative transvaginal sonographic findings and low serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations. All patients

  13. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The...

  14. Serum cortisol concentrations during induced hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia are associated with neurological outcome in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Giampietri, Matteo; Fiorentini, Erika; Bartalena, Laura; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ciampi, Mariella; Boldrini, Antonio; Ghirri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a cause of neonatal death or adverse neurological sequelae. Biomarkers can be useful to clinicians in order to optimize intensive care management and communication of prognosis to parents. During perinatal adverse events, increased cortisol secretion is due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We aimed to investigate if cortisol variations during therapeutic hypothermia are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared 18 cases (neonates with birth asphyxia) with 18 controls (healthy term newborns) and confirmed increased serum cortisol concentrations following the peri-partum adverse event. Among cases, we stratified patients according to neurological outcome at 18 months (group A - good; group B - adverse) and found that after 24 h of therapeutic hypothermia serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower in group A vs group B (28.7 ng/mL vs 344 ng/mL, *p = 0.01). In group B serum, cortisol concentration decreased more gradually during therapeutic hypothermia. We conclude that monitoring serum cortisol concentration during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia can add information to clinical evaluation of neonates with birth asphyxia; cortisol values after the first 24 h of hypothermia can be a biomarker associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.

  15. Sacubitril/valsartan reduces serum uric acid concentration, an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in PARADIGM-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but this may be due to unmeasured confounders. We examined the association between SUA and outcomes as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on SUA in patients with heart ...

  16. Association Between Smoking, Nicotine Dependence, and BDNF Val(66)Met Polymorphism with BDNF Concentrations in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Molendijk, Marc L.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Introduction: Nicotine use is associated with the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum. An association between smoking and the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism has also been found. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of serum BDNF in never-smokers, former smokers,

  17. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either t...

  18. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Effect of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Critical and Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Hong-Xing; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Shi-Jiao; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD. Methods: This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Another 59 healthy children undergoing outpatient medical examin...

  19. Comparative kinetics of serum and vitreous humor digoxin concentrations in a guinea pig model. Part I: Intravenous administration of digoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, B.; Balkon, J.; Bidanset, J.H.; Belmonte, A.; Barletta, M.; Manning, T.

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous dose of digoxin in the guinea pig was investigated with emphasis on the penetration of digoxin into the vitreous humor. A controlled study was undertaken and data was collected which indicated that digoxin follows an open, two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with a terminal half-life of 318 minutes. The data indicated that the ratio of vitreous concentrations to serum concentrations were determined to be equal following an initial tissue distribution phase

  20. Associations between serum uric acid concentrations and metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, N; Martínez-González, M A; Estruch, R; Wärnberg, J; Recondo, J; Ortega-Calvo, M; Serra-Majem, L; Corella, D; Fitó, M; Ros, E; Becerra-Tomás, N; Basora, J; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the oriental population. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association between SUA and MetS has never been investigated in elderly European individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional and prospective evaluation of the associations between SUA concentrations and the MetS in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Men and women (55-80 years of age) from different PREDIMED (Prevención con DIeta MEDiterránea) recruiting centers were studied. Baseline cross-sectional (n = 4417) and prospective assessments (n = 1511) were performed. MetS was defined in accordance with the updated harmonized criteria. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components according to the levels of baseline SUA. Participants in the highest baseline sex-adjusted SUA quartile showed an increased prevalence of MetS than those in the lowest quartile, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odd ratio (OR): 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.8); P < 0.001). Participants in the highest baseline sex-adjusted SUA quartile presented a higher incidence of new-onset MetS than those in the lowest quartile (hazard ratios (HR): 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9); P < 0.001). Participants initially free at baseline of hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.9 (1.6-2.4); P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HR: 1.4 (1.1-1.7); P = 0.002), and hypertension components of MetS (HR: 2.0 (1.2-3.3); P = 0.008) and who were in the upper quartile of SUA had a significantly higher risk of developing these MetS components during follow-up. Elevated SUA concentrations are significantly associated with the development of Met

  1. Serum HER-2 concentrations for monitoring women with breast cancer in a routine oncology setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Langkjer, Sven Tyge

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of positive serum human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) for monitoring women with breast cancer following diagnosis and treatment in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: Serum HER-2 was measured...... could be determined in ten tissue-positive patients was 3-24 months (mean 11.3 months), when compared to standard clinical imaging methods. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HER-2 is a useful marker for the detection of recurrence of breast cancer and for monitoring the effect of treatment, especially in tissue HER-2...... in 1348 patients with breast cancer: 837 during routine oncology clinic visits and 511 following new diagnosis. All patients with positive serum HER-2, 1/5 of negative patients from the oncology clinic, and all the newly diagnosed were followed; a total of 862 patients. Serum HER-2 was measured using...

  2. SLC30A3 and SEP15 gene polymorphisms influence the serum concentrations of zinc and selenium in mature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Tatiane Jacobsen; Korb, Camila; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer; Bamberg, Daiani Pires; de Andrade, Fabiana Michelsen; Fiegenbaum, Marilu

    2014-09-01

    Because of their numerous roles in several biological processes, zinc and selenium are the most commonly studied micronutrients in the elderly. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymorphisms in the genes that are responsible for the transport of zinc and selenium may have a genotype-dependent effect on the serum concentration of these micronutrients. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of solute carrier family 30 member 3 (SLC30A3) and 15-kd selenoprotein (SEP15) polymorphisms on zinc and selenium concentrations, respectively, in the serum. This cross-sectional study included 110 individuals who were aged 50 years or older. Serum micronutrient concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for zinc) and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with a graphite furnace (for selenium). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs73924411 and rs11126936 of the SLC30A3 gene and rs5859, rs5854, and rs561104 of the SEP15 gene, were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Regarding rs11126936, the serum zinc concentration was lower in CC homozygotes (0.75 ± 0.31 mg/L) than in A carriers (0.89 ± 0.28 mg/L, P = .016). Concerning rs561104, the serum selenium concentration was higher in CC homozygotes (5.65 ± 1.11 μg/dL) compared with T carriers (4.88 ± 1.25 μg/dL, P = .044). Our results demonstrate the influence of SLC30A3 and SEP15 gene polymorphisms on the serum concentrations of zinc and selenium, respectively. The effects of these associations should be further investigated to help elucidate the modes of action of trace elements and to identify biomarkers, which could ultimately define the optimal intake of these micronutrients at the molecular level. More research must be performed before the roles of these polymorphisms in the serum concentrations of zinc and selenium can be fully understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A.; Davenport, Gary M.; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increased interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. A nutraceutical can broadly be considered a food (or a part of) that provides a health benefit. Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados, is being investigated as a nutraceutical for dogs. In this study, dogs fed a diet containing MH had increased concentrations of blood biomarkers related to energy intake. In addition, dogs fed MH were less physically active than dogs fed...

  4. High frequency of serum chromium deficiency and association of chromium with triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in patients awaiting bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Karla V G; Lima, Raquel P A; Gonçalves, Maria C R; Faintuch, Joel; Morais, Liana C S L; Asciutti, Luiza S R; Costa, Maria J C

    2014-05-01

    To our knowledge, the frequency of serum chromium deficiency in patients awaiting bariatric surgery has not been determined. This study was designed to assess chromium concentration and its association with glycemic levels and lipid profile in patients prior to bariatric surgery. This study recruited 73 candidates for bariatric surgery between March and September 2012. Their sociodemographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected. Of the 73 patients, 55 (75.3%) were women (75.34%). Mean patient age was 37.20 ± 9.92 years, and mean body mass index was 47.48 kg/m2 (range, 43.59 to 52.50 kg/m2). Chromium deficiency was observed in 64 patients (87.7%). Correlation analysis showed significant negative relationships between chromium concentration and BMI and zinc concentration and a significant positive relationship between chromium and glycated hemoglobin. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum chromium concentration was significantly associated with total cholesterol (β = 0.171, p = 0.048) and triglyceride (β = -0.181, p = 0.039) concentrations. Serum chromium deficiency is frequent in candidates for bariatric surgery and is associated with total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Early nutritional interventions are needed to reduce nutritional deficiencies and improve the lipid profile of these patients.

  5. Serum concentration of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-L1 in detecting severity of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, A. M. P.; Japardi, I.; Hakim, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    One of the main problems with ahead injury is assessing the severity. While physical examination and imaging had limitations, neuronal damage markers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), released in theblood may provide valuable information about diagnosis the traumatic brain injury (TBI).Analyzing the concentrations of serum ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), there must have a neuronal injury biomarker, in theTBI patients serum and their association with clinical characteristics and outcome. There were 80 TBI subjects, and there are mild, moderate, and severe involved in this study of case- control. By using ELISA, we studied the profile of serum UCH-L1 levels for TBI patients. TheUCH-L1 serum level of moderate and severe head injury is higher than in mild head injury (p<.001), but we didn’t find aspecific difference between moderate and severe head injury patients. There is no particular correlation found between serum UCH-L1 level and outcome. Serum levels of UCH-L1 appear to have potential clinical utility in diagnosing TBI but do not correlate with outcome.

  6. Temporal changes in serum creatine kinase concentration and degree of muscle rigidity in 24 patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisijima K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Nisijima, Katutoshi ShiodaDepartment of Psychiatry, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a dangerous adverse response to antipsychotic drugs. It is characterized by the four major clinical symptoms of hyperthermia, severe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, and altered mental state. Serum creatine kinase (CK elevation occurs in over 90% of NMS cases. In the present study, the detailed temporal changes in serum CK and degree of muscle rigidity, and the relationship between CK concentration and degree of muscle rigidity over the time course from fever onset, were evaluated in 24 affected patients. The results showed that serum CK peaked on day 2 after onset of fever and returned to within normal limits at day 12. Mild muscle rigidity was observed before the onset of fever in 17 of 24 cases (71%. Muscle rigidity was gradually exacerbated and worsened until day 4 after onset of fever. These findings confirm physicians' empirical understanding of serum CK concentrations and muscle rigidity in NMS based on data accumulated from numerous patients with the syndrome, and they indicate that serum CK may contribute to the early detection of NMS.Keywords: neuroleptic malignant syndrome, creatine kinase, muscle rigidity

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum leptin concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-12-07

    There are controversies regarding the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum leptin. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of CLA on serum leptin concentrations. Databases such as Ovid, PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and ISI databases up to January 2017 were searched. The searches included RCTs conducted among human adults, and studies on the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on serum leptin concentrations as outcome variables. The mean difference and standard deviation of leptin changes in the intervention and control groups were used as effect size measures for the meta-analysis. Eleven trials with thirteen effect sizes were pooled in this meta-analysis. CLA supplementations could not reduce serum leptin levels significantly (-0.12 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.29, 1.05; P=0.837). However, the impact of CLA supplementation differed by sex and BMI status. Compared with the control group, CLA administration reduced serum leptin levels significantly in trials conducted among male (-0.86 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.11, -0.62; Peffects of conjugated linoleic acid. The protocol was registered as PROSPERO (No. CRD42017059165). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Vitamin D in a northern Canadian first nation population: dietary intake, serum concentrations and functional gene polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Larcombe

    Full Text Available The wide spectrum of vitamin D activity has focused attention on its potential role in the elevated burden of disease in a northern Canadian First Nations (Dené cohort. Vitamin D insufficiency, and gene polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP have been implicated in susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the contribution of vitamin D from food, and measure the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 (25-OHD(3 and VDBP in Dené participants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the dysregulation of the innate immune response were typed and counted. Potential correlations between the SNPs and serum concentrations of 25-OHD(3 and VDBP were evaluated. Venous blood was collected in summer and winter over a one-year period and analyzed for 25-OHD(3 and VDBP concentrations (N = 46. A questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of dietary vitamin D consumed. Sixty-one percent and 30% of the participants had 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations <75 nmol/L in the winter and summer respectively. Mean vitamin D binding protein concentrations were within the normal range in the winter but below normal in the summer. VDBP and VDR gene polymorphisms affect the bioavailability and regulation of 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of the VDBP D432E-G allele (71% and the Gc1 genotype (90%, associated with high concentrations of VDBP and a high binding affinity to 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of VDR Fok1-f allele (82%, which has been associated with a down-regulated Th1 immune response. VDBP and VDR polymorphisms, and low winter 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations may be risk factors for infectious diseases and chronic conditions related to the dysregulation of the vitamin D pathway.

  9. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  10. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10 12 n cm - '2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75 Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L -1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  11. The effect of measuring serum doxycycline concentrations on clinical outcomes during treatment of chronic Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roeden, S E; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Kampschreur, L M; de Regt, M J A; Vermeulen Windsant, A; Hoepelman, A I M; Wever, P C; Oosterheert, J J

    2018-01-08

    First choice treatment for chronic Q fever is doxycycline plus hydroxychloroquine. Serum doxycycline concentration (SDC) >5 μg/mL has been associated with a favourable serological response, but the effect on clinical outcomes is unknown. To assess the effect of measuring SDC during treatment of chronic Q fever on clinical outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study, to assess the effect of measuring SDC on clinical outcomes in patients treated with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for chronic Q fever. Primary outcome was the first disease-related event (new complication or chronic Q fever-related mortality); secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and PCR-positivity. Multivariable analysis was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model, with shared-frailty terms for different hospitals included. We included 201 patients (mean age 68 years, 83% male): in 167 patients (83%) SDC was measured, 34 patients (17%) were treated without SDC measurement. First SDC was >5 μg/mL in 106 patients (63%), all with 200 mg doxycycline daily. In patients with SDC measured, dosage was adjusted in 41% (n = 68), concerning an increase in 64 patients. Mean SDC was 4.1 μg/mL before dosage increase, and 5.9 μg/mL afterwards. SDC measurement was associated with a lower risk for disease-related events (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-0.97, P = 0.04), but not with all-cause mortality or PCR-positivity. SDC measurement decreases the risk for disease-related events, potentially through more optimal dosing or improved compliance. We recommend measurement of SDC and striving for SDC >5 μg/mL and <10 μg/mL during treatment of chronic Q fever.

  12. Graded hyperthyroidism and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration in patients with trophoblastic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajatanavin, R.

    1989-11-01

    Serum thyroid hormone and basal and post TRH stimulated levels of TSH were measured in 48 female subjects of mean age 29.3 ± 9.2 and mean gravida 2.9 ± 2.6 with trophoblastic disease (TD), both benign and malignant. Normal pregnant women (n=21) served as controls. Twenty-five patients showed a normal response to TRH (Group i) while the rest (Group ii) had subnormal response while thyroid hormone levels were increased. Two subgroups iiA and iiB were formed within Group ii on the basis of the free T 4 levels (measured by equilibrium dialysis) falling below or above the 25th percentile. hCG levels were higher in Group ii than in Group i and a stepwise significant increase in the mean level of this hormone was observed in Group i to iiA and iiB. Significant correlation between hCG levels and those of thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine were found in TD patients as a whole, but not within the different subgroups. Clinical signs were minimal, with proximal muscle weakness and fine finger tumours observed in 10 patients in Group iiB. The study shows that the incidence of biochemical hyperthyroidism is higher than was reported before sensitive methods for TSH measurement were available, and postulates that increased hCG concentrations in themselves and/or abnormal metabolic variants of hCG produced by trophoblastic tumours may act as thyroid stimulators in this condition. 64 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  14. Biological Variability in Serum Cortisol Concentration Post-adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation in Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, A; Weidgraaf, K; Bowden, J P; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Cave, N J; Chambers, J P; Castillo-Alcala, F

    2017-05-01

    The ACTH stimulation has low sensitivity for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism possibly as a result of biological and analytical variability. To report the components of biological and analytical variability in serum cortisol concentration post-ACTH stimulation ([cortisol]) in healthy dogs. Fourteen healthy harrier hound dogs. The data were extracted from a separate, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled discovery study in which dogs treated with vehicle control and 4 different doses of cortisone acetate (CA) for 7 days had an ACTH stimulation test performed to confirm the dose-dependent effect of CA. The index of individuality (IoI), the critical difference between sequential measurements (C D ), and the number of measurements required to assess the homeostatic set point (HSP) of [cortisol] with confidence intervals (CI) of 90 and 95% were estimated. The IoI was equal to 1.1 and the C D was 3.3 μg/dL (92 nmol/L). The number of measurements required to assess the HSP of [cortisol] with CI of 90 and 95% were 3 and 15, respectively. Additionally, mean [cortisol] was higher in males than in females (13.3 ± 4 μg/dL [366 ± 114 nmol/L] vs. 11.5 ± 2.5 μg/dL [318 ± 65 nmol/L], respectively; P = .046). As expected, treatment with CA resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of [cortisol]. False-negative test results in hypercortisolism could occur when [cortisol] is outside of the individual's HSP and within the reference interval. The large C D emphasizes the importance of assessing clinically relevant parameters in the diagnosis and monitoring of HC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Changes in selected hematology and serum biochemistry in Turkish Angora cats (Felis catus during growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Simsek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in selected hematology and serum biochemistry of Angora cats (Felis catus during growth period. A total of 32 Angora cats (16 adults and 16 kittens were used in this study. Blood samples were collected from the animals, and were analyzed for white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes numbers. In the serum, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinine kinase (CK, total cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, Ca, Mg, Pi levels were determined. Monocyte level was found higher, and ALP, LDH, CK activities and Pi levels were lower in adult cats as compared to the kittens. MCV was lower and GGT and AST activities, and glucose level were higher in kittens of 1.5-3 months old than in kittens of >3 months. Concentrations of total cholesterol and Mg were higher in kitten (1.5-3 months old than in adult cats. In conclusion, age related effects on hematological and biochemical blood parameters have been determined for the first time in Angora cats.

  16. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  17. Effects of capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DC) on serum ethanol (ET) concentration of ET treated CF-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulesco, J A; Noel, S A; Delphia, J M; Boggs, M T; Davis, D H

    1990-01-01

    In this study adult male CF-1 mice were treated on a daily basis as follows: Group A - controls, Group B - ethanol (ET) treated (1.25 g ET/kg body weight (b.wt.], Group C - ET plus 4 mg Capsaicin (C)/kg b.wt., and Group D - ET plus 4 mg dihydrocapsaicin (DC)/kg b.wt. At the end of the sixth week experimental period the animals were anesthetized, exsanguinated and hepatectomized. Our study suggests that ET administered at the rate of 1.25 g ET/kg b.wt. reaches a mean serum value of 43 + 14 mg/dL within 15 minutes. In addition, chronic ET ingestion significantly decreases mean hepatic glycogen content and mean serum triglyceride concentration of the animals. Conjoint administration of ET plus C decreases significantly mean body weight and mean ET and the triglyceride concentration of the serum. Prolonged ET ingestion plus DC administration decreases mean wet liver weight and lowers significantly the mean serum ET, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of CF-1 mice.

  18. The Serum Concentrations of Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Specific Receptor CXCR4 in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent investigations have suggested that upregulated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as chemokines, may be associated with development of many malignancies, including esophageal cancer (EC. Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. Material and Methods. The present study included 79 subjects: 49 patients with EC and 30 healthy volunteers. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of all proteins tested and the survival of EC patients were assessed. Results. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 were significantly higher, while those of its receptor CXCR4 were significantly lower in EC patients compared to healthy controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CXCR4 were the highest among all analyzed proteins and increased for combined analysis with classical tumor markers and CRP levels. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum CXCR4 may improve the diagnosis of EC patients, especially in combination with classical tumor markers.

  19. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on the serum concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjestad, Caroline; Westin, Andreas A; Skogvoll, Eirik; Spigset, Olav

    2015-02-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are all metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP2C19, which is inhibited by the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these PPIs on the serum concentrations of citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. Serum concentrations from patients treated with citalopram, escitalopram, or sertraline were obtained from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database, and samples from subjects concomitantly using PPIs were identified. Dose-adjusted SSRI serum concentrations were calculated to compare data from those treated and those not treated with PPIs. Citalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+35.3%; P Escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+93.9%; P escitalopram is affected to a greater extent than are citalopram and sertraline. When omeprazole or esomeprazole are used in combination with escitalopram, a 50% dose reduction of the latter should be considered.

  20. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Prystupa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  1. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  2. Serum concentration and interaction properties of MBL/ficolin associated protein-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoedt, Mikkel-ole; Hummelshoj, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2011-01-01

    pathway (LCP) recognition molecules and MAP-1. We expressed recombinant MAP-1 in CHO DG44 cells, developed a quantitative ELISA assay based on a MAP-1 specific monoclonal capture antibody and measured the serum levels in 100 Danish blood donors. In addition we assessed the association properties between...... MAP-1 and Ficolin-2, -3 and MBL in serum using ELISA and density gradient ultra centrifugation. When recombinant MAP-1 was subjected to N-glycosidase F treatment the molecular mass decreased from ~45kDa to ~40kDa equivalent with the calculated molecular mass from the deduced amino acid sequence...... and MBL and by use of density gradient ultra centrifugation we could show that the major part of serum MAP-1 circulates in complex with the LCP molecules. In conclusion, these results show that MAP-1 is a highly stable glycosylated human serum protein found in complex with Ficolin-3, Ficolin-2 and MBL....

  3. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  4. Predictors of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among a Sample of Egyptian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among a sample of Egyptian schoolchildren and to evaluate predictors of deficiency and insufficiency. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 200 prepubescent schoolchildren aged from 9 to 11 years was performed. A questionnaire including frequency of midday sun exposure, milk intake, physical activity, and level of maternal education was taken. Body mass index (BMI was calculated; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD], serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results. Vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OHD < 20 ng/mL] was detected in 11.5% of subjects while its insufficiency (serum 25(OHD is between 20 and 29.9 ng/mL was detected in 15%. Results revealed that obesity, low physical activity, low sun exposure, and low maternal education level are significant predictors of insufficiency, though female gender, low maternal education level, and low milk intake are significant predictors of deficiency. Lower serum phosphorus and higher serum parathyroid hormone were significantly associated with both deficiency and insufficiency (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common among schoolchildren in Egypt. Food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and increasing maternal awareness about the importance of physical activity and exposure of their children to ultraviolet light may help to overcome this problem.

  5. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    :00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase......The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19...... compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase...

  6. A spline polynomial model to describe serum IGF-I concentration from birth to slaughter in calves: effects of weaning age, pre-weaning concentrate feeding and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Casasús, I; Villalba, D

    2010-04-01

    The statistical analysis of hormones sampled throughout the production cycle is complicated because factors such as age and weight at the measuring date interfere. Spline curves constructed from pieces of low-degree, random-effects polynomials could be used for a more accurate analysis of data. Concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), weight gain, and concentrate intake of Parda de Montaña (PM) (n=27) and Pirenaica calves (n=14) were modeled with a spline model according to age at weaning, pre-weaning concentrate feeding, and breed. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to early weaning (EW) at 90 d or traditional weaning (TW) at 150 d. During lactation, half of PM calves received concentrates (S), whereas the remainder received no concentrates (NS). After weaning, calves received concentrates on an ad libitum basis until they reached a weight of 450 kg. The spline model had better likelihood than a polynomial of 6 degrees or a split-plot model. Serum IGF-1 concentration was greatly affected by age at weaning and pre-weaning concentrate feeding, but not by breed. In NS calves, IGF-1 concentration was greater in EW than in TW calves from 120 to 300 d, irrespective of breed. During lactation, S calves had greater IGF-1 concentration than NS calves. After weaning, EWNS calves reached the IGF-1 concentration of EWS calves after 4 mo on concentrates, whereas TWNS calves attained IGF-1 concentration of TWS calves after only 2 mo, because of their increased concentrate intake relative to TWS calves. Concentration of IGF-1 was positively correlated with the immediate weight gains and intake, but it was not a good predictor of performance in the long term. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  8. Serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay in normal subjects and patients with various parathyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Ryo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Ogata, Etsuro; Furukawa, Yohtaro; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Niimi, Hiroo; Seino, Yoshiki; Fujita, Takuo; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1992-01-01

    Seum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in normal subjects and patients with various parathyroid disorders. Serum intact PTH levels were all within the detection limit of the IRMA in normal subjects, and there was a significant negative correlation between serum calcium (Ca) and intact PTH levels. Although 3 out of 26 patients (11.5%) with primary hyperparathyroidism had a normal serum intact PTH conc