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Sample records for serum eosinophilic cationic

  1. Serum eosinophil cationic protein levels can be useful for predicting acute exacerbation of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Kamimura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case in which five consecutive exacerbations of asthma were monitored by following serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. The serum ECP level correlated well with each exacerbation and tended to increase even before the exacerbations of asthma became apparent. This case shows that serum levels of ECP can be useful markers of disease activity and may also be predictive markers for acute exacerbation.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of human eosinophil cationic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venge, P.; Roxin, L.E.; Olsson, I.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunosorbent assay has been developed which allows the detection in serum of a cationic protein derived from eosinophil granulocytes. In 34 healthy individuals the mean level was 31 μg/l. with a range of 5 to 55 μg/l. The serum concentration of 'eosinophil' cationic protein was correlated (P<0.001) to the number of eosinophil granulocytes in peripheral blood. Quantitiation of 'eosinophil' cationic protein in serum might be useful in the study of eosinophil granulocyte turnover and function in vivo. (author)

  3. TEAR AND SERUM EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN ALLERGIC OCULAR DISEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions

  4. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  5. Genetic factors explain half of all variance in serum eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Sverrild, Asger; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    with variation in serum ECP and to determine the relative proportion of the variation in ECP due to genetic and non-genetic factors, in an adult twin sample. METHODS: A sample of 575 twins, selected through a proband with self-reported asthma, had serum ECP, lung function, airway responsiveness to methacholine......, exhaled nitric oxide, and skin test reactivity, measured. Linear regression analysis and variance component models were used to study factors associated with variation in ECP and the relative genetic influence on ECP levels. RESULTS: Sex (regression coefficient = -0.107, P ... was statistically non-significant (r = -0.11, P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: Around half of all variance in serum ECP is explained by genetic factors. Serum ECP is influenced by sex, BMI, and airway responsiveness. Serum ECP and airway responsiveness seem not to share genetic variance....

  6. Accuracy of eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein to predict steroid improvement in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF; Arends, LR; Koeter, GH; Kerstjens, HAM

    Background There is a large variability in clinical response to corticosteroid treatment in patients with asthma. Several markers of inflammation like eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), as well as exhaled nitric oxide (NO), are good candidates to predict clinical response. Aim We

  7. External validation of blood eosinophils, FE(NO) and serum periostin as surrogates for sputum eosinophils in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, A. H.; de Nijs, S. B.; Lutter, R.; Sousa, A. R.; Weersink, E. J. M.; Bel, E. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring sputum eosinophils in asthma predicts exacerbations and improves management of asthma. Thus far, blood eosinophils and FE(NO) show contradictory results in predicting eosinophilic airway inflammation. More recently, serum periostin was proposed as a novel biomarker for eosinophilic

  8. Eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome with markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwase, Takashi; Kadota, Muneyuki; Bando, Mika; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Niki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yuka; Tomita, Noriko; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with asthma visited our hospital with increasing dyspnea and new-onset paresthesia and purpura in her legs. Physical examination showed a wheeze, pretibial edema, and surrounding purpura. Chest X-rays showed cardiac decompensation and an electrocardiogram revealed a new ST-T change. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia (10,450/μL), troponin T(+), elevated BNP, and markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (> 150 ng/mL). Echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis (ejection fraction 30%) with increased wall thickness. Coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging implied diffuse myocardial edema and subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Skin biopsy of purpura showed superfi cial perivascular dermatitis with remarkable eosinophilic infiltrations. No evidence of drug allergies, parasitic infection, or myeloproliferative disorder was detected. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome was considered. She was administered prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide, and diuretics. Several markers of eosinophilic myocarditis and heart failure gradually improved, including ECP. She was discharged 30 days later with no cardiac event. Eosinophilic myocarditis is characterized by predominantly eosinophilic infi ltration. Eosinophilic granule proteins, such as ECP and major basic protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic myocarditis. We experienced a rare case of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome. Markedly elevated ECP played an important role in the early diagnosis and subsequent reduction in ECP served as a marker of monitoring. In an asthmatic patient with dyspnea, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome with eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered.

  9. Detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Venge, P; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a highly basic and potent cytotoxic single-chain zinc-containing protein present in the granules of the eosinophilic granulocytes. ECP appears to be involved in defence against parasites and in the tissue damage seen in subjects with allergic and inflammatory...... disease. To investigate ECP release from in vitro activated human eosinophils and to study the involvement of eosinophils in health and disease, we have developed a sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay. ECP was purified from normal human peripheral blood eosinophils and polyclonal antibodies to ECP...

  10. External validation of blood eosinophils, FE(NO) and serum periostin as surrogates for sputum eosinophils in asthma.

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    Wagener, A H; de Nijs, S B; Lutter, R; Sousa, A R; Weersink, E J M; Bel, E H; Sterk, P J

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring sputum eosinophils in asthma predicts exacerbations and improves management of asthma. Thus far, blood eosinophils and FE(NO) show contradictory results in predicting eosinophilic airway inflammation. More recently, serum periostin was proposed as a novel biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation. Quantifying the mutual relationships of blood eosinophils, FE(NO), and serum periostin with sputum eosinophils by external validation in two independent cohorts across various severities of asthma. The first cohort consisted of 110 patients with mild to moderate asthma (external validation cohort). The replication cohort consisted of 37 patients with moderate to severe asthma. Both cohorts were evaluated cross-sectionally. Sputum was induced for the assessment of eosinophils. In parallel, blood eosinophil counts, serum periostin concentrations and FENO were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of these markers to identify eosinophilic asthma (sputum eosinophils ≥3%) was calculated using receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC). In the external validation cohort, ROC AUC for blood eosinophils was 89% (peosinophilic from non-eosinophilic airway inflammation (ROC AUC=55%, p=0.44). When combining these three variables, no improvement was seen. The diagnostic value of blood eosinophils was confirmed in the replication cohort (ROC AUC 85%, peosinophils had the highest accuracy in the identification of sputum eosinophilia in asthma. The use of blood eosinophils can facilitate individualised treatment and management of asthma. NTR1846 and NTR2364. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced intestinal inflammation by means of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil protein X and myeloperoxidase before and after treatment with praziquantel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, Claus Michael; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.

    2008-01-01

    Faecal concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in extracts of stool samples obtained from a cohort of people (n=182) living in Bugoigo, a fishing community on the Eastern shore of Lake Albert, Buliisa District, in North...

  12. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...

  13. Inflammation dynamics after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma haematobium reflected by urinary eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Fofana, Hassan K. M.; Madsen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Background This cohort study assessed urinary eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as an indicator for urinary tract morbidity and inflammation indication related to single-dose or dual-dose praziquantel (PZQ) treatment. Methods Urinary ECP was measured at baseline, 24 h and 9 weeks after treatment...

  14. Circulating fibrosis markers, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil protein X in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection: association with clinical status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterre P.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured the concentrations of several circulating fibrosis markers (type I collagen I, type III procollagen, hyaluronan and eosinophil granule proteins (ECP and EPX in lymphatic filariasis patients to investigate their relationship with clinical, parasitological and immunological data. This study was conducted in Polynesian patients with various stages of the disease (acute lymphangitis, chyluria, hydrocoele, elephantiasis, a closely related microbial lymphangitis and endemic controls. We observed modifications of the different markers in this pathology. Serum type I collagen and PIIINP were decreased. Serum hyaluronan, linked to perilymphatic granulomatous inflammation, was significantly increased in acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis patients. Serum ECP was also increased, at the limit of significance in our sample, in elephantiasis patients. These two last markers, already validated in another helminth disease, schistosomiasis, have potential interest in terms of follow-up of morbidity in these parasitic diseases.

  15. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    allergic patients with nickel challenge in the chamber medium showed a time-dependent increase of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils and a concomitant decrease of polymorphonuclear granulocytes, characteristic of a combined specific and unspecific inflammation. The morphology of the exudate...... in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers...

  16. Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjic-Hösli, Susanne; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In 1846, T. Wharton-Jones described a coarsely granular stage in the development of granulocytic cells in animal and human blood. Shortly thereafter, Max Schultze redefined the coarsely granular cells as a type distinct from finely granular cells, rather than just a developmental stage. It was, however, not until 1879, when Paul Ehrlich introduced a method to distinguish granular cells by the staining properties of their granules, that a classification became possible. An intensive staining for eosin, among other aniline dyes, was eponymous for the coarsely granular cell type, which thereupon became referred to as eosinophil granulocyte. Eosinophilia had already been described in many diseases by the late 19th century. The role of these cells, however, today remains a matter of continuing speculation and investigation. Many functions have been attributed to the eosinophil over the years, often linked to increasing knowledge about the granular and cytoplasmatic contents. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of eosinopoiesis has led to the development of knock-out mice strains as well as therapeutic strategies for reducing the eosinophil load in patients. The effect of these therapeutics and the characterization of the knock-out phenotypes have led to a great increase in the knowledge of the role of the eosinophil in disease. Today we think of the eosinophil as a multifunctional cell involved in host defense, tissue damage and remodeling, as well as immunomodulation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA)

  19. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein is toxic to cells lacking signal peptide peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-M.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a toxin secreted by activated human eosinophils. The properties of mature ECP have been well studied but those of the signal peptide of ECP (ECPsp) are not clear. In this study, several chimeric proteins containing N-terminal fusion of ECPsp were generated, and introduced into Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 to study the function of ECPsp. We found that expression of ECPsp chimeric proteins inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. pastoris but not A431 cells. Primary sequence analysis and in vitro transcription/translation of ECPsp have revealed that it is a potential substrate for human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), an intramembrane protease located in endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, knockdown of the hSPP mRNA expression in ECPsp-eGFP/A431 cells caused the growth inhibitory effect, whereas complementally expression of hSPP in P. pastoris system rescued the cell growth. Taken together, we have demonstrated that ECPsp is a toxic signal peptide, and expression of hSPP protects the cells from growth inhibition

  20. Role of the eosinophil in serum-mediated adherence of equine leukocytes to infective larvae of Strongylus vulgaris.

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    Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Dennis, V A

    1992-06-01

    The adherence of equine leukocytes to Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (L3) in the presence of normal and immune sera was examined in vitro. Immune sera promoted adherence of buffy coat cells from ponies with S. vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies) to S. vulgaris L3. However, eosinophils in the buffy coat cells were the predominant adherent cell type. Studies using leukocyte populations enriched for eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells from eosinophilic ponies support the observations using buffy coat cells that eosinophils were the main effector cells. Adherent eosinophils from eosinophilic ponies immobilized L3. Neutrophils were less adherent and did not immobilize L3. Mononuclear cells failed to adhere. Normal eosinophils from strongly-naive ponies did not immobilize S. vulgaris L3 in the presence of immune serum, suggesting the in vivo activation of eosinophils in eosinophilic animals. Immune serum promoted less adherence of buffy coat cells to Strongylus edentatus or mixed species of Cyathostominae L3, suggesting that the serum-mediated cellular adherence phenomenon was species-specific. Normal serum promoted less cellular adherence to S. vulgaris L3 than immune serum. The adherence mediated by normal serum was removed by heat inactivation, suggesting that this nonspecific phenomenon was a complement-mediated reaction. Immune globulins promoted reactions similar to that seen using heat-inactivated immune serum, whereas normal globulins did not promote adherence. Immune globulins absorbed with pieces of S. vulgaris adult worms did not promote the adherence of buffy coat cells to S. vulgaris L3, suggesting that adult and L3 stages share antigens important in this phenomenon that resulted in the removal of specific adherence antibody during absorption.

  1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with increased peripheral eosinophils and serum IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, I; Takase, Y; Matsumoto, S; Kuyama, J; Nakajima, T; Maeda, H; Sugase, T; Hata, A; Hanada, M; Okuno, M

    1996-10-01

    Symptoms of cholestasis, including epigastralgia, fever, and jaundice, with marked increases in peripheral eosinophils and serum IgE in a 20-year-old man are reported here. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) detected constrictions of the bile ducts, compatible with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The symptoms and blood parameters of liver dysfunction were associated with the degree of eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. During corticosteroid therapy, all of these parameters improved, and morphologic improvements of the bile ducts were also observed. The pathogenesis of PSC may be explained, in part, by the concept of hypereosinophilic syndrome or allergic reaction.

  2. Urinary leukotriene E(4), eosinophil protein X, and nasal eosinophil cationic protein are not associated with respiratory symptoms in 1-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowski, C; Halmerbauer, G; Mayatepek, E; Gartner, C; Frischer, T; Forster, J; Kuehr, J

    2001-09-01

    Eosinophilic airways inflammation forms the pathophysiologic basis for a proportion of children at risk of developing recurrent wheezing. Early preventive measures and/or anti-inflammatory treatment may be guided by the identification of such children. We aimed to study the relationship between respiratory symptoms and indirect markers of airway inflammation. We measured eosinophil protein X (EPX) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) in urine, as well as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavages, in a random sample of 1-year-old children with a family history of atopy who participated in an international multicenter study on the prevention of allergy in Europe. For urine analyses, 10 children with upper respiratory illness and 19 healthy children without a family history of atopy were also enrolled. Endogenous urinary LTE(4) was separated by HPLC and determined by enzyme immunoassay with a specific antibody. The concentrations of nasal ECP and urinary EPX were determined by RIA analysis. One hundred and ten children (mean age: 1.05+/-0.1 years) were enrolled. Prolonged coughing during the first year of life was reported in 29 children, wheezy breathing in 17 children, and dry skin in 33 children. A doctor's diagnosis of wheezy bronchitis was given to 17 children. Sensitization to dust mites (specific IgE > or =1.43 ML/units) was detected in two children. Children with a doctor's diagnosis of atopic dermatitis within the first 12 months of life (n=6) had significantly higher urinary EPX than children without this (66.7 vs 30.1 microg/mmol creatinine, P=0.01). Urinary excretion of EPX and LTE4 showed a weak correlation (r=0.22, P=0.02). There were no significant differences in urinary excretion of EPX and LTE(4) or nasal ECP between children with and without respiratory symptoms (P>0.1). At the age of 1 year, urinary EPX is increased in children with atopic dermatitis. With regard to respiratory symptoms, urinary and nasal inflammatory parameters are not helpful in

  3. Serum biomarkers in patients with relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dejaco

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest a role for eotaxin-3, TARC/CCL17 and IgG4 in newly-diagnosed patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss with highly active disease. The role of these biomarkers in relapsing disease is unclear.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio were determined in serum samples from a longitudinal cohort of patients with EGPA (105 visits of 25 patients. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were available for all visits.At the first visit, 80% of patients were using glucocorticoids and 68% additional immunosuppressive drugs. Disease flares were seen at 18 visits. The median BVAS and BVAS/WG scores at time of relapse were 4 and 2, respectively. None of the biomarkers tested were useful to discriminate between active disease and remission. Patients treated with prednisone had lower eotaxin-3 and eosinophil levels compared to patients not taking glucocorticoids irrespective of disease activity. Use of immunosuppressive agents was not associated with biomarker levels.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio do not clearly differentiate active and inactive disease in established EGPA. Defining biomarkers in EGPA remains a challenge especially during times of glucocorticoid use.

  4. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B

    1991-01-01

    Possible roles of eosinophil (EO) products in modulating the release of mucus from airway explants were investigated. Cell- and membrane-free lysates from purified human EOs (1 to 20 x 10(5)) caused a dose-dependent release of respiratory glycoconjugates (RGC) from cultured feline tracheal explants...

  5. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  6. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  7. The proform of eosinophil major basic protein: a new maternal serum marker for adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Steen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the first trimester serum levels of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP) in pregnancies with adverse outcome. Furthermore, to determine the screening performance using proMBP alone and in combination with other first trimester markers. METHODS: A case-control...... study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The proMBP concentration was measured in cases with small-for-gestational age (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40), gestational hypertension (n = 10) and in controls (n = 500). Concentrations were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The pro...

  8. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

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    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  9. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eosinophils per microliter of blood). Low number of eosinophils A low number of eosinophils in the blood ( ... the normal number of eosinophils. High number of eosinophils The most common causes of a high number ...

  11. The 434(G>C) polymorphism in the eosinophil cationic protein gene and its association with tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Michele C; Oliveira, Denise T; Olivieri, Eloísa H R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)-gene polymorphism 434(G>C) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and its association with tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE), demographic, clinical, and microscopic...... of ECP-gene polymorphism 434(G>C) with TATE, demographic, clinical, and microscopic variables in OSCC patients. Disease-free survival and overall survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit actuarial method and the comparison of the survival curves were performed using log rank test...

  12. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Overcoming the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection by increasing the charge ratio of cationic liposome to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J P; Huang, L

    1997-09-01

    Since cationic liposome was first developed as a lipofection reagent, a drawback has been noted in that the efficiency of lipofection decreases dramatically after addition of serum to the lipofection medium. This drawback hampers the application of cationic liposome for systematic delivery of genes. In the present studies, we found that the effect of serum on DC-chol liposome-mediated lipofection is dependent on the charge ratio of liposome to DNA. Serum inhibited lipofection activity of the lipoplex at low charge ratios, whereas it enhanced the lipofection activity at high charge ratios. This phenomenon was observed using DOTAP/DOPE but not lipofectamine. Measurement of cellular association of DNA showed that serum could reduce the binding of lipoplex to cells at all tested charge ratios, i.e. 0-10.6. Removal of negatively charged proteins from serum by DEAE Sephacel column abolished the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. The fraction contained only negatively charged serum proteins which strongly inhibited lipofection at low charge ratios but not at higher charge ratios. Furthermore, preincubation of serum with positively charged polylysine, which neutralized negatively charged serum proteins, eliminated the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. In summary, inactivation of cationic liposome by serum is due to negatively charged serum proteins and it can be overcome by increasing charge ratio of cationic liposome-DNA lipoplexes or by neutralizing the serum with polylysine.

  14. Serum cation profile of broilers at various stages of exposure to deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Böhm, Josef

    2013-05-01

    The present experiment was carried out to investigate if levels of serum cations in broilers are modulated differently at various stages of exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON). Male broiler chicks at 7 days of age were fed a basal diet (0.27 mg of DON; 0.01 mg of zearalenone/kg), or either a low DON diet (1.68 mg of DON; 0.15 mg of zearalenone/kg) or a high DON diet (12.21 mg of DON; 1.09 mg of zearalenone/kg) produced using extracts from Fusarium graminearum cultures. Blood samples from the birds were collected during weeks 2, 4, and 5 of exposure. The high DON diet resulted in lower serum calcium levels compared to the basal diet at all the 3 sampling stages, while the low DON diet resulted in lower serum calcium levels only during weeks 2 and 5. Serum potassium levels were reduced under both the DON diets during weeks 2 and 5, while no diet-associated changes were found for serum levels of magnesium, sodium, and zinc. Under the present experimental conditions, the serum levels of calcium were consistently modulated in the broilers exposed to the DON-contaminated diets. The modulation of serum levels of potassium was, however, dependent upon the stage of exposure to DON.

  15. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Eosinophilic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  16. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  17. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is characterised by age-dependent symptoms mimicking gastrooesophageal reflux disease, a distinct endoscopic appearance and a histological picture with extensive infiltration of eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is more frequently seen...... in males, and patients often belong to the paediatric or adolescence age groups. The exact prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is unknown, but it has been suggested that the United States has a higher prevalence than Europe. Several treatment algorithms have been suggested, including elemental diets......, oral steroids, inhaled (swallowed) steroids, and leucotriene receptor antagonists. Detailed information on the eosinophilic inflammatory processes in the oesophageal mucosa was initially obtained from animal models, in particular with regard to the role of interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin-1...

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Dietary therapy and nutrition management of eosinophilic esophagitis: ... of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract . 2017;5(2): ...

  19. Eosinophilic panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlaska, C P; de Lorimier, A J; Heldman, L S

    1995-03-01

    Eosinophillic panniculitis is a poorly defined entity with variable clinical features. We report a case of rapidly enlarging, asymptomatic subcutaneous scalp nodules in a 6-year-old black boy with atopic dermatitis. The nodules resolved spontaneously over two to three days. Biopsy specimens were remarkable for eosinophilic panniculitis without evidence of epidermal change or vasculitis. We believe that this is the youngest reported patient with this disorder.

  20. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  1. Adsorption behavior of cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone-based fibrous adsorbents with bovine serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yuzhong; Borneman, Zandrie; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone (PES)-based fibrous adsorbents were developed to study their adsorption behavior with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A fibrous adsorbent with an open pore surface had much better adsorption behavior with a higher adsorbing rate. The adsorption capacity

  2. Dynamic changes in the characteristics of cationic lipidic vectors after exposure to mouse serum: implications for intravenous lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Tseng, W C; Stolz, D B; Wu, S P; Watkins, S C; Huang, L

    1999-04-01

    Intravenous gene delivery via cationic lipidic vectors gives systemic gene expression particularly in the lung. In order to understand the mechanism of intravenous lipofection, a systematic study was performed to investigate the interactions of lipidic vectors with mouse serum emphasizing how serum affects the biophysical and biological properties of vectors of different lipid compositions. Results from this study showed that lipidic vectors underwent dynamic changes in their characteristics after exposure to serum. Addition of lipidic vectors into serum resulted in an immediate aggregation of vectors. Prolonged incubation of lipidic vectors with serum led to vector disintegration as shown in turbidity study, sucrose-gradient centrifugation analysis and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study. Vector disintegration was associated with DNA release and degradation as shown in EtBr intercalation assay and DNA digestion study. Serum-induced disintegration of vectors is a general phenomenon for all cationic lipidic vectors tested in this study. Yet, vectors of different lipid compositions vary greatly in the rate of disintegration. There is an inverse correlation between the disintegration rate of lipidic vectors and their in vivo transfection efficiency. Vectors with a rapid rate of disintegration such as those containing dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) poorly stayed in the lung and were barely active in transfecting cells. In contrast, cholesterol-containing vectors that had a rapid aggregation and a slow disintegration were highly efficient in transfecting cells in vivo. The results of this study explain why cationic lipidic vectors of different lipid compositions have a dramatic difference in their in vivo transfection efficiency. These results also suggest that the study of the interactions of lipidic vectors with serum may serve as a predictive model for the in vivo efficiency of a lipidic vector. Further study of the numerous interactions of

  3. Eosinophilic cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. We describe three cases, where presentations of the disease are similar. To highlight probable causes of the disease, symptoms, clinical findings and treatment modalities, we reviewed 56 cases over a 10-year period. The most common symptoms were...

  4. Eosinophils, pruritus and psoriasis: effects of treatment with etretinate or cyclosporin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, R E; Hultsch, T; Lotz, J; Bräutigam, M

    1998-11-01

    The antipsoriatic drugs cyclosporin A (CyA) and etretinate have been found to influence proinflammatory eosinophilic leukocytes and pruritus. We compared the number of blood eosinophils, concentration of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and pruritus in patients with psoriasis treated with either CyA or etretinate. Patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomly assigned to treatment for 10 weeks with either CyA (n = 21) or etretinate (n = 10). The psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI-score) and pruritus (according to a 0-3 scale) served as clinical parameters, the blood esosinophil counts (Coulter Counter) and the serum ECP (RIA, Pharmacia) as laboratory parameters. After CyA treatment the PASI-score amounted to 24 +/- 4%, after etretinate to 56 +/- 6% of the initial values (mean +/- SEM). One week after CyA treatment, esosinophils dropped from 190 +/- 21 to 137 +/- 16/microliter (P = 0.038, Wilcoxon test), after 10 weeks to 127 +/- 18/microliter (P = 0.006). By contrast, under etretinate blood eosinophil counts only changed marginally. Before treatment, ECP concentrations of 15.71 +/- 1.30 (CyA) and 15.3 +/- 5.53 micrograms/l (etretinate) were measured (normal range 3-16 micrograms/l), ECP remained constant under both CyA and etretinate or tended to increase after 10 weeks; about 50% of the patients exhibited elevated ECP concentrations. Pruritus diminished more with CyA than etretinate therapy. PASI-scores and pruritus were directly proportional. We conclude that treatment of psoriasis with CyA leads to a rapid drop of blood eosinophils and that the activation state of eosinophils does not decrease after antipsoriatic treatment. Pruritus in psoriasis is coupled to disease severity. The underlying antipsoriatic mechanisms of CyA may be linked to lowering the number of blood eosinophils.

  5. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Reppucci

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic pancreatitis is a rare form of recurrent acute pancreatitis that demonstrates distinct histologic features, including diffuse, periductal, acinar, and septal inflammatory infiltrates comprised of a pure or predominant population of eosinophils, eosinophilic phlebitis and arteritis, and localized eosinophilic infiltrates with pseudocyst formation. It is associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels, an elevated eosinophil count with systemic manifestations, and eosinophilic infiltrates in other organs of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of eosinophilic pancreatitis in a 44-year-old man who was diagnosed after pancreatic resection for recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis. While the gross and histologic evaluations matched other reported cases of eosinophilic pancreatitis, our patient had only minimal peripheral eosinophilia, no reported history of symptoms related to elevated eosinophilia or immunoglobulin E, and only mild eosinophilic infiltrates in his gallbladder.

  6. Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. It is classified as a scleroderma-like syndrome. The disease is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with significant thickening of fascia. Visceral involvement is rare. Characteristic feature in laboratory tests is peripheral blood eosinophilia. Differential diagnosis should be performed, including ruling out systemic sclerosis, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, scleromyxedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome or Churg-Strauss syndrome. Final diagnosis is confirmed by histopathological examination. In treatment of the disease corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs are used. Some other drugs showed activity in this disease e.g. dapsone, infiximab or rituximab. Prognosis is rather good but sometimes a long-term treatment is necessary. In this paper we summarized the current knowledge on eosinophilic fasciitis.

  7. Functions of tissue-resident eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Peter F; Spencer, Lisa A

    2017-12-01

    Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment. In this Review, we consider evolving insights into the tissue distribution of eosinophils and their functional immunobiology, which enable eosinophils to secrete in a selective manner cytokines and other mediators that have diverse, 'non-effector' functions in health and disease.

  8. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were...

  9. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Namrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. Case Presentation: A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Conclusion: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Ghobrial, Peter; Liron, Pantanowitz

    2010-09-17

    There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-8 (IL -8), SOLUBLE INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1(SICAM-1) AND EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN (ECP) IN PATHOGENESIS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-NASHAR, N.A.; MOSTAFA, A.M.E.; AHMED, S.M.; ABDEL-LATIF, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bronchial asthma remains a leading cause of chronic illness in children. Current theories of the pathogenesis of asthma suggest that airway inflammation is an important determinant of bronchial hyperactivity .The interaction of several inflammatory cells, soluble mediators and adhesion molecules may be important determinants of asthma. Since a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to asthma pathology may yield more specific immunological strategies for the treatment of this disease, this study was designed to investigate the contribution of these markers to airway inflammation. The present study included 25 children with asthma and 15 control children. The asthma cases were 18 males and 7 females ( mean age= 9.36 ± 2.16 years). According to the severity of asthma, patients were classified as mild (n=10), moderate (n=9) and severe (n=6) asthma. They were further classified into allergic asthmatics (extrinsic atopic, n=10) and non-allergic (intrinsic asthmatics, n=15). Estimations of serum levels of IL-8, sICAM-1(by ELISA) and ECP (by flouroimmunoassay) were done. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls. Also, serum levels of it were significantly higher in cases with severe and cases with moderate asthma than in cases with mild asthma. Serum levels of sICAM-1 were significantly higher in asthmatic than in control children, in severe than in moderate, and in both than in mild asthma cases. Levels of ECP were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls. Also, serum levels of it were related to asthma severity. Furthermore, the three biomarkers showed higher expression in allergic asthmatics versus non- allergies. There were positive correlations of IL-8, sICAM-1, ECP and IgE with each other in asthmatic children that may indicate interaction of these markers in regulation and persistence of inflammatory cascade in asthma through different mechanisms. In

  12. Eosinophils: The unsung heroes in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Lucarini, Valeria; Marone, Giancarlo; Mattei, Fabrizio; Marone, Gianni; Schiavoni, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of a cancer. Eosinophils are components of the immune microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and progression. Although canonically associated with a detrimental role in allergic disorders, these cells can induce a protective immune response against helminthes, viral and bacterial pathogens. Eosinophils are a source of anti-tumorigenic (e.g., TNF-α, granzyme, cationic proteins, and IL-18) and protumorigenic molecules (e.g., pro-angiogenic factors) depending on the milieu. In several neoplasias (e.g., melanoma, gastric, colorectal, oral and prostate cancer) eosinophils play an anti-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical carcinoma) have been linked to poor prognosis, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of eosinophils and their mediators could be cancer-dependent. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of eosinophils could be another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematological tumors. Increasing evidence in experimental models indicates that activation/recruitment of eosinophils could represent a new therapeutic strategy for certain tumors (e.g., melanoma). Many unanswered questions should be addressed before we understand whether eosinophils are an ally, adversary or neutral bystanders in different types of human cancers.

  13. Eosinophil granule proteins ECP and EPX as markers for a potential early-stage inflammatory lesion in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra

    2014-01-01

    pathology, as viable schistosome egg granulomas often are eosinophil rich. Here it was investigated whether eosinophil granule proteins ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and EPX (eosinophil protein-X) in urine and genital lavage can be used as markers for active FGS lesions. METHODS: Uro-genital samples...

  14. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janson Christer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757 were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C (rs2073342, ECP562(G>C (rs2233860 and ECP c.-38(A>C (rs2233859 were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C and ECP562(G>C genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  15. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  16. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-11-30

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Nicholas; Topal, Ç. Özge; Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S.; Hartson, Steve; Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey; Ramsey, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  20. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Nicholas [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Topal, Ç. Özge [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hartson, Steve [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey [Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ramsey, Joshua D., E-mail: josh.ramsey@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  1. Eosinophilic cystitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Li Yuhua; Wang Qiuyan; Xie Hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical manifestations and CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis in children. Methods: Nine cases including Six boys and 3 girls, three to 13 years old, mean age of 8.3- year, have symptoms of hematuria, irritative voiding, dysuria and abdominal pain. The eosinophilic cystitis was pathologically proved in 7 patients and eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis in 2 patients, which based on cystoscopic tissue biopsy or surgery retrospectively. Results: Local thickened bladder walls or nodular and sessile masses along the bladder dome showed in four cases with eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis, and the diffusely irregularly thickened bladder wails showed on CT scans in the rest 5 cases with eosinophilic cystitis. Conclusion: CT findings are helpful to reveal the site, size and other features of eosinophilic cystitis in children. But biopsy of the lesion is necessary to rule out other bladder tumor and selecting the proper management. (authors)

  2. Humoral immunity provides resident intestinal eosinophils access to luminal antigen via eosinophil-expressed low affinity Fc gamma receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalmia M.; Rahman, Raiann S.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract, and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g. food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct antigen engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions including degranulation and antigen presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food antigens by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food antigens. Using an intestinal ligated loop model in mice, here we determined that resident intestinal eosinophils acquire antigen from the lumen of antigen-sensitized but not naïve mice in vivo. Antigen acquisition was immunoglobulin-dependent; intestinal eosinophils were unable to acquire antigen in sensitized immunoglobulin-deficient mice, and passive immunization with immune serum or antigen-specific IgG was sufficient to enable intestinal eosinophils in otherwise naïve mice to acquire antigen in vivo. Intestinal eosinophils expressed low affinity IgG receptors, and the activating receptor FcγRIII was necessary for immunoglobulin-mediated acquisition of antigens by isolated intestinal eosinophils in vitro. Our combined data suggest that intestinal eosinophils acquire lumen-derived food antigens in sensitized mice via FcγRIII antigen focusing, and may therefore participate in antigen-driven secondary immune responses to oral antigens. PMID:27683752

  3. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  4. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  5. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  6. Eosinophils from hematopoietic stem cell recipients suppress allogeneic T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jennie; Cromvik, Julia; Ingelsten, Madeleine; Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilia has been associated with less severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that eosinophils diminish allogeneic T cell activation in patients with chronic GVHD. The capacity of eosinophils derived from healthy subjects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant recipients, with or without chronic GVHD, to reduce allogeneic T cell proliferation was evaluated using a mixed leukocyte reaction. Eosinophil-mediated inhibition of proliferation was observed for the eosinophils of both healthy subjects and patients who underwent HSC transplantation. Eosinophils from patients with and without chronic GVHD were equally suppressive. Healthy eosinophils required cell-to-cell contact for their suppressive capacity, which was directed against CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. Neither eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, or increased numbers of regulatory T cells could account for the suppressive effect of healthy eosinophils. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 in the eosinophils of both chronic GVHD patients and patients without GVHD, as compared with those from healthy subjects. The upregulation of galectin-10 expression in eosinophils from patients suggests a stimulatory effect of HSC transplantation in itself on eosinophilic galectin-10 expression, regardless of chronic GVHD status. To conclude, eosinophils from HSC transplant recipients and healthy subjects have a T cell suppressive capacity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  8. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in seven...... of nine children with symptomatic malaria, and no change was observed in 14 children who remained parasite-free. In a hospital-based study, paediatric patients with cerebral malaria (CM), severe anaemia (SA), or uncomplicated malaria (UM) had uniformly low eosinophil counts during the acute illness...... followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  9. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  10. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  11. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kourosh; Atla, Pradeep R; Haq, Tahmina; Sheikh, Muhammad Y

    2015-01-01

    Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as "Valley Fever," is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA). A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), PMN count >250/mm(3), and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  12. Elevated Systemic Levels of Eosinophil, Neutrophil, and Mast Cell Granular Proteins in Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection that Diminish following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Anuradha; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandra Kumar; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2018-01-01

    Infection with the helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis ( Ss ) is commonly clinically asymptomatic that is often accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Granulocytes are activated during helminth infection and can act as immune effector cells. Plasma levels of eosinophil and neutrophil granular proteins convey an indirect measure of granulocyte degranulation and are prominently augmented in numerous helminth-infected patients. In this study, we sought to examine the levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation-associated granule proteins in asymptomatic Ss infection and to understand their kinetics following anthelmintic therapy. To this end, we measured the plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil proteinase-3, mast cell tryptase, leukotriene C4, and mast cell carboxypeptidase-A3 in individuals with asymptomatic Ss infection or without Ss infection [uninfected (UN)]. We also estimated the levels of all of these analytes in infected individuals following definitive treatment of Ss infection. We demonstrated that those infected individuals have significantly enhanced plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein, elastase, myeloperoxidase, mast cell tryptase, leukotriene C4, and carboxypeptidase-A3 compared to UN individuals. Following the treatment of Ss infection, each of these granulocyte-associated proteins drops significantly. Our data suggest that eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation may play a role in the response to Ss infection.

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific responses in allergy? » Dietary Therapy and Nutrition Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Work Group Report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology » Eosinophilic esophagitis can ...

  14. Sinusitis with eosinophilic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshiro; Ishitoya, Junichi; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media is an intractable inflammation of the middle ear combined with bronchial asthma. According to a national epidemiological investigation on eosinophilic otitis media, it is assumed that eosinophilic otitis media are combined with sinusitis in about 74% of their cases. On the other hand, organizational images of eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic sinusitis are similar, and steroid therapy is effective together, and it is thought that they are involved in the idea of one airway one disease, but the details of sinusitis combined with the eosinophilic otitis media are unidentified. Therefore, we examined the kinds of the sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. We diagnosed 18 cases (male: 2 cases, female: 16 cases) (average age: 54.6 years old) as eosinophilic otitis media according to the diagnostic criteria. And, by the CT views of a paranasal sinus, blood tests, existence of the nasal polyp, etc, we investigated the kinds of sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. It turned out that bronchial asthma was combined with eosinophilic otitis media in 17 of 18 cases (airway hypersensitivity did sthenia of one case, but the asthma did not yet developed), and 6 cases were combined with aspirin induced asthma (AIA), and 3 cases were combined with Churg-Strauss syndromes (CSS). 10 case (55.6%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. And 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with chronic sinusitis, 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were not combined with sinusitis. We concluded that eosinophilic otitis media was not always combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. The idea of one airway one disease was not applied to this examination. (author)

  15. Sinusitis with eosinophilic otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshiro; Ishitoya, Junichi [Yokohama City Univ., Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tsukuda, Mamoru [Yokohama City Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media is an intractable inflammation of the middle ear combined with bronchial asthma. According to a national epidemiological investigation on eosinophilic otitis media, it is assumed that eosinophilic otitis media are combined with sinusitis in about 74% of their cases. On the other hand, organizational images of eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic sinusitis are similar, and steroid therapy is effective together, and it is thought that they are involved in the idea of one airway one disease, but the details of sinusitis combined with the eosinophilic otitis media are unidentified. Therefore, we examined the kinds of the sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. We diagnosed 18 cases (male: 2 cases, female: 16 cases) (average age: 54.6 years old) as eosinophilic otitis media according to the diagnostic criteria. And, by the CT views of a paranasal sinus, blood tests, existence of the nasal polyp, etc, we investigated the kinds of sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. It turned out that bronchial asthma was combined with eosinophilic otitis media in 17 of 18 cases (airway hypersensitivity did sthenia of one case, but the asthma did not yet developed), and 6 cases were combined with aspirin induced asthma (AIA), and 3 cases were combined with Churg-Strauss syndromes (CSS). 10 case (55.6%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. And 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with chronic sinusitis, 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were not combined with sinusitis. We concluded that eosinophilic otitis media was not always combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. The idea of one airway one disease was not applied to this examination. (author)

  16. Weak cation exchange magnetic beads coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in screening serum protein markers in osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Tao; Liang, Bo-Cheng; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Li, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Wen; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of osteopenia from ten postmenopausal women and ten postmenopausal women without osteopenia as control group, to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. Proteins were extracted from serum samples by weak cation exchange magnetic beads technology, and mass spectra acquisition was done by MALDI-TOF-MS. The visualization and comparison of data sets, statistical peak evaluation, model recognition, and discovery of biomarker candidates were handled by the proteinchip data analysis system software(ZJU-PDAS). The diagnostic models were established using genetic arithmetic based support vector machine (SVM). The SVM result with the highest Youden Index was selected as the model. Combinatorial Peaks having the highest accuracy in distinguishing different samples were selected as potential biomarker. From the two group serum samples, a total of 133 differential features were selected. Ten features with significant intensity differences were screened. In the pair-wise comparisons, processing of MALDI-TOF spectra resulted in the identification of ten differential features between postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. The difference of features by Youden index showed that the highest features had a mass to charge ratio of 1699 and 3038 Da. A diagnosis model was established with these two peaks as the candidate marker, and the specificity of the model is 100 %, the sensitivity was 90 % by leave-one-out cross validation test. The two groups of specimens in SVM results on the scatter plot could be clearly distinguished. The peak

  17. Humoral Immunity Provides Resident Intestinal Eosinophils Access to Luminal Antigen via Eosinophil-Expressed Low-Affinity Fcγ Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalmia M; Rahman, Raiann S; Spencer, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags. Using an intestinal ligated loop model in mice, in this study we determined that resident intestinal eosinophils acquire Ag from the lumen of Ag-sensitized but not naive mice in vivo. Ag acquisition was Ig-dependent; intestinal eosinophils were unable to acquire Ag in sensitized Ig-deficient mice, and passive immunization with immune serum or Ag-specific IgG was sufficient to enable intestinal eosinophils in otherwise naive mice to acquire Ag in vivo. Intestinal eosinophils expressed low-affinity IgG receptors, and the activating receptor FcγRIII was necessary for Ig-mediated acquisition of Ags by isolated intestinal eosinophils in vitro. Our combined data suggest that intestinal eosinophils acquire lumen-derived food Ags in sensitized mice via FcγRIII Ag focusing and that they may therefore participate in Ag-driven secondary immune responses to oral Ags. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Exosomes from eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, José Antonio; Sastre, Beatriz; Mazzeo, Carla; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Rodrigo-Muñoz, José Manuel; González-Guerra, Andrés; Izquierdo, Manuel; Barranco, Pilar; Quirce, Santiago; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophils are able to secrete exosomes that have an undefined role in asthma pathogenesis. We hypothesized that exosomes released by eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil function. Eosinophils of patients with asthma ( n = 58) and healthy volunteers ( n = 16) were purified from peripheral blood, and exosomes were isolated and quantified from eosinophils of the asthmatic and healthy populations. Apoptosis, adhesion, adhesion molecules expression, and migration assays were performed with eosinophils in the presence or absence of exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry with an intracellular fluorescent probe and nitric oxide (NO) and a colorimetric kit. In addition, exosomal proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Eosinophil-derived exosomes induced an increase in NO and ROS production on eosinophils. Moreover, exosomes could act as a chemotactic factor on eosinophils, and they produced an increase in cell adhesion, giving rise to a specific augmentation of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1 and integrin α2. Protein content between exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals seems to be similar in both groups. In conclusion, we found that exosomes from the eosinophils of patients with asthma could modify several specific eosinophil functions related to asthma pathogenesis and that they could contribute fundamentally to the development and maintenance of asthma. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Cationized dextran nanoparticle-encapsulated CXCR4-siRNA enhanced correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum alkaline phosphatase in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Abedini,1 Hossein Hosseinkhani,2 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Abraham J Domb,4 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,5 Pei Pei Chong,1,2 Po-Da Hong,3 Dah-Shyong Yu,6 Ira-Yudovin Farber41Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 4Institute of Drug Research, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 6Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: The failure of colorectal cancer treatments is partly due to overexpression of CXCR4 by tumor cells, which plays a critical role in cell metastasis. Moreover, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels are frequently elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of siRNA. Spermine was conjugated to oxidized dextran by reductive amination process to obtain cationized dextran, so-called dextran-spermine, in order to prepare CXCR4-siRNAs/dextran-spermine nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were used in order to investigate whether downregulation of CXCR4 expression could affect serum ALP in mouse models of colorectal cancer.Methods: Colorectal cancer was established in BALB/C mice following injection of mouse colon carcinoma cells CT.26WT through the tail vein. CXCR4 siRNA for two sites of the target gene was administered following injection of naked siRNA or siRNA encapsulated into nanoparticles.Results: In vivo animal data revealed that CXCR4 silencing by dextran-spermine nanoparticles significantly downregulated CXCR4 expression compared with naked CXCR4 siRNA. Furthermore, there was

  20. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  1. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  2. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  4. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a traveler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; HOI Chupeng; CUI Liying; CHEN Lin

    2013-01-01

    A 55 - year - old female traveler returning from South China with acute onset of meningitis, presenting with eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was reported. The etiological diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis was confirmed by detection of specific serum antibody against Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Angiostrongyliasis should be considered as a major differential diagnosis for eosinophilic meningitis in the travelers to endemic regions.

  5. Comparison of Toxocariasis Frequency in Hyper- eosinophilic and Non-Eosinophilic Individuals Referred to Abadan Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Maraghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthic infection of humans and animals caused by the larvae of intestinal parasites of dogs and cats (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. These nematodes develop in to their adult stage in the intestines of cats and dogs. Three clinical entities have been recognized in humans; visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and covert toxocariasis. Eosinophilia is a common finding in infected patients Objectives: In this study the frequency of toxocariasis in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic individuals referred to the laboratory of Abadan health centers was compared. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from individuals attending the laboratory of health centers for any medical problem and were tested for complet blood count (CBC. The samples of patients were divided in to two groups, those with more than 10% peripheral eosinophils, as the eosinophilic group (n = 54 and those with normal eosinophils (0-3% as the non-eosinophilic group (n = 54. Samples were examined for anti-oxocara IgG by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and confirmed western blotting. Results: Anti-oxocara IgG was detected in the sera of six (11.11% cases from the eosinophilic group and two (3.7% of the non-eosinophilic group by the ELISA method, but all had negative results for the western blot analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the eosinophilic individuals might beexposed to other helminthic infections or allergic agents. Further studies are required with more samples with different ages and occupations.

  6. Genetics of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, L C; Rothenberg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergic disease associated with marked mucosal eosinophil accumulation. EoE disease risk is multifactorial and includes environmental and genetic factors. This review will focus on the contribution of genetic variation to EoE risk, as well as the experimental tools and statistical methodology used to identify EoE risk loci. Specific disease-risk loci that are shared between EoE and other allergic diseases (TSLP, LRRC32) or unique to EoE (CAPN14), as well as Mendellian Disorders associated with EoE, will be reviewed in the context of the insight that they provide into the molecular pathoetiology of EoE. We will also discuss the clinical opportunities that genetic analyses provide in the form of decision support tools, molecular diagnostics, and novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    disease of the esophagus that affects at least 4 in 10,000 persons.1 Although symptomatically resembling gastroe - sophageal reflux disease, EE is...clinically defined as esophageal eosinophilia (>_15 intraepithelial eosinophils per high-powered field) in the absence of abnormal acid reflux disease...that distinguish eosin- ophilic esophagitis (EoE) from other inflammatory disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). As the prev

  8. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

  9. Extracellular microvesicle production by human eosinophils activated by “inflammatory” stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Akuthota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. EV production was investigated by nanoscale flow cytometry, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM and pre-embedding immunonanogold EM. The tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were used as EV biomarkers for both flow cytometry and ultrastructural immunolabeling. Nanoscale flow cytometry showed that human eosinophils produce EVs in culture and that a population of EVs expressed detectable CD9, while CD63 was not consistently detected. When eosinophils were stimulated immediately after isolation and analyzed by TEM, EVs were clearly identified as microvesicles (MVsoutwardly budding off the plasma membrane. Both CCL11 and TNF-α induced significant increases of MVs compared to unstimulated cells.TNF-α induced amplified release of MVs more than CCL11. Eosinophil MV diameters varied from 20-1000 nm. Immunonanogold EM revealed clear immunolabeling for CD63 and CD9 on eosinophil MVs, although not all MVs were labeled. Altogether, we identified, for the first time, that human eosinophils secrete MVs and that this production increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is important to understand the complex secretory activities of eosinophils underlying immune

  10. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  11. Eosinophilic myositis: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Trallero-Araguás, E; Grau, J M

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia-associated myopathies are clinically and pathologically heterogeneous conditions characterized by the presence of peripheral and/or muscle eosinophilia. There are at least three distinct subtypes: focal eosinophilic myositis, eosinophilic polymyositis, and eosinophilic perimyositis. Infiltrating eosinophils are not always identified in conventional muscle histologic examination, but the eosinophil major basic protein, whose extracellular diffusion is considered a hallmark of eosinophilic cytotoxicity, is usually detected by immunostaining in muscle biopsy. Whereas focal eosinophilic myositis seems to be a benign and isolated condition, and perimyositis is usually related with the inflammatory infiltrate due to fasciitis, eosinophilic polymyositis can be associated with muscular dystrophy or be a feature of multiorgan hypereosinophilic syndrome. Muscle biopsy remains the cornerstone for the diagnosis. Parasitic infections, connective tissue disorders, hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, drugs, and toxic substances are the main etiologic agents of eosinophilia-associated myopathy. However, in some cases, no known etiologic factor is identified, and these are considered idiopathic. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay therapy in idiopathic forms. Imatinib and mepolizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody, may be useful in patients with eosinophilic myositis as part of a hypereosinophilic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  13. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T

    2016-11-01

    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Proposed criteria to differentiate heterogeneous eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders of the esophagus, including eosinophilic esophageal myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Nakajima, Nao; Takahashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Go; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kazunao; Honda, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Junji; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    AIM To define clinical criteria to differentiate eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGD) in the esophagus. METHODS Our criteria were defined based on the analyses of the clinical presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), subepithelial eosinophilic esophagitis (sEoE) and eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM), identified by endoscopy, manometry and serum immunoglobulin E levels (s-IgE), in combination with histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses on esophageal tissue samples. RESULTS In five patients with EoE, endoscopy revealed longitudinal furrows and white plaques in all, and fixed rings in two. In one patient with sEoE and four with EoEM, endoscopy showed luminal compression only. Using manometry, failed peristalsis was observed in patients with EoE and sEoE with some variation, while EoEM was associated with hypercontractile or hypertensive peristalsis, with elevated s-IgE. Histology revealed the following eosinophils per high-power field values. EoE = 41.4 ± 7.9 in the epithelium and 2.3 ± 1.5 in the subepithelium; sEoE = 3 in the epithelium and 35 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy); EoEM = none in the epithelium, 10.7 ± 11.7 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection) and 46.8 ± 16.5 in the muscularis propria (peroral esophageal muscle biopsy). Presence of dilated epithelial intercellular space and downward papillae elongation were specific to EoE. Eotaxin-3, IL-5 and IL-13 were overexpressed in EoE. CONCLUSION Based on clinical and histological data, we identified criteria, which differentiated between EoE, sEoE and EoEM, and reflected a different pathogenesis between these esophageal EoGDs. PMID:28428721

  15. Proposed criteria to differentiate heterogeneous eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders of the esophagus, including eosinophilic esophageal myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Nakajima, Nao; Takahashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Go; Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kazunao; Honda, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Junji; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-04-07

    To define clinical criteria to differentiate eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGD) in the esophagus. Our criteria were defined based on the analyses of the clinical presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), subepithelial eosinophilic esophagitis (sEoE) and eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM), identified by endoscopy, manometry and serum immunoglobulin E levels (s-IgE), in combination with histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses on esophageal tissue samples. In five patients with EoE, endoscopy revealed longitudinal furrows and white plaques in all, and fixed rings in two. In one patient with sEoE and four with EoEM, endoscopy showed luminal compression only. Using manometry, failed peristalsis was observed in patients with EoE and sEoE with some variation, while EoEM was associated with hypercontractile or hypertensive peristalsis, with elevated s-IgE. Histology revealed the following eosinophils per high-power field values. EoE = 41.4 ± 7.9 in the epithelium and 2.3 ± 1.5 in the subepithelium; sEoE = 3 in the epithelium and 35 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy); EoEM = none in the epithelium, 10.7 ± 11.7 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection) and 46.8 ± 16.5 in the muscularis propria (peroral esophageal muscle biopsy). Presence of dilated epithelial intercellular space and downward papillae elongation were specific to EoE. Eotaxin-3, IL-5 and IL-13 were overexpressed in EoE. Based on clinical and histological data, we identified criteria, which differentiated between EoE, sEoE and EoEM, and reflected a different pathogenesis between these esophageal EoGDs.

  16. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  17. Phospholipase D-derived phosphatidic acid is involved in the activation of the CD11b/CD18 integrin in human eosinophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tool, A. T.; Blom, M.; Roos, D.; Verhoeven, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Priming of human eosinophils is an essential event for the respiratory burst induced by serum-opsonized particles [serum-treated zymosan (STZ)]. In this study we have found that treatment of eosinophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF) leads to activation of phospholipase D. Inhibition of the

  18. In vivo activation of equine eosinophils and neutrophils by experimental Strongylus vulgaris infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Jeffers, G W

    1988-12-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils from ponies with Strongylus vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies; activated eosinophils and neutrophils) were assayed in vitro for chemotactic and chemokinetic responses to zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) using the filter system in Boyden chambers, for Fc and complement (C) receptors using the EA and EAC-rosette assays, respectively, and for phagocytic and bactericidal activities using opsonized Escherichia coli and the acridine orange method. The responses of activated eosinophils and neutrophils in the above assays were compared with those of eosinophils and neutrophils from S. vulgaris-naive ponies without eosinophilia (noneosinophilic ponies; nonactivated eosinophils and neutrophils). Differences in cell density following centrifugation in a continuous Percoll gradient were used to further characterize the heterogeneity of activated eosinophils and neutrophils. Activated and nonactivated eosinophils demonstrated similar chemotactic responses to ZAS while activated and nonactivated neutrophils demonstrated similar chemokinetic responses to ZAS. A higher percentage of activated eosinophils and neutrophils expressed Fc and C receptors compared with nonactivated cells (P less than 0.05). Generally, higher percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils expressed C than Fc receptors. However, the percentage of neutrophils with both receptors was higher than that of eosinophils. Phagocytosis and killing of E. coli by either type of eosinophil were not consistently observed. Both activated and nonactivated neutrophils phagocytized E. coli and significant differences between the two cell types were not observed. The bacterial activity, however, of activated neutrophils was significantly greater than that obtained using nonactivated neutrophils (P less than 0.05). Activated eosinophils and neutrophils were both separated into two distinct fractions based on differences in cell densities. A higher percentage of band 2 eosinophils

  19. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO 2 + ) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO 2 + ; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO 2 + cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO 2 + species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO 2 + have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO 2 + cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + ·Th 4+ , PuO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 + ·Th 4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M -1

  20. Impact of experimental endogenous gram-negative peritonitis on the pancreas of the rat as evaluated by cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity in peritoneal fluid and serum and by electron microscopy of pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florholmen, J.; Almdahl, S.M.; Myklebust, R.; Burhol, P.G.; Malm, D.; Riepl, R.; Giercksky, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous gram-negative peritonitis leading to septic shock was induced in rats by a defined perforation of the coecum. Cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity (CTLI) was measured in peritoneal fluid and serum by a radioimmunoassay method. 5, 10 and 15 h after the coecal perforation, CTLI in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher than before the coecal perforation and also higher than in the corresponding control rats. Moreover, CTLI in serum was under the same conditions significantly higher 10 and 15 h after the induction of peritonitis. Gel chromatography of peritoneal fluid and serum during peritonitis showed free CTLI and CTLI bound to both alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, wheras only free CTLI could be detected in serum from control rats. These findings were accompanied by local ultrastructural changes in the acinar cells as evaluated by electron microscopy. The pathophysiologic implications of the findings are discussed

  1. Eosinophil autofluorescence and its use in isolation and analysis of human eosinophils using flow microfluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, G.J.; Chused, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Unstained human eosinophils exhibit unusually bright autofluorescence, which allows them to be distinguished from other leukocytes using fluorescence microscopy. Eosinophil fluorescence is associated with the cytoplasmic granules of the cells. Eosinophil granule extracts, containing an as-yet-undefined eosinophil fluorescence factor, exhibited excitation maxima at 370 nm and 450 nm, with maximum emission at 520 nm. Eosinophils adhering to opsonized parasites in vitro deposit fluorescent material onto the parasite surface. Eosinophil fluorescence was of sufficient intensity to allow the preparation of viable, highly enriched (greater than or equal to 98%), eosinophil suspensions from peripheral blood of normal and eosinophilic donors using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Quantitative studies of eosinophil autofluorescence were performed using flow microfluorometry. Fluorescence intensity of blood eosinophils from normal volunteers and eosinophilic patients varied inversely with the log of the donor's absolute eosinophil count regardless of clinical diagnosis

  2. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... excluded usually include dairy, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts and fish/shellfish. These diets have been ... minorities » IgE ab to minor milk proteins may identify the proteins that are relevant to eosinophilic esophagitis » ...

  3. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Adachi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is clinically characterized by symmetrical scleroderma-like indurations of the skin with pain. The histological features are fascial inflammation with lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as thickened and fibrotic fascia. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of the underlying muscle are rarely observed. We report a 69-year-old Japanese woman who presented with multiple areas of glossy induration and painful peau d'orange-like lesions on the chest and four extremities. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hyperintense thickening of the fascia of the lower extremities. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen from the induration showed marked fibrinoid degeneration of the fascia and the neighboring muscle with mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The predominant CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were observed by immunohistological study. A diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis with myositis was made. Oral administration of prednisolone and discontinuation of exercise significantly improved the lesions and pain.

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to GERD medication Failure to thrive (poor growth, malnutrition and weight loss) When to see a doctor ... Originally, eosinophilic esophagitis was thought to be a childhood disease, but now it is known to be ...

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fatty or fried foods, tomato sauce, alcohol, chocolate, mint, garlic, onion, and caffeine, may make heartburn ... the waist up. Alternative medicine No alternative medicine therapies have been proved to treat eosinophilic esophagitis. Still, ...

  6. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: A member of the ribonuclease gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.F.; Tenen, D.G.; Ackerman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated a 725-base-pair cDNA clone for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a distinct cationic protein of the eosinophil's large specific granule known primarily for its ability to induce ataxia, paralysis, and central nervous system cellular degeneration in experimental animals (Gordon phenomenon). The open reading frame encodes a 134-amino acid mature polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a 27-residue amino-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence. The sequence of the mature polypeptide is identical to that reported for human urinary ribonuclease, and to the amino-terminal sequence of human liver ribonuclease; the cDNA encodes a tryptophan in position 7. Both EDN and the related granule protein, eosinophil cationic protein, have ribonucleolytic activity; sequence similarities among EDN, eosinophil cationic protein, ribonucleases from liver, urine, and pancreas, and angiogenin define a ribonuclease multigene family. mRNA encoding EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was up-regulated in cells induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with B-cell growth factor 2/interleukin 5 and toward neutrophilic differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide. EDN mRNA was detected in mature neutrophils even though EDN-like neurotoxic activity is not found neutrophil extracts. These results suggest that neutrophils contain a protein that is closely related or identical to EDN

  7. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  8. Association of interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 gene polymorphisms with eosinophilic phenotype in Japanese adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hideki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Wenzel, Sally E; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-11-01

    IL1RL1 (ST2) is involved in Th2 inflammation including eosinophil activation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1RL1 gene are associated with asthma development and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts. However, the association between IL1RL1 SNPs and eosinophilic phenotype among adults with asthma remains unexplored. In a primary cohort of 110 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma, we examined the associations between IL1RL1 SNPs and clinical measurements including forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ), airway reversibility of FEV 1 , exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum soluble-ST2 (sST2) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil differentials and serum total IgE level. The findings in the primary cohort were confirmed in a validation cohort of 126 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. Patients with minor alleles in 3 SNPs (rs17026974, rs1420101, and rs1921622) had high FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 , but low levels of serum sST2 and FEV 1 . Minor alleles of rs1041973 were associated with low serum sST2 levels alone. In the validation cohort, minor alleles of rs1420101 were associated with high FeNO and blood eosinophil differentials, whereas minor alleles of rs17026974 and rs1921622 were associated with high blood eosinophil differentials and FeNO, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the minor allele of rs1420101 additively contributed to the FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 . The minor alleles of IL1RL1 SNPs were associated with high FeNO and peripheral blood eosinophilia among adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. IL1RL1 SNPs may characterize the eosinophilic phenotype with greater eosinophilic inflammation in the Japanese asthma cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  10. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophagitis (EoE) (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) Also in Spanish Latest News Eosinophilic Esophagitis May ... Pediatric and Adolescent Patients (American College of Gastroenterology) Topic Image Related Health Topics Eosinophilic Disorders Esophagus Disorders ...

  11. Changes in blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is increasingly encountered among school children in Kuwait. Available evidence has shown that inflammatory mediators may be involved in the pathogenesis of EIA. Studies on release of inflammatory mediators have been carried out in adult patients with asthma in Kuwait, but ...

  12. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  14. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (Peosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (Peosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  16. Human Eosinophils Express Functional CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5–primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM–loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5–primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5–primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

  17. Heightened systemic levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis and reversal following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moideen, Kadar; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Babu, Subash

    2018-04-09

    Granulocytes are activated during tuberculosis (TB) infection and act as immune effector cells and granulocyte responses are implicated in TB pathogenesis. Plasma levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins provide an indirect measure of degranulation. In this study, we wanted to examine the levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and to compare them with the levels in latent TB (LTB) individuals. Hence, we measured the plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase, and proteinase-3; major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in these individuals. Finally, we also measured the levels of all of these parameters in PTB individuals following anti-tuberculosis (ATT) treatment. Our data reveal that PTB individuals are characterized by significantly higher plasma levels of MPO, elastase, human proteinase 3 as well as MBP and EDN in comparison to LTB individuals. Our data also reveal that ATT resulted in reversal of all of these changes, indicating an association with TB disease. Finally, our data show that the systemic levels of MPO and proteinase-3 can significantly discriminate PTB from LTB individuals. Thus, our data suggest that neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins could play a potential role in the innate immune response and therefore, the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  19. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Lae Won [Busan Nationa University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal [Busan Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection.

  20. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Lae Won; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal

    1974-01-01

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection

  1. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  2. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  3. Eosinophils in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Phillip J; Wolz, Michael M; Peters, Margot S

    2015-10-01

    The classic histopathologic features of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LS) include lymphoplasmacytic inflammation below a zone of dermal edema and sclerosis. The presence of eosinophils in LS has received little attention, but the finding of tissue eosinophils, particularly eosinophilic spongiosis in LS, has been suggested as a marker for the coexistence of autoimmune bullous disease or allergic contact dermatitis (or both). We sought to determine whether the histopathologic presence of dermal eosinophils or eosinophilic spongiosis (or both) in biopsies from patients with LS is associated with autoimmune bullous disease, autoimmune connective tissue disease or allergic contact dermatitis. A retrospective review of the histopathology and medical records of 235 patients with LS who were evaluated from June 1992 to June 2012 was performed. Sixty-nine patients (29%) had eosinophils on histopathology. Among patients with associated diseases, a statistically significant association between the eosinophil cohort and the cohort without eosinophils was not detected. The importance of eosinophils is uncertain, but our data suggest that the finding of tissue eosinophils alone is not sufficient to prompt an extensive workup for additional diagnoses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Enhanced activation of eosinophils in peripheral blood and implications for eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botan, Valéria; Dos Santos Borges, Tatiana Karla; Rocha Alves, Érica Alessandra; Claudino Pereira Couto, Shirley; Bender Kohnert Seidler, Heinrich; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils are markers of the eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease, and this work aimed to assess whether activation of eosinophils could be a noninvasive test to contribute for EoE diagnosis. The activation state of peripheral blood eosinophils in EoE patients and control subjects was assessed based on the morphological aspects of the eosinophil after adherence to slide. Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase expressions were evaluated by means of immunofluorescence microscopy to verify if and which eicosanoid pathway is triggered in eosinophils in blood in EoE. The eosinophils of patients with EoE were significantly more activated than those of control individuals. The lowest percentage of normal eosinophils for control subjects was 40%, while the highest percentage of eosinophils of normal aspect for patients with EoE was 32%. Considering 36% as a cutoff for normal eosinophils, this value differentiated all individuals with EoE from individuals without the disease with a sensitivity of 100%, considering the diagnosis of EoE as currently defined. Eosinophils of EoE patients showed higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 than those of control subjects. The quantification of morphological changes in eosinophils is a feasible, easy, and reliable manner to identify EoE patients. Therefore, patients with symptoms of esophageal dysfunction showing higher than 36% activated eosinophils in peripheral blood could be a useful way to help definition and diagnostic criterion for EoE. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Scleroderma mimicker – Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjali Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening of the deep fascia and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. It may mimic scleroderma and other scleroderma-like conditions. It may be a manifestation of paraneoplastic disorders or may be associated with hematological disorders including lymphomas. Definitive diagnosis is made on histological examination of a deep skin biopsy revealing thickened deep fascia and infiltration by lymphocytes and eosinophils. Enhancement of deep fascia on Gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may be used as a substitute for skin biopsy. Ultrasound imaging is an evolving imaging tool for diagnosing it. Glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressive agents remains the mainstay of therapy with good response, generally. A younger age of onset, morphea like lesions and dermal fibrosclerosis is more likely to be associated with the refractory disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may result in better outcomes in terms of morbidity and quality of life of the patients.

  6. Esophageal motility in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Iorio, N; Schey, R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus and is a potential cause of dysphagia and food impaction, most commonly affecting young men. Esophageal manometry findings vary from normal motility to aperistalsis, simultaneous contractions, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It remains unclear whether esophageal dysmotility plays a significant role in the clinical symptoms of EoE. Our aim is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and effect of treatment on esophageal dysmotility in EoE. A literature search utilizing the PubMed database was performed using keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, motility, manometry, impedance planimetry, barium esophagogram, endoscopic ultrasound, and dysphagia. Fifteen studies, totaling 387 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis were identified as keeping in accordance with the aim of this study and included in this review. The occurrence of abnormal esophageal manometry was reported to be between 4 and 87% among patients with EoE. Esophageal motility studies have shown reduced distensibility, abnormal peristalsis, and hypotonicity of the LES in patients with EoE, which may also mimic other esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia or nutcracker esophagus. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the presence of esophageal dysmotility and symptoms with some reports suggesting a higher rate of food impaction, while others report no correlation between motor function and dysphagia. Motility dysfunction of the esophagus in EoE has not been well reported in the literature and studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of dysmotility seen in EoE. The correlation between esophageal dysmotility and symptoms of EoE remains unclear. Larger studies are needed to investigate the incidence of esophageal dysmotility, clinical implications, and effect of treatment on

  7. MR findings of eosinophilic granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong O; Yee, Mi Kyeung; Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Hyosung Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suhjoo MR Clinic, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To describe the MR findings for the three phases of eosinophilic granuloma, as defined by Mirra's conventional radiographic criteria. Eighteen lesions in 14 patients with proven eosinophilic granuloma were retrospectively analyzed. Among this total, three vertebral lesions were excluded, and the remaining is were classified as early, middle, or late phase on the basis of Mirra's radiographic criteria. For each phase, we compared MR findings with regard to signal intensity, homogeneity, contrast enhancement, perilesional marrow edema, and soft tissue change. For the three vertebral lesions excluded because the application of radiographic criteria was difficult, MR findings for paravertebral soft tissue reaction and degree of cord compression were compared. Of the fifteen cases classified, eight were early phase, five were mid phase, and two were late phase. During each phase, all lesions except one, as seen on T1-weighted images(T1WI), showed iso-signal intensity. On T2WI, all lesions showed high signal intensity. Contrast study demonstrated marked contrast enhancement. Thus, no remarkable differences were found in the signal intensity degree of contrast enhancement of each phase. With regard to heterogeneity, this was demonstrated in most early phase lesions, reflecting necrosis and hemorrhage of those lesions. Soft tissue swelling was more severe during the early phase than the mid or late phase, but marrow edema was similar in each of the three phase. One of three patients with vertebraplana showed para-vertebral soft tissue swelling and cord compression, but this was not seen in the two other cases. For evalvating the extent of eosinophilic granuloma and its relationship with surrounding structures, MRI was superior to conventional radiography. During the early phase of the disease, lesions showed greater inhomogeneity and more aggressive soft tissue reaction than during the mid and late phase.The use of MRI for the evalvation of eosinophilic granuloma

  8. Is it possible to claim or refute sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% in asthmatics with sufficient accuracy using biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarche, Sophie F; Schleich, Florence N; Paulus, Virginie A; Henket, Monique A; Van Hees, Thierry J; Louis, Renaud E

    2017-07-03

    The concept of asthma inflammatory phenotypes has proved to be important in predicting response to inhaled corticosteroids. Induced sputum, which has been pivotal in the development of the concept of inflammatory phenotypes, is however not widely available. Several studies have proposed to use surrogate exhaled or blood biomarkers, like fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), blood eosinophils and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, taken alone, each of these biomarkers has moderate accuracy to identify sputum eosinophilia. Here, we propose a new approach based on the likelihood ratio to study which thresholds of these biomarkers, taken alone or in combination, were able to rule in or rule out sputum eosinophils ≥3%. We showed in a large population of 869 asthmatics that combining FENO, blood eosinophils and total serum IgE could accurately predict sputum eosinophils ≥ or <3% in 58% of our population.

  9. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  10. Eosinophils are required to suppress Th2 responses in Peyer's patches during intestinal infection by nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, J; Steinfelder, S; Berek, C; Kühl, A A; Rausch, S; Hartmann, S

    2017-05-01

    Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils. A lack of eosinophils resulted in significantly augmented expression of GATA-3 and IL-4 by CD4 + T cells during acute infection, a finding strictly limited to Peyer's patches (PP). The increase in IL-4-producing cells in ΔdblGATA-1 mice was particularly evident within the CXCR5 + PD-1 + T-follicular helper cell population and was associated with a switch of germinal centre B cells to IgG1 production and elevated serum IgG1 levels. In contrast, infected wild-type mice had a modest IgG1 response in the PP, whereas successfully maintaining a population of IgA + germinal center B cells. Our results suggest a novel role for eosinophils during intestinal infection whereby they restrict IL-4 responses by follicular T helper cells and IgG1 class switching in the PP to ensure maintenance of local IgA production.

  11. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Jeong Hee; Lim, Jong Nam; Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease characterized by chronic infiltration of the lung with eosinophils, usually associated with peripheral eosinophilia. In 65% of cases, the chest radiograph shows typical nonsegmental air-space consolidation confined to the outer third of the lung, and in 25% of cases, the 'photographic negative of pulmonary edema' Typical lung manifestations with peripheral eosinophilia are characteristic of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In the remaining cases, radiographic findings are nonspecific and require lung biopsy for confirmation. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in which chest radiograph and CT scans revealed bilateral patchy or diffuse opacity with nodules scattered throughout the lungs.

  12. Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

  13. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  14. Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Asthma: Implications for Eosinophilic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwan Moqbel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the treatment and management of asthma have suggested that leukotriene (LT receptor antagonists may be very beneficial as a second generation therapy with steroid-sparing properties and negligible side effects. These agents have shown interesting effects on peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. A major contributor to the damage in the airway of asthmatic patients is the eosinophil, which, upon activation, releases a battery of granule-associated cytotoxic, cationic proteins, including the major basic protein and eosinophil peroxidase, and membrane-derived de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators, including LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, as well as platelet activating factor. These products have deleterious effects on the airway tissue including mucosal and smooth muscle layers. Accumulating evidence suggests that these agents may also influence the accumulation and maintenance of eosinophilic responses at the site of inflammation. This article reviews the possible anti-inflammatory mode of action of these therapies. It also discusses where there may be a gap in the knowledge regarding the potential direct and indirect effects of LT modifiers on eosinophil function and recruitment.

  15. Autochthonous Case of Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, France, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yann; Rossi, Benjamin; Argy, Nicolas; Baker, Catherine; Nickel, Beatrice; Marti, Hanspeter; Zarrouk, Virginie; Houzé, Sandrine; Fantin, Bruno; Lefort, Agnès

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old Moroccan woman living in France diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and confirmed by testing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Physicians should consider the risk for A. cantonensis infection outside of endemic areas.

  16. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  17. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; Peosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients independent of the overall tumor-associated inflammatory response. Evaluation of peritumoral eosinophils represents a promising

  18. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  19. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link) Genetic Testing Registry: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Cancer.Net: Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Treatment MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eosinophil Count - Absolute Seattle ...

  20. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinhauer, Jana; Bian, Liangqiao; Fan, Hui; Šebela, Marek; Kukula, Maciej; Barrera, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL −1 , and demonstrated good linearity of R 2 from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL −1 . Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified

  1. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: the Aftermath of Eosinophil Extracellular Trap Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Ohta, Nobuo; Takeda, Masahide; Konno, Yasunori; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a refractory disease characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in middle ear effusion and mucosa. We summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical characteristics and management of EOM. Although eosinophil activation in inflamed foci is involved in the pathogenesis of EOM, little is known about the fate of the eosinophils and aftermath of their cell death. We discuss the possibility that eosinophils undergo non-apoptotic cell death that worsens tissue damage and increases effusion viscosity. Unlike chronic otitis media, EOM is strongly associated with an allergic background. Corticosteroids are currently the only effective pharmacological treatment, and surgical intervention is often required. Mucosal eosinophils infiltrate extensively into the middle ear cavity where they are stimulated by locally produced activators including interleukin-5 and eotaxin. The eosinophils undergo cytolysis in the effusion, which represents a major fate of activated eosinophils in vivo. Recent data revealed cytolysis could be renamed as extracellular trap cell death (ETosis). ETosis represents suicidal cell death involving total cell degranulation and development of sticky chromatin structures (extracellular traps (ETs)). The characteristics of eosinophil- and neutrophil-derived ET polymers might contribute to the difference in viscosity of secretions between EOM and common chronic otitis media. The extracellular products remaining after eosinophil ETosis are an important aspect of EOM pathology. The concept of ETosis also has novel implications for potential therapeutic modalities in various eosinophilic disorders.

  2. Osseous eosinophilic granuloma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Marinard, L.; Galloy, M.A.; Phi, I.N.; Hoeffel, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly uni-focal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. CT is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). MR is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors prognosis is more serious in case of multiple lesions. (authors)

  3. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn; Callahan, Shields; Terushkin, Vitaly; Brinster, Nooshin; Leger, Marie; Soter, Nicholas A

    2016-12-15

    We report a 68-year-old woman with chroniclymphocytic leukemia, who developed numerous,pruritic, edematous, and vesicobullous skin lesionsof the face and extremities over the course of severalmonths. The diagnosis of eosinophilic dermatosis ofhematologic malignancy (EDHM) was made basedon the clinical history and histopathologic features.Owing to the possible link between EDHM and amore aggressive underlying CLL, she was startedagain on chemotherapy. This case serves as areminder that, although the precise pathogenesis ofEDHM remains unclear, the paraneoplastic disorderis the result of immune dysregulation. Patientswho develop EDHM should undergo prompthematologic/oncologic evaluation.

  4. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the oesophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which

  6. Eosinophils from eosinophilic oesophagitis patients have T cell suppressive capacity and express FOXP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, C; Wallander, J; Ingelsten, M; Bergquist, H; Bove, M; Saalman, R; Welin, A; Wennerås, C

    2017-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an antigen-driven T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease where food and environmental antigens are thought to have a role. Human eosinophils express the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 and have T cell suppressive capacity similar to regulatory T cells (T regs ). We hypothesized that one function of eosinophils in EoE might be to regulate the T cell-driven inflammation in the oesophagus. This was tested by evaluating the suppressive capacity of eosinophils isolated from the blood of adult EoE patients in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, eosinophilic expression of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), the canonical transcription factor of T regs , was determined by conventional and imaging flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. It was found that blood eosinophils from EoE patients had T cell suppressive capacity, and that a fraction of the eosinophils expressed FOXP3. A comparison of EoE eosinophils with healthy control eosinophils indicated that the patients' eosinophils had inferior suppressive capacity. Furthermore, a higher percentage of the EoE eosinophils expressed FOXP3 protein compared with the healthy eosinophils, and they also had higher FOXP3 protein and mRNA levels. FOXP3 was found in the cytosol and nucleus of the eosinophils from both the patients and healthy individuals, contrasting with the strict nuclear localization of FOXP3 in T regs . To conclude, these findings suggest that the immunoregulatory function of eosinophils may be impaired in EoE. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    blood cell counts and a screening for common respiratory viruses and bacteria. An eosinophilic exacerbation (EE) was defined as having sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% and a non-eosinophilic exacerbation as NEE). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled; 37 (79%) had successful sputum induction...... at baseline, of whom 43% had sputum eosinophils ≥3% (EE). Patients with EE had a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) % predicted (70.8%, P = 0.03) than patients with NEE (83.6%). Furthermore, EE patients were more likely to require supplemental oxygen during admission (63% vs 14%, P...... = 0.002). The prevalence of respiratory viruses was the same in EE and NEE patients (44% vs 52%, P = 0.60), as was bacterial infection (6% vs 14%, P = 0.44). Fractional expiratory nitric oxide (FeNO) correlated with sputum %-eosinophils (ρ = 0.57, P

  8. Eosinophils in helminth infection: defenders and dupes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Appleton, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a central feature of the host response to helminth infection. Larval stages of parasitic worms are killed in vitro by eosinophils in the presence of specific antibodies or complement. These findings established host defense as the paradigm for eosinophil function. Recently, studies in eosinophil-ablated mouse strains have revealed an expanded repertoire of immunoregulatory functions for this cell. Other reports document crucial roles for eosinophils in tissue homeostasis and metabolism, processes that are central to the establishment and maintenance of parasitic worms in their hosts. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the significance of eosinophils at the host-parasite interface, highlighting their distinct functions during primary and secondary exposure. PMID:27262918

  9. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  10. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  11. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  12. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  13. Clinical features of so-called eosinophilic rhinosinusitis. With a view to screening for eosinophilic rhinosinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yasunori; Ishitoya, Junichi; Kimura, Machiko; Hirose, Shouji; Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The concept of so-called eosinophilic sinusitis has recently come to be understood, but since the definition and the diagnostic criteria for this intractable form of sinusitis are unclear, we reviewed the clinical features of 104 patients (16 with eosinophilic sinusitis and 88 with non-eosionphilic sinusitis) who underwent endonasal sinus surgery in our department. So-called eosinophilic sinusitis was usually accompanied by severe bronchial asthma, and the characteristic clinical findings of so-called eosinophilic sinusitis were an increase in peripheral blood eosinophil count, a paranasal sinus shadow in computed tomograms (CT score), and a high ethmoid sinus/maxillary sinus score ratio (E/M ratio) in our study. We determined the cutoff value to review sensitivity, specificity and correct diagnosis rate in screening for eosinophilic sinusitis. When we judged using three cutoff values, a peripheral blood eosinophil count≥500/μ1, CT score≥13 and E/M ratio≥1, a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 97% and correct diagnosis rate of 81%. On the other hand, when we judged using two cutoff value, peripheral blood eosinophil count≥500/μ1 and E/M ratio≥1, sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 94% and correct diagnosis rate of 88%. Because all three studies can be performed in outpatient clinics, we concluded that they are useful as a method of screening for so-called eosinophilic sinusitis without the need for histological examinations for eosinophil infiltration of nasal polyps in biopsy specimens. (author)

  14. Modulation of eosinophil generation and migration by Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Rogerio, Alexandre P; Medeiros, Alexandra I; Fabris, Viciany E; Andreu, Gilberto P; Rivera, Dagmar G; Delgado, René; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    The effects of Vimang, an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on cell migration in an experimental model of asthma was investigated. In vivo treatment of Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice for 18 days with 50 mg/kg Vimang reduced eosinophil migration into the bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity. Also, eosinophil generation in bone marrow and blood eosinophilia were inhibited in infected mice treated with Vimang. This reduction was associated with inhibition of IL-5 production in serum and eotaxin in lung homogenates. In all these cases the effects of Vimang were more selective than those observed with dexamethasone. Moreover, Vimang treatment is not toxic for the animals, as demonstrated by the normal body weight increase during infection. These data confirm the potent anti-inflammatory effect of Vimang and support its potential use as an alternative therapeutic drug to the treatment of eosinophilic disorders including those caused by nematodes and allergic diseases.

  15. Eosinophil inversely associates with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Zhu

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Limited population-based study focused on relationship between eosinophil and type 2 diabetes (T2D. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between peripheral eosinophil percentage and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a large sample size of Chinese population aged 40 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 9,111 Chinese adults including 3,561 men and 5,550 women. The glucose metabolism status was confirmed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and serum insulin levels were used to evaluate insulin resistance. Homeostasis model assessment-B was used to evaluate β cell function. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 58.5 years. The prevalence of T2D decreased across the tertiles of eosinophil percentage (21.3%, 18.2% and 16.9%, P<0.0001. Each one tertile increase of eosinophil percentage inversely associated with risk of T2D when referred not only to normal glucose tolerance (NGT (odds ratio (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76-0.87, P< 0.0001, but also to impaired glucose regulation (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.97, P = 0.006, respectively, after adjustment for the confounding factors. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile of eosinophil percentage associated with a 23% decrease of insulin resistance in NGT participants after full adjustments (P = 0.005. Each 1-standard deviation of increment of eosinophil percentage associated with a 37% decrease of insulin resistance (P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Higher peripheral eosinophil percentage was associated with decreased risk of T2D. The inverse relation to insulin resistance was detected in NGT participants.

  16. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  17. Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on blood chemistry, milk ... Increased blood pH and serum HCO3 were noticed in buffaloes fed with LC ... Serum calcium and chloride increased with decreased DCAD level while ...

  18. Management guidelines of eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, A; Koletzko, S; Heuschkel, R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. With few exceptions, 15 eosinophils per high-power field...... was obtained during 3 face-to-face meetings of the Gastroenterology Committee and 1 teleconference. RESULTS: The cornerstone of treatment is an elimination diet (targeted or empiric elimination diet, amino acid-based formula) and/or swallowed, topical corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids are reserved...

  19. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jing, C; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), predominately expressed on memory/activated T lymphocytes, is a receptor for both IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (gamma IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig). We report a novel finding that CXCR3 is also expressed on eosinophils. gamma IP-10 and Mig induce...... in eosinophils are up- and down-regulated by IL-2 and IL-10, respectively, as detected using flow cytometry, immunocytochemical assay, and a real-time quantitative RT-PCR technique. gamma IP-10 and Mig act eosinophils to induce chemotaxis via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathways. The fact...

  20. Esophageal microbiome in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kirk Harris

    Full Text Available The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis.In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST. Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease.Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects.Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: eosinophil peroxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play a role in regulating inflammation by fighting microbial invaders. EPX gene mutations reduce or prevent eosinophil ... GINA) Turns 10 All Bulletins Features What are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is direct-to- ...

  2. Imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Kap Sum; Lee, Ashley; Pekez, Marijeta; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-04

    Drugs, toxins, and infections are known to cause acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Daptomycin and minocycline are the commonly reported antibiotics associated with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. In this study, we present a case of imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The patient presented with fever, acute hypoxic respiratory distress, and diffuse ground-glass opacities on the chest CT a day after the initiation of imipenem/cilastatin. Patient also developed peripheral eosinophilia. A reinstitution of imipenem/cilastatin resulted in recurrence of the signs and symptoms. A bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage showed 780 nucleated cells/mm(3) with 15% eosinophil. The patient's clinical condition improved significantly after the discontinuation of imipenem/cilastatin therapy and the treatment with corticosteroid. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Impaired CD23 and CD62L expression and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases secretion by eosinophils in adults with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Titz, T; Orfali, R L; de Lollo, C; Dos Santos, V G; da Silva Duarte, A J; Sato, M N; Aoki, V

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional, polymorphonuclear leucocytes that secrete proteins within cytoplasmic granules, such as cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases (MMPs) and metalloproteinases tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Although eosinophilia is a hallmark of atopic dermatitis (AD), several functional aspects of eosinophils remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the phenotype and functional response of eosinophils under staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 (FSL-1) stimulation in the secretion of CCL5, MMPs and TIMPs in adults with AD. Forty-one adult patients with AD and 45 healthy controls enrolled for the study. Phenotype of eosinophils from granulocytes of peripheral blood was analysed by flow cytometry. We performed evaluation of CCL5 (cytometric bead array), MMP and TIMP (ELISA) secretion, in culture supernatants of purified eosinophils stimulated with SEB or TLR2/6 agonist (FSL-1). We found a higher frequency of LIN1 - CCR3 + eosinophils, and decreased expression of CD23 and CD62L receptors in eosinophils of AD patients. There was no difference in MMP and TIMP serum levels between the evaluated groups. However, we detected decreased basal levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and CCL5 in culture supernatants from purified, unstimulated eosinophils from AD patients. In adults with AD, phenotypical features of eosinophils reveal decreased expression of early activation and L-selectin receptors. Regarding the functional profile of purified eosinophils related to tissue remodelling in atopic dermatitis, innate immune stimulation (TLR2/6 agonist and SEB) did not affect the ratio of MMP/TIMPs secretion in AD. Our findings reinforce the potential breakdown in tissue remodelling process mediated by eosinophils in AD. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Ana Célia; Gonçalves, Raquel; Rolanda, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction. Gastroesophageal reflux disease- like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE. Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms, it is difficult to diagnose ...

  5. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Mun Kyung

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  6. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  7. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  8. Human and Mouse Eosinophils Have Antiviral Activity against Parainfluenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G; Bivins-Smith, Elizabeth R; Proskocil, Becky J; Nie, Zhenying; Scott, Gregory D; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory viruses cause asthma exacerbations. Because eosinophils are the prominent leukocytes in the airways of 60-70% of patients with asthma, we evaluated the effects of eosinophils on a common respiratory virus, parainfluenza 1, in the lung. Eosinophils recruited to the airways of wild-type mice after ovalbumin sensitization and challenge significantly decreased parainfluenza virus RNA in the lungs 4 days after infection compared with nonsensitized animals. This antiviral effect was also seen in IL-5 transgenic mice with an abundance of airway eosinophils (NJ.1726) but was lost in transgenic eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL) and in IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with eosinophil-deficient mice (NJ.1726-PHIL). Loss of the eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase, using eosinophil peroxidase-deficient transgenic mice, did not reduce eosinophils' antiviral effect. Eosinophil antiviral mechanisms were also explored in vitro. Isolated human eosinophils significantly reduced parainfluenza virus titers. This effect did not involve degradation of viral RNA by eosinophil granule RNases. However, eosinophils treated with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor lost their antiviral activity, suggesting eosinophils attenuate viral infectivity through production of nitric oxide. Consequently, eosinophil nitric oxide production was measured with an intracellular fluorescent probe. Eosinophils produced nitric oxide in response to virus and to a synthetic agonist of the virus-sensing innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. IFNγ increased expression of eosinophil TLR7 and potentiated TLR7-induced nitric oxide production. These results suggest that eosinophils promote viral clearance in the lung and contribute to innate immune responses against respiratory virus infections in humans.

  9. Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Stafford, S; Adachi, T

    2000-01-01

    Eotaxin and other CC chemokines acting via CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) are believed to play an integral role in the development of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma and allergic inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the intracellular events following agonist binding to CCR3...... and the relationship of these events to the functional response of the cell. The objectives of this study were to investigate CCR3-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2), p38, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in eosinophils and to assess...... the requirement for MAP kinases in eotaxin-induced eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) release and chemotaxis. MAP kinase activation was studied in eotaxin-stimulated eosinophils (more than 97% purity) by Western blotting and immune-complex kinase assays. ECP release was measured by radioimmunoassay. Chemotaxis...

  10. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. GPNMB promotes proliferation of developing eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae Mi; Kang, Jin Hyun; Kim, Bo Kyum; Uhm, Tae Gi; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hyune-Hwan; Binas, Bert; Chung, Il Yup

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane protein that is expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including haematopoietic lineages. We previously demonstrated that GPNMB is one of the most highly expressed genes at an early and intermediate stage of eosinophil development. We herein examined GPNMB expression and its possible functional effect using cord blood (CB) CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells differentiating toward eosinophils during a 24-day culture period. Western blot and confocal microscopy analyses showed that GPNMB reached its highest levels at day 12 with most GPNMB-positive cells also expressing major basic protein 1 (MBP1), an eosinophil granule protein. GPNMB declined thereafter, but was still present at an appreciable level at day 24, the time when CB eosinophils most abundantly expressed MBP1 and were thus considered fully differentiated. When the developing CB cells were cultured in the presence of a blocking anti-GPNMB antibody, cell proliferation was significantly reduced. In agreement, ectopic expression of GPNMB in heterologous cells resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation, while small interfering RNA of GPNMB inhibited the GPNMB-mediated proliferation. Thus, GPNMB is expressed in a temporal manner during eosinophil development and delivers a proliferative signal upon activation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Haydee; Beccar Varela, Lucia; De Felippi, Maria S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  14. Roles and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Eosinophils in Immunity and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergy reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune responses. Under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract where their involvement in various biological processes within the gastrointestinal tract has been posited. In this review, we summarize the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and describe eosinophil trafficking to the gastrointestinal tract. We synthesize the current findings on the phenotypic and functional properties of gastrointestinal eosinophils and the accumulating evidence that they have a contributory role in gastrointestinal disorders, with a focus on primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, we discuss the potential role of eosinophils as modulators of the intestinal immune system. PMID:25049430

  15. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  16. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  17. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mueller Fox

    Full Text Available Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks-one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths.

  18. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Santander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  19. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Cecilio; Chavarría-Herbozo, Carlos M; Becerro-González, Irene; Burgos-Santamaría, Diego

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  20. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is recognized as an eosinophil mediated inflammation of the airways1. Eosinophils are major contributors to the damage in the airways of asthmatic patients which when activated, degranulate and release ...

  1. EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

  2. Eosinophils mediate protective immunity against secondary nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Luber, Kierstin L; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Indirect assessment of eosinophiluria in urinary schistosomiasis using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Ouma, J H; Mwanje, M T

    1993-01-01

    of infection (eggs/10 ml of urine), albuminuria and pathological changes as detected by ultrasonography. ECP and EPX were determined by means of specific ELISA methods and levels were determined in both urine supernatants and extracted urine deposits (cells and cell debris). The level of ECP was significantly...

  4. Differentiation of eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells into eosinophils induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Kaneko, Motoko; Sugeno, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hong, JangJa; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-03-06

    EoL-1 cells differentiate into eosinophils in the presence of n-butyrate, but the mechanism has remained to be elucidated. Because n-butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases, we hypothesized that the inhibition of histone deacetylases induces the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils. In this study, using n-butyrate and two other histone deacetylase inhibitors, apicidin and trichostatin A, we have analyzed the relationship between the inhibition of histone deacetylases and the differentiation into eosinophils in EoL-1 cells. It was demonstrated that apicidin and n-butyrate induced a continuous acetylation of histones H4 and H3, inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells without attenuating the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, and induced the expression of markers for mature eosinophils such as integrin beta7, CCR1, and CCR3 on EoL-1 cells, while trichostatin A evoked a transient acetylation of histones and induced no differentiation into eosinophils. These findings suggest that the continuous inhibition of histone deacetylases in EoL-1 cells induces the differentiation into mature eosinophils.

  5. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  6. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  7. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

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    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  8. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  9. Human eosinophils constitutively express a unique serine protease, PRSS33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Sumika; Okada, Naoko; Matsuda, Akio; Morita, Hideaki; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujisawa, Takao; Nakae, Susumu; Karasuyama, Hajime; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils play important roles in asthma, especially airway remodeling, by producing various granule proteins, chemical mediators, cytokines, chemokines and proteases. However, protease production by eosinophils is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the production of eosinophil-specific proteases/proteinases by transcriptome analysis. Human eosinophils and other cells were purified from peripheral blood by density gradient sedimentation and negative/positive selections using immunomagnetic beads. Protease/proteinase expression in eosinophils and release into the supernatant were evaluated by microarray analysis, qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining before and after stimulation with eosinophil-activating cytokines and secretagogues. mRNAs for extracellular matrix proteins in human normal fibroblasts were measured by qPCR after exposure to recombinant protease serine 33 (PRSS33) protein (rPRSS33), created with a baculovirus system. Human eosinophils expressed relatively high levels of mRNA for metalloproteinase 25 (MMP25), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 (ADAM8), ADAM10, ADAM19 and PRSS33. Expression of PRSS33 was the highest and eosinophil-specific. PRSS33 mRNA expression was not affected by eosinophil-activating cytokines. Immunofluorescence staining showed that PRSS33 was co-localized with an eosinophil granule protein. PRSS33 was not detected in the culture supernatant of eosinophils even after stimulation with secretagogues, but its cell surface expression was increased. rPRSS33 stimulation of human fibroblasts increased expression of collagen and fibronectin mRNAs, at least in part via protease-activated receptor-2 activation. Activated eosinophils may induce fibroblast extracellular matrix protein synthesis via cell surface expression of PRSS33, which would at least partly explain eosinophils' role(s) in airway remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier

  10. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

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    Mayra Isabel Correia Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years, and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45% patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%, erosive esophagitis in two (18%, and a whitish stippling in one (9% patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73% cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils.

  11. [Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

    2013-10-01

    The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

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    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  13. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

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    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  14. MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma

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    Choi, Gi Bok; Son, Seok Hyun; Eun, Choong Ki; Park, Sung Kun; Han, Sang Suk [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun Seob [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Min [Kosin Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo [Maryknoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma. We reviewed the MR imaging studies of nine patients [M:F=3:6, aged 6-35 (mean, 20.5) years] with pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma in the calvaria. The findings were evaluated for involvement of the diploic space, changes in adjacent bone marrow, distinction of the transitional zone, pattern of bone destruction, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of the tumor, and contrast enhancement of the adjacent dura. All lesions involved the diploic space, showed no change in adjacent bone marrow, and had a distinct transitional zone. In most (8/9) cases there was asymmetric bony destruction. On T1-weighted images, signal intensities of the tumors varied, while on T2-weighted images, hyperintensity was observed in seven cases, isointensity in one, and hypointensity in one. After the administration of contrast material, enhancement was homogeneous in four cases and inhomogeneous in five. Enhancement of the adjacent dura was demonstrated in all nine cases. The characteristic MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma are variable signal intensity on T1WI, high signal intensity on T2WI, and marked contrast enhancement; in addition, there is a distinct transitional zone, asymmetrical bony destruction, and associated dural enhancement.

  15. Blood eosinophil levels as a biomarker in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselle, Guy; Pavord, Ian D; Landis, Sarah; Pascoe, Steven; Lettis, Sally; Morjaria, Nikhil; Barnes, Neil; Hilton, Emma

    2018-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder and patients respond differently to treatment. Blood eosinophils are a potential biomarker to stratify patient subsets for COPD therapy. We reviewed the value of blood eosinophils in predicting exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatment in the available literature (PubMed articles in English; keywords: "COPD" and "eosinophil"; published prior to May 2017). Overall, clinical data suggest that in patients with a history of COPD exacerbations, a higher blood eosinophil count predicts an increased risk of future exacerbations and is associated with improved response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (in combination with long-acting bronchodilator[s]). Blood eosinophils are therefore a promising biomarker for phenotyping patients with COPD, although prospective studies are needed to assess blood eosinophils as a biomarker of corticosteroid response for this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Non-Frequently Considered Diagnosis of Dysphagia; Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ağın; Nilgün Uyduran Ünal; Serdar İskit

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis is infiltration of esophagus mucosa by eosinophil leucocyte. It is rarely observed in children and the symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux. This case, which was applied esophagus balloon dilatation in the pediatric surgery due to dysphagia and diagnosed eosinophilic esophagitis, was presented in order to attract attention to the approach to the child with dysphagia. Total IgE=834 IU/mL and specific IgE (-), Fx5 (-) was found negative. In ...

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  19. Eosinophils Contribute to Intestinal Inflammation via Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous Molecule Expressed on Th2 Cells, CRTH2, in Experimental Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnai, Balázs; Sturm, Eva M; Stančić, Angela; Jandl, Katharina; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirós, Nerea; Grill, Magdalena; Hasenoehrl, Carina; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Marsche, Gunther; Heinemann, Ákos; Högenauer, Christoph; Schicho, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Prostaglandin [PG] D2 activates two receptors, DP and CRTH2. Antagonism of CRTH2 has been shown to promote anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether CRTH2 may play a role in Crohn's disease [CD], focusing on eosinophils which are widely present in the inflamed mucosa of CD patients and express both receptors. Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid [TNBS]-induced colitis model, involvement of CRTH2 in colitis was investigated by pharmacological antagonism, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, immunoassay, and leukocyte recruitment. Chemotactic assays were performed with isolated human eosinophils. Biopsies and serum samples of CD patients were examined for presence of CRTH2 and ligands, respectively. High amounts of CRTH2-positive cells, including eosinophils, are present in the colonic mucosa of mice with TNBS colitis and in human CD. The CRTH2 antagonist OC-459, but not the DP antagonist MK0524, reduced inflammation scores and decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 as compared with control mice. OC-459 inhibited recruitment of eosinophils into the colon and also inhibited CRTH2-induced chemotaxis of human eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophil-depleted ΔdblGATA knockout mice were less sensitive to TNBS-induced colitis, whereas IL-5 transgenic mice with lifelong eosinophilia were more severely affected than wild types. In addition, we show that serum levels of PGD2 and Δ(12)-PGJ2 were increased in CD patients as compared with control individuals. CRTH2 plays a pro-inflammatory role in TNBS-induced colitis. Eosinophils contribute to the severity of the inflammation, which is improved by a selective CRTH2 antagonist. CRTH2 may, therefore, represent an important target in the pharmacotherapy of CD. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. CT findings of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kigami, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa

    1992-01-01

    CT scans in 11 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) were reviewed. Peripheral dense opacities suggesting air-space consolidation were the most peculiar findings seen in 9 patients on CT, but 7 on chest radiographs. Five patients showed broad plate-like opacities parallel to the pleura, which were the results of resolution from the periphery of the consolidation. Diffuse interstitial opacities suggesting alveolitis were the predominant finding in 3 patients, one of which also had peripheral air-space consolidation. Follow-up CT showed no residual abnormality except one who had DIP concomitant with CEP. CT scans are useful tool for both diagnosis and follow-up of CEP. (author)

  1. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  2. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulfman, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted

  4. Generation and partial characterization of an eosinophil chemotactic cytokine produced by sensitized equine mononuclear cells stimulated with Strongylus vulgaris antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R

    1993-07-01

    Supernatants generated by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Strongylus vulgaris sensitized or immunized ponies were assayed in vitro for eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) using the filter system in blind well chambers. The supernatants from these cultures were chemotactic for eosinophils, but not for neutrophils. Supernates from cultures of unsensitized PBMC stimulated with S. vulgaris antigen were not chemotactic for eosinophils. ECA was first detected in culture supernatants after 1.5 h of incubation and was dependent on both antigen and PBMC concentrations, but independent of serum concentrations. Both female and male S. vulgaris worm antigens stimulated ECA production from sensitized PBMC. ECA was not induced by in vitro stimulation of sensitized S. vulgaris PBMC by female Strongylus edentatus worm antigen. Partial characterization of the eosinophil chemotactic cytokine showed it to be nondialyzable, greater than 8000 molecular weight (MW), and sensitive to heating (56 and 95 degrees C), trypsin, and sodium metaperiodate treatments, suggesting that the cytokine is a protein containing some essential carbohydrate moieties. The cytokine described in this paper could partially contribute to the in vivo blood and tissue eosinophilia in experimental S. vulgaris infection.

  5. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  6. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  7. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Astegiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

  8. Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

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    Ndubuisi C. Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE. We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate.

  9. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  10. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  11. Esophagitis dissecans associated with eosinophilic esophagitis in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie-Anne R. Guerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis are distinct esophageal pathologies with characteristic clinical and histologic findings. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis is a rare finding on endoscopy consisting of the peeling of large fragments of esophageal mucosa. Histology shows sloughing of the epithelium and parakeratosis. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an allergic disease of the esophagus characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the epithelium and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Both of these esophageal processes have been associated with other diseases, but there is no known association between them. We describe a case of esophagitis dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis in an adolescent patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case describing an association between esophageal dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis.

  12. Mast cells and eosinophils in invasive breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Rose-Marie; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Nevanlinna, Heli; Carvalho, Ricardo; Salonen, Laura; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory cells in the tumour stroma has gained increasing interest recently. Thus, we aimed to study the frequency and prognostic impact of stromal mast cells and tumour infiltrating eosinophils in invasive breast carcinomas. Tissue microarrays containing 234 cases of invasive breast cancer were prepared and analysed for the presence of stromal mast cells and eosinophils. Tumour infiltrating eosinophils were counted on hematoxylin-eosin slides. Immunostaining for tryptase was done and the total number of mast cells were counted and correlated to the proliferation marker Ki 67, positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, clinical parameters and clinical outcome. Stromal mast cells were found to correlate to low grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. There was a total lack of eosinophils in breast cancer tumours. A high number of mast cells in the tumours correlated to low-grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. Eosinophils are not tumour infiltrating in breast cancers

  13. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  14. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  15. Isomerization of propargyl cation to cyclopropenyl cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step) for isomeri- zation of the linear propargyl cation to ..... C3, C4 and C5. The ZPE corrections in each case are derived from the. B3LYP calculations. ..... the converse of which gives the relative capacity of the. LPD's to stabilize TS6 with respect ...

  16. Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Schneider, Sarah; Billings, Steven D

    2017-12-01

    Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Skin biopsies with a diagnosis of psoriasis from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. For inclusion, both histological and clinical features were required to be consistent with psoriasis. For biopsies meeting inclusion criteria, a detailed evaluation for typical histological parameters of psoriasis, as well as presence of dermal eosinophils, was performed. Of 85 cases meeting inclusion criteria, all had either individual or grouped intracorneal neutrophils and dilated papillary blood vessels. Diminished or complete loss of the granular cell layer was seen in 83 cases (98%), and parakeratosis was seen in 84 cases (99%). Alternatively, dermal eosinophils were seen in only 15 cases (18%). Of cases with eosinophils, none had more than 3 eosinophils upon examination of the entire dermis. Active treatment did not appear to impact presence/absence or numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophils are uncommon in psoriasis biopsies, and when present, they are found in small numbers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nutritional management of Eosinophilic Gastroenteropathies: Case series from the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilious Alfred

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis, have classically been treated with swallowed inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. More recent studies have found elimination and elemental diets to be effective treatment alternatives to steroids. In this case series we describe the treatment of three children using nutritional management in a community setting. Elimination diets and elemental diets based on patch testing and skin prick tests reduced the eosinophil counts to normal levels in all three children. Food items which tested positive were then reintroduced while symptoms and eosinophil counts were monitored. Nutritional management of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis was found to be effective in reducing symptoms. However, obstacles facing patients who choose this type of therapy include limitations due to the cost of repeated endoscopies, palatability of elimination/elemental diets and the availability of subspecialists trained in management (e.g. Allergy, Gastroenterology, and Pathology. It may be a worthwhile endeavour to overcome these obstacles as nutritional management minimizes the potential long-term effects of chronic steroid therapy.

  18. Thrombomodulin inhibits the activation of eosinophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeen, Ziaurahman; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Onishi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Yasuma, Taro; Urawa, Masahito; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Activation of both cells leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in the airway of asthmatic patients. Recently, we have shown that inhaled thrombomodulin inhibits allergic bronchial asthma in a mouse model. In the present study, we hypothesize that thrombomodulin can inhibit the activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The effect of thrombomodulin on the activation and release of inflammatory mediators from eosinophils and mast cells was evaluated. Thrombomodulin inhibited the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis, upregulation of CD11b and degranulation of eosinophils. Treatment with thrombomodulin also significantly suppressed the degranulation and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in eosinophils and mast cells. Mice treated with a low-dose of inhaled thrombomodulin have decreased number of eosinophils and activated mast cells and Th2 cytokines in the lungs compared to untreated mice. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin may modulate allergic responses by inhibiting the activation of both eosinophils and mast cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... in a subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1

  1. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  2. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  3. Eosinophilic cystitis in a 3-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H.; Gordts, H.; Marchal, G.

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare in children; it also affects adults. Clinical manifestations are variable. The diagnosis can be confirmed by cystoscopy and biopsy, both rather invasive procedures, especially in younger patients. We report a 3-year-old boy with eosinophilic cystitis. The most important radiological finding was marked thickening of the bladder wall, documented on ultrasound, cystography and CT. The CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis have, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. In addition to ultrasound and cystography, CT clearly demonstrates extension of the inflammatory process into the perivesical tissues. (orig.)

  4. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Hoeffel, J.C.; Arnould, V.; Galloy, M.A.; Mainard, L.

    1995-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly unifocal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. Computerized tomography (CT) is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). Magnetic resonance (MR) is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors in the case of extensive destruction. The natural course of solitary lesions is favorable, spontaneously or with therapy. The prognosis is more serious in the case of multiple lesions. (authors)

  5. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  6. Eosinophil Cationic Protein Concentrations among Crop and Dairy Farmers with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saso Stoleski

    2018-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Data obtained suggest that airway inflammation is present in farmers with asthma, and s-ECP is an important biomarker in means of reflecting disease severity and prognosis among exposed workers.

  7. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  8. Characterization and antagonism of cytokine-induced eosinophil priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosas Rosas, Ana Marcela

    2006-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, and reversible obstruction of the airways. In humans, cytokine activated eosinophils are thought to be important players in this process since they can release inflammatory mediators

  9. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  10. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  11. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) First Description Who gets EGPA (the “ ... granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGP), formerly known as the Churg-Strauss Syndrome , is a systemic vasculitis. This disease was ...

  12. Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

  13. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  14. Emerging Roles for Eosinophils in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Hadar; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Munitz, Ariel

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophils are evolutionary conserved cells largely studied in the context of allergy. Although eosinophils were first described in tumors more than 120 years ago, their roles in cancer are often overlooked. This is puzzling given their potent immune modulatory, cytotoxic, and/or tissue repair capabilities, and recent studies demonstrating key roles for eosinophils in contexts far beyond their 'classical' field (e.g., metabolism, thermogenesis, and tissue regeneration). Recent data suggest that this frequently ignored cell is emerging as a potent immune effector and immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses the relevance of eosinophils to tumorigenesis and the potential to harness their function in cancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.

  16. Involvement of both protein kinase C and G proteins in superoxide production after IgE triggering in guinea pig eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Aizawa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the function and mechanism of eosinophils via the low affinity IgE receptor (FceRII, we examined the production of 02 metabolites by measuring the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL response and the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Eosinophils obtained from guinea pig peritoneal fluid sensitized with horse serum were purified. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was induced by stimulation with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody, but not by mouse serum (controls. The mean (±SEM value of LDCL was 20.6±1.3X103 c.p.m. This reaction consisted of an initial rapid phase and a propagation phase and ended within lOmin. Guinea pig eosinophils were histochemically stained with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody. The major product generated in the LDCL response was superoxide, as determined by the measurement of superoxide by cytochrome c reduction and the complete inhibitory effect of superoxide dismutase on the LDCL response. Pretreatment with either pertussis toxin or cholera toxin inhibited the LDCL reaction. Depletion of bivalent ions by EDTA inhibited this response and the protein kinase C inhibitor D-sphingosin inhibited both 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol-induced and FcϵRII-mediated LDCL. These findings suggest that the NADPH-protein kinase C pathway may be involved in the FceRII-mediated LDCL response in guinea pig eosinophils.

  17. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  18. Higher frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis, an unusual finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar (Pakistan) from Dec 2011 to Nov 2014. Material and Methods: Eighteen hundred (1800) cholecystectomy specimens were included in the study. The specimens which were properly fixed in 10% formalin were included in the specimen, while poorly fixed and autolysed specimens were excluded. The specimens were examined grossly, measured and block selection was done. The slides made were examined under light microscope by one histopathologist and findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 1800 cholecystectomy specimens, 25 cases (1.38%) were diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Out of these 25 cases, 20 (80%) were females having an age range of 30-50 years, while 5 (20%) were males with an age range of 35-55 years. Out of these 25 cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis, 22 (88%) were having cholelithiasis, while 3 (12%) were acalculous eosiniophilic cholecystitis. Conclusion: Eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population is mostly calculous which is very significant finding contrary to data given in western literature, where most of eosinophilic cholecystitis is aclculous. This needs further evaluation to determine any genetic, geographic, environmental, dietary, microbiological or any other factor responsible in etiopathogenesis of calculous eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population, which could be helpful in prevention and management of this disease. (author)

  19. Eosinophils from Physiology to Disease: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Ripa, Marco; Mannina, Daniele; Cariddi, Adriana; Saporiti, Nicoletta; Ciceri, Fabio; Castagna, Antonella; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the second least represented granulocyte subpopulation in the circulating blood, eosinophils are receiving a growing interest from the scientific community, due to their complex pathophysiological role in a broad range of local and systemic inflammatory diseases as well as in cancer and thrombosis. Eosinophils are crucial for the control of parasitic infections, but increasing evidence suggests that they are also involved in vital defensive tasks against bacterial and viral pathogens including HIV. On the other side of the coin, eosinophil potential to provide a strong defensive response against invading microbes through the release of a large array of compounds can prove toxic to the host tissues and dysregulate haemostasis. Increasing knowledge of eosinophil biological behaviour is leading to major changes in established paradigms for the classification and diagnosis of several allergic and autoimmune diseases and has paved the way to a “golden age” of eosinophil-targeted agents. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the pathophysiological role of eosinophils in host defence, inflammation, and cancer and discuss potential clinical implications in light of recent therapeutic advances. PMID:29619379

  20. Utility of serum periostin in combination with exhaled nitric oxide in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadao Nagasaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Type-2/eosinophilic inflammation plays a pivotal role in asthma. The identification of severe type-2/eosinophilic asthma is important for improving the management of patients with asthma. Therefore, efforts to develop non-invasive biomarkers for type-2/eosinophilic airway inflammation have been made during this decade. Currently, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO and serum periostin levels are considered markers of type-2/eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. However, a single-marker approach has limited the ability to diagnose severe type-2/eosinophilic asthma accurately and predict disease outcomes precisely. The present article reviews the utility of FeNO and serum periostin levels in a single-marker approach and in a multiple-marker approach in identifying patients with severe type-2/eosinophilic asthma. Furthermore, based on a sub-analysis of the Kinki Hokuriku Airway disease Conference (KiHAC, geno-endo-phenotypes of patients were stratified into four groups according to the FeNO and serum periostin levels.

  1. Human vs. Mouse Eosinophils: “That which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P.; Condjella, Rachel M.; Doyle, Alfred D.; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Willetts, Lian; LeSuer, William E.; Colbert, Dana C.; Helmers, Richard A.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective life histories of humans and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiological pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils and/or their effector functions. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide the experimental details, comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in humans vs. mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy to use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that while differences exist, more often than not their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function, but instead, species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

  2. Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Killer Receptor 1 Dampens the Development of Allergic Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Elhaik Goldman

    Full Text Available The function of NCR1 was studied in a model of experimental asthma, classified as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, in mice. IgE levels were significantly increased in the serum of OVA immunized NCR1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp mice in comparison to OVA immunized wild type (NCR1+/+ and adjuvant immunized mice. Histological analysis of OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice revealed no preservation of the lung structure and overwhelming peribronchial and perivascular granulocytes together with mononuclear cells infiltration. OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice demonstrated preserved lung structure and peribronchial and perivascular immune cell infiltration to a lower extent than that in NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Adjuvant immunized mice demonstrated lung structure preservation and no immune cell infiltration. OVA immunization caused an increase in PAS production independently of NCR1 presence. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL revealed NCR1 dependent decreased percentages of eosinophils and increased percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages following OVA immunization. In the OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice the protein levels of eosinophils' (CCL24 and Th2 CD4+ T-cells' chemoattractants (CCL17, and CCL24 in the BAL are increased in comparison with OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice. In the presence of NCR1, OVA immunization caused an increase in NK cells numbers and decreased NCR1 ligand expression on CD11c+GR1+ cells and decreased NCR1 mRNA expression in the BAL. OVA immunization resulted in significantly increased IL-13, IL-4 and CCL17 mRNA expression in NCR1+/+ and NCR1gfp/gfp mice. IL-17 and TNFα expression increased only in OVA-immunized NCR1+/+mice. IL-6 mRNA increased only in OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Collectively, it is demonstrated that NCR1 dampens allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  4. Osseous eosinophilic granuloma in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Marinard, L.; Galloy, M.A.; Phi, I.N.; Hoeffel, J.C. [Hopital de Brabois-Vandoeuvre, 54 - Nancy (France). Service de radiologie

    2001-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly uni-focal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. CT is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). MR is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors prognosis is more serious in case of multiple lesions. (authors)

  5. Protein Translation and Signaling in Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Esnault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that, unlike IL-5 and GM-CSF, IL-3 induces increased translation of a subset of mRNAs. In addition, we have demonstrated that Pin1 controls the activity of mRNA binding proteins, leading to enhanced mRNA stability, GM-CSF protein production and prolonged eosinophil (EOS survival. In this review, discussion will include an overview of cap-dependent protein translation and its regulation by intracellular signaling pathways. We will address the more general process of mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, especially regarding mRNA binding proteins, which are critical effectors of protein translation. Furthermore, we will focus on (1 the roles of IL-3-driven sustained signaling on enhanced protein translation in EOS, (2 the mechanisms regulating mRNA binding proteins activity in EOS, and (3 the potential targeting of IL-3 signaling and the signaling leading to mRNA binding activity changes to identify therapeutic targets to treat EOS-associated diseases.

  6. STAT3 activation and infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78......% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (p...) in malignant T-cells also stained positively for eosinophils, whereas this was only observed in 28% of pY-STAT3-negative patients (peosinophilic activation and trafficking factors: High-mobility group BOX-1 protein (HMGB1) and interleukin 5 (IL5). STAT3 si...

  7. Eosinophil count, allergies, and rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Kate S; Albers, Erin; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Sabrina; Law, Yuk

    2015-08-01

    Allograft rejection and long-term immunosuppression remain significant challenges in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric recipients are known to have fewer rejection episodes and to develop more allergic conditions than adults. A T-helper 2 cell dominant phenotype, manifested clinically by allergies and an elevated eosinophil count, may be associated with immunologic quiescence in transplant recipients. This study assessed whether the longitudinal eosinophil count and an allergic phenotype were associated with freedom from rejection. This single-center, longitudinal, observational study included 86 heart transplant patients monitored from 1994 to 2011. Post-transplant biannual complete blood counts, allergic conditions, and clinical characteristics related to rejection risk were examined. At least 1 episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurred in 38 patients (44%), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred in 11 (13%), and 49 patients (57%) were diagnosed with an allergic condition. Patients with ACR or AMR had a lower eosinophil count compared with non-rejectors (p = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the presence of panel reactive antibodies to human leukocyte antigen I (p = 0.014) and the median eosinophil count (p = 0.011) were the only independent covariates associated with AMR. Eosinophil count (p = 0.010) and female sex (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ACR. Allergic conditions or young age at transplant were not protective from rejection. This study demonstrates a novel association between a high eosinophil count and freedom from rejection. Identifying a biomarker for low rejection risk may allow a reduction in immunosuppression. Further investigation into the role of the T-helper 2 cell phenotype and eosinophils in rejection quiescence is warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eosinophils in Homeostasis and Their Contrasting Roles during Inflammation and Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Julia; Rausch, Sebastian; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil numbers are highly elevated during helminth infections and a range of allergic and inflammatory disorders, but eosinophils are also present in several tissues in the absence of infection. Indeed, new findings demonstrate that eosinophils may be involved in events as diverse as glucose metabolism, mammary gland development, intestinal health, tissue remodeling, thymic selection, and B-cell survival. Although eosinophils often correlate with pathological parameters during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, the evidence for their contribution to tissue pathology remains controversial. Recent research suggests that eosinophils may have additional roles in these settings that are related to control and resolution of inflammation. Controversy also surrounds the involvement of eosinophils in anti-helminth immunity. Their assumed role in fighting parasites has increasingly been questioned, particularly as a result of data from studies of eosinophil-ablated mouse strains in which either no or only very moderate effects on helminth survival has been reported. Helminths are masters of immune regulation, but whether they actively suppress eosinophil function has rarely been considered. Thus, the purpose of this review is threefold: (1) to summarize our knowledge of the wide range of functions of eosinophils during homeostasis, (2) to discuss the role of eosinophil during inflammation and the recent discovery of eosinophils as mediators of inflammatory resolution, and (3) to summarize data on the effect of eosinophils on helminth infections and discuss the possibility of helminth-mediated modulation of eosinophils.

  9. Purinergic P2Y12 Receptor Activation in Eosinophils and the Schistosomal Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Valdirene S; Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Benjamim, Claudia F; Mata-Santos, Hilton A; Pyrrho, Alexandre S; Strauch, Marcelo A; Melo, Paulo A; Vicentino, Amanda R R; Silva-Paiva, Juliana; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Identifying new target molecules through which eosinophils secrete their stored proteins may reveal new therapeutic approaches for the control of eosinophilic disorders such as host immune responses to parasites. We have recently reported the expression of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) in human eosinophils; however, its functional role in this cell type and its involvement in eosinophilic inflammation remain unknown. Here, we investigated functional roles of P2Y12R in isolated human eosinophils and in a murine model of eosinophilic inflammation induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection. We found that adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced human eosinophils to secrete eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in a P2Y12R dependent manner. However, ADP did not interfere with human eosinophil apoptosis or chemotaxis in vitro. In vivo, C57Bl/6 mice were infected with cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of S. mansoni. Analyses performed 55 days post infection revealed that P2Y12R blockade reduced the granulomatous hepatic area and the eosinophilic infiltrate, collagen deposition and IL-13/IL-4 production in the liver without affecting the parasite oviposition. As found for humans, murine eosinophils also express the P2Y12R. P2Y12R inhibition increased blood eosinophilia, whereas it decreased the bone marrow eosinophil count. Our results suggest that P2Y12R has an important role in eosinophil EPO secretion and in establishing the inflammatory response in the course of a S. mansoni infection.

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: manometric and pHmetric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Cardoso Monnerat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Eosinophilic esophagitis is an entity characterized by an esophageal inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, manifested by dysphagia, intermittent food impactions and symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, that predominantly affects young adults. There may be association of eosinophilic esophagitis with GERD, and motor abnormalities have been described. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are to describe the findings at esophageal manometry and pH monitoring in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 20 patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, submitted to esophageal manometry and 24h pH monitoring. Were analysed the manometric changes and the presence of abnormal reflux on pH monitoring. RESULTS: Twenty patients (15 men, 5 women had a mean age of 29 years. Motility disorders were found in 25% (5/20 patients with ineffective esophageal motility being the most common finding. pH monitoring revealed abnormal reflux on 25%, without any relationship with manometric findings. CONCLUSIONS: Manometric abnormalities were observed in 25% of patients and abnormal reflux on pH monitoring also in 25%. This study showed no relationship between abnormal reflux and the presence of manometric changes.

  11. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

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    Shunichi Shibazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole.

  12. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

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    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  13. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

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    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  14. Cation radicals of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Mary Grace I; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Deal, Cailin; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2007-10-01

    Carotenes and xanthophylls are well known to act as electron donors in redox processes. This ability is thought to be associated with the inhibition of oxidative reactions in reaction centers and light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, cation radicals of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lycopene were generated in solution using ferric chloride as an oxidant and then studied by absorption spectroscopy. The investigation provides a view toward understanding the molecular features that determine the spectral properties of cation radicals of carotenoids. The absorption spectral data reveal a shift to longer wavelength with increasing pi-chain length. However, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin exhibit cation radical spectra blue-shifted compared to that of beta-carotene, despite all of these molecules having 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. CIS molecular orbital theory quantum computations interpret this effect as due to the hydroxyl groups in the terminal rings selectively stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbitals of preferentially populated s-trans-isomers. The data are expected to be useful in the analysis of spectral results from PSII pigment-protein complexes seeking to understand the role of carotene and xanthophyll cation radicals in regulating excited state energy flow, in protecting PSII reaction centers against photoinhibition, and in dissipating excess light energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms but not used for photosynthesis.

  15. Identifi cation of Sectarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinovich Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available «New religious movements and society» is traditionally one of the most sophisticated topics in the area of new religions studies. Its problem field is so huge that up to now by far not all important research themes where even touched by scientists from all over the world. The problem of the process of the identification of sectarianism by diff erent societal institutions is one of such untouched themes that is taken as the main subject of this article. This process by itself is an inseparable part of the every societal deliberate reaction to the very existence of unconventional religiosity, its unstructured and mainly structured types. The focal point of the article is step-by-step analysis of the general structure elements of the process of the identification of sectarianism without any reference to the specific time and place of its flow. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the subjects of the identification of sectarianism, to the criteria for religious groups to be qualified as new religious movements, and to the specific features of the process of documents filtration. The causes of selective perception of sectarianism are disclosed. Some main consequences and unpredictable outcomes of the process of the identification of sectarianism are described.

  16. Investigation of the roles of fascioliasis and food allergy in intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kazuki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Hori, Makito; Konnai, Masaki; Abiko, Chieko; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yamanome, Yukito; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2013-05-01

    Intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis (EPP) in Japanese Black (JB) cattle generally has been considered to be an atypical form of fascioliasis. However, there are many cases of EPP in which no Fasciola spp. have been detected in the livers of affected cattle. The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between EPP and hepatic fascioliasis and to investigate the role of food allergy in the disease. Histologically, EPP lesions were characterised by severe endothelial proliferation of the interlobular veins, accompanied by varying degrees of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration in portal areas, which could be differentiated from chronic cholangiohepatitis, the typical lesion of hepatic fascioliasis. In addition to hepatic lesions, all cases of EPP had varying degrees of eosinophilic infiltration in the perilymphoid red pulp of the spleen, whereas both affected and unaffected animals had eosinophilic infiltrates in the mucosa of the small intestine. Antibodies against Fasciola spp. were detected in 1/14 EPP cases by ELISA; the seropositive case had EPP in combination with chronic cholangitis. There was no significant difference in total concentration of IgE between cases of EPP and unaffected cattle. Serum IgE levels specific to curly dock (Rumex crispus) and oats (Avena sativa) were higher in EPP cases than in unaffected cattle by allergen profiling screening testing and ELISA. The results of this study suggest that hepatic fascioliasis is unlikely to be the cause of EPP in JB cattle and that food allergens should be investigated as possible aetiological agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S

    2007-01-01

    developed small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, Cay10471, on eosinophil function with respect to recruitment, respiratory burst and degranulation. METHODS: Chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils were determined using microBoyden chambers. Eosinophil release...... from bone marrow was investigated in the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. Respiratory burst and degranulation were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Cay10471 bound with high affinity to recombinant human and guinea pig CRTH2, but not DP, receptors. The antagonist prevented the PGD......(2)-induced release of eosinophils from guinea pig bone marrow, and inhibited the chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils. Pretreatment with PGD(2) primed eosinophils for chemotaxis towards eotaxin, and this effect was prevented by Cay10471. In contrast...

  18. Immunophenotyping of eosinophils recovered from blood and BAL of allergic asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, H. J.; Maikoe, T.; Brinkman, L.; Hooibrink, B.; Lammers, J. W.; Koenderman, L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with allergic asthma have demonstrated active migration of eosinophils into the bronchial lumen after allergen challenge. The mechanisms mediating this eosinophil infiltration and cell activation are largely unexplained. The expression of

  19. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4−/− eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  20. Canine eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, C F; Bond, R; Blunden, A S; Thomson, D G; McNeil, P E; Whitbread, T W

    1995-03-01

    The historical, clinical and histopathological features of three dogs with eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis are described. The disease was characterised by the rapid development of pruritic, papular, pustular and ulcerative lesions on the dorsum of the muzzle. Skin lesions were confined to the face in two cases. The third dog had more generalised pustular lesions. Skin biopsy specimens showed marked eosinophil infiltration particularly centred on pilosebaceous units. Dermal collagen necrosis was evident in two cases. Similar facial lesions have previously been described as 'nasal pyoderma'. The three dogs failed to respond to initial antibacterial therapy but showed a rapid clinical response when prednisolone was given orally at doses ranging from 1 to 2.2 mg/kg, in addition to the antibacterial therapy, suggesting that glucocorticoids are indicated for the treatment of eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis. The aetiology of the disease was not determined.

  1. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  2. Clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2013-06-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is an inflammatory disease characterized by repeated pruritic follicular papules and pustules arranged in arcuate plaques, and folliculotropic infiltration of eosinophils. The diagnosis of EPF is occasionally difficult and problematic because EPF may share the clinical appearance and histological findings with other diseases. Moreover, EPF has several clinical subtypes, including the classical type, infantile type and immunosuppression-associated type. Because the therapies of EPF are relatively specific as compared to eczematous disorders, accurate diagnosis is essential for the management of EPF. Clinical differential diagnoses include tinea, acne, rosacea, eczematous dermatitis, granuloma faciale, autoimmune annular erythema, infestations and pustular dermatosis. Histologically, cutaneous diseases with eosinophilic infiltrates can be differentially diagnosed. Follicular mucinosis, mycosis fungoides and other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are the most important differential diagnoses both clinically and histopathologically. It should be kept in mind particularly that the initial lesions of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma resemble EPF. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhanhai; Lin Zhengyu; Chen Yiguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT features of costal eosinophilic granuloma for a better understanding. Methods: Eight patients with costal eosinophilic granuloma proved by surgery or biopsy were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had X-ray plain film, 6 patients had CT examination, including a case of enhanced CT scan. Results: All 8 lesions were solitary. Six lesions were in the anterior rib and 2 in the posterior rib. On X-ray, all case showed single cavity and oval lesion with clear boundary. On CT images, 5 lesions demonstrated expansile destruction of bone with cortical bone thinning, and 3 were osteolystic destruction with soft tissue mass around. On the patient with enhanced CT scan, the lesions showed a moderate and uniform enhancement. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma are characteristic. (authors)

  4. The imaging diagnosis of costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Feng Shiting

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of costal eosinophilic granuloma so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinical and imaging materials of 6 patients with costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma which were proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray plain films were performed in all the cases, CT in 3 cases, 2 cases were received CT plain scan and I case received both CT plain scan and enhanced CT scan. Results: 4 cases of them located in the anterior ribs. All the lesions were round-like and 5 were single cavity and 1 was multiple cavities. 3 of them were expansile destruction and 3 were cystic destruction. Soft tissue mass around the lesion was identified. Conclusion: X-ray plain films integrating CT play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the costal eosinophilic granuloma. (authors)

  5. Case report 342: Eosinophilic granuloma of the right iliac wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Glass, R.B.J.; Fernbach, S.K.; Young, S.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, this case demonstrates that eosinophilic granuloma may present with findings on CT usually associated with aggressive malignant lesions, while plain films may show the same lesion to have the unequivocal appearance of a benign lesion. It is important, therefore, that eosinophilic granuloma be considered in the differential diagnosis of solitary bone lesions with extraosseous extension, extensive destruction of the cortex and associated periosteal reaction. A local biopsy, as opposed to wide excision, should be performed for diagnosis, prior to any therapy. Of at least equal significance, it is obvious from this case that plain films in many instances still maintain their importance and with few exceptions should be obtained prior to the CT study. In this instance the diagnosis of a benign disorder and even the specific diagnoses of eosinophilic, granuloma was suggested with confidence because of the plain films. (orig.)

  6. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  7. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  8. Eosinophilic pleural effusion: incidence, etiology and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Alvarez-Dobaño, José Manuel; Golpe, Antonio; Gude, Francisco; Anchorena, Christian; Pereyra, Marco F; Zamarrón, Carlos; Valdés, Luis

    2011-10-01

    Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) has been associated with less risk for malignancy with a potential causal relationship with the presence of air and/or blood in the pleural space. However, these theories have fallen by the wayside in the light of recent publications. To determine the incidence and etiology of EPE and to observe whether the eosinophils in the pleural liquid (PL) increase in successive thoracocenteses. We analyzed 730 PL samples from 605 patients hospitalized between January 2004 and December 2010. We identified 55 samples with EPE from 50 patients (8.3%). The most frequent etiologies of EPE were: unknown (36%) and neoplasm (30%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of neoplasms between the non-eosinophilic pleural effusions (non-EPE) (25.9%) and the EPE (30%) (p=0.533). One hundred patients (16.5%) underwent a second thoracocentesis. Out of the 9 who had EPE in the first, 6 maintained EPE in the second. Out of the 91 with non-EPE in the first thoracocentesis, 8 (8.8%) had EPE in the repeat thoracocentesis. The percentage of eosinophils did not increase in the successive thoracocenteses (p=0.427). In the EPE, a significant correlation was found between the number of hematites and eosinophils in the PL (r=0.563; p=0.000). An EPE cannot be considered an indicator of benignancy, therefore it should be studied as any other pleural effusion. The number of eosinophils does not seem to increase with the of repetition of thoracocentesis and, lastly, the presence of blood in the PL could explain the existence of EPE. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand [125I]pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed

  10. Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto; Tomiyasu, Ki-ichiro; Akabame, Satoshi; Nakano, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that allergic disorders and increased eosinophil count were associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between eosinophil count and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 1363 consecutive participants with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAC score determined by multislice CT and peripheral eosinophil count as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Sex (P=0.0004), hypertension (P=0.0002), dyslipidemia (P=0.0004) and DM (P=0.0061) were associated with log (CAC+1), respectively. Positive correlations were found between log (CAC+1), and age (r=0.325, P<0.0001) and eosinophil count (r=0.165, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between log (CAC+1) and eGFR (r=-0.166, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that age (β=0.314, P<0.0001), sex (β=0.124, P<0.0001), hypertension (β=0.084, P=0.0008), DM (β=0.108, P<0.0001), eGFR (β=-0.079, P=0.0021) and eosinophil count (β=0.147, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log (CAC+1). In conclusion, eosinophil count correlated positively with CAC in participants with clinical suspicion of CHD. (author)

  11. Emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke eIsobe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e. lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of the protein–surfactant complex of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. At low concentrations, the CTAB monomers are observed to bind to the protein leading to an increase in its size. On the other hand at high concentrations, surfactant ...

  13. Towards hybrid biocompatible magnetic rHuman serum albumin-based nanoparticles: use of ultra-small (CeLn)3/4+ cation-doped maghemite nanoparticles as functional shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Liron L.; Kovalenko, Elena I.; Boyko, Anna A.; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M.; Rosenberger, Ina; Kreuter, Jörg; Passoni, Lorena; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein found in human blood. Over the last decade, HSA has been evaluated as a promising drug carrier. However, not being magnetic, HSA cannot be used for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic drug targeting. Therefore, subsequent composites building on iron oxide nanoparticles that are already used clinically as MRI contrast agents are extensively studied. Recently and in this context, innovative fully hydrophilic ultra-small CAN-stabilized maghemite ((CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been readily fabricated. The present study discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual phase hybrid core (rHSA)-shell ((CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NPs) nanosystem. Quite importantly and in contrast to widely used encapsulation strategies, rHSA NP surface-attached (CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NPs enabled to exploit both rHSA (protein functionalities) and (CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NP surface functionalities (COOH and ligand L coordinative exchange) in addition to very effective MRI contrast capability due to optimal accessibility of H2O molecules with the outer magnetic phase. Resulting hybrid nanoparticles might be used as a platform modular system for therapeutic (drug delivery system) and MR diagnostic purposes.

  14. Towards hybrid biocompatible magnetic rHuman serum albumin-based nanoparticles: use of ultra-small (CeLn)3/4+ cation-doped maghemite nanoparticles as functional shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, Liron L; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Kovalenko, Elena I; Boyko, Anna A; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M; Rosenberger, Ina; Kreuter, Jörg; Passoni, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein found in human blood. Over the last decade, HSA has been evaluated as a promising drug carrier. However, not being magnetic, HSA cannot be used for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic drug targeting. Therefore, subsequent composites building on iron oxide nanoparticles that are already used clinically as MRI contrast agents are extensively studied. Recently and in this context, innovative fully hydrophilic ultra-small CAN-stabilized maghemite ((CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles have been readily fabricated. The present study discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual phase hybrid core (rHSA)-shell ((CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs) nanosystem. Quite importantly and in contrast to widely used encapsulation strategies, rHSA NP surface-attached (CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs enabled to exploit both rHSA (protein functionalities) and (CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NP surface functionalities (COOH and ligand L coordinative exchange) in addition to very effective MRI contrast capability due to optimal accessibility of H 2 O molecules with the outer magnetic phase. Resulting hybrid nanoparticles might be used as a platform modular system for therapeutic (drug delivery system) and MR diagnostic purposes. (paper)

  15. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreema Jawairia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus.

  16. A pediatric case of Fascioliasis with eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Batur, Abdulsamet; Taylan-Özkan, Ayşegül; Demirören, Kaan; Beyhan, Yunus Emre

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolia spp. are common trematode infestations worldwide. Fasciolia spp. may lead to hepatic diseases in the acute phase and may cause biliary diseases in the chronic phase. In addition, Fasciolia spp. may rarely cause extrahepatic signs and symptoms. The clinical manifestations of fascioliasis are divided into three groups: typical, atypical, and ectopic. Eosinophilic pneumonia is an atypical presentation of acute fascioliasis and it has been reported very rarely. Herein, we report a boy with marked blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pneumonia who was diagnosed with fascioliasis by serologic tests and abdominal USG. The patient recovered completely following triclabendazole treatment.

  17. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

  18. IL-33 activates eosinophils of visceral adipose tissue both directly and via innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Kojima, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Ayano; Kanno, Yumiko; Kobata, Tetsuji

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in allergic reactions as well as adipose tissue regulation. IL-5 is required for eosinophil survival; however, the in vivo mechanisms of eosinophil regulation are not fully understood. A tg mouse model with il5 promoter-driven EGFP expression was established for detecting the IL-5-producing cells in vivo. Il5-egfp tg mice expressed high levels of EGFP in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) cells. EGFP(+) cells in GAT were mainly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-33 preferentially expanded EGFP(+) cells and eosinophils in GAT in vivo. EGFP(+) ILCs were found to upregulate prg2 mRNA expression in GAT eosinophils. These results demonstrate that ILCs activate eosinophils in GAT. The blockage of IL-33Rα, on the other hand, did not impair EGFP(+) ILC numbers but did impair eosinophil numbers in vivo. GAT eosinophils expressed IL-33Rα and IL-33 expanded eosinophil numbers in CD90(+) cell-depleted mice. IL-33 was further observed to induce the expression of retnla and epx mRNA in eosinophils. These findings demonstrate that IL-33 directly activates eosinophils in GAT, and together with our other findings described above, our findings show that IL-33 has dual pathways via which it activates eosinophils in vivo: a direct activation pathway and a group 2 ILC-mediated pathway. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Morphea and Eosinophilic Fasciitis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jorre S; Seyger, Marieke M B; Thurlings, Rogier M; Radstake, Timothy R D J; de Jong, Elke M G J

    2017-08-01

    Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, encompasses a group of idiopathic sclerotic skin diseases. The spectrum ranges from relatively mild phenotypes, which generally cause few problems besides local discomfort and visible disfigurement, to subtypes with severe complications such as joint contractures and limb length discrepancies. Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, Shulman syndrome) is often regarded as belonging to the severe end of the morphea spectrum. The exact driving mechanisms behind morphea and EF pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. However, extensive extracellular matrix formation and autoimmune dysfunction are thought to be key pathogenic processes. Likewise, these processes are considered essential in systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. In addition, similarities in clinical presentation between morphea and SSc have led to many theories about their relatedness. Importantly, morphea may be differentiated from SSc based on absence of sclerodactyly, Raynaud's phenomenon, and nailfold capillary changes. The diagnosis of morphea is often based on characteristic clinical findings. Histopathological evaluation of skin biopsies and laboratory tests are not necessary in the majority of morphea cases. However, full-thickness skin biopsies, containing fascia and muscle tissue, are required for the diagnosis of EF. Monitoring of disease activity and damage, especially of subcutaneous involvement, is one of the most challenging aspects of morphea care. Therefore, data harmonization is crucial for optimizing standard care and for comparability of study results. Recently, the localized scleroderma cutaneous assessment tool (LoSCAT) has been developed and validated for morphea. The LoSCAT is currently the most widely reported outcome measure for morphea. Care providers should take disease subtype, degree of activity, depth of involvement, and quality-of-life impairments into account when initiating treatment. In most patients with circumscribed superficial subtypes

  20. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  1. Tailoring asthma treatment on eosinophilic markers (exhaled nitric oxide or sputum eosinophils): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsky, Helen L; Cates, Chris J; Kew, Kayleigh M; Chang, Anne B

    2018-06-01

    Asthma guidelines guide health practitioners to adjust treatments to the minimum level required for asthma control. As many people with asthma have an eosinophilic endotype, tailoring asthma medications based on airway eosinophilic levels (sputum eosinophils or exhaled nitric oxide, FeNO) may improve asthma outcomes. To synthesise the evidence from our updated Cochrane systematic reviews, for tailoring asthma medication based on eosinophilic inflammatory markers (sputum analysis and FeNO) for improving asthma-related outcomes in children and adults. Cochrane reviews with standardised searches up to February 2017. The Cochrane reviews included randomised controlled comparisons of tailoring asthma medications based on sputum analysis or FeNO compared with controls (primarily clinical symptoms and/or spirometry/peak flow). The 16 included studies of FeNO-based management (seven in adults) and 6 of sputum-based management (five in adults) were clinically heterogeneous. On follow-up, participants randomised to the sputum eosinophils strategy (compared with controls) were significantly less likely to have exacerbations (62 vs 82/100 participants with ≥1 exacerbation; OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.62). For the FeNO strategy, the respective numbers were adults OR 0.60 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.84) and children 0.58 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.75). However, there were no significant group differences for either strategy on daily inhaled corticosteroids dose (at end of study), asthma control or lung function. Adjusting treatment based on airway eosinophilic markers reduced the likelihood of asthma exacerbations but had no significant impact on asthma control or lung function. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  3. Respiratory manifestations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottin, Vincent; Bel, Elisabeth; Bottero, Paolo; Dalhoff, Klaus; Humbert, Marc; Lazor, Romain; Sinico, Renato A.; Sivasothy, Pasupathy; Wechsler, Michael E.; Groh, Matthieu; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Khouatra, Chahéra; Wallaert, Benoit; Taillé, Camille; Delaval, Philippe; Cadranel, Jacques; Bonniaud, Philippe; Prévot, Grégoire; Hirschi, Sandrine; Gondouin, Anne; Dunogué, Bertrand; Chatté, Gérard; Briault, Amandine; Jayne, David; Guillevin, Loïc; Cordier, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory manifestations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) have not been studied in detail.In this retrospective multicentre study, EGPA was defined by asthma, eosinophilia and at least one new onset extra-bronchopulmonary organ manifestation of disease.The study

  4. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  5. Eosinophilic granuloma in jaw bone: a pare pediatric case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eosinophilic granuloma (EG), one of the three clinical forms of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), is a benign inflammatory reaction to an unknown etiologic agent. It most commonly occurs in children and young adults. The most frequently involved bones are the skull, the ribs and the femurs. Alongside the ...

  6. Racial differences in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders among Caucasian and Asian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.

  7. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often ... Finalement laparotomy a revele des segments enflames de petit intestin, une biopsie de qui a montré Eosinophilic enteritis. Le malade a été traite par la ...

  8. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Lorenz, Emily A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kahwash, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an Italian experience Esofagitis eosinofílica: una experiencia italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vindigni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: eosinophilic esophagitis is an esophageal disorder characterized by esophageal and/or upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and by dense esophageal eosinophilia associated with a normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. Prevalently reported in children, eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been reported with increased frequency also in adults. Aims: the purpose of this study was to report our experience with eosinophilic esophagitis in Italy, since there are only very few series of such patients in our country. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the histological data of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophagitis or reflux disease in the period September 2004-September 2008. Eosinophils were counted where they appeared most numerous in the biopsy, with a cutoff > 15 eosinophils in more than one high-power field as diagnostic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients were excluded if gastric or duodenal biopsies showed a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Results: twenty two patients (14 adults, 8 children, age range 2-59 years were identified according to the above criteria. The average eosinophil count was 86/ high-power field (range 31-150, associated with other pathologic features (eosinophilic microabscesses eosinophil degranulation, basal zone hyperplasia, papillary elongation. The main clinical complaints were dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn, and endoscopic findings consisted of mucosal thickening and inelasticity, longitudinal shearing, rings, and white specks, without difference between adults and children for both clinical and endoscopic variables. Conclusions: eosinophilic esophagitis is not rare in Italy, and displays clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features similar to those described in other countries.

  11. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  12. A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

  13. A pilot study of omalizumab in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Loizou

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE, once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy.

  14. Urinary Eosinophil Protein X in Childhood Asthma : Relation with Changes in Disease Control and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, Marianne; Hop, Wim C. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Duiverman, Eric J.; De Jongste, Johan C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between uEPX and other markers of asthma control and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Methods. We measured uEPX at baseline, after 1 year and after 2 years in 205 atopic asthmatic children using inhaled fluticasone.

  15. Urinary eosinophil protein X in childhood asthma: relation with changes in disease control and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, Marianne; Hop, Wim C. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Duiverman, Eric J.; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between uEPX and other markers of asthma control and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Methods. We measured uEPX at baseline, after 1 year and after 2 years in 205 atopic asthmatic children using inhaled fluticasone.

  16. Differential activation of airway eosinophils induces IL-13-mediated allergic Th2 pulmonary responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, E A; Doyle, A D; Colbert, D C; Zellner, K R; Protheroe, C A; LeSuer, W E; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Wild-type or cytokine-deficient (IL-13(-/-) or IL-4(-/-) ) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophil deficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or in the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLN), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLN. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4, and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4(+) T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13, whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  18. Rituximab in the treatment of refractory or relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Jens; Hässler, Fabian; Salzer, Ulrich; Voll, Reinhard E; Venhoff, Nils

    2013-09-24

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is part of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)-associated vasculitides. In EGPA small-vessel vasculitis is associated with eosinophilia and asthma. About 40% of EGPA patients are ANCA-positive, suggesting a role for B cells in the pathogenesis of EGPA. B cell-depleting therapy with rituximab (RTX) can be effective in ANCA-positive EGPA, but very few patients have been published to date. The role of RTX in the treatment of ANCA-negative EGPA is unclear. We report a single-center cohort of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Of these patients, nine (six ANCA-positive, three ANCA-negative) had been treated with RTX for relapsing or refractory disease on standard immunosuppressive treatment. In a retrospective analysis, data on treatment response, frequency of relapses, adverse events, and peripheral B-cell reconstitution were evaluated. Furthermore, serum immunoglobulin concentrations, ANCA status, and peripheral B cell subpopulations were assessed after RTX treatment. All patients had high disease activity before RTX treatment. At presentation 3 months after RTX therapy, all ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative patients had responded to RTX, with one patient being in complete remission, and eight patients being in partial remission. After a mean follow-up of 9 months, C-reactive protein concentrations had normalized, eosinophils had significantly decreased, and prednisone had been tapered in all patients. In all patients, RTX therapy was combined with a standard immunosuppressive therapy. Within the 9-month observation period, no relapse was recorded. Three patients were preemptively retreated with RTX, and during the median follow-up time of 3 years, no relapse occurred in these patients. During the follow-up of 13 patient-years, five minor but no major infections were recorded. In our analysis on nine patients with EGPA resistant to standard therapy, rituximab proved to be an

  19. Enhanced resolution of eosinophilic liver abscess associated with toxocariasis by albendazole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Young; Choi, Moon Seok; Gwak, Geum Youn; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Paik, Yong Han; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Visceral larva migrans, caused by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, has emerged as a significant cause of eosinophilic liver abscess (ELA). Differentiation of ELA associated with toxocariasis (ELA-T) from metastasis or primary liver malignancy is sometimes difficult. However, the role of albendazole treatment remains uncertain in this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether albendazole can enhance the radiologic resolution of ELA-T. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients diagnosed with ELA-T at our institution between January 2008 and December 2011. ELA-T was diagnosed based on the imaging findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and the presence of positive serum IgG antibody for Toxocara canis. Among a total of 163 patients, 32 patients received albendazole (albendazole group) and 131 did not (control group). Baseline characteristics and fate of liver nodules were compared between the two groups. Baseline characteristics (age, sex, number and maximal size of lesions, eosinophil count) were similar between the two groups. Median duration for achieving radiologic resolution in the albendazole group was significantly shorter than in the control group (207 days [range 186-228] vs. 302 days [range 224-380], p=0.023). In Cox regression analysis of the cumulative rates of radiologic resolution, the hazard ratio for albendazole treatment was 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.23). Radiologic resolution of ELA-T can be accelerated with albendazole treatment. Hence, inconvenience associated with long-term follow-up and unnecessary worries among patients can be eliminated with albendazole treatment.

  20. Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissios Vliagoftis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils circulate in the blood and are recruited in tissues during allergic inflammation. Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. The formation of functional gap junctions was evaluated measuring dye transfer using flow cytometry. The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. Peripheral blood eosinophils express Cx43 mRNA and protein. Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane. The membrane impermeable dye BCECF transferred from eosinophils to epithelial or endothelial cells following coculture in a dose and time dependent fashion. The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. The gap junction inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited eosinophil transendothelial migration in a dose dependent manner. Thus, eosinophils from atopic individuals express Cx43 constitutively and Cx43 may play an important role in eosinophil transendothelial migration and function in sites of inflammation.

  1. Proton channel HVCN1 is required for effector functions of mouse eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Proton currents are required for optimal respiratory burst in phagocytes. Recently, HVCN1 was identified as the molecule required for the voltage-gated proton channel activity associated with the respiratory burst in neutrophils. Although there are similarities between eosinophils and neutrophils regarding their mechanism for respiratory burst, the role of proton channels in eosinophil functions has not been fully understood. Results In the present study, we first identified the expression of the proton channel HVCN1 in mouse eosinophils. Furthermore, using HVCN1-deficient eosinophils, we demonstrated important cell-specific effector functions for HVCN1. Similar to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils produced significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. In contrast to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils did not show impaired calcium mobilization or migration ability compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Uniquely, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils underwent significantly increased cell death induced by PMA stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. The increased cell death was dependent on NADPH oxidase activation, and correlated with the failure of HVCN1-deficient cells to maintain membrane polarization and intracellular pH in the physiological range upon activation. Conclusions Eosinophils require proton channel HVCN1 for optimal ROS generation and prevention of activation-induced cell death. PMID:23705768

  2. Asthma Control and Sputum Eosinophils: A Longitudinal Study in Daily Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarche, Sophie F; Schleich, Florence N; Paulus, Virginie A; Henket, Monique A; Van Hees, Thierry J; Louis, Renaud E

    Longitudinal trials have suggested that asthma control may be influenced by fluctuations in eosinophilic inflammation. This association has however never been confirmed in daily practice. To investigate the relationship between asthma control and sputum eosinophils in clinical practice. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on 187 patients with asthma with at least 2 successful sputum inductions at our Asthma Clinic. Linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between asthma control and individual changes in sputum eosinophils. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to define minimal important differences (MIDs) of sputum eosinophils associated with a change of at least 0.5 in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score. Then, a validation cohort of 79 patients with asthma was recruited to reassess this relationship and the accuracy of the MID values. A multivariate analysis showed that asthma control was independently associated with individual fluctuations in sputum eosinophil count (P eosinophilic asthma, we calculated a minimal important decrease of 4.3% in the percentage of sputum eosinophils (area under the curve [AUC], 0.69; P eosinophils and the accuracy of the MIDs of sputum eosinophils were confirmed in the validation cohort. At the individual level, asthma control was associated with fluctuations in sputum eosinophil count over time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-04

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. © 2016 Sugawara et al.

  4. Expression and functional roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Mami; Konno, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Takeda, Masahide; Itoga, Masamichi; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Chihara, Junichi; Ueki, Shigeharu

    2014-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in asthma links the estrogen and allergic immune responses. The function of estrogen was classically believed to be mediated through its nuclear receptors, i.e., estrogen receptors (ERs). However, recent studies established the important roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) as a novel membrane receptor for estrogen. To date, the role of GPER in allergic inflammation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPER might affect the functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils both at the mRNA and protein levels. Although GPER agonist G-1 did not induce eosinophil chemotaxis or chemokinesis, preincubation with G-1 enhanced eotaxin (CCL11)-directed eosinophil chemotaxis. G-1 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and caspase-3 activities. The anti-apoptotic effect was not affected by the cAMP-phospodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast to resting eosinophils, G-1 induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activities when eosinophils were co-stimulated with IL-5. No effect of G-1 was observed on eosinophil degranulation in terms of release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The current study indicates the functional capacities of GPER on human eosinophils and also provides the previously unrecognized mechanisms of interaction between estrogen and allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with Splendore-Hoeppli material in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Palley, L S; Rose, R

    1992-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, focal or diffuse with eosinophilic infiltrations of the stomach or intestine, has been described in human beings, cats, dogs, and horses. In this paper, we describe infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophils accompanied by a circulating eosinophilia in six ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Clinical signs included chronic weight loss, anorexia, and diarrhea. The small intestines from five ferrets had diffuse infiltrates of eosinophils. This resulted in focal or multifocal loss of the muscular tunic in three ferrets. Two of these ferrets also had eosinophilic gastritis. Eosinophilic granulomas with Splendore-Hoeppli material were present in mesenteric lymph nodes in four ferrets. Two ferrets had multiple organ involvement; one had eosinophilic granulomas in the liver, mesentery, and choroid plexus as well as moderate parapancreatic segmental arteritis with infiltration of eosinophils and mural thrombosis. The second ferret had, in addition to moderate diffuse gastric and small intestinal eosinophilic mucosal infiltrations, interstitial eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates. Examination of all tissues failed to reveal an infectious agent.

  6. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  7. Eosinophils as a novel cell source of prostaglandin D2: autocrine role in allergic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Magalhães, Kelly G; Mesquita-Santos, Fabio P.; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Samico, Rafaela F.; Molinaro, Raphael; Calheiros, Andrea S.; Diaz, Bruno L.; Bozza, Patrícia T.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is a key mediator of allergic inflammatory diseases that is mainly synthesized by mast cells, which constitutively express high levels of the terminal enzyme involved in PGD2 synthesis, the hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). Here, we investigated whether eosinophils are also able to synthesize, and therefore, supply biologically active PGD2. PGD2 synthesis was evaluated within human blood eosinophils, in vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils, and eosinophils infiltrating inflammatory site of mouse allergic reaction. Biological function of eosinophil-derived PGD2 was studied by employing inhibitors of synthesis and activity. Constitutive expression of H-PGDS was found within non-stimulated human circulating eosinophils. Acute stimulation of human eosinophils with A23187 (0.1 – 5 μM) evoked PGD2 synthesis, which was located at the nuclear envelope and was inhibited by pre-treatment with HQL-79 (10 μM), a specific H-PGDS inhibitor. Pre-stimulation of human eosinophils with arachidonic acid (AA; 10 μM) or human eotaxin (6 nM) also enhanced HQL-79-sensitive PGD2 synthesis, which, by acting on membrane-expressed specific receptors (DP1 and DP2), displayed an autocrine/paracrine ability to trigger leukotriene (LT)C4 synthesis and lipid body biogenesis, hallmark events of eosinophil activation. In vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils also synthesized paracrine/autocrine active PGD2 in response to AA stimulation. In vivo, at late time point of the allergic reaction, infiltrating eosinophils found at the inflammatory site appeared as an auxiliary PGD2-synthesizing cell population. Our findings reveal that eosinophils are indeed able to synthesize and secrete PGD2, hence representing during allergic inflammation an extra cell source of PGD2, which functions as an autocrine signal for eosinophil activation. PMID:22102725

  8. Protective Role of Eosinophils and TNFa after Ozone Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B; Wicher, Sarah A

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to ozone induces deleterious responses in the airways that include shortness of breath, inflammation, and bronchoconstriction. People with asthma have increased airway sensitivity to ozone and other irritants. Dr. Allison Fryer and colleagues addressed how exposure to ozone affects the immune and physiological responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs are considered a useful animal model for studies of respiratory and physiological responses in humans; their response to airborne allergens is similar to that in humans and shares some features of allergic asthma. Fryer and colleagues had previously observed that within 24 hours of exposure, ozone not only induced bronchoconstriction but also stimulated the production of new cells in the bone marrow, where all white blood cells develop. As a result of ozone exposure, increased numbers of newly synthesized white blood cells, particularly eosinophils, moved into the blood and lungs. The central hypothesis of the current study was that newly synthesized eosinophils recruited to the lungs 3 days after ozone exposure were beneficial to the animals because they reduced ozoneinduced bronchoconstriction. The investigators also hypothesized that the beneficial effect seen in normal (nonsensitized) animals was lost in animals that had been injected with an allergen, ovalbumin (sensitized). They also planned to explore the effects of inhibitors of certain cytokines (cellsignaling molecules). Immune responses in sensitized animals are dominated by a Th2 pattern, which is characterized by the synthesis of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and the Th2 subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the cells they activate (predominantly eosinophils, and B lymphocytes that switch to making immunoglobulin E [IgE]). Thus, sensitized animals were used as a model of allergic humans, whose immune responses tend to be dominated by IgE. Fryer and colleagues exposed normal and sensitized (allergic) guinea pigs to 2 ppm ozone or filtered

  9. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  10. T-helper 2 cytokines, transforming growth factor β1, and eosinophil products induce fibrogenesis and alter muscle motility in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEFs), human esophageal muscle cells (HEMCs), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. Biopsy specimens were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEFs and HEMCs. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were secreted spontaneously in mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEFs and HEMCs to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEFs and HEMCs to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEFs and HEMCs increased after incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased after blockade of transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase blockade. Eosinophil products reduced

  11. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  12. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  13. Investigation of CT diagnostic imaging of 'Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Nobuhiro; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Ojiri, Hiroya; Kanou, Asami; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    'Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS)' is a newly developed entity of chronic rhinosinusitis, which shows resistance against conventional treatment and poor prognosis. Pathologically, ECRS is manifested by high-degree of eosinophilic infiltration in the paranasal sinus mucosa. We structure the CT diagnostic criteria of ECRS and assess its availability. This diagnostic criteria consists of disease distribution (bilateral and predominant in the ethmoid sinus), existence of nasal polyp (s) and high attenuation which suggestive of allergic mucine. We retrospectively review CT of clinically diagnosed 14 ECRS cases to see if CT features of each case fit the criteria or not. The current CT diagnostic criteria of ECRS were proven to be useful to evaluate cases with clinical suspicion of ECRS. (author)

  14. Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    esophageal fibrosis in a mouse model of eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clinical Immunology (2013), 507. Original Manuscripts Jae Youn Cho...Broide MB ChB1 1Allergy and Immunology , Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego. 2Allergy and Immunology , Department of...acetylglucosamine re- peats [1,2]. Chitin is highly expressed in insects and crustacean exoskeletons, fungal cell walls, and microfilarial nematode

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of antibiotics use and the effectiveness in patients with EPF.

  16. Clinical lesson: eosinophilic oesophagitis, a new diagnosis to swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, C A; Kanakala, V; Stirling, R W; Attwood, S E A

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a recently described condition that has gained increasing recognition over the past 5 years. Despite this, many clinicians remain unaware of EoE, often leading to diagnostic delay and therefore significant morbidity. The diagnosis of EoE should be considered in any patient with a history of intermittent or continuous dysphagia, or oesophageal food impaction. It should be strongly suspected in young patients, particularly men, presenting with dysphagia and a ...

  17. Reliability of histologic assessment in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, M J; Ambarus, C A; Bredenoord, A J; Verheij, J; Lauwers, G Y; Walsh, J C; Katzka, D A; Nelson, S; van Viegen, T; Furuta, G T; Gupta, S K; Stitt, L; Zou, G; Parker, C E; Shackelton, L M; D Haens, G R; Sandborn, W J; Dellon, E S; Feagan, B G; Collins, M H; Jairath, V; Pai, R K

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) has been demonstrated, but only preliminary reliability data exist. Formally assess the reliability of the EoEHSS and additional histologic features. Four expert gastrointestinal pathologists independently reviewed slides from adult patients with EoE (N = 45) twice, in random order, using standardised training materials and scoring conventions for the EoEHSS and additional histologic features agreed upon during a modified Delphi process. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for scoring the EoEHSS, a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall histopathologic disease severity, and additional histologic features were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Almost perfect intra-rater reliability was observed for the composite EoEHSS scores and the VAS. Inter-rater reliability was also almost perfect for the composite EoEHSS scores and substantial for the VAS. Of the EoEHSS items, eosinophilic inflammation was associated with the highest ICC estimates and consistent with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater reliability. With the exception of dyskeratotic epithelial cells and surface epithelial alteration, ICC estimates for the remaining EoEHSS items were above the benchmarks for substantial intra-rater, and moderate inter-rater reliability. Estimation of peak eosinophil count and number of lamina propria eosinophils were associated with the highest ICC estimates among the exploratory items. The composite EoEHSS and most component items are associated with substantial reliability when assessed by central pathologists. Future studies should assess responsiveness of the score to change after a therapeutic intervention to facilitate its use in clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  19. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  20. Imaginal diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma of long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Cui Minyi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of eosinophilic granuloma of long bones so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinic materials and imaging findings of 24 patients with eosinophilic granuloma of long bones proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients received radiography; CT scan was performed in 6 cases; and MRI was done in 4 cases. Results: Fifteen patients out of 24 were male and 9 were female, with the average age 14. 7 years old. Solitary lesion was found in 22 cases, and multiple bone destruction was noted in 2 cases. There were 14 lesions located in femur; 5 in tibia; 3 in humer; and 2 in fibula. In total 16 lesions involved diaphysis and in 8 cases the metaphysis was invaded. Bone destruction, the changes of the adjacent cortex, periosteal reaction and soft tissue mass or swelling were demonstrated in images obtained. Conclusion: The imaging features in eosinophilic granuloma of long bones are characteristic. Careful and integrative analysis of imaging findings improves diagnosis accuracy of the disease. (authors)

  1. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...... eosinophil counts. In contrast, high-dose ICS therapy provided a significantly greater improvement in EIB in subjects with sputum eosinophilia compared to those with an eosinophil count of eosinophilic groups in the magnitude of improvement in EIB was evident after the first...

  3. Suppressive effects of primed eosinophils on single epicutaneous sensitization through regulation of dermal dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Liu, I-Lin; Chen, Hsi-Wen; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional innate immune cells involved in many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Epicutaneous sensitization with protein allergen is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. In this study, using a murine single protein-patch model, we show that eosinophils of a primed status accumulate in draining lymph nodes following single epicutaneous sensitization. Further, depletion of eosinophils results in enhancement of the induced Th1/Th2 immune responses, whereas IL-5-induced hypereosinophilia suppresses these responses. Mechanistically, primed eosinophils cause a reduction in the numbers and activation status of dermal dendritic cells in draining lymph nodes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that primed eosinophils exert suppressive effects on single epicutaneous sensitization through regulation of dermal dendritic cells. Thus, these findings highlight the critical roles of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis with important clinical implications for the prevention of allergen sensitization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  5. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts

  6. Role of eosinophils in airway inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin DP

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald P Tashkin,1 Michael E Wechsler2 1Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: COPD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In some patients with COPD, eosinophils contribute to inflammation that promotes airway obstruction; approximately a third of stable COPD patients have evidence of eosinophilic inflammation. Although the eosinophil threshold associated with clinical relevance in patients with COPD is currently subject to debate, eosinophil counts hold potential as biomarkers to guide therapy. In particular, eosinophil counts may be useful in assessing which patients may benefit from inhaled corticosteroid therapy, particularly regarding exacerbation prevention. In addition, several therapies targeting eosinophilic inflammation are available or in development, including monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL5 ligand, the IL5 receptor, IL4, and IL13. The goal of this review was to describe the biologic characteristics of eosinophils, their role in COPD during exacerbations and stable disease, and their use as biomarkers to aid treatment decisions. We also propose an algorithm for inhaled corticosteroid use, taking into consideration eosinophil counts and pneumonia history, and emerging eosinophil-targeted therapies in COPD. Keywords: lung disease, pulmonary diseases, corticosteroids, asthma, pneumonia

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  8. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined

  9. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis - a spectrum ranging from Wells' syndrome to Churg-Strauss syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Eisendle, Klaus; Zelger, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Wells' syndrome is defined as an inflammatory disorder with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis shows eosinophilic infiltrates in combination with vasculitic changes. And Churg Strauss Syndrome comprises all three characteristics - eosinophilic infiltrates, vasculitis and flame figures. To determine whether these three diseases are distinct entities or different manifestations of a similar clinicopathologic process. Histopathological samples and clinical courses of 17 patients with eosinophilic infiltrates, flame figures and clinical features of Wells' syndrome were re-evaluated. Histopathologically, we focused on the presence or absence of vasculitic features. Clinically, we included only patients who were diagnosed with Wells' syndrome at least once in the course of their disease. 4 patients were finally diagnosed with Wells' syndrome, 5 with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis and 6 with Churg Strauss syndrome. Further, we had one case of an overlap between Wells' syndrome and eosinophilic vasculitis and one case of Wegener granulomatosis. Vasculitic features were found in the samples of all patients. Histologically, we find vasculitic features in typical presentations of Wells' syndrome. Clinically, we find typical features of Wells' syndrome in patients finally diagnosed with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis or Churg Strauss syndrome. Furthermore, we have observed and formerly reported 3 patients with progression from Wells' syndrome to Churg Strauss syndrome. Thus, we assume that eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis might form a bridge between Wells' syndrome and Churg Strauss syndrome.

  10. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  11. Total artificial heart implantation for biventricular failure due to eosinophilic myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabori, Masashi; Kurihara, Chitaru; Miller, Yair; Heck, Kent A; Bogaev, Roberta C; Civitello, Andrew B; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of eosinophils and their infiltration into tissues. Although cardiac involvement is rare, eosinophilic myocarditis can lead to life-threating fulminant congestive heart failure. Treatment of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging as heart failure can be caused by biventricular dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature describing a patient with acute severe biventricular heart failure caused by eosinophilic myocarditis with mural left ventricular apical thrombus who was successfully treated with implantation of a total artificial heart as a bridge to heart transplant.

  12. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griseri, Thibault; Arnold, Isabelle C.; Pearson, Claire; Krausgruber, Thomas; Schiering, Chris; Franchini, Fanny; Schulthess, Julie; McKenzie, Brent S.; Crocker, Paul R.; Powrie, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26200014

  13. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnig, Cindy; Alsaleh, Ghada; Jung, Nicolas; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach-in a limited number of patients and controls-to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology.

  15. A key requirement for CD300f in innate immune responses of eosinophils in colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkovits, I; Reichman, H; Karo-Atar, D; Rozenberg, P; Zigmond, E; Haberman, Y; Ben Baruch-Morgenstern, N; Lampinen, M; Carlson, M; Itan, M; Denson, L A; Varol, C; Munitz, A

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are traditionally studied in the context of type 2 immune responses. However, recent studies highlight key innate immune functions for eosinophils especially in colonic inflammation. Surprisingly, molecular pathways regulating innate immune activities of eosinophil are largely unknown. We have recently shown that the CD300f is highly expressed by colonic eosinophils. Nonetheless, the role of CD300f in governing innate immune eosinophil activities is ill-defined. RNA sequencing of 162 pediatric Crohn's disease patients revealed upregulation of multiple Cd300 family members, which correlated with the presence of severe ulcerations and inflammation. Increased expression of CD300 family receptors was also observed in active ulcerative colitis (UC) and in mice following induction of experimental colitis. Specifically, the expression of CD300f was dynamically regulated in monocytes and eosinophils. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated Cd300f -/- mice exhibit attenuated disease activity and histopathology in comparison with DSS-treated wild type (WT). Decreased disease activity in Cd300f -/- mice was accompanied with reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and nearly abolished production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Monocyte depletion and chimeric bone marrow transfer experiments revealed a cell-specific requirement for CD300f in innate immune activation of eosinophils. Collectively, we uncover a new pathway regulating innate immune activities of eosinophils, a finding with significant implications in eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  17. Exosome secretion by eosinophils: A possible role in asthma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Carla; Cañas, José Antonio; Zafra, Maria Paz; Rojas Marco, Ainara; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sanz, Veronica; Mittelbrunn, María; Izquierdo, Manuel; Baixaulli, Francesc; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophils secrete several granules that are involved in the propagation of inflammatory responses in patients with pathologies such as asthma. We hypothesized that some of these granules are exosomes, which, when transferred to the recipient cells, could modulate asthma progression. Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood and cultured with or without IFN-γ or eotaxin. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in eosinophils were studied by using fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometry. Exosome secretion was measured and exosome characterization was performed with TEM, Western blotting, and NanoSight analysis. Generation of MVBs in eosinophils was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and corroborated by means of TEM. Having established that eosinophils contain MVBs, our aim was to demonstrate that eosinophils secrete exosomes. To do this, we purified exosomes from culture medium of eosinophils and characterized them. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that eosinophils secreted exosomes and that the discharge of exosomes to extracellular media increases after IFN-γ stimulation. We measured exosome size and quantified exosome production from healthy and asthmatic subjects using nanotracking analysis. We found that exosome production was augmented in asthmatic patients. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that eosinophils contain functional MVBs and secrete exosomes and that their secretion is increased in asthmatic patients. Thus exosomes might play an important role in the progression of asthma and eventually be considered a biomarker. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  19. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with ipsilateral pleural effusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; La, Hanh H; Albertson, Timothy E

    2016-08-12

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare idiopathic interstitial lung disease. The nearly pathognomonic radiographic finding is the peripheral distribution of alveolar opacities. Pleural effusions are rarely seen. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with transudative eosinophilic pleural effusion. A 57-year-old Hispanic woman, a nonsmoker with a history of controlled asthma, presented to the hospital with unresolving pneumonia despite three rounds of antibiotics over a 2-month period. She was later diagnosed with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia based on the presence of peripheral blood eosinophilia, the peripheral distribution of alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, and a lung parenchymal biopsy with infiltrates of eosinophils. Upon presentation, our patient had a right-sided moderate-sized pleural effusion. The pleural fluid profile was consistent with a transudative effusion with eosinophil predominance. Our patient responded promptly to oral corticosteroid treatment in a few days. The pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion subsided on a 1-month follow-up chest radiograph after starting corticosteroid treatment. We report the first case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with pneumonia with ipsilateral transudative eosinophilic pleural effusion. Like other cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, early recognition and diagnosis is essential and prompt treatment with corticosteroids is the mainstay of therapy. Pleural effusion resolved without the further need for therapeutic thoracentesis.

  20. Inhalation exposure to ethylene induces eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Christina; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Krieger, Shannon M; Pottenger, Lynn H; Harkema, Jack R

    2015-11-05

    This study investigated the time- and concentration-dependent effects of inhaled ethylene on eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fisher 344 rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 4 weeks. Morphometric quantitation of eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) and nasal mucosal gene expression were evaluated at anatomic sites previously shown to undergo ethylene-induced epithelial remodeling. Serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured to determine if ethylene exposure increased the expression of Th2-associated (IgE and IgG1) relative to Th1-associated (IgG2a) antibody isotypes. Rats exposed to 0 or 10,000 ppm for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 days were analyzed to assess the temporal pattern of ethylene-induced alterations in nasal epithelial cell proliferation, morphology and gene expression. Rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, and 10,000 ppm ethylene for 20 days were analyzed to assess concentration-dependent effects on lesion development. Additional rats exposed 4 weeks to 0, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene were held for 13 weeks post-exposure to examine the persistence of ethylene-induced mucosal alterations. The data indicate that cell death and reparative cell proliferation were not a part of the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions. Enhanced gene expression of Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-5, IL-13) and chitinase (YM1/2) in the nasal mucosa was much greater than that of Th1 cytokines (e.g., IFNγ) after ethylene exposure. A significant increase in MCM was measured after 5 days of exposure to 10,000 ppm ethylene and after 20 days of exposure 10 ppm ethylene. Ethylene-induced MCM was reversible after cessation of exposure. No increase in total serum IgE, IgG1 or IgG2a was measured in any ethylene-exposed group. These data do not support involvement of an immune-mediated allergic mechanism in the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions in rats. Repeated

  1. Cationic polymers and porous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2017-04-27

    According to one or more embodiments, cationic polymers may be produced which include one or more monomers containing cations. Such cationic polymers may be utilized as structure directing agents to form mesoporous zeolites. The mesoporous zeolites may include micropores as well as mesopores, and may have a surface area of greater than 350 m2/g and a pore volume of greater than 0.3 cm3/g. Also described are core/shell zeolites, where at least the shell portion includes a mesoporous zeolite material.

  2. Cationic polymers and porous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Tian, Qiwei; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Zhaohui; Basset, Jean-Marie; Saih, Youssef; Sun, Miao; Xu, Wei; Shaikh, Sohel

    2017-01-01

    According to one or more embodiments, cationic polymers may be produced which include one or more monomers containing cations. Such cationic polymers may be utilized as structure directing agents to form mesoporous zeolites. The mesoporous zeolites may include micropores as well as mesopores, and may have a surface area of greater than 350 m2/g and a pore volume of greater than 0.3 cm3/g. Also described are core/shell zeolites, where at least the shell portion includes a mesoporous zeolite material.

  3. The cation-π interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-04-16

    The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(δ-)-H(δ+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is

  4. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  5. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  6. Re-defining the Unique Roles for Eosinophils in Allergic Respiratory Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The role of eosinophils in the progression and resolution of allergic respiratory inflammation is poorly defined despite the commonality of their presence and in some cases their use as a biomarker for disease severity and/or symptom control. However, this ambiguity belies the wealth of insights that have recently been gained through the use of eosinophil-deficient/attenuated strains of mice that have demonstrated novel immunoregulatory and remodeling/repair functions for these cells in the lung following allergen provocation. Specifically, studies of eosinophil-deficient mice suggest that eosinophils contribute to events occurring in the lungs following allergen provocation at several key moments: (i) The initiating phase of events leading to Th2-polarized pulmonary inflammation, (ii) The suppression Th1/Th17 pathways in lung draining lymph nodes, (iii) The recruitment of effector Th2 T cells to the lung, and finally (iv) Mechanisms of inflammatory resolution that re-establish pulmonary homeostasis. These suggested functions have recently been confirmed and expanded upon using allergen provocation of an inducible eosinophil-deficient strain of mice (iPHIL) that demonstrated an eosinophil-dependent mechanism(s) leading to Th2 dominated immune responses in the presence of eosinophils in contrast to neutrophilic as well as mixed Th1/Th17/Th2 variant phenotypes in the absence of eosinophils. These findings highlighted that eosinophils are not exclusively downstream mediators controlled by T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and/or innate lymphocytic cells (ILC2). Instead, eosinophils appear to be more aptly described as significant contributors in complex interrelated pathways that lead to pulmonary inflammation and subsequently promote resolution and the re-establishment of homeostatic baseline. In this review we summarize and put into the context the evolving hypotheses that are now expanding our understanding of the roles eosinophils likely have in the lung

  7. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  8. Cation disorder in Ga1212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, K B; Ko, D; Vander Griend, D A; Sarjeant, G M; Milgram, J W; Garrity, E S; DeLoach, D I; Poeppelmeier, K R; Salvador, P A; Mason, T O

    2000-07-24

    Substitution of calcium for strontium in LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) materials at ambient pressure and 975 degrees C results in complete substitution of calcium for strontium in the lanthanum and praseodymium systems and partial substitution in the other lanthanide systems. The calcium saturation level depends on the size of the Ln cation, and in all cases, a decrease in the lattice parameters with calcium concentration was observed until a common, lower bound, average A-cation size is reached. Site occupancies from X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments for LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (x = 0 and x = 2) confirm that the A-cations distribute between the two blocking-layer sites and the active-layer site based on size. A quantitative link between cation distribution and relative site-specific cation enthalpy for calcium, strontium, and lanthanum within the gallate structure is derived. The cation distribution in other similar materials can potentially be modeled.

  9. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  10. Optimization of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer: structure-function, physico-chemical, and cellular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Marie; Tranchant, Isabelle; Niore, Pierre-Antoine; Byk, Gerardo; Mignet, Nathalie; Escriou, Virginie; Scherman, Daniel; Herscovici, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The rationale design aimed at the enhancement of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer is discussed. These improvements are based on the straight evaluation of the structure-activity relationship and on the introduction of new structures. Much attention have been given to the supramolecular structures of the lipid/DNA complexes, to the effect of serum on gene transfer and to the intracellular trafficking of the lipoplexes. Finally new avenue using reducible cationic lipids has been discussed.

  11. Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celegen, Mehmet; Karkıner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

  12. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Diffuse Gastrointestinal Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Franco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder.

  13. Generalized morphea/eosinophilic fasciitis overlap after epoxy exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren H. Chan, MS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalized morphea is associated with epoxy resin vapors and is characterized by the development of lesions shortly after exposure. Morphea presenting along with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, or morphea/EF overlap, is rare and an indicator of poor prognosis and resistance to treatment. Here we present a case of generalized morphea/EF overlap linked to epoxy exposure. Our patient received multiple therapies—ultraviolet A1 phototherapy, prednisone, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and rituximab—none of which led to a significant response. The refractory nature of this disease warrants vigilance in its association with epoxy exposure.

  14. Relationship among antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, blood urea nitrogen and complement in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kimura, Satoko; Takeuchi, Sora; Soma, Yoshinao

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis characterized by a history of asthma, hypereosinophilia. The prevalence of ANCA in EGPA is less common than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis. Increasing evidence of complement activation in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has been provided by studies in animal models. We examined EGPA patients with cutaneous manifestations as an initial sign and investigated the correlations among clinical, serological and histopathological findings. We focused on differences among ANCA, blood urea nitrogen and complement levels such as complement 3 (C3), C4 and total complement hemolytic activity (CH50). We retrospectively investigated the records of 22 patients (11 male and 11 female) with EGPA admitted to our hospital from 1997-2012. Ten of the 22 patients (46%) were positive for serum myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. In contrast, all the patients were negative for serum proteinase 3 ANCA. There was a significantly positive correlation between serum CH50 and C4 levels in patients with EGPA. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels differed significantly between MPO-ANCA-positive and -negative patients. Serum CH50 levels were higher in MPO-ANCA-positive patients compared to negative patients. Serum BUN levels were higher in elevated CH50 patients compared to normal and low CH50-negative patients. We propose that positive findings for MPO-ANCA with CH50 high activity may be a risk factor for developing renal insufficiency. Assuming there are correlations between the presence of ANCA and complements, earlier diagnosis based on initial efficacious treatment for EGPA. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. The effects of Strongylus vulgaris parasitism on eosinophil distribution and accumulation in equine large intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, A K; Freeman, D E; Constable, P D; Moore, R M; Eurell, J C; Wallig, M A; Hubert, J D

    2008-06-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes have been associated with parasite or immune-mediated diseases, but their functions in other disease processes remain unclear. Cause and timing of eosinophil migration into the equine gastrointestinal mucosa are also unknown. To determine the effects of intestinal parasitism on eosinophils in equine large intestinal mucosa. Large intestinal mucosal samples were collected from horses and ponies (n = 16) from the general veterinary hospital population, ponies (n = 3) raised in a parasite-free environment, ponies experimentally infected with 500 infective Strongylus vulgaris larvae and treated with a proprietary anthelmintic drug (n = 14), and a similar group of ponies (n = 7) that received no anthelmintic treatment. Total eosinophil counts and eosinophil distribution in the mucosa were determined by histological examination. A mixed model analysis was performed and appropriate Bonferroni adjusted P values used for each family of comparisons. Pvulgaris and those raised in a parasite-free environment. Experimental infection with S. vulgaris, with or without subsequent anthelmintic treatment, did not change eosinophil counts, and counts were similar to those for horses from the general population. Migration of eosinophils to the equine large intestinal mucosa appears to be independent of exposure to parasites. Large intestinal mucosal eosinophils may have more functions in addition to their role in defence against parasites.

  16. Pyloric obstruction due to massive eosinophilic infiltration in a young adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Alexandros O; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Psalla, Dimitra; Soubasis, Nectarios; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-11-01

    A 16-month-old dog was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia, progressive weight loss, and melena. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a massive pyloric eosinophilic infiltration leading to pyloric obstruction that was treated successfully with pylorectomy. This is a novel clinical presentation of eosinophilic gastritis and highlights the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis for pyloric obstruction.

  17. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  18. Regulation of Spontaneous Eosinophil Apoptosis—A Neglected Area of Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interleukin (IL-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.

  19. Indomethacin causes prostaglandin D(2)-like and eotaxin-like selective responses in eosinophils and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Victoria E L; Schratl, Petra; Hartnell, Adele; Williams, Timothy J; Peskar, Bernhard A; Heinemann, Akos; Sabroe, Ian

    2002-07-19

    We investigated the actions of a panel of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes. Indomethacin alone was a potent and selective inducer of eosinophil and basophil shape change. In eosinophils, indomethacin induced chemotaxis, CD11b up-regulation, respiratory burst, and L-selectin shedding but did not cause up-regulation of CD63 expression. Pretreatment of eosinophils with indomethacin also enhanced subsequent eosinophil shape change induced by eotaxin, although treatment with higher concentrations of indomethacin resulted in a decrease in the expression of the major eosinophil chemokine receptor, CCR3. Indomethacin activities and cell selectivity closely resembled those of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)). Eosinophil shape change in response to eotaxin was inhibited by pertussis toxin, but indomethacin- and PGD(2)-induced shape change responses were not. Treatment of eosinophils with specific inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (LY-294002), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB-202190) revealed roles for these pathways in indomethacin signaling. Indomethacin and its analogues may therefore provide a structural basis from which selective PGD(2) receptor small molecule antagonists may be designed and which may have utility in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disease.

  20. A case of eosinophilic granuloma of the calvarium and the diagnostic value of the bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Nakashima, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Shozo; Oyama, Teruo; Nishimura, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    An operative case of eosinophilic granuloma in a 2 year and 3 month old boy was presented. The authors found that bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate is valuable in determining the spread of eosinophilic granulomatous lesion in the skull. We recommend this procedure before and after operation on this disease. (author)

  1. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  2. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  3. Increased CD69 Expression on Peripheral Eosinophils from Patients with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo; Matsuda, Yusuke; Toma, Tomoko; Koizumi, Eiko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy. We recently described a significant increase in fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) after ingestion of the causative food. However, little is known about the activation status of circulating eosinophils in patients with an acute FPIES reaction. Surface CD69 expression was assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral eosinophils from 5 patients with FPIES before and after ingestion of the causative food. Fecal EDN was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No eosinophil activation was observed before ingestion; however, a significant increase in CD69 expression on eosinophils after an acute FIPES reaction was demonstrated in all of the patients. There was no significant change in absolute eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. The levels of fecal EDN increased on the day after ingestion of the causative food in all patients. These results suggest that circulating eosinophils as well as eosinophils in the intestinal mucosal tissue are activated in acute FPIES reactions and might be associated with systemic immune events in FPIES. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. An ultrastructural study of the interaction of human eosinophils with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; Garofalo, R; Welliver, RC; Fujihara, K; Ogra, PL

    It was shown previously that eosinophils are activated in vivo and in vitro by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Garofalo et al., J Pediatr 1992: 120: 28-32; Kimpen et al., Pediatr Res 1992: 32: 160-4). For study of the interaction of eosinophils and RSV on the ultrastructural level, normodense

  5. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl - , NO 3 - , C 2 O 4 2- ) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Th 4+ ) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author) [fr

  6. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Sarah B.; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene

    2017-01-01

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils...... in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability...... of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that adiponectin and nitric oxide are released after activation of adipocyte-expressed β3 adrenoceptors by catecholamines, and identified eosinophils as a novel source...

  7. High resolution autoradiographic studies of RNA, protein and DNA synthesis during human eosinophil granulocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, S.N.; Hughes, M.

    1978-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells which had been incubated with [ 3 H] uridine or [ 3 H]leucine for 1 h were studied using the technique of electron microscope-autoradiography. The autoradiographs revealed the presence of newly-synthesized RNA and protein molecules within or on a proportion of (1) the primary and secondary granules in all classes of eosinophil precursors and (2) the secondary granules in eosinophil granulocytes. It is suggested that the granule-associated RNA molecules may be concerned with the synthesis of at least some of the new protein molecules which were incorporated into the limiting membrane or substance of eosinophil granules long after the immature primary granule stage. Studies of eosinophil precursors which had been incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for 1 h showed that the eosinophil granules did not label with this DNA precursor. (author)

  8. Isolation of Eosinophils from the Lamina Propria of the Murine Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Claudia; Beller, Alexander; Chu, Van Trung

    2016-01-01

    Only recently has it become apparent that eosinophils play a crucial role in mucosal immune homeostasis. Although eosinophils are the main cellular component of the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, they have often been overlooked because they express numerous markers, which are normally used to characterize macrophages and/or dendritic cells. To study their function in mucosal immunity, it is important to isolate them with high purity and viability. Here, we describe a protocol to purify eosinophils from the lamina propria of the murine small intestine. The method involves preparation of the small intestine, removal of epithelial cells and digestion of the lamina propria to release eosinophils. A protocol to sort eosinophils is included.

  9. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  10. Airway eosinophils accumulate in the mediastinal lymph nodes but lack antigen-presenting potential for naive T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijt, Leonie S.; Vos, Nanda; Hijdra, Daniëlle; de Vries, Victor C.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Lambrecht, Bart N.

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with eosinophils. Although eosinophils are considered to be effector cells, recent studies have reported their ability to activate primed Th2 cells. In this study, we investigated whether eosinophils are capable of presenting Ag to unprimed

  11. Changes in CD11b and L-selectin expression on eosinophils are mediated by human lung fibroblasts in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, FM; Hovenga, H; Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF

    Eosinophilic airway infiltration is a central feature in asthma. Eosinophils recovered from bronchoalveolar fluid show an activated phenotype, e.g., increased CD11b and decreased L-selectin expression. We investigated whether lung fibroblasts are able to activate eosinophils in vitro, and if so,

  12. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  13. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  14. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  15. Reduction of serum TARC levels in atopic dermatitis by topical anti-inflammatory treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yumi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Abe, Takeru; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Kohda, Futoshi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka

    2014-09-01

    Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels are associated with the disease activity of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and sensitively reflect short-term changes in skin conditions. The main treatment for AD is topical agent application. This study investigated the relationship between serum TARC levels and the dosage of topical agents, including corticosteroids and/or tacrolimus, in patients with AD. The serum TARC levels of 56 AD patients and the amounts of topical agents prescribed to them were investigated retrospectively. The weekly reduction in serum TARC levels and weekly dosage of topical agents among AD patients were compared and their associations were evaluated. The dosage of topical agents was closely related to serum TARC levels. One gram of strong rank steroid or the equivalent amount of steroid/tacrolimus is required to reduce serum TARC levels by 9.94 pg/mL weekly in moderate to severe AD patients. Higher initial TARC levels require more topical agent, which results in a more rapid decrease in TARC levels. The serum TARC levels and eosinophil numbers in peripheral blood are significantly correlated. Serum TARC level improvement and topical agent dosage are strongly correlated. TARC and eosinophil numbers are significantly correlated, but the wider range of TARC levels seems to be clinically more useful for monitoring AD severity. The serum TARC level is a very sensitive biomarker for monitoring the severity and treatment response in AD.

  16. Esophageal motor disorders in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Fouad J; Maydonovitch, Corinne L; Veerappan, Ganesh R; Bassett, John T; Lake, Jason M; Wong, Roy K H

    2011-05-01

    An association between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and esophageal motility disorders has been described in small studies. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of esophageal motor disorders in a large cohort of adults with EoE and examine whether an association exists between esophageal dysmotility and dysphagia. A retrospective review of esophageal manometry studies in adult EoE patients was performed. Tracings were reviewed for abnormalities including nutcracker esophagus and ineffective swallows, defined as low amplitude peristalsis (esophagus was found in three patients. There was no significant difference in eosinophil count among the motility groups: normal 46.5 ± 3.1, mild IEM 56.9 ± 36.9, moderate IEM 45.5 ± 23.7, severe IEM 34.3 ± 12.6 (P = 0.157). In this cohort of EoE patients, the majority had normal esophageal motility studies, although a subset of these patients had some esophageal dysmotility. It is unlikely that esophageal dysmotility is a major contributing factor to dysphagia, although it is reasonable to consider esophageal manometry testing in EoE patients to identify potential abnormalities of the smooth muscle esophagus.

  17. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M. Frech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD. Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies.

  19. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  20. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  1. Esophageal Rupture as a Primary Manifestation in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a chronic inflammatory process characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and, histologically, by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. In adults, it commonly presents with dysphagia, food impaction, and chest or abdominal pain. Chronic inflammation can lead to diffuse narrowing of the esophageal lumen which may cause food impaction. Endoscopic procedures to relieve food impaction may lead to complications such as esophageal perforation due to the friability of the esophageal mucosa. Spontaneous transmural esophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave’s syndrome, as a primary manifestation of EoE is rare. In this paper, we present two adult patients who presented with esophageal perforation as the initial manifestation of EoE. This rare complication of EoE has been documented in 13 other reports (11 adults, 2 children and only 1 of the patients had been previously diagnosed with EoE. A history of dysphagia was present in 1 of our patients and in the majority of previously documented patients. Esophageal perforation is a potentially severe complication of EoE. Patients with a history of dysphagia and patients with spontaneous esophageal perforation should warrant an evaluation for EoE.

  2. Methimazole associated eosinophilic pleural effusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-da-Costa, Pedro; Duarte Silva, Filipa; Henriques, Júlia; do Vale, Sónia; Braz, Sandra; Meneses Santos, João; M M Victorino, Rui

    2017-03-21

    Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to thionamides have also been reported, two with propylthiouracil and three with carbimazole. We report here a case of a 75-year-old man admitted because of unilateral pleural effusion. The patient had a recent diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and 6 days after starting methimazole complained of pleuritic chest pain. He had elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and normal white blood cell count and liver enzymes. Chest radiography showed a moderate right pleural effusion and the ultrasound revealed a loculated effusion that was shown to be an eosinophilic exudate. The temporal relationship between methimazole intake and the development of pleural effusion combined with the extensive exclusion of alternative causes, namely infectious, neoplastic and primary auto-immune diseases, led to the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to methimazole. The thionamide was stopped and corticosteroid was started with complete resolution of the pleural effusion in 3 months. Awareness of this rare adverse reaction of anti-thyroid drugs is important and methimazole can be added to the list of possible etiologies of drug-induced eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  3. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Adina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  4. Successful Treatment For Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL With Imatinib Mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane da Silva Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL with mutation in alfa PDGFR gene exhibiting a satisfactory response to treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 25-year-old man presented in a hematology service with a persistent cough and hemogram alterations. His blood count showed a hemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and a white blood cell count of 94,030/mm3, eosinophils were 68% of all cells. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hypercellularity with marked eosinophilia (77% and erythroid differentiation series was hypocellular with normoblast maturation. The immunohistochemically of the bone biopsy was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD34/CD99, consistent with CEL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for the beta-fraction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRβ and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph 1 were negative and the alfa PDGFR (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor was positive and showed heterozygosis in c.2531T>C on 18 Exon and homozygous in C.2562+1G>A at the region of the splicing site at the 18 intron. Treatment was initiated and maintained by administering 400mg/day imatinib mesylate. Laboratory findings returned to normal ranges, with clinical improvement and a hematological response observed after the second month of therapy. Currently, the patient’s blood count shows the white blood cell count (5,400 total leukocytes, eosinophils (8.6/mm3, hemoglobin (15.5 g/dl, hematocrit (45.4% and platelets (298,000/mm3 within normal ranges. The mutation search was negative in in peripheral blood one year after the initial treatment. Our work corroborates other studies on the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of patients with CSF PDGFR alpha positive. We emphasize the importance of molecular studies, considering its relevance for the correct staging of the disease. Since CEL is a rare disease, it is important to define its etiology and anticipate its treatment, thus minimizing the damage induced by

  5. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis.

  6. TLR-Stimulated Eosinophils Mediate Recruitment and Activation of NK Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, S M; Sutummaporn, K; Häggtoft, W L; Worrall, A P; Rizzo, M; Braniste, V; Höglund, P; Kadri, N; Chambers, B J

    2017-06-01

    Eosinophils like many myeloid innate immune cells can provide cytokines and chemokines for the activation of other immune cells upon TLR stimulation. When TLR-stimulated eosinophils were inoculated i.p. into wild-type mice, and NK cells were rapidly recruited and exhibited antitumour cytotoxicity. However, when mice depleted of CD11c + cells were used, a marked decrease in the number of recruited NK cells was observed. We postulated that CpG or LPS from the injected eosinophils could be transferred to host cells, which in turn could recruit NK cells. However, by inoculating mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR9 with LPS or CpG-stimulated eosinophils respectively, NK cell recruitment was still observed alongside cytotoxicity and IFNγ production. CpG stimulation of eosinophils produced the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and the chemokine CXCL10, which are important for NK cell activation and recruitment in vivo. To demonstrate the importance of CXCL10 in NK cell recruitment, we found that CpG-stimulated eosinophils pretreated with the gut microbial metabolite butyrate had reduced expression and production of CXCL10 and IL-12 and concomitantly were poor at recruitment of NK cells and inducing IFNγ in NK cells. Therefore, eosinophils like other innate immune cells of myeloid origin can conceivably stimulate NK cell activity. In addition, products of the gut microbiota can be potential inhibitors of NK cell. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  7. Eosinophils Regulate Interferon Alpha Production in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Stimulated with Components of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Zabieglo, Katarzyna; Bossowski, Jozef P; Osiecka, Oktawia; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Kapinska-Mrowiecka, Monika; Kwitniewski, Mateusz; Majewski, Pawel; Dubin, Adam; Cichy, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Eosinophils constitute an important component of helminth immunity and are not only associated with various allergies but are also linked to autoinflammatory disorders, including the skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate the functional relationship between eosinophils and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as related to skin diseases. We previously showed that pDCs colocalize with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in psoriatic skin. Here we demonstrate that eosinophils are found in psoriatic skin near neutrophils and NETs, suggesting that pDC responses can be regulated by eosinophils. Eosinophils inhibited pDC function in vitro through a mechanism that did not involve cell contact but depended on soluble factors. In pDCs stimulated by specific NET components, eosinophil-conditioned media attenuated the production of interferon α (IFNα) but did not affect the maturation of pDCs as evidenced by the unaltered expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. As pDCs and IFNα play a key role in autoimmune skin inflammation, these data suggest that eosinophils may influence autoinflammatory responses through their impact on the production of IFNα by pDCs.

  8. The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?” PMID:22936660

  9. Antibody-secreting cells in respiratory tract tissues in the absence of eosinophils as supportive partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Robert E; Surman, Sherri L; Vogel, Peter; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-11-01

    Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in respiratory tract tissues provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. These cells often secrete IgA that is efficiently transcytosed across epithelial barriers into the airway lumen where pathogens can be blocked at their point of entry. Previous literature has reported that in the bone marrow, eosinophils are required for the maintenance of ASCs, and that eosinophils co-localize with ASCs as nearest neighbors. To determine if these rules similarly apply to the maintenance of ASCs in respiratory tract tissues, we evaluated virus-specific responses 1 month and 4 months following an intranasal virus infection of eosinophil-null (∆dblGATA-1) mice. Results showed that ASCs were fractionally reduced, but were nonetheless observed in respiratory tract tissues in the absence of eosinophils. Virus-specific antibodies were similarly observed in the airways of eosinophil-deficient mice. Respiratory tract ASCs were also present in mice lacking neutrophils (Mcl1 ∆M ). The staining of tissue sections from the upper respiratory tract of wild-type mice following viral infections demonstrated that virus-specific ASCs were most frequently situated adjacent to epithelial cells rather than eosinophils or neutrophils. Taken together, these data emphasize that rules for cell maintenance are not absolute and that ASCs can survive in the respiratory tract without eosinophils or neutrophils as their nearest neighbors. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y I; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts may predict the severity of EIB in asthma. Seventy-seven men with perennial asthma (age range 18-23 years) were included. Lung function test, skin prick test, and blood tests for eosinophils counts and total IgE levels were performed. Methacholine bronchial provocation test and, 24 h later, free running test were carried out. EIB was defined as a 15% reduction or more in post-exercise FEV1 compared with pre-exercise FEV1 value. Atopy score was defined as a sum of mean wheal diameters to allergens. EIB was observed in 60 (78%) of 77 subjects. Asthmatics with EIB showed significantly increased percentages of eosinophils (P 700 microl(-1) (36.9 +/- 12.7%) had significantly greater maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise than asthmatics with eosinophils of 350 microl(-1) yielded the specificity of 88% and positive predictive value of 93% for the presence of EIB. When a multiple regression analysis of maximal % fall in FEV1 according to log eosinophil counts, log PC20, log IgE and atopy score was performed, only blood eosinophil counts were significant factor contributing to the maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise. These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma.

  11. Eosinophil Resistance to Glucocorticoid-Induced Apoptosis is Mediated by the Transcription Factor NFIL3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired prop-aptoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that 1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and 2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils. PMID:26880402

  12. Evidence for a role of eosinophils in blister formation in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, E; Sitaru, C; Horn, M; Borradori, L; Yousefi, S; Simon, H-U; Simon, D

    2017-07-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES). In an ex vivo human model of BP, normal human skin cryosections were incubated with purified human peripheral blood eosinophils with or without activation in the presence or absence of BP autoantibodies, brefeldin A, diphenyleneiodonium, DNase or blocking F(ab') 2 fragments to CD16, CD18, CD32 and CD64. Dermal-epidermal separation was assessed by light microscopy studies and quantified using Fiji software. Following activation with IL-5 and in the presence of BP autoantibodies, eosinophils induced separation along the dermal-epidermal junction of ex vivo skin. Dermal-epidermal separation was significantly reduced by blocking any of the following: Fcγ receptor binding (P = 0.048), eosinophil adhesion (P = 0.046), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (P = 0.002), degranulation (P eosinophil extracellular trap (EET) formation (P = 0.048). Our results provide evidence that IL-5-activated eosinophils directly contribute to BP blister formation in the presence of BP autoantibodies. Dermal-epidermal separation by IL-5-activated eosinophils depends on adhesion and Fcγ receptor activation, requires elevated ROS production and degranulation and involves EET formation. Thus, targeting eosinophils may be a promising therapeutic approach for BP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. New double-cation borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Inge; Domenech Ferrer, Roger; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Hagemann, Hans; Cerny, Radovan [Department of Physical Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Complex hydrides are under consideration for on-board hydrogen storage due to their high hydrogen density. However, up to now conventional borohydrides are either too stable or unstable for applications as in PEM fuel cells (60-120 C). Recently, double-cation borohydride systems have attracted great interest. The desorption temperature of the borohydrides decreases with increasing electronegativity of the cation. Consequently, it is possible to tailor a feasible on-board hydrogen storage material by the combination of appropriate cations. The stability was found to be intermediate between the single-cation borohydride systems. Two combinations were sucessfully synthesised by metathesis reaction via high energy ball milling. Al-Li-borohydride shows desorption at about 70 C combined with a very high hydrogen density (17.2 wt.%) and the Na-Al-borohydride (14.2 wt.%) decomposes around 90 C. Both desorption temperatures are in the target range for applications. The decomposition pathways were observed by in-situ-Raman spectroscopy, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetry) and thermal desorption measurements.

  14. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia—Not Otherwise Specified (NOS in the Background of a Large Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson I. Gonsalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal eosinophilic disorders are rare among hematological malignancies. Most eosinophilia tends to be due to secondary causes such as infections, hypersensitivity conditions, drug reactions, and connective tissue disorders. The presence of a primary clonal eosinophilic disorder such as chronic eosinophilic leukemia—not otherwise specified (NOS in the presence of a synchronous large cell lymphoma—is rare making the diagnosis challenging. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with the aforementioned presentation and demonstrate the extensive workup performed to identify the diagnosis.

  16. Hematemesis as Initial Presentation in a 10-Week-Old Infant with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation.

  17. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    were seen with eosinophil cutoffs of 300 cells per μL and 400 cells per μL, and mutually exclusive subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Blood eosinophil counts at screening were related to the exacerbation rate after complete ICS withdrawal in patients with severe to very severe COPD and a history...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  18. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid......Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  19. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts.......2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated...

  20. Case report 424: Eosinophilic granuloma of the acromion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Betz, R.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1987-01-01

    The case has been presented of a unifocal lesion of eosinophilic granuloma in the acromion of a 16-year-old young man. The use of a special technique radiologically in outlining lesions of the acromion was described. Of interest was the fact that the patient appeared at the Temple University Section for Sports Medicine and Science upon experiencing pain following a fishing expedition. In this connection, the frequency of injuries of the shoulder on various Temple University athletic teams was discussed. The value of an isotope scan in establishing a diagnosis was considered and the relationship of the lesion to Hand-Schueller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease was noted. Treatment also was considered. (orig./MG)

  1. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis as a Stenosing Lesion in the Subglottis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Keogh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subglottic Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis (EAF is an extremely rare disease of an elusive aetiology. It is chronically progressive benign condition that causes narrowing of the subglottic region leading to dysphonia and airway compromise. The diagnosis is historical and imaging is nonspecific. We report a case xc of 56-year-old lady referred to our institution with globus sensation, hoarseness, and mild stridor. Incidental subglottic mass was found at time of diagnostic microlaryngoscopy and biopsy confirmed subglottic EAF. All laboratory investigations were unremarkable. Lesion was removed with laryngeal microdebrider and three courses of intravenous dexamethasone were administered. Patient’s postoperative period was uneventful and had remained disease free for 1 year. To date, no consensus has been reached on the optimal treatment of subglottic EAF. We recommend regular follow-up to detect early recurrence.

  2. MR imaging of eosinophilic granuloma: report of 11 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepper, A M.A. de [Department of Medical Imaging, Univ. Hospital, Antwerp, (Belgium)1; Ramon, F [Department of Medical Imaging, Univ. Hospital, Antwerp, (Belgium)1; Marck, E van [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium)2

    1993-04-01

    The findings in 11 patients with histologically proven eosinophilic granuloma (EG) examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. In contrast with the variable appearance of EG on conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT), relatively constant features - intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighting, high signal intensity of T2-weighting, marked enhancement - were found on MRI. MRI was superior to other imaging methods in demonstrating bone marrow involvement and any accompanying soft tissue mass or inflammation. Intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighting and marked contrast enhancement could not be 'explained' by histological findings. Prediction of the evolutionary phase of EG by MRI remains questionable because of the phase I (proliferative) histology of all 11 lesions. (orig.)

  3. [Eosinophilic pleural effusion possibly induced by fibrin sealant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takatoyo; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 74-year-old man underwent right upper lobectomy for the lung cancer and bullectomy of right lower lobe. Fibrin sealant was used for sealing the excision line. The increase of the pleural effusion with increasing C-reactive protein( CRP) and eosinophilia was noted at the 17th day after the operation. The pleural effusion was transparent and yellowish colored suggesting transudatory liquid. The eosinophil in the pleural effusion was as high as 14%. The drainage of the pleural effusion was performed for 2 days resulting in disappearing the abnormal accumulation without any additional treatment. The cause of pleural effusion was supposed to be fibrin sealant by a positive result of the drug lymphocyte stimulation test.

  4. [Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevin, Loïc

    2012-10-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (Churg-Strauss), is a rare necrotizing vasculitis of small-sized vessels, associated to antimyeloperoxydase ANCA in 40% of patients. EGPA occurs in patients with asthma. Asthma is sever, associated with eosinophilia and extrapulmonary symptoms. Among them, mononeuritis multiplex is the most frequent symptom. When cardiac involvement is present, prognosis is poor. Despite a good overall prognosis, deaths are caused by vasculitis activity, gastrointestinal and cardiac involvement. Treatment is well codified based on steroids, which are quickly effective. Immunosuppressants combined with corticosteroids are compulsory to treat the most sever forms, mainly when cardiac and gastrointestinal or renal symptoms are present. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.

  6. Focus on audiologic impairment in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccia, Veronica; Fortunato, Susanna; Cristofani-Mencacci, Lodovica; Dallan, Iacopo; Casani, Augusto P; Latorre, Manuela; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Baldini, Chiara

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of audiologic impairment and its relationship with the nasal, vestibular, and rheumatologic profile in a cohort of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome. Prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine patients with EGPA, considered controlled according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and the Vasculitis Damage Index, underwent a complete audiologic evalutaion with otomicroscopy, impedance audiometry, speech audiometry, and auditory brainstem responses; rhinologic evaluation was made by means of fiberoptic endoscopy and nasal cytology; the clinical evaluation was completed with analysis of the facial function and, in patients with referred vertigo, with videonystagmography (VNG). Data were compared to the rheumatologic profile (eosinophil count, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies status). Thirty-four of 39 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of those, 18 (52, 8%) were affected by variable degrees of hearing loss (sensorineural hearing loss [SNHL]) in four cases (11, 8%), mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss in two (5, 9%), presbycusis in six (17, 6%), and otitis media with effusion (OME) in six (17, 6%). Vestibular impairment was represented by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and unspecific dizziness in three (8, 8%) and four cases (11, 8%), respectively, all with normal VNG. Ear involvement was statistically related to the EGPA vasculitic pattern and independent from the nasal impairment, cytology, and duration of nasal symptoms. No facial palsy was registered. In our experience, the largest in the existing literature, the otological involvement in EGPA is common and may occur variably as SNHL or OME. Otological involvement occurs early in the course of the disease process, but is nonspecific in making the diagnosis of EGPA. Its recognition is therefore fundamental. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2792-2797, 2016. © 2016 The American

  7. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfram; Sievers, Torsten K.; Zemb, Thomas; Diat, Olivier; Sievers, Torsten K.; Dejugnat, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  8. Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients.

  9. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  10. Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gergely; Danko, Tamas; Bergeron, Marc J; Balazs, Bernadett; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zsembery, Akos; Hediger, Matthias A

    2011-01-01

    TRPV6 belongs to the vanilloid family of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily. This calcium-selective channel is highly expressed in the duodenum and the placenta, being responsible for calcium absorption in the body and fetus. Previous observations have suggested that TRPV6 is not only permeable to calcium but also to other divalent cations in epithelial tissues. In this study, we tested whether TRPV6 is indeed also permeable to cations such as zinc and cadmium. We found that the basal intracellular calcium concentration was higher in HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPV6 than in non-transfected cells, and that this difference almost disappeared in nominally calcium-free solution. Live cell imaging experiments with Fura-2 and NewPort Green DCF showed that overexpression of human TRPV6 increased the permeability for Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and interestingly also for La(3+) and Gd(3+). These results were confirmed using the patch clamp technique. (45)Ca uptake experiments showed that cadmium, lanthanum and gadolinium were also highly efficient inhibitors of TRPV6-mediated calcium influx at higher micromolar concentrations. Our results suggest that TRPV6 is not only involved in calcium transport but also in the transport of other divalent cations, including heavy metal ions, which may have toxicological implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of β2-integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.; Gunderson, Kristin A.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-5 activates αMβ2 integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated β2-integrins. Objective To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Methods Blood and BAL eosinophils were analyzed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Results Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated β2-integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil β2, αM, and αL integrin subunits increased modestly post-challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of β2,αM, αL, and αD and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity αMβ2, were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of β1-integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of β1-integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared to eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated β2-integrins and is responsible for upregulation of β2-integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has

  12. Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an Adolescent With Mental Retardation and Pica Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Hsueh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis is a rare disorder and is most commonly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are accidentally infected when they ingest raw snails or vegetables contaminated with the parasite larvae. Because of the improvement in sanitary food handling practices, the occurrence of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis has been decreasing in Taiwan in recent decades. The common symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis are severe headache, neck stiffness, paresthesia, vomiting, nausea, and fever. Acute urinary retention is a rare presentation. We report a case of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis in an intellectually disabled patient who presented with acute urinary retention without any other meningeal signs. The patient received supportive treatment with corticosteroid therapy and was discharged and received urinary rehabilitation at home.

  13. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis.

  14. A Case of Unifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible in an Adult Female: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshita Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female.

  15. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA) Consensus Task Force recommendations for evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groh, Matthieu; Pagnoux, Christian; Baldini, Chiara; Bel, Elisabeth; Bottero, Paolo; Cottin, Vincent; Dalhoff, Klaus; Dunogué, Bertrand; Gross, Wolfgang; Holle, Julia; Humbert, Marc; Jayne, David; Jennette, J. Charles; Lazor, Romain; Mahr, Alfred; Merkel, Peter A.; Mouthon, Luc; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Specks, Ulrich; Vaglio, Augusto; Wechsler, Michael E.; Cordier, Jean-François; Guillevin, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    To develop disease-specific recommendations for the diagnosis and management of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) (EGPA). The EGPA Consensus Task Force experts comprised 8 pulmonologists, 6 internists, 4 rheumatologists, 3 nephrologists, 1 pathologist and 1

  16. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  17. The Significance of Mast Cells and Eosinophils Counts in Surgically Resected Appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kolur

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: The material for study consisted of appendix specimens received for histopathological examination in the Department of pathology. A 5 year study was conducted, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Results: Out of 777 cases studied the incidence of appendicitis is high, in the first and second decades of life and slightly higher in females. Recurrent appendicitis was more common when compared to other inflamed appendices. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts in all the layers were very high in acute eosinophilic appendicitis compared to normal appendices. A higher mast cell count was seen in acute eosinophilic appendicitis and recurrent appendicitis. No correlation was found between mast cell and eosinophilic density. Our observations support the allergic theory of appendicitis rather than the obstructive theory. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 150-153

  18. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  19. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  20. Predictive value of eosinophils and neutrophils on clinical effects of ICS in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartjes, Floor J; Vonk, Judith M; Faiz, Alen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is present to a variable degree and composition in patients with COPD. This study investigates associations between both eosinophils and neutrophils in blood, sputum, airway wall biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their potential use as biomarkers...... and BAL were evaluated at baseline. In addition, at baseline, 6 and 30 months, forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1 ), residual volume/total lung capacity (hyperinflation) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses at baseline showed that higher blood eosinophils were...... significantly associated with higher eosinophil counts in sputum, biopsies and BAL. However, blood neutrophils did not significantly correlate with neutrophil counts in the other compartments. Baseline eosinophils and neutrophils, in whichever compartment measured, did not predict longitudinal FEV1 changes...

  1. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  2. IL-5-stimulated eosinophils adherent to periostin undergo stereotypic morphological changes and ADAM8-dependent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M W; Khanna, M; Bortnov, V; Annis, D S; Nguyen, C L; Mosher, D F

    2017-10-01

    IL-5 causes suspended eosinophils to polarize with filamentous (F)-actin and granules at one pole and the nucleus in a specialized uropod, the "nucleopod," which is capped with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). IL-5 enhances eosinophil adhesion and migration on periostin, an extracellular matrix protein upregulated in asthma by type 2 immunity mediators. Determine how the polarized morphology evolves to foster migration of IL-5-stimulated eosinophils on a surface coated with periostin. Blood eosinophils adhering to adsorbed periostin were imaged at different time points by fluorescent microscopy, and migration of eosinophils on periostin was assayed. After 10 minutes in the presence of IL-5, adherent eosinophils were polarized with PSGL-1 at the nucleopod tip and F-actin distributed diffusely at the opposite end. After 30-60 minutes, the nucleopod had dissipated such that PSGL-1 was localized in a crescent or ring away from the cell periphery, and F-actin was found in podosome-like structures. The periostin layer, detected with monoclonal antibody Stiny-1, shown here to recognize the FAS1 4 module, was cleared in wide areas around adherent eosinophils. Clearance was attenuated by metalloproteinase inhibitors or antibodies to disintegrin metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8), a major eosinophil metalloproteinase previously implicated in asthma pathogenesis. ADAM8 was not found in podosome-like structures, which are associated with proteolytic activity in other cell types. Instead, immunoblotting demonstrated proteoforms of ADAM8 that lack the cytoplasmic tail in the supernatant. Anti-ADAM8 inhibited migration of IL-5-stimulated eosinophils on periostin. Migrating IL-5-activated eosinophils on periostin exhibit loss of nucleopodal features and appearance of prominent podosomes along with clearance of the Stiny-1 periostin epitope. Migration and epitope clearance are both attenuated by inhibitors of ADAM8. We propose, therefore, that eosinophils remodel and migrate

  3. Activated Eosinophils are Present in Esophageal Muscle in Patients with Achalasia of the Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Li-li

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to undertake a histological evaluation of the presence of eosinophils in esophageal muscle in patients with achalasia before treatment with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), with clinical follow-up at one year. Material/Methods Before treatment, esophageal biopsies including mucosa and esophageal muscle were obtained from 28 patients with achalasia. Nine patients who had undergone esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma were included in the control group. The Eckardt Score was used to evaluate the clinical symptoms of achalasia. Histology of routinely processed tissue sections was used to perform eosinophil cell counts (0 to +++), and immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), and S100 protein in cases of achalasia (n=28) and controls (n=9). The findings in patients with achalasia were compared before and one year following POEM. Results Esophageal tissue from patients with achalasia showed eosinophils infiltrating into the muscularis externa in 85.7% (24/28), into the muscularis propria in 28.6% (8/28), and in 89% (25/28) there were few remaining myenteric ganglion cells, before POEM. The extent of inflammation was similar in all regions of the esophagus and between subtypes of achalasia. At one year following POEM, the Eckardt Scores between the former eosinophil (0) group and the eosinophil (+++) group were significantly different (Z=3.50, P=0.030). Conclusions Achalasia of the esophagus was associated with infiltration of the esophageal muscle by activated eosinophils and a decrease in the density of ganglion cells in the myenteric esophageal plexus. PMID:29672471

  4. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  5. A 92-Year-Old Male with Eosinophilic Asthma Presenting with Recurrent Palpable Purpuric Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negbenebor, Nicole A.; Khalifian, Saami; Foreman, Ruth K.; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized vasculature. It is commonly associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Most patients are diagnosed at around the age of 40. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 92-year-old male with a history of eosinophilic asthma and peripheral eosinophilia who was later diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome. PMID:29719830

  6. A 92-Year-Old Male with Eosinophilic Asthma Presenting with Recurrent Palpable Purpuric Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Negbenebor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized vasculature. It is commonly associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Most patients are diagnosed at around the age of 40. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 92-year-old male with a history of eosinophilic asthma and peripheral eosinophilia who was later diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

  7. Bach2 Controls Homeostasis of Eosinophils by Restricting the Type-2 Helper Function of T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Kato, Hiroki; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Bach2 is a transcription factor which represses its target genes and plays important roles in the differentiation of B and T lymphoid cells. Bach2-deficient (KO) mice develop severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which is associated with increased numbers of granulocytes and T cells. Bach2 is essential for the regulation of T cells, but its role in the regulation of granulocytes is not clear. Here, we observed increased numbers of eosinophils but not neutrophils in the bone marrow, spleen, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of Bach2 KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. Upon co-transplantation of the bone marrow cells from CD45.2 Bach2 KO and CD45.1/CD45.2 double-positive WT mice to irradiated WT CD45.1/CD45.2 mice, the reconstituted numbers of eosinophils were similar between Bach2 KO and WT cells. These results showed that the deficiency of Bach2 in eosinophils did not directly drive the differentiation of eosinophils. To investigate the effect of Bach2 KO CD4 + T cells upon eosinophils, we analyzed Rag2/Bach2-double deficient (dKO) mice which lack lymphocytes including CD4 + T cells. Rag2/Bach2 dKO mice did not show any increase in the numbers of eosinophils. Importantly, Bach2 KO mice showed an increase of interleukin-5 (Il-5) in the sera compared with WT mice. These results suggest that up-regulated functions of CD4 + T cells including secretion of Il-5 resulted in proliferation and/or migration to peripheral tissues of eosinophils in Bach2 KO mice. We propose that Bach2 controls homeostasis of eosinophils via restricting the production of Il-5 in CD4 + T cells.

  8. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Lívia A S; Dias, Felipe F; Malta, Kássia K; Amaral, Kátia B; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F; Melo, Rossana C N

    2015-10-01

    SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combination of CD157 and FLAER to Detect Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Marini, Alessandra; Sammuri, Paola; Domenichini, Cristiana; Ottaviano, Virginia; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The identification of eosinophils by flow cytometry is difficult because most of the surface antigens expressed by eosinophils are shared with neutrophils. Some methods have been proposed, generally based on differential light scatter properties, enhanced autofluorescence, lack of CD16 or selective positivity of CD52. Such methods, however, show several limitations. In the present study we report a novel method based on the analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecules. The combination of CD157 and FLAER was used, since FLAER recognizes all GPI-linked molecules, while CD157 is absent on the membrane of eosinophils and expressed by neutrophils. Peripheral blood samples from normal subjects and patients with variable percentages of eosinophils (n = 31), and without any evidence for circulating immature myeloid cells, were stained with the combination of FLAER-Alexa Fluor and CD157-PE. A FascCanto II cytometer was used. Granulocytes were gated after CD33 staining and eosinophils were identified as CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events. Neutrophils were identified as CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events. The percentages of eosinophils detected by this method showed a very significant correlation both with automated counting and with manual counting (r = 0.981 and 0.989, respectively). Sorting assays were carried out by a S3 Cell Sorter: cytospins obtained from CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events consisted of 100% eosinophils, while samples from CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events were represented only by neutrophils. In conclusion, this method shows high sensitivity and specificity in order to distinguish eosinophils from neutrophils by flow cytometry. However, since CD157 is gradually up-regulated throughout bone marrow myeloid maturation, our method cannot be applied to cases characterized by immature myeloid cells.

  10. Eosinophils contribute to the resolution of lung-allergic responses following repeated allergen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Katsuyuki; Shiraishi, Yoshiki; Ashino, Shigeru; Han, Junyan; Jia, Yi; Wang, Meiqin; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophils accumulate at the site of allergic inflammation and are critical effector cells in allergic diseases. Recent studies have also suggested a role for eosinophils in the resolution of inflammation. To determine the role of eosinophils in the resolution phase of the response to repeated allergen challenge. Eosinophil-deficient (PHIL) and wild-type (WT) littermates were sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin (OVA) 7 or 11 times. Airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine levels, and lung histology were monitored. Intracellular cytokine levels in BAL leukocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Groups of OVA-sensitized PHIL mice received bone marrow from WT or IL-10(-/-) donors 30 days before the OVA challenge. PHIL and WT mice developed similar levels of AHR and numbers of leukocytes and cytokine levels in BAL fluid after OVA sensitization and 7 airway challenges; no eosinophils were detected in the PHIL mice. Unlike WT mice, sensitized PHIL mice maintained AHR, lung inflammation, and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BAL fluid after 11 challenges whereas IL-10 and TGF-β levels were decreased. Restoration of eosinophil numbers after injection of bone marrow from WT but not IL-10-deficient mice restored levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in BAL fluid as well as suppressed AHR and inflammation. Intracellular staining of BAL leukocytes revealed the capacity of eosinophils to produce IL-10. After repeated allergen challenge, eosinophils appeared not essential for the development of AHR and lung inflammation but contributed to the resolution of AHR and inflammation by producing IL-10. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  12. Pollen-food allergy syndrome is a common allergic comorbidity in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letner, D; Farris, A; Khalili, H; Garber, J

    2018-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with atopic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis; however, limited data exist on the correlation between pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) and EoE. We analyzed 346 adults with EoE treated at a single center between 2002 and 2016. Demographic and EoE-specific data including clinical features and measures of EoE disease severity and treatments were collected. The presence of other atopic diseases, family history, prevalence of peripheral eosinophilia and elevated IgE, and details of PFAS triggers were collected. Twenty six percent of the 346 subjects in our cohort had both EoE and PFAS (EoE-PFAS). Compared to subjects with EoE alone, subjects with EoE-PFAS had an increased frequency of allergic rhinitis (86.7% vs. 64.2%, P PFAS opted for treatment with elimination diet, and these measures failed to induce remission in 46.2% of cases. In most cases, elimination diet failed despite strict avoidance of PFAS trigger foods in addition to common EoE triggers including dairy, wheat, and eggs. EoE-PFAS was also associated with higher serum IgE at the time of EoE diagnosis (460.6 vs. 289.9, P PFAS. The most common triggers of PFAS in adults with EoE are apples (21.1%), carrots (15.5%), and peaches (15.5%). Along with asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, PFAS is a common allergic comorbidity that is highly associated with EoE. Further studies aimed at understanding mechanistic similarities and differences of PFAS and EoE may shed light on the pathogenesis of these closely related food allergy syndromes.

  13. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... highly enantioselective silylation reactions in polyether-generated chiral environments, and leading to a record-high turnover in asymmetric organocatalysis. This can lead to further applications by the asymmetric use of other inorganic salts in various organic transformations....

  14. Food and aeroallergens in eosinophilic esophagitis: role of the allergist in patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, Seema S

    2014-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing worldwide prevalence that is triggered by food antigens. The concurrent management of all of the atopic diseases affecting a single individual is likely to be important for successful long-term eosinophilic esophagitis management. This review covers the role of the allergist in eosinophilic esophagitis with a focus on the literature from the past 2  years. Studies in the past 2  years document that testing for immediate and delayed allergic hypersensitivity to foods can be of utility in building elimination diets in children, but that this may not be the case in adults. In addition, it has been shown that a number of cells and interleukins involved in Th2 inflammation such as invariant natural killer T cells, basophils, and interleukin-9 are important in eosinophilic esophagitis pathogenesis. Finally, the role of foods in generating esophageal remodeling has been shown using murine models. Recent studies support the role of the allergist in eosinophilic esophagitis management, especially for food allergen testing, interpretation, and the management of food allergies concurrent atopic diatheses. In addition, allergists have made significant research contributions in our understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis.

  15. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) presenting as diffuse myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marc-Etienne; Larue, Sandrine; Ellezam, Benjamin

    2014-11-21

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a complex multisystemic syndrome with heterogeneous presentation. Most often, there is a clinical history of asthma or other atopic conditions, and current presentation generally includes signs of cutaneous or pulmonary involvement. Very few reports described myalgia or weakness as the chief complaint. Of these, only a few included muscle biopsy evaluation and none showed convincing evidence of primary myositis. We believe this report is the first to demonstrate true myositis in the setting of early eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This report describes a 74 year old Caucasian man, with no known allergies, presenting severe myalgia, muscle weakness, jaw claudication, and fever. Blood work showed marked eosinophilia and high creatine kinase levels. Biceps brachialis muscle biopsy revealed eosinophilic necrotizing vasculitis and true myositis with myophagocytosis of non-necrotic fibers and strong sarcolemmal MHC-1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry. This patient was successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine. Our finding of true myositis in a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis suggests that primary auto-immunity against muscle fibers, distinct from the secondary effects of vasculitis, can occur in this entity and may represent an overlap syndrome. Early recognition of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in patients presenting with myositis may provide an opportunity to treat the vasculitis before onset of severe multisystemic disease. We recommend the use of muscle biopsy with immunohistochemistry for MHC-1 to confirm the diagnosis of myositis in the setting of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

  16. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved.

  17. Eosinophils in biopsy specimens of lichen sclerosus: a not uncommon finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Elizabeth B; Swick, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Evolving lesions of lichen sclerosus (LS) pose a diagnostic challenge owing to an absence of classic findings of epidermal atrophy, dermal sclerosis, a band-like lymphocytic infiltrate and the presence of eosinophils. Retrospective specimens of LS were reviewed. Demographic information, biopsy vs. excision and the following histopathological characteristics were noted: presence and number of eosinophils, epidermal hyperplasia, spongiosis, early/transitional LS, well-developed LS and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Linear regression analysis was performed. The data consisted of 66 biopsies (36 male [M], 30 female [F]), from 53 individuals (33M, 20F), including 57 genital and 9 extragenital biopsies. Seven biopsies showed SCC, 28 showed epidermal hyperplasia and 14 exhibited spongiosis. Thirty-five specimens were early/transitional LS and commonly exhibited epidermal hyperplasia (57%), epidermotropism of lymphocytes (97%) and basement membrane thickening (97%). Thirty-five biopsies (53%) contained eosinophils (23 early/transitional lesions). Male gender (p = 0.074) was associated with increased eosinophils. The presence of SCC (p = 0.014) was a significant predictors of eosinophil number. Epidermal hyperplasia, epidermotropism of lymphocytes and basement membrane thickening are helpful features in identifying early LS. Eosinophils are not an uncommon finding in LS and are most common in male genital lesions and in LS associated with SCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Eosinophilic myositis as first manifestation in a patient with type 2 myotonic dystrophy CCTG expansion mutation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alain; Lannes, Béatrice; Carapito, Raphaël; Bahram, Seiamak; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Geny, Bernard; Sibilia, Jean; Gottenberg, Jacques Eric

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic myositis is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of skeletal muscles. In the absence of an identifiable causative factor or source (including parasitic infection, intake of drugs or L-tryptophan, certain systemic disorders as well as malignant diseases), the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic myositis is usually retained. However, some muscular dystrophies have been recently identified in this subset of eosinophilic myositis. Here, we report a patient with an 8 kb CCTG expansion in intron 1 of the CNBP gene, a mutation characteristic of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), whose first manifestation was "idiopathic" eosinophilic myositis. This report suggests that in "idiopathic" eosinophilic myositis, clinicians should consider muscular dystrophies, including DM2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  20. Intranasal sensitization with Blomia Tropicalis antigens induces allergic responses in mice characterized by elevated antigen-specific and non-specific serum ige and peripheral blood eosinophil counts Sensibilização intranasal com antígenos de Blomia tropicalis induz respostas alérgicas em camundos caracterizadas pela elevada contagem de soro IgE antígeno-específico e não específico e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Takeda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential allergenicity of Blomia tropicalis (Bt antigen, IgE production of both specific and non-specific for Bt antigen was monitored in BALB/c mice after exposure to the antigen by nasal route. It was evidenced that B. tropicalis contains a functional allergen in its components. The allergenic components, however, when administered intranasally without any adjuvant, did not function to induce IgE response within a short period. On the other hand, intranasal inoculation of Bt antigens augmented serum IgE responses in mice pretreated by a subcutaneous priming injection of the same antigens. Inoculation of Bt antigen without subcutaneous priming injections induced IgE antibody production only when the antigen was continuously administered for a long period of over 24 weeks. Even when the priming injection was absent, the Bt antigen inoculated with cholera toxin (CT as a mucosal adjuvant also significantly augmented the Bt antigen-specific IgE responses depending on the dose of CT co-administered. The present study also demonstrated that Bt antigen/CT-inoculated mice showed increased non-specific serum IgE level and peripheral blood eosinophil rates without noticeable elevations of the total leukocyte counts. The immunoblot analysis demonstrated 5 main antigenic components reactive to IgE antibodies induced. These components at about 44-64 kDa position were considered to be an important candidate antigen for diagnosis of the mite-related allergy.Para avaliar a capacidade alergizante do antígeno da Blomia tropicalis (Bt a produção de IgE específica e não específica a antígeno Bt foi monitorada em camundongos BALB/c após exposição ao antígeno por via nasal. Foi evidenciado que Bt contem um alérgeno funcional em seus componentes. Os componentes alergênicos entretanto, quando administrados por via intra-nasal, sem qualquer adjuvante, não induzem resposta IgE durante um pequeno período. Por outro lado, a inocula

  1. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  2. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B.; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.; Melo, Rossana C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  3. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A relevant entity for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górriz-Gil, Carmen; Villarreal, Ithzel M; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Magaz, Marta; García-Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since it was first described. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for different medical specialties, among which ENT specialists play an important role. Clinical suspicion in a patient with recurrent food impaction or a child with eating disorders and history of hypersensitivity constitutes the first warning sign of a possible EE. The purpose of this review is to highlight EE as a possible differential diagnosis in patients with deglutition disorders and describe the possible clinical symptoms that should alert the ENT specialist to perform appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures. The transnasal esophagoscopy, performed in-office by the ENT, is ideal for reducing possible underdiagnosed cases. Given the fact that an ENT specialist will evaluate a great many patients with deglutition disorders, it is paramount for possible EE cases to be suspected and recognised so that a correct multidisciplinary approach involving not only ENT specialists but also paediatricians, gastroenterologists, allergologists and pathologists can be established. Identifying the dietary component responsible for the esophageal inflammation and removing that food from the patient's diet is the key in the treatment of this immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts

  6. Increased Activity and Apoptosis of Eosinophils in Blister Fluids, Skin and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Judith; Rüdrich, Urda; Behrens, Georg; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Gehring, Manuela; Kapp, Alexander; Raap, Ulrike

    2017-04-06

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that is more common in elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the functional activity of eosinophils in patients with BP compared with healthy donors. Blood, skin and blister-derived eosinophils were strongly activated in patients with BP, seen by increased surface expression of CD69 compared with controls. CD11b was also increased in BP blood eosinophils, which may explain the striking accumulation of eosinophils in BP (1×106 per ml blister fluid). Furthermore, CCL26 was expressed by activated eosinophils in BP skin and in blister fluid. BP eosinophils also released IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1α in BP blister fluids. Apoptosis in cultivated BP eosinophils was increased and accompanied by enhanced surface externalization of CD95. Caspase 3 positive eosinophils in lesional BP skin and blister fluid also showed the initiation of apoptosis. These results reveal novel pathophysiological aspects of BP, with a strong activation pattern and increased apoptosis of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, skin and blister fluids.

  7. Allergy tests do not predict food triggers in adult patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis. A comprehensive prospective study using five modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

    2016-08-01

    The use of allergy tests to guide dietary treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is controversial and data are limited. Aeroallergen sensitisation patterns and food triggers have been defined in Northern Hemisphere cohorts only. To determine if allergy tests that are routinely available can predict food triggers in adult patients with EoE. To define the food triggers and aeroallergen sensitisation patterns in a novel Southern Hemisphere (Australian) cohort of patients. Consecutive patients with EoE who elected to undergo dietary therapy were prospectively assessed, demographic details and atopic characteristics recorded, and allergy tests, comprising skin-prick and skin-patch tests, serum allergen-specific IgE, basophil activation test and serum food-specific IgG, were performed. Patients underwent a six-food elimination diet with a structured algorithm that included endoscopic and histological examination of the oesophagus a minimum of 2 weeks after each challenge. Response was defined as Foods defined as triggers were considered as gold standard and were compared with those identified by allergy testing. No allergy test could accurately predict actual food triggers. Concordance among skin-prick and serum allergen-specific IgE was high for aeroallergens only. Among seasonal aeroallergens, rye-grass sensitisation was predominant. Food triggers were commonly wheat, milk and egg, alone or in combination. None of the currently-available allergy tests predicts food triggers for EoE. Exclusion-rechallenge methodology with oesophageal histological assessment remains the only effective investigation. The same food triggers were identified in this southern hemisphere cohort as previously described. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (PEESS v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Fernanda Oliveira; Barros, Cristina Palmer; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva

    2017-11-04

    To translate and culturally adapt the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (version 2.0), a tool used to assess pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis symptoms reported by patients and/or their parents/caregivers. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was translated through the following stages: initial translation, back-translation, and consensus of independent reviewers through the Delphi technique. The pre-final version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was applied to five 8-to-18-year-old patients and to ten parents of two-to-18-year-old patients from an outpatient pediatric gastroenterology service (pre-test). During the translation process, no translations presenting with difficult consensus in the review process or grammar inconsistencies were observed. During the pre-test, difficulties in comprehension of some unconventional terms, e.g., "náusea", were observed. Adverbs of frequency, such as "quase nunca" were also identified as being of difficult understanding by patients and parents, and the substitution by the term "raramente" was suggested. Such difficulties may be inherent to the pediatric age group. Age 8 years or above should be considered adequate for the self-reporting of symptoms. The study presents the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score, which is adapted to the Brazilian culture. This version may be introduced as a clinical and research tool for the assessment of patients with esophagic disease symptoms. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score is a breakthrough in the evaluation of symptoms of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, since it reinforces the importance of self-reporting by patients who experience this disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Eosinophils Promote Antiviral Immunity in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Amali E; Melo, Rossana C N; Duan, Susu; LeMessurier, Kim S; Liedmann, Swantje; Surman, Sherri L; Lee, James J; Hurwitz, Julia L; Thomas, Paul G; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2017-04-15

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells of the innate immune system linked to allergic inflammation. Asthmatics were more likely to be hospitalized but less likely to suffer severe morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic. These epidemiologic findings were recapitulated in a mouse model of fungal asthma wherein infection during heightened allergic inflammation was protective against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and disease. Our goal was to delineate a mechanism(s) by which allergic asthma may alleviate influenza disease outcome, focused on the hypothesis that pulmonary eosinophilia linked with allergic respiratory disease is able to promote antiviral host defenses against the influenza virus. The transfer of eosinophils from the lungs of allergen-sensitized and challenged mice into influenza virus-infected mice resulted in reduced morbidity and viral burden, improved lung compliance, and increased CD8 + T cell numbers in the airways. In vitro assays with primary or bone marrow-derived eosinophils were used to determine eosinophil responses to the virus using the laboratory strain (A/PR/08/1934) or the pandemic strain (A/CA/04/2009) of IAV. Eosinophils were susceptible to IAV infection and responded by activation, piecemeal degranulation, and upregulation of Ag presentation markers. Virus- or viral peptide-exposed eosinophils induced CD8 + T cell proliferation, activation, and effector functions. Our data suggest that eosinophils promote host cellular immunity to reduce influenza virus replication in lungs, thereby providing a novel mechanism by which hosts with allergic asthma may be protected from influenza morbidity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Helminth antigens counteract a rapid high-fat diet-induced decrease in adipose tissue eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Susan M; van Dam, Andrea D; Kusters, Pascal J H; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; van der Velden, Saskia; Van den Bossche, Jan; van Die, Irma; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno P J

    2017-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice. One day of HFD resulted in a rapid drop in eosinophil numbers in EpAT and BAT, and after 3 days, in ScAT. In an attempt to restore this HFD-induced drop in adipose tissue eosinophils, we treated 1-week HFD-fed mice with helminth antigens from Schistosoma mansoni or Trichuris suis and evaluated whether the well-known protective metabolic effects of helminth antigens involves BAT activation or beiging. Indeed, antigens of both helminth species induced high numbers of eosinophils in EpAT, but failed to induce beiging. In ScAT, Schistosoma mansoni antigens induced mild eosinophilia, which was accompanied by slightly more beiging. No effects were observed in BAT. To study type 2 responses on brown adipocytes directly, T37i cells were stimulated with IL-4. This increased Ucp1 expression and strongly induced the production of eosinophil chemoattractant CCL11 (+26-fold), revealing that brown adipocytes themselves can attract eosinophils. Our findings indicate that helminth antigen-induced eosinophilia fails to induce profound beiging of white adipocytes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 ...

  12. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  13. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J A [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Holland, D [Physics Department, Warwick University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bland, J [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Johnson, C E [Physics Department, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Thomas, M F [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-19

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub x} - [ZnCl{sub 2}]{sub 1-x} where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb){sub 2}(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn){sub 2}(OSb){sub 2}].

  14. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J A; Holland, D; Bland, J; Johnson, C E; Thomas, M F

    2003-01-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb 2 O 3 ] x - [ZnCl 2 ] 1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb) 2 (OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn) 2 (OSb) 2

  15. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičak, H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  16. Cationization of immunoglobulin G results in enhanced organ uptake of the protein after intravenous administration in rats and primate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cationization of proteins in general enhances the cellular uptake of these macromolecules, and cationized antibodies are known to retain antigen binding properties. Therefore, cationized antibodies may be therapeutic and allow for intracellular immunization. The present studies test the hypothesis that the tissue uptake of cationized immunoglobulin G (IgG) after intravenous administration may be greatly increased relative to the uptake of native proteins. The pharmacokinetics of cationized immunoglobulin G clearance from blood, and the volume of distribution of the cationized or native protein (albumin, IgG) for 10 organs was measured both in anesthetized rats and in an anesthetized adult Macaca irus cynomologous monkey. Initial studies on brain showed that serum factors inhibited uptake of 125I-cationized IgG, but not 3H-cationized IgG. The blood-brain barrier permeability surface area product for 3H-cationized IgG was 0.57 ± 0.04 microliters min-1 g-1. The ratio of the volume of distribution of the 3-H-cationized IgG compared to 3H-labeled native albumin ranged from 0.9 (testis) to 15.7 (spleen) in the rat at 3 hr after injection, and a similarly enhanced organ uptake was observed in the primate. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that cationization of immunoglobulin greatly increases organ uptake of the plasma protein compared to native immunoglobulins, and suggest that cationization of monoclonal antibodies may represent a potential new strategy for enhancing the intracellular delivery of these proteins

  17. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  18. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  19. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  20. Saiboku-to, a Kampo herbal medicine, inhibits LTC4 release from eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hirai

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Saiboku-to (TJ-96, a traditional Kampo herbal formation, has been used in the treatment of bronchial asthma in Japan as an anti-allergy herbal medicine. We investigated the effect of TJ-96 on leukotriene (LTC4 release from eosinophils and basophils isolated from healthy volunteers. Pre-incubation of eosinophils with TJ-96 inhibited ionophore- or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP-induced LTC4 generation by eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. The TJ-96 was more potent in the release by ionophore (IC50 = 60 mg/mL than the release induced by FMLP (IC50 = 300 mg/mL. Maximal inhibition was observed when eosinophils were pretreated with TJ-96 for 5 min. Although TJ-96 at high concentrations inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils, inhibition of IgE-mediated LTC4 release was not statistically significant. The potent inhibitory activity was found in the extract of Glycyrrhiza root, one of the herbal components of TJ-96, but the inhibitory effects were not due to either glycyrrhizin or liquiritin, the main elements of the Glycyrrhiza root. These results raise the possibility that the clinical efficacy of TJ-96 is derived, at least in part, from its potent inhibitory effect on LTC4 release from eosinophils.

  1. [Non allergic simple eosinophilic pneumonia--Löffler syndrome--a case report study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-Jevtović, Ivana; Tomović, Miroslav S; Mojsilović, Slavica; Petrović, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Löffler syndrome is an acute, pneumonia of unknown ethiology. This disease is not often associated with bronchial asthma. In its asymptomatic form, this disease is reversible, transient, self-limited with no requests for specific therapy regimen. In the symptomatic form, as well as during its progression, treatment with steroids is very effective. Furthermore, in both acute eosinophilic and idiopathic chronic eosinophilic form, this kind of therapy ensures survival. The case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman was presented with 2-month history of low grade fever, shortness of breath, cough and reduced exercise tolerance. Although she had an allergic accident on insects in history, non allergy reactions as well as an obstructive disease with that kind of origin were not detected on admission. The diagnosis of simple eosinophilic pneumonia (SEP) (Löffler's syndrome) was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy and by sternal testing. The peripheral blood eosinophilia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates on X ray chest radiography were observed during clinical examination. Biopsy specimen of the lung parenchym showed changes associated with Löffler's syndrome. The diagnosis was, also, confirmed according to the radiographic findings of unilateral migratory infiltrates consistent pneumonia. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) has to be considered in this differential diagnosis. Frequently, this disease has extrinsic bronchial asthma with eosinophilic pneumonia in history: asthma is often associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In the reported case, treatment with steroids resulted in a marked clinical improvement compared to nonsteroid therapy.

  2. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children from Western Saudi Arabia: Relative Frequency, Clinical, Pathological, Endoscopic, and Immunological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is an evolving allergic disease with an accelerated incidence. The purpose of this study was to delineate the relative frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EE in children from western Saudi Arabia. Methods. Children with EE were studied retrospectively between October 2002 and December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and International Medical Center. Results. The relative frequency of EE was 0.85% of 2127 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed during the study period. Eighteen patients were identified with EE. The median age was 8.6 years (range, 1.5–18 years. Thirteen (72.2% were males. Dysphagia and vomiting were the most common symptoms. Ten (55.6% children had history of atopy. Testing for food allergy by skin prick test was positive in 11 (61.1%. The most common endoscopic abnormalities were mucosal longitudinal furrow and loss of vascular pattern followed by patchy specks and strictures. The histopathological findings included increased intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophilic degranulation, lamina propria fibrosis, and eosinophilic microabscesses. Treatment was initiated by swallowed topical corticosteroids in 12 (66.7% and oral prednisolone in 6 (33% patients, followed by low dose of topical corticosteroids and dietary elimination. Conclusions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an uncommon but evolving problem. A high index of suspicion is required for early identifications and intervention to avoid possible complications.

  3. The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryś-Lipińska, Izabela; Molińska, Katarzyna; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab - an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

  4. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  5. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rossana C.N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  7. PGD2 induces eotaxin-3 via PPARγ from sebocytes: a possible pathogenesis of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Doi, Hiromi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Tetsuya; Murakami, Makoto; Urade, Yoshihiro; Zouboulis, Christos C; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Egawa, Gyohei; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis characterized by massive eosinophil infiltrates involving the pilosebaceous units. Recently, EPF has been regarded as an important clinical marker of HIV infection, and its prevalence is increasing in number. The precise mechanism by which eosinophils infiltrate into the pilosebaceous units remains largely unknown. Given that indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, can be successfully used to treat patients with EPF, we can assume that COX metabolites such as prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the etiology of EPF. To determine the involvement of PGs in the pathogenesis of EPF. We performed immunostaining for PG synthases in EPF skin lesions. We examined the effect of PGD(2) on induction of eotaxin, a chemoattractant for eosinophils, in human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and sebocytes and sought to identify its responsible receptor. Hematopoietic PGD synthase was detected mainly in infiltrating inflammatory cells in EPF lesions, implying that PGD(2) was produced in the lesions. In addition, PGD(2) and its immediate metabolite 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) induced sebocytes to produce eotaxin-3 via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Consistent with the above findings, eotaxin-3 expression was immunohistochemically intensified in sebaceous glands of the EPF lesions. The PGD(2)/PGJ(2)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway induces eotaxin production from sebocytes, which may explain the massive eosinophil infiltrates observed around pilosebaceous units in EPF. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IL-5 Induces Suspended Eosinophils to Undergo Unique Global Reorganization Associated with Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shih-Tsung

    2014-01-01

    The experiments described herein define a unique program of polarization of suspended human eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 family cytokines. We found that eosinophil granules and the nucleus move in opposite directions to form, respectively, a granular compartment and the nucleopod, a specialized uropod occupied by the nucleus and covered with adhesion receptors, including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, CD44, and activated αMβ2 integrin. Ligated IL-5 family receptors localize specifically at the tip of the nucleopod in proximity to downstream signaling partners Janus tyrosine kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and -5, and extracellular signal–regulated kinase. Microscopy and effects of cytochalasin B and nocodazole indicate that remodeling of filamentous actin and reorientation of the microtubule network are required for eosinophil polarization and nucleopod formation. IL-5 induces persistent polarization and extracellular signal–regulated kinase redistribution that are associated with eosinophil priming, a robust response on subsequent stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Global reorganization of cytoskeleton, organelles, adhesion receptors, and signaling molecules likely facilitates vascular arrest, extravasation, migration, granule release, and survival of eosinophils entering inflamed tissues from the bloodstream. PMID:24156300

  9. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human eosinophils from asthmatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Yu; Simayi, Mihereguli; Ikramullah, Syed; He, Yuanbing; Cui, Shihong; Li, Shuang; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophils exert a number of inflammatory effects through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, and are considered to be key effector cells in allergic disorders, including asthma. In order to investigate the regulatory effects of the natural polyphenol, resveratrol, on eosinophils derived from asthmatic individuals, the cell counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in these cells, respectively. Cellular apoptosis was detected using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double‑staining. The protein expression levels of p53, p21, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin A, cyclin E, Bim, B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot analysis following resveratrol treatment. The results indicated that resveratrol effectively suppressed the proliferation of eosinophils from asthmatic patients in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. In addition, resveratrol was observed to arrest cell cycle progression in G1/S phase by increasing the protein expression levels of p53 and p21, and concurrently reducing the protein expression levels of CDK2, cyclin A and cyclin E. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment significantly induced apoptosis in eosinophils, likely through the upregulation of Bim and Bax protein expression levels and the downregulation of Bcl‑2 protein expression. These findings suggested that resveratrol may be a potential agent for the treatment of asthma by decreasing the number of eosinophils.

  10. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFRα

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki; Zee, OkPyo; Seyama, Toshio; Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2008-01-01

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRα. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFRα induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFRα inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFRα induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils

  11. Cutting Edge: Eosinophils Undergo Caspase-1-Mediated Pyroptosis in Response to Necrotic Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Macapagal, Daphne; Connor, Jane; Mustelin, Tomas; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Wynn, Thomas A; Davidson, Todd S

    2017-08-01

    Many chronic liver disorders are characterized by dysregulated immune responses and hepatocyte death. We used an in vivo model to study the immune response to necrotic liver injury and found that necrotic liver cells induced eosinophil recruitment. Necrotic liver induced eosinophil IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, degranulation, and cell death. Caspase-1 inhibitors blocked all of these responses. Caspase-1-mediated cell death with accompanying cytokine release is the hallmark of a novel form of cell death termed pyroptosis. To confirm this response in a disease model, we isolated eosinophils from the livers of Schistosoma mansoni -infected mice. S. mansoni eggs lodge in the hepatic sinusoids of infected mice, resulting in hepatocyte death, inflammation, and progressive liver fibrosis. This response is typified by massive eosinophilia, and we were able to confirm pyroptosis in the infiltrating eosinophils. This demonstrated that pyroptosis is a cellular pathway used by eosinophils in response to large-scale hepatic cell death. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  13. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Johnson, Anatoly, E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  14. The distribution of blood eosinophil levels in a Japanese COPD clinical trial database and in the rest of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takeo; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Midwinter, Dawn; James, Mark; Hilton, Emma; Jones, Paul W

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil measurements may help to guide physicians on the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Emerging data suggest that COPD patients with higher blood eosinophil counts may be at higher risk of exacerbations and more likely to benefit from combined ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment than therapy with a LABA alone. This analysis describes the distribution of blood eosinophil count at baseline in Japanese COPD patients in comparison with non-Japanese COPD patients. Methods A post hoc analysis of eosinophil distribution by percentage and absolute cell count was performed across 12 Phase II–IV COPD clinical studies (seven Japanese studies [N=848 available absolute eosinophil counts] and five global studies [N=5,397 available eosinophil counts] that included 246 Japanese patients resident in Japan with available counts). Blood eosinophil distributions were assessed at baseline, before blinded treatment assignment. Findings Among Japanese patients, the median (interquartile range) absolute eosinophil count was 170 cells/mm3 (100–280 cells/mm3). Overall, 612/1,094 Japanese patients (56%) had an absolute eosinophil count ≥150 cells/mm3 and 902/1,304 Japanese patients (69%) had a percentage eosinophil ≥2%. Among non-Japanese patients, these values were 160 (100–250) cells/mm3, 2,842/5,151 patients (55%), and 2,937/5,155 patients (57%), respectively. The eosinophil distribution among Japanese patients was similar to that among non-Japanese patients. Within multi-country studies with similar inclusion criteria, the eosinophil count was numerically lower in Japanese compared with non-Japanese patients (median 120 vs 160 cells/mm3). Interpretation The eosinophil distribution in Japanese patients seems comparable to that of non-Japanese patients; although within multi-country studies, there was a slightly lower median eosinophil count for Japanese patients compared with

  15. Allergen-Induced Increases in Interleukin-25 and Interleukin-25 Receptor Expression in Mature Eosinophils from Atopic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; Oliveria, John Paul; Mitchell, Patrick; Nusca, Graeme M; Howie, Karen; Gauvreau, Gail M; O'Byrne, Paul M; Sehmi, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25 plays a pivotal role in type 2 immune responses. In a baseline cross-sectional study, we previously showed that IL-25 plasma levels and IL-25 receptor (IL-25R: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, and IL-17RA/RB) expression on mature blood eosinophils are increased in atopic asthmatics compared to normal nonatopic controls. This study investigated allergen-induced changes in IL-25 and IL-25R expression in eosinophils from asthmatics. Dual responder atopic asthmatics (n = 14) were enrolled in this randomized diluent-controlled crossover allergen challenge study. Blood was collected before and 24 h after the challenge. The surface expression of IL-25R was evaluated by flow cytometry on eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. In addition, plasma levels of IL-25 were measured by ELISA, and functional responses to IL-25 including type 2 cytokine expression, degranulation, and the migrational responsiveness of eosinophils were evaluated in vitro. Following the allergen but not the diluent inhalation challenge, significant increases in the expression of IL-17RB and IL-17RA/B were found on eosinophils but not on Th2 memory cells. IL-25 plasma levels and the number of eosinophils but not of Th2 memory cells expressing intracellular IL-25 increased significantly in response to the allergen but not the diluent challenge. Stimulation with physiologically relevant concentrations of IL-25 in vitro caused (i) degranulation of eosinophils (measured by eosinophil peroxidase release), (ii) enhanced intracellular expression of IL-5 and IL-13, and (iii) priming of eosinophil migration to eotaxin. IL-25 stimulated intracellular cytokine expression, and the migration of eosinophils was blocked in the presence of a neutralizing IL-25 antibody. Our findings suggest that the IL-25/IL-25R axis may play an important role in promoting the recruitment and proinflammatory function of eosinophils in allergic asthma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Further information regarding the patients’ clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment were obtained through chart reviews and patient telephone interviews. The mean age of the patients at symptom onset was 30 years. All patients complained of dysphagia, 81% had a history of bolus obstruction, 43% had a history of asthma and 70% had a history of environmental allergies. Thirty-three per cent had a family history of asthma, while 52% had a family history of food or seasonal allergies. The most common endoscopic findings were rings and/or corrugations, which were found in 63% of patients. Swallowed fluticasone therapy resulted in symptom resolution in 74% of patients; however, 79% of these patients relapsed after discontinuing fluticasone therapy and required repeat treatments. Esophageal dilation was complication free and resulted in improvement in 80% of patients. However, 83% of those reporting improvement relapsed within one year. The clinical and endoscopic findings were similar to those found in the literature, with most patients requiring ongoing, repeated therapies. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment modalities ideally suited to patients with EE.

  17. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: a review of the Japanese published works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Mayumi; Nomura, Takashi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF), also known as Ofuji's disease, is an inflammatory dermatosis that was first described in Japan in 1970. More than 300 cases have been reported so far, and 113 Japanese cases have been reported in Japan since 1980. To comprehend the characteristics of Japanese EPF cases, we classified these cases into three types: classic, immunosuppression-associated (IS-EPF), and infancy-associated (I-EPF). Trends in age of onset and in distribution and characterization of eruptions differed between the types. We found 91 cases of classic EPF (mean age, 39.7 years), consisting of 66 males (73%) and 25 females (27%), in most of which eruptions primarily affected the face; 18 cases of IS-EPF (44.2 years), consisting of 15 males (83%) and three females (17%), in which eruptions affected the face less predominantly; and four cases of I-EPF (7.0 years), consisting of two males (50%) and two females (50%), primarily affecting the scalp. The number of IS-EPF cases has increased since the late 1990s, reflecting the increasing number of HIV-positive patients in Japan. Systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were effective in more than 70% of cases. Dimethyl diphenyl sulfone, antibiotics including minocycline, psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy and ultraviolet B treatments worked in some cases. Topical steroids and tacrolimus were also effective in some cases of EPF, while topical indomethacin was less effective. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  19. Cation-π interactions in structural biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, Justin P.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    1999-01-01

    Cation-pi interactions in protein structures are identified and evaluated by using an energy-based criterion for selecting significant sidechain pairs. Cation-pi interactions are found to be common among structures in the Protein Data Bank, and it is clearly demonstrated that, when a cationic sidechain (Lys or Arg) is near an aromatic sidechain (Phe, Tyr, or Trp), the geometry is biased toward one that would experience a favorable cation-pi interaction. The sidechain of Arg is more likely tha...

  20. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.

    2003-01-01

    and the expulsion of anions; a broad anodic peak centered at ca. - 0.5 V representing the expulsion of cations; and a second broad peak at +0.2 to +0.5 V corresponding to anions being inserted. Although the motion of cations is the most important, as expected, there is a significant anion contribution, thereby...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  1. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tract symptoms (URTS) reported 2 - 10 days after an ultra- marathon ... ed URTS were also recorded for 14 days after the race. ECP was .... Stockholm, Sweden) as described by Peterson et al.31 Serum ... completing the 90 km under 6 hours.

  2. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  3. Eosinophilic myositis resulted from Sarcocystis infection in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Kimura

    Full Text Available Partial changes of color (greenish to brownish were found in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle. The disseminated lesions of the skeletal muscles were histopathologically examined in relation to Sarcocystis infection. The lesions in the muscles showed granulomas with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sarcocysts had a distinct wall, which was radically striated by palisading villar protrusions. The sarcocyst wall was surrounded by degenerative eosinophils and necrotic muscle fibers. In conclusion, eosinophilic myositis in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle resulted from Sarcocystis spp. infection. The muscular lesions were characterized by the presence of granulomas and capsulated sarcocysts surrounded by numerous eosinophils. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 500-502

  4. Pre-operative irradiation of eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Satoshi; Toda, Yukio; Nakajima, Hisami; Takeyama, Isamu; Sodemoto, Yukio; Endo, Masaru

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is thought to originate in the reticuloendothelial system and cannot clearly be distinguished from the surrounding tissue during operation. An eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area was removed after 25 days of irradiation at a dosage of 10.0 Gy per 3 days. A thin capsule of connective tissue was observed after the tumor was cut in half. Then, histopathological studies were performed on this connective tissue to determine the effect of the irradiation. Histopathologically, at the periphery of the tissue, atrophy of lymphocytes and destruction of the lymphoid tissue, which were thought to result in an increase in the connective tissue, were observed. It was concluded that a small dose of pre-operative radiation on eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area made the tumor small and produced a capsule around the tumor. (author)

  5. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Echocardiographic Changes in Eosinophilic Endocarditis Induced by Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuyuki; Issiki, Ami; Kirimura, Masato; Kamiyama, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Yoshiaki; Nishioka, Toshihiko

    Eosinophilic myocarditis may be accompanied by Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). We report a case of CSS that was accompanied by myocardial changes in the early stage. A 71-year-old woman complained of mild chest pain at rest, but routine echocardiography did not reveal any endocardial abnormalities. Four months later, the patient was hospitalized due to congestive heart failure with neuropathy of both upper extremities. A diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis was made based on the patient's laboratory results and the presence of mural thrombus. This case illustrates that, although early eosinophilic myocarditis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain, it may be difficult to identify in without an apparent mural thrombus.

  7. An overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Surendran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We report a 45-year-old female who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure associated with fever, polyarthralgia, and respiratory symptoms with cytoplasmic antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA and proteinase (PR-3 antigen positivity. Computerized tomography scan of the chest showed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with renal biopsy revealing pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with intense eosinophilic infiltration suggestive of eosinophilic GPA (EGPA. Our patient had ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV with features suggestive of both GPA and EGPA. She was treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and attained remission after 2 weeks of therapy. This is a rare report of a patient with AAV having features of both EGPA and GPA.

  8. Th2 cytokines and asthma — The role of interleukin-5 in allergic eosinophilic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Richard W

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of the restricted expression of the interleukin-5 receptor on eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils are a prominent feature in the pulmonary inflammation that is associated with allergic airway diseases, suggesting that inhibition of interleukin-5 is a viable treatment. The present review addresses the data that relate interleukin-5 to pulmonary inflammation and function in animal models, and the use of neutralizing anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of asthma in humans.

  9. Independent prognostic value of eosinophil and mast cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hansen, Ulla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    -assisted microscope, which allowed semi-automated quantification of cells within a fixed area. Total white cells and individual counts of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were evaluated in every tumour specimen. Stratification into four groups with similar numbers of events was used...... age ( p=0.0003), and tumour location in the rectum predicted poor survival, while high counts of eosinophils ( p=0.006) and mast cells ( p=0.02) predicted good survival. Tumour-associated eosinophilia and mastocytosis appear to be independent prognostic variables in colorectal cancer. Future studies...... should investigate the potential biological role of tumour tissue eosinophils and mast cells in the modulation of tumour growth....

  10. Presence of Eosinophils in Nasal Secretion during Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Young Children Predicts Subsequent Wheezing within Two Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings not only suggest that nasal eosinophil testing may serve as a convenient clinical marker for identifying young children at risk for subsequent wheezing, but also shed new light on the role of eosinophils in the onset of wheezing in young children.

  11. Eosinophils promote generation and maintenance of immunoglobulin-A-expressing plasma cells and contribute to gut immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Trung; Beller, Alexander; Rausch, Sebastian; Strandmark, Julia; Zänker, Michael; Arbach, Olga; Kruglov, Andrey; Berek, Claudia

    2014-04-17

    Although in normal lamina propria (LP) large numbers of eosinophils are present, little is known about their role in mucosal immunity at steady state. Here we show that eosinophils are needed to maintain immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues. By using eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 and PHIL mice or an eosinophil-specific depletion model, we found a reduction in immunoglobulin A(+) (IgA(+)) plasma cell numbers and in secreted IgA. Eosinophil-deficient mice also showed defects in the intestinal mucous shield and alterations in microbiota composition in the gut lumen. In addition, TGF-β-dependent events including class switching to IgA in Peyer's patches (PP), the formation of CD103(+) T cells including Foxp3(+) regulatory (Treg), and also CD103(+) dendritic cells were disturbed. In vitro cultures showed that eosinophils produce factors that promote T-independent IgA class switching. Our findings show that eosinophils are important players for immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues and add to data suggesting that eosinophils can promote tissue integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eosinophilic Oesophagitis in Infants and Children in the Region of Southern Denmark: A Prospective Study of Prevalence and Clinical Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Kasper; Nielsen, Rasmus G; Kruse-Andersen, Soren

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EE) is a clinical entity characterised by a set of symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal epithelium. Recent reports indicate that EE is increasingly diagnosed in paediatric patients. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of paediatric EE...

  13. The role of the eosinophil-selective chemokine, eotaxin, in allergic and non-allergic airways inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Dolores M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood eosinophilia and tissue infiltration by eosinophils are frequently observed in allergic inflammation and parasitic infections. This selective accumulation of eosinophils suggested the existence of endogenous eosinophil-selective chemoattractants. We have recently discovered a novel eosinophil-selective chemoattractant which we called eotaxin in an animal model of allergic airways disease. Eotaxin is generated in both allergic and non-allergic bronchopulmonary inflammation. The early increase in eotaxin paralled eosinophil infiltration in the lung tissue in both models. An antibody to IL-5 suppressed lung eosinophilia, correlating with an inhibition of eosinophil release from bone marrow, without affecting eotaxin generation. This suggests that endogenous IL-5 is important for eosinophil migration but does not appear to be a stimulus for eotaxin production. Constitutive levels of eotaxin observed in guinea-pig lung may be responsible for the basal lung eosinophilia observed in this species. Allergen-induced eotaxin was present mainly in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages, as detected by immunostaining. In contrast there was no upregulation of eotaxin by the epithelial cells following the injection of Sephadex beads and the alveolar macrophage and mononuclear cells surrounding the granuloma were the predominant positive staining cells. Eotaxin and related chemokines acting through the CCR3 receptor may play a major role in eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation and parasitic diseases and thus offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Human eosinophils modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweyongyere, R; Namanya, H; Naniima, P; Cose, S; Tukahebwa, E M; Elliott, A M; Dunne, D W; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    High numbers of eosinophils are observed in parasitic infections and allergic diseases, where they are proposed to be terminally differentiated effector cells that play beneficial role in host defence, or cause harmful inflammatory response. Eosinophils have been associated with killing of schistosomulae in vitro, but there is growing evidence that eosinophils can play additional immuno-regulatory role. Here, we report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA) when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. Production of the Th-2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was lower (P = 0·017, 0·018 and eosinophil cultures than in PBMC-only cultures stimulated with SWA. Substantial levels of IL-13, IL-10, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha were recorded in cultures of eosinophils, but none of these cytokines showed significant association with the observed eosinophil-induced drop in cytokine responses of PBMC. Transwell experiments suggested that the observed effect is due to soluble mediators that downmodulate production of Th-2 type cytokines. This study shows that eosinophils may down-modulate schistosome-specific Th-2 type cytokine responses in S. mansoni-infected individuals. The mechanism of this immune modulation remains to be elucidated. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gluten-Free Diet Does Not Appear to Induce Endoscopic Remission of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children with Coexistent Celiac Disease

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    Joseph R Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are usually considered to be separate gastrointestinal diseases; however, it appears that they may coexist more often than would be expected. It is unknown whether eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease responds to a gluten-free diet.

  17. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

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    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. THE 2015 INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS

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    T. V. Beketova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, were prepared with the participation of experts from 5 countries of Europe, the USA, and Canada, who accumulated scientific achievements and currently gained clinical experience. The proposed guidelines should not be regarded as final standards, but must become a guide for the selection of a personification strategy for managing patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and serve as a starting point for further investigations. The purposes of the publication are general characterization of the key points of the guidelines and discussion of some debate problems. 

  20. Detection of eosinophilic myocarditis using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murakami, Y.; Shimada, T.; Kashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inoue, S.-I.; Sugamori, T.; Katoh, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Maruyama, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by idiopathic eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and multiorgan dysfunction secondary to mature eosinophil infiltration. It is essential to diagnose myocardial involvement in the early stage of the disease when active myocarditis due to cardiotoxic substances from eosinophils is still taking place, but clinical tools for the diagnosis of myocardial lesions in patients without overt cardiac dysfunction are not yet available. We present a case of successful detection of myocarditis due to hypereosinophilic syndrome by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaascetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (author)