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Sample records for serum chemistry analysis

  1. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  2. Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...

  3. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  4. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  5. Haematology and serum chemistry of finisher broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...

  6. Evaluation of a portable automated serum chemistry analyzer for field assessment of harlequin ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoskopf, Michael K.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel N.

    2010-01-01

    A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values ( = 8 2) between methods was 0.6 mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9 mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7 mmol/L ( = 8 8 ; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk.

  7. Activation analysis in water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Toth, A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential applications of activation analysis in water chemistry are discussed. The principle, unit operations, the radiation sources and measuring instruments of activation analysis are described. The sensitivity of activation analysis is given in tabulated form for some elements of major importance in water chemistry and the elements readily accessible to determination by measurement of the spontaneous gamma radiation are listed. A few papers selected from the recent international professional literature are finally reviewed, in which the authors report on the results obtained by activation analysis applied to water chemistry. (author)

  8. Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stoskopf

    2010-01-01

    ; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L. Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk.

  9. Scientific Information Analysis of Chemistry Dissertations Using Thesaurus of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Rajabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.

  10. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  11. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces Alces) in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rostal, Melinda K.; Evans, Alina L.; Solberg, Erling L.; Arnemo, Jon Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article is also available here: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/ Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces ...

  12. Flow chemistry vs. flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The flow mode of conducting chemical syntheses facilitates chemical processes through the use of on-line analytical monitoring of occurring reactions, the application of solid-supported reagents to minimize downstream processing and computerized control systems to perform multi-step sequences. They are exactly the same attributes as those of flow analysis, which has solid place in modern analytical chemistry in several last decades. The following review paper, based on 131 references to original papers as well as pre-selected reviews, presents basic aspects, selected instrumental achievements and developmental directions of a rapidly growing field of continuous flow chemical synthesis. Interestingly, many of them might be potentially employed in the development of new methods in flow analysis too. In this paper, examples of application of flow analytical measurements for on-line monitoring of flow syntheses have been indicated and perspectives for a wider application of real-time analytical measurements have been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  14. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostal, Melinda K; Evans, Alina L; Solberg, Erling J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-07-01

    Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces alces) adults, yearlings, and calves in Norway sampled from 1992-2000. Additionally, we demonstrated that both induction time and chase time were correlated with initial rectal temperature, although they were not significantly correlated with cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, or creatine kinase. Overall, the reference ranges given here are similar to those given for American moose, with a few differences that can be attributed to environment, testing methodology, or subspecies or species status. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of reference ranges for moose in Norway.

  15. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian dark-rumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  16. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Blood Values (Establishing hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges for wild Hawaiian Monk Seals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hematology and serum chemistry evaluations are essential to a patients comprehensive health exam by providing measures of organ function, blood cell volume and...

  18. Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; Keet, Dewald F; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-08-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are used by veterinarians and wildlife researchers to assess health status and to identify abnormally high or low levels of a particular blood parameter in a target species. For free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) information about these values is scarce. In this study 7 hematologic and 11 serum biochemistry values were evaluated from 485 lions from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Significant differences between sexes and sub-adult (≤ 36 months) and adult (>36 months) lions were found for most of the blood parameters and separate reference intervals were made for those values. The obtained reference intervals include the means of the various blood parameter values measured in captive lions, except for alkaline phosphatase in the subadult group. These reference intervals can be utilized for free-ranging lions, and may likely also be used as reference intervals for captive lions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemistry in Context: Analysis of Thematic Chemistry Videos Available Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Camilla; Sjöström, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    United Nations declared 2011 to be the International Year of Chemistry. The Swedish Chemical Society chose twelve themes, one for each month, to highlight the connection of chemistry with everyday life. Examples of themes were fashion, climate change, love, sports, communication, health issues, and food. From the themes various context-based…

  20. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  1. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  3. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  4. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  5. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Gundorin, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  6. Ivermectin treatment of bovine psoroptic mange: effects on serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Meyer, M; Lindner, T

    2016-04-01

    Psoroptic mange is a skin disease which may result in serious health and welfare problems and important economic losses. Apart from the effect on weight gain, little information is available concerning other responses of the organism consequent to the successful therapy of bovine psoroptic mange. Accordingly, serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality of young bulls with experimentally induced clinical Psoroptes ovis mange and treated with either ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI; IVOMEC(®) GOLD, Merial) or saline (n = 16 each) were examined 8 weeks after treatment when all IVM LAI-treated bulls were free of live P. ovis mites while the saline-treated bulls maintained clinical mange. IVM LAI-treated bulls had higher (p levels and lower (p levels than the saline-treated bulls. Complete blood counts revealed higher leukocyte counts associated with higher eosinophil counts and higher platelet counts in the saline-treated compared to the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p energy metabolism, immune system function, and performance resultant from clinical psoroptic mange, improved substantially within 8 weeks of successful treatment with injectable ivermectin.

  7. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  8. Human blood serum analysis using TRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkadas, C.; Karydas, A.G.; Paradellis, T.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence was applied in the analysis of a pool human blood serum sample, which was collected out of 100 healthy individuals during an ordinary day at a hospital in Athens. Direct measurements of 4 1 quantities were performed in a standard TRXRF module, but with the addition of a Mo filter after the cut-off reflector. In this way the exciting beam was further monochromatized leading to an improved peak to background ratio. The elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb were detected, with detection limits in the low ppb region for the elements of interest. The determined trace elements concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with values already reported in literature. For intercomparison a quantity of the same sample was freeze dried and measured in a secondary target assembly, in the form of pellets, giving almost identical results. The trace elements concentrations obtained can be considered as representative values for healthy population of Athens and therefore can be used as a monitor in order to associate the lack or excess of certain trace elements with pathological cases. (author)

  9. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  10. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  11. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  12. Serum metabonomic analysis of protective effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal fibrosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yang, Yunjun; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Minjian; Wang, Yaqiang; Bai, Guanghui; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica oil is a traditional herbal medicine demonstrating protective and anti-fibrosis activities in renal fibrosis patients. However, study of its mechanism of action is challenged by its multiple components and multiple targets that its active agent acts on. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry and histopathology examination were performed to evaluate intervening effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal interstitial fibrosis rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The metabolite levels were compared based on integral values of serum 1H NMR spectra from rats on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the medicine administration. Time trajectory analysis demonstrated that metabolic profiles of the agent-treated rats were restored to control levels after 7 days of dosage. The results confirmed that the agent would be an effective anti-fibrosis medicine in a time-dependent manner, especially in early renal fibrosis stage. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that the medicine could lower levels of lipid, acetoacetate, glucose, phosphorylcholine/choline, trimethylamine oxide and raise levels of pyruvate, glycine in the serum of the rats. Serum clinical chemistry and kidney histopathology examination dovetailed well with the metabonomics data. The results substantiated that Curcuma aromatica oil administration can ameliorate renal fibrosis symptoms by inhibiting some metabolic pathways, including lipids metabolism, glycolysis and methylamine metabolism, which are dominating targets of the agent working in vivo. This study further strengthens the novel analytical approach for evaluating the effect of traditional herbal medicine and elucidating its molecular mechanism.

  13. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  14. HPLC-DAD-ELSD Combined Pharmacodynamics and Serum Medicinal Chemistry for Quality Assessment of Huangqi Granule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguo Chen

    Full Text Available To more scientifically and reasonably control the quality of Huangqi Granules, preliminary studies on the pharmacodynamics and serum pharmacochemistry of this medicine were performed. DPPH and MTT experiments showed that water extracts of Huangqi Granules had good antioxidant activity and increased immunity. Timed blood samples collected 5 min, 15 min, and 30 min after oral administration of a set amount of Huangqi Granules were collected and tested using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. As a result, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, astragaloside IV, and formononetin were found to exist in rat blood after dosing, indicating that the five chemical compounds might have pharmacological activity, and based on this result, they were designated biomarkers for quality control of Huangqi Granules. Consequently, a simple, rapid and efficient method was developed in the present study for the simultaneous determination of the five characteristic compounds in Huangqi Granules using HPLC-DAD-ELSD.The separation was performed using an Agilent Hypersil ODS column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm at 30 ℃. The mobile phase was composed of water (solvent A and acetonitrile (solvent B with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 85 ℃, and the nitrogen pressure was 3.5 bar.All five characteristic compounds had good linear behavior with r2 values greater than 0.9972. The recoveries varied from 96.31% to 101.22%. Subsequently, the developed method was applied to evaluate the quality of Huangqi Granules from different batches, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA was used to analyze the classification of the samples based on the values of the five compounds.The established HPLC method combined with HCA proved to be effective to evaluate the quality of Huangqi Granules.

  15. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  16. Aqueous chemistry of chlorine: chemistry, analysis, and environmental fate of reactive oxidant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Carpenter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews (1) the chemistry of chlorine relative to its reactions in fresh, estuarine, and marine waters and the formation of reactive oxidant species; (2) the current status of chemical analysis of reactive chlorine species and chlorine-produced oxidant species relative to analysis of low concentrations (microgram-per-liter range) and determination of accuracy and precision of methods; and (3) the environmental fate of chlorine and chlorine-produced oxidant species.

  17. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  18. Text Analysis of Chemistry Thesis and Dissertation Titles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.

    2017-01-01

    Programmatic text analysis can be used to understand patterns and reveal trends in data that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to uncover with manual coding methods. This work uses programmatic text analysis, specifically term frequency counts, to study nearly 10,000 chemistry thesis and dissertation titles from 1911-2015. The thesis and…

  19. Serum chemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta): variations associated with Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Chirife, Andrea D; Altet, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with Leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir. To provide for the first time serum biochemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta), and to determine variations associated with L. infantum infection. Twenty-five serum biochemistry parameters were determined in 22 wild-caught genets. Blood samples were analyzed for L. infantum DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two female genets were positive for L. infantum DNA but did not show any external clinical sign upon physical examination. Among other variations in the biochemistry values of these genets, one presented a higher concentration of gamma-globulins and cholesterol, whereas the other genet presented increased creatinine, bilirubin, and chloride levels when compared to uninfected females. Sex-related differences in some parameters were also reported. Infection with L. infantum may sometimes be accompanied by abnormal serum biochemistry in wild carnivores. Clinical disease may occur in L. infantum-infected wild carnivores. This has implications in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis. In addition, the data provided here would also be useful as reference values for researchers or rehabilitators working with the common genet.

  20. Calcium Isotope Analysis with "Peak Cut" Method on Column Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    To eliminate isobaric interferences from elemental and molecular isobars (e.g., 40K+, 48Ti+, 88Sr2+, 24Mg16O+, 27Al16O+) on Ca isotopes during mass determination, samples should be purified through ion-exchange column chemistry before analysis. However, large Ca isotopic fractionation has been observed during column chemistry (Russell and Papanastassiou, 1978; Zhu et al., 2016). Therefore, full recovery during column chemistry is greatly needed, otherwise uncertainties would be caused by poor recovery (Zhu et al., 2016). Generally, matrix effects could be enhanced by full recovery, as other elements might overlap with Ca cut during column chemistry. Matrix effects and full recovery are difficult to balance and both need to be considered for high-precision analysis of stable Ca isotopes. Here, we investigate the influence of poor recovery on δ44/40Ca using TIMS with the double spike technique. The δ44/40Ca values of IAPSO seawater, ML3B-G and BHVO-2 in different Ca subcats (e.g., 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100%) with 20% Ca recovery on column chemistry display limited variation after correction by the 42Ca-43Ca double spike technique with the exponential law. Notably, δ44/40Ca of each Ca subcut is quite consistent with δ44/40Ca of Ca cut with full recovery within error. Our results indicate that the 42Ca-43Ca double spike technique can simultaneously correct both of the Ca isotopic fractionation that occurred during column chemistry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) determination properly, because both of the isotopic fractionation occurred during analysis follow the exponential law well. Therefore, we propose the "peak cut" method on Ca column chemistry for samples with complex matrix effects. Briefly, for samples with low Ca contents, we can add the double spike before column chemistry, and only collect the middle of the Ca eluate and abandon the both sides of Ca eluate that might overlap with other elements (e.g., K, Sr). This method would

  1. Network analysis reveals multiscale controls on streamwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. McGuire; Christian E. Torgersen; Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso; Winsor H. Lowe; Scott W. Bailey

    2014-01-01

    By coupling synoptic data from a basin-wide assessment of streamwater chemistry with network-based geostatistical analysis, we show that spatial processes differentially affect biogeochemical condition and pattern across a headwater stream network. We analyzed a high-resolution dataset consisting of 664 water samples collected every 100 m throughout 32 tributaries in...

  2. Correlation analysis in chemistry: recent advances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shorter, John; Chapman, Norman Bellamy

    1978-01-01

    ..., and applications of LFER to polycyclic arenes, heterocyclic compounds, and olefinic systems. Of particular interest is the extensive critical compilation of substituent constants and the numerous applications of correlation analysis to spectroscopy...

  3. Precision, accuracy, cross reactivity and comparability of serum indices measurement on Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 and Roche Cobas 6000 c501 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Miler, Marijana; Vrtarić, Alen; Hemar, Marina; Filipi, Petra; Kocijančić, Marija; Šupak Smolčić, Vesna; Ćelap, Ivana; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2018-04-25

    The aim of our study was to perform verification of serum indices on three clinical chemistry platforms. This study was done on three analyzers: Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 (BC) and Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The following analytical specifications were verified: precision (two patient samples), accuracy (sample with the highest concentration of interferent was serially diluted and measured values compared to theoretical values), comparability (120 patients samples) and cross reactivity (samples with increasing concentrations of interferent were divided in two aliquots and remaining interferents were added in each aliquot. Measurements were done before and after adding interferents). Best results for precision were obtained for the H index (0.72%-2.08%). Accuracy for the H index was acceptable for Cobas and BC, while on Architect, deviations in the high concentration range were observed (y=0.02 [0.01-0.07]+1.07 [1.06-1.08]x). All three analyzers showed acceptable results in evaluating accuracy of L index and unacceptable results for I index. The H index was comparable between BC and both, Architect (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.795 [0.692-0.898]) and Roche (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.825 [0.729-0.922]), while Roche and Architect were not comparable. The I index was not comparable between all analyzer combinations, while the L index was only comparable between Abbott and BC. Cross reactivity analysis mostly showed that serum indices measurement is affected when a combination of interferences is present. There is heterogeneity between analyzers in the hemolysis, icteria, lipemia (HIL) quality performance. Verification of serum indices in routine work is necessary to establish analytical specifications.

  4. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  5. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1990-01-01

    There is a long history of the application of chemical analysis to archaeological problems, extending to the last years of the 18th century. The nuclear-age technique of neutron activation analysis, permitting the simultaneous, sensitive, non-destructive estimation of many elements in an archaeological specimen, has found wide application. Important advances have been made, using this technique, in locating the origins of archaeological artifacts such as ceramics, metals, obsidian and semiprecious stones, among other articles of ancient ritual and commerce. In addition, the technique of neutron activation analysis has proved to be almost ideal in studies tracing the development of ancient technologies such as glass-making and smelting. In the future, the development of data banks of analyses of archaeological materials should provide an excellent new tool in studies of prehistory.

  7. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1990-01-01

    There is a long history of the application of chemical analysis to archaeological problems, extending to the last years of the 18th century. The nuclear-age technique of neutron activation analysis, permitting the simultaneous, sensitive, non-destructive estimation of many elements in an archaeological specimen, has found wide application. Important advantages have been made, using this technique, in locating the origins of archaeological artifacts such as ceramics, metals, obsidian and semiprecious stones, among other articles of ancient ritual and commerce. In addition, the technique of neutron activation analysis has proved to be almost ideal in studies tracing the development of ancient technologies such as glass-making and smelting. In the future, the development of data banks of analyses of archaeological materials should provide an excellent new tool in studies of prehistory. (orig.)

  8. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  9. Interferences of homogentisic acid (HGA) on routine clinical chemistry assays in serum and urine and the implications for biochemical monitoring of patients with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S L; Roberts, N B; Ranganath, L R

    2014-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of elevated concentrations of homogentisic acid (HGA) as in alkaptonuria (AKU), on a range of routine chemistry tests in serum and urine. HGA was added to pooled serum and a range of assays was analysed with Roche Modular chemistries. Effects on urine were assessed by diluting normal urine with urine from a patient with AKU, adding HGA to urine and after lowering output of urinary HGA with nitisinone treatment. Serum enzymatic creatinine showed 30% negative interference with 100μmol/L HGA and >50% at 400μmol/L. Serum urate 100 to 480μmol/L was reduced up to 20% at 100 and to 50% with 400μmol/L HGA. Serum cholesterol between 3 and 11mmol/L was reduced by 0.5mmol/L with 400μmol/L HGA. Urine enzymatic creatinine and urate with >2mmol/L HGA showed concentration dependent negative interference up to 80%. A positive interference in urine total protein by benzethonium turbidometric assay was observed, with 10mmol/L HGA equivalent to 1g/L protein. Jaffe creatinine, Na, K, Cl, Mg, Ca, phosphate, ALT, GGT, ALP activities and urea in serum and or urine were not affected by increases in HGA. To avoid interferences by HGA in alkaptonuria concentration of HGA should be established before samples are assayed with peroxidase assays and benzethonium urine protein. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  10. Emanation thermal analysis. Application in solid state chemistry, analytical chemistry and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Tel'deshi, Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Voluminous material on application of emenation thermal analysis for investigation of solids is systematized. General concepts and historical review of development of the method are given. Methods of introduction of inert gases into solids are considered. Theoretical aspects of inert gas evolution from solids labelled by radioactive gas or its maternal isotope are stated. The methods for measuring inert gases are considered. The possibilities, limitations and perspectives of development of radiometric emanation methods for the solution of various problems of analytical chemistry and thechnology are discussed

  11. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Nuclear activation analysis work at Analytical Chemistry Division: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy; Ghosh, M.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear activation analysis using neutron and charged particles is used routinely for analysis and research at Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Neutron activation analysis at ACD, BARC, Mumbai, India has been pursued since late fifties using Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva and Critical facility Research reactors, 239 Pu-Be neutron source and neutron generator. Instrumental, Radiochemical, Chemical and Derivative neutron activation analysis approaches are adopted depending on the analyte and the matrix. Large sample neutron activation analysis as well as k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis is also used. Charged particle activation analysis at ACD, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata started in late eighties and is being used for industrial applications and research. Proton, alpha, deuteron and heavy ion beams from 224 cm room temperature Variable Energy Cyclotron are used for determination of trace elements, measurement of excitation function, thin layer activation and preparation of endohedral fullerenes encapsulated with radioactive isotopes. Analytical Chemistry Division regularly participates in Inter and Intra laboratory comparison exercises conducted by various organizations including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results invariably include values obtained by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  14. Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Catarina; Almeida, Andreia; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification...... of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing...... the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn...

  15. TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS IN THE SERVICE OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Ahtineva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of textbooks have their own visions of contents and teaching methods, which should lead to a high level of scientific thinking. However, the textbook alone does not guarantee good results because the personal and social relationships between the teacher and students have a major influence on teaching and learning. Therefore, the teacher’s study of the textbook before teaching facilitates the teaching process. This paper suggests one method of textbook analysis. In the analysis, one upper secondary level course of chemistry instruction involved the use of a learning strategy: classification of the central concepts and a classification of activities based on task difficulty. The study also attempted to find out the goodness of fit between the national curriculum and the textbook chemistry course. The national objectives concerned the content of knowledge, social significance, emphasis on experimental chemistry, and inspiring students for further study. The majority of the textbook tasks fall into higher order categories characterized by knowledge structures assuming application of knowledge or making inferences. Good textbook activities also have social significance, and a number of experimental tasks are included. The textbook quality is further enhanced by up-to-date content. All of the above qualities are related to high study motivation.

  16. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  17. English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to identify what Metafunctions are applied in chemistry text and how they characterize a scientific text. It was conducted by applying content analysis. The data for this research was a twelve-paragraph chemistry text. The data were collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and analyzed to find out the Metafunction. The data were analyzed by some procedures: identifying the types of process, counting up the number of the processes, categorizing and counting up the cohesion devices, classifying the types of modulation and determining modality value, finally counting up the number of sentences and clauses, then scoring the grammatical intricacy index. The findings of the research show that Material process (71of 100 is mostly used, circumstance of spatial location (26 of 56 is more dominant than the others. Modality (5 is less used in order to avoid from subjectivity. Impersonality is implied through less use of reference either pronouns (7 or demonstrative (7, conjunctions (60 are applied to develop ideas, and the total number of the clauses are found much more dominant (109 than the total number of the sentences (40 which results high grammatical intricacy index. The Metafunction found indicate that the chemistry text has fulfilled the characteristics of scientific or academic text which truly reflects it as a natural science.

  18. How chemistry students study for an exam: A phenomenographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Kirsten Andrea

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand the different ways that students in a second-semester general chemistry course studied for an exam. I conducted this research using a qualitative methodology based on phenomenography (Marton, Hounsell & Entwistle, 1997). I conducted interviews before and after the first exam in CHM 116. I analyzed these interviews to describe students' studying styles. I analyzed the data from four students and presented this data as case studies. I completed a cross-case analysis that included data from five additional students. My results describe three different studying styles that were found: visual, self-regulated, and quantitative. Each studying style included a description of the characteristics associated with students who use the style, including epistemological beliefs, specific study behaviors, and affective response to learning chemistry. My implications discuss the relationship between this study and learning styles research, as well as other phenomenographic research. Suggestions are made for how to adapt teaching methods to take into account the different studying styles.

  19. Contextual analysis of Biology and Chemistry academic graphical abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Salete Florek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8412.2016v13n3p1363 The Graphical Abstract (GA is a non-regular discursive practice held in the academic context, and that, when occurs, coexists with the academic abstract (AA in the table of contents of scientific journals, and in HTML versions of academic articles, materializing by the combination of the verbal and visual semiotics. In this paper, in the light of the Critical Analysis genres (MEURER, 2002; BHATIA, 2004; MOTTA-ROTH, 2006, 2008, which allow us to study a text based on the investigation of its context’s critical research, we present the results of the contextual analysis of GAs in the areas of Biology and Chemistry. This analysis was done by: i interviews with researchers of the investigated areas; and ii documentary analysis. Results show that, in general, GA: i is highlighted by presenting an advertising nature, which seeks to attract the reader’s attention; ii: summarizes the topic and the main findings of scientific research; and iii does not replace the academia abstract (AA.

  20. Reproducibility of Serum Potassium Values in Serum From Blood Samples Stored for Increasing Times Prior to Centrifugation and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Aaron; Lu, Chuanyong; Sun, Yi; Garcia, Rafael; Rets, Anton; Alexis, Herol; Saad, Heba; Eid, Ikram; Harris, Loretta; Marshall, Barbara; Tafani, Edlira; Pincus, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this work was to determine if immediate versus postponed centrifugation of samples affects the levels of serum potassium. Twenty participants donated normal venous blood that was collected in four serum separator tubes per donor, each of which was analyzed at 0, 1, 2, or 4 hr on the Siemens Advia 1800 autoanalyzer. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for potassium levels ranged from 0% to 7.6% with a mean of 3 ± 2%. ANOVA testing of the means for all 20 samples showed a P-value of 0.72 (>0.05) indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the means of the samples at the four time points. Sixteen samples were found to have CVs that were ≤5%. Two samples showed increases of potassium from the reference range to levels higher than the upper reference limit, one of which had a 4-hr value that was within the reference or normal range (3.5-5 mEq/l). Overall, most samples were found to have reproducible levels of serum potassium. Serum potassium levels from stored whole blood collected in serum separator tubes are, for the most part, stable at room temperature for at least 4 hr prior to analysis. However, some samples can exhibit significant fluctuations of values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Network analysis reveals multiscale controls on streamwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kevin J.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Likens, Gene E.; Buso, Donald C.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Bailey, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    By coupling synoptic data from a basin-wide assessment of streamwater chemistry with network-based geostatistical analysis, we show that spatial processes differentially affect biogeochemical condition and pattern across a headwater stream network. We analyzed a high-resolution dataset consisting of 664 water samples collected every 100 m throughout 32 tributaries in an entire fifth-order stream network. These samples were analyzed for an exhaustive suite of chemical constituents. The fine grain and broad extent of this study design allowed us to quantify spatial patterns over a range of scales by using empirical semivariograms that explicitly incorporated network topology. Here, we show that spatial structure, as determined by the characteristic shape of the semivariograms, differed both among chemical constituents and by spatial relationship (flow-connected, flow-unconnected, or Euclidean). Spatial structure was apparent at either a single scale or at multiple nested scales, suggesting separate processes operating simultaneously within the stream network and surrounding terrestrial landscape. Expected patterns of spatial dependence for flow-connected relationships (e.g., increasing homogeneity with downstream distance) occurred for some chemical constituents (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, sulfate, and aluminum) but not for others (e.g., nitrate, sodium). By comparing semivariograms for the different chemical constituents and spatial relationships, we were able to separate effects on streamwater chemistry of (i) fine-scale versus broad-scale processes and (ii) in-stream processes versus landscape controls. These findings provide insight on the hierarchical scaling of local, longitudinal, and landscape processes that drive biogeochemical patterns in stream networks.

  2. Network analysis reveals multiscale controls on streamwater chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kevin J; Torgersen, Christian E; Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C; Lowe, Winsor H; Bailey, Scott W

    2014-05-13

    By coupling synoptic data from a basin-wide assessment of streamwater chemistry with network-based geostatistical analysis, we show that spatial processes differentially affect biogeochemical condition and pattern across a headwater stream network. We analyzed a high-resolution dataset consisting of 664 water samples collected every 100 m throughout 32 tributaries in an entire fifth-order stream network. These samples were analyzed for an exhaustive suite of chemical constituents. The fine grain and broad extent of this study design allowed us to quantify spatial patterns over a range of scales by using empirical semivariograms that explicitly incorporated network topology. Here, we show that spatial structure, as determined by the characteristic shape of the semivariograms, differed both among chemical constituents and by spatial relationship (flow-connected, flow-unconnected, or Euclidean). Spatial structure was apparent at either a single scale or at multiple nested scales, suggesting separate processes operating simultaneously within the stream network and surrounding terrestrial landscape. Expected patterns of spatial dependence for flow-connected relationships (e.g., increasing homogeneity with downstream distance) occurred for some chemical constituents (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, sulfate, and aluminum) but not for others (e.g., nitrate, sodium). By comparing semivariograms for the different chemical constituents and spatial relationships, we were able to separate effects on streamwater chemistry of (i) fine-scale versus broad-scale processes and (ii) in-stream processes versus landscape controls. These findings provide insight on the hierarchical scaling of local, longitudinal, and landscape processes that drive biogeochemical patterns in stream networks.

  3. REFERENCE RANGES AND AGE-RELATED AND DIVING EXERCISE EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGY AND SERUM CHEMISTRY OF FEMALE STELLER SEA LIONS ( EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2018-03-01

    Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined. Almost all blood parameters measured exhibited significant changes with age. Many of the age-related changes reflected developmental life history changes, including a change in diet during weaning, an improvement of diving capacity, and the maturity of the immune system. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were also higher in the ocean diving group compared with the aquarium group, likely reflecting responses to increased exercise regimes. These data provide ranges of hematology and serum chemistry values needed to evaluate and compare the health and nutritional status of captive and wild Steller sea lions.

  4. Modeling Human Serum Albumin Tertiary Structure to Teach Upper-Division Chemistry Students Bioinformatics and Homology Modeling Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Dus?an; Zlatovic´, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A homology modeling laboratory experiment has been developed for an introductory molecular modeling course for upper-division undergraduate chemistry students. With this experiment, students gain practical experience in homology model preparation and assessment as well as in protein visualization using the educational version of PyMOL…

  5. Fundamental atomic plasma chemistry for semiconductor manufacturing process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventzek, P.L.G.; Zhang, D.; Stout, P.J.; Rauf, S.; Orlowski, M.; Kudrya, V.; Astapenko, V.; Eletskii, A.

    2002-01-01

    An absence of fundamental atomic plasma chemistry data (e.g. electron impact cross-sections) hinders the application of plasma process models in semiconductor manufacturing. Of particular importance is excited state plasma chemistry data for metallization applications. This paper describes important plasma chemistry processes in the context of high density plasmas for metallization application and methods for the calculation of data for the study of these processes. Also discussed is the development of model data sets that address computational tractability issues. Examples of model electron impact cross-sections for Ni reduced from multiple collision processes are presented

  6. Current status of neutron activation analysis and applied nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent scientometric studies of citations and publication data shows the present state of NAA and applied nuclear chemistry as compared to other analytical techniques. (author) 9 refs.; 7 tabs

  7. Decreased serum pyridoxal levels in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Watanabe, Shin-ya; Nakataki, Masahito; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Ikeda, Masashi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Shimodera, Shinji; Tajima, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Background Alterations in one-carbon metabolism have been associated with schizophrenia, and vitamin B6 is one of the key components in this pathway. Methods We first conducted a case–control study of serum pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia in a large Japanese cohort (n = 1276). Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies (n = 2125). Second, we investigated whether rs4654748, which was identified in a genome-wide association study as a vitamin B6-related single nucleotide polymorphism, was genetically implicated in patients with schizophrenia in the Japanese population (n = 10 689). Finally, we assessed the effect of serum pyridoxal levels on schizophrenia risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Results Serum pyridoxal levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, not only in our cohort, but also in the pooled data set of the meta-analysis of association studies (standardized mean difference −0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.57 to −0.39, p = 9.8 × 10−24). We failed to find a significant association between rs4654748 and schizophrenia. Furthermore, an MR analysis failed to find a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk (odds ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.65–1.51, p = 0.96). Limitations Food consumption and medications may have affected serum pyridoxal levels in our cross-sectional study. Sample size, number of instrumental variables and substantial heterogeneity among patients with schizophrenia are limitations of an MR analysis. Conclusion We found decreased serum pyridoxal levels in patients with schizophrenia in this observational study. However, we failed to obtain data supporting a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk using the MR approach. PMID:29688875

  8. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  9. Serum lipidomics analysis of ovariectomized rats under Curcuma comosa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sueajai, Jetjamnong; Chaihad, Nichaboon; Panrak, Ratchanee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2016-11-04

    Curcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa) or Wan Chak Motluk, Zingiberaceae family, has been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of gynecological problems and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. comosa by determining the changes in the lipid profiles in the ovariectomized rats, as a model of estrogen-deficiency-induced hyperlipidemia, after treatment with different components of C. comosa using an untargeted lipidomics approach. Lipids were extracted from the serum of adult female rats subjected to a sham operation (SHAM; control), ovariectomy (OVX), or OVX with 12-week daily doses of estrogen (17β-estradiol; E 2 ), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD; a phytoestrogen from C. comosa), powdered C. comosa rhizomes or its crude ethanol extract. They were then analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, characterized, and subjected to the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis statistical model to identify tentative biomarkers. Levels of five classes of lipids (ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, 1-O-alkenyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) were elevated in the OVX rats compared to those in the SHAM rats, while the monoacylglycerols and triacylglycerols were decreased. The E 2 treatment only reversed the levels of ceramides, whereas treatments with DPHD, C. comosa extract or powder returned the levels of all upregulated lipids back to those in the SHAM control rats. The findings suggest the potential beneficial effects of C. comosa on preventing the increased ceramide levels in OVX rats, a possible cause of metabolic disturbance under estrogen deficiency. Overall, the results demonstrated the power of untargeted lipidomics in discovering disease-relevant biomarkers, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of treatment by C. comosa components (DPHD, extract or powder) as utilized in Thai traditional medicine, and also providing

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hua-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Duo; Xiao, Ming-Ming; Li, Ying; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. A total of 2,280 protein groups were identified in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC

  11. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  12. Analysis of human serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: improved sample preparation and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorukhina, N I; Reijmers, T H; Nyangoma, S O; van der Zee, A G J; Jansen, R C; Bischoff, R

    2006-07-07

    Discovery of biomarkers is a fast developing field in proteomics research. Liquid chromatography coupled on line to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a powerful method for the sensitive detection, quantification and identification of proteins and peptides in biological fluids like serum. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins often masks those of lower abundance and thus generally prevents their detection and identification in proteomics studies. To perform future comparative analyses of samples from a serum bank of cervical cancer patients in a longitudinal and cross-sectional manner, methodology based on the depletion of high-abundance proteins followed by tryptic digestion and LC-MS has been developed. Two sample preparation methods were tested in terms of their efficiency to deplete high-abundance serum proteins and how they affect the repeatability of the LC-MS data sets. The first method comprised depletion of human serum albumin (HSA) on a dye ligand chromatographic and immunoglobulin G (IgG) on an immobilized Protein A support followed by tryptic digestion, fractionation by cation-exchange chromatography, trapping on a C18 column and reversed-phase LC-MS. The second method included depletion of the six most abundant serum proteins based on multiple immunoaffinity chromatography followed by tryptic digestion, trapping on a C18 column and reversed-phase LC-MS. Repeatability of the overall procedures was evaluated in terms of retention time and peak area for a selected number of endogenous peptides showing that the second method, besides being less time consuming, gave more repeatable results (retention time: <0.1% RSD; peak area: <30% RSD). Application of an LC-MS component detection algorithm followed by principal component analysis (PCA) enabled discrimination of serum samples that were spiked with horse heart cytochrome C from non-spiked serum and the detection of a concentration trend, which correlated to the amount of spiked horse heart

  13. Analysis of pig serum proteins based on shotgun liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent advances in proteomics technologies have opened up significant opportunities for future applications. We used shotgun liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the proteome profile of healthy pig serum. Samples of venous blood were collected and subjected to ...

  14. Surface analysis of polydimethylsiloxane fouled with bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available -specific adsorption of proteins. The non specific adsorption becomes a limitation in applications that require clean hydrophobic surfaces and the use of proteins. This paper investigates the changes in the surface of PDMS after being in contact with bovine serum...

  15. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings suggest that serum levels of Mg2+ may be influenced by weather fluctuation such as air temperature, nervousness in unaccustomed situations, age, and physical stress induced by exercise. The results indicate that Mg2+ supplementation should be considered for working dogs, dogs moving or traveling to a ...

  16. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  17. Serum calcium and incident diabetes: an observational study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C W; Cheng, V K F; Ho, D K C; Kung, A W C; Cheung, B M Y; Wong, I C K; Tan, K C B; Salas-Salvadó, J; Becerra-Tomas, N; Cheung, C L

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate if serum calcium is related to diabetes incidence in Hong Kong Chinese. The results showed that serum calcium has a significant association with increased risk of diabetes. The result of meta-analysis reinforced our findings. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum calcium, including serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium, with incident diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 6096 participants aged 20 or above and free of diabetes at baseline. Serum calcium was measured at baseline. Incident diabetes was determined from several electronic databases. We also searched relevant databases for studies on serum calcium and incident diabetes and conducted a meta-analysis using fixed-effect modeling. During 59,130.9 person-years of follow-up, 631 participants developed diabetes. Serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium were associated with incident diabetes in the unadjusted model. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the association remained significant only for serum total calcium (hazard ratio (HR), 1.32 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.70), highest vs. lowest quartile). In a meta-analysis of four studies including the current study, both serum total calcium (pooled risk ratio (RR), 1.38 (95 % CI, 1.15-1.65); I (2) = 5 %, comparing extreme quantiles) and albumin-corrected calcium (pooled RR, 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.61); I (2) = 0 %, comparing extreme quantiles) were associated with incident diabetes. Penalized regression splines showed that the association of incident diabetes with serum total calcium and albumin-correlated calcium was non-linear and linear, respectively. Elevated serum calcium concentration is associated with incident diabetes. The mechanism underlying this association warrants further investigation.

  18. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  19. A preliminary analysis of water chemistry of the Mkuze Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the water chemistry of this system, water samples were collected throughout the study area from surface water, groundwater, pan and reed swamp sites, as well as a rainwater sample. These were analysed for chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and silicon. Four main water bodies ...

  20. The Atomic Number Revolution in Chemistry: A Kuhnian Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process of add...

  1. Green chemistry principles in organic compound synthesis and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review focus on various green chemistry approaches which could be utilized in the organic compounds in practical classes for undergraduate level in comparison of conventional methods. These methods avoid the usage of hazardous substances and are environmental friendly.

  2. Integrating Symmetry in Stereochemical Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of…

  3. Electrochemical Label-Free Aptasensor for Specific Analysis of Dopamine in Serum in the Presence of Structurally Related Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2016-04-05

    Cellular and brain metabolism of dopamine can be correlated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and as such, in vivo analysis of dopamine in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters (NT) represents a holy grail of neuroscience. Interference from those NTs generally does not allow selective electroanalysis of dopamine, which redox transformation overlaps with those of other catecholamines. In our previous work, we reported an electrochemical RNA-aptamer-based biosensor for specific analysis of dopamine (Analytical Chemistry, 2013; Vol. 85, p 121). However, the overall design of the biosensor restricted its stability and impeded its operation in serum. Here, we show that specific biorecognition and electroanalysis of dopamine in serum can be performed by the RNA aptamer tethered to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes via the alkanethiol linker. The stabilized dopamine aptasensor allowed continuous 20 h amperometric analysis of dopamine in 10% serum within the physiologically important 0.1-1 μM range and in the presence of catechol and such dopamine precursors and metabolites as norepinephrine and l-DOPA. In a flow-injection mode, the aptasensor response to dopamine was ∼1 s, the sensitivity of analysis, optimized by adjusting the aptamer surface coverage, was 67 ± 1 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and the dopamine LOD was 62 nM. The proposed design of the aptasensor, exploiting both the aptamer alkanethiol tethering to the electrode and screening of the catecholamine-aptamer electrostatic interactions, allows direct monitoring of dopamine levels in biological fluids in the presence of competitive NT and thus may be further applicable in biomedical research.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita E. Serda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light variable chain, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. Anionic microparticles were found to accumulate in equal abundance in murine liver and spleen, whereas cationic microparticles showed preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage uptake of both anionic and cationic microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serda, Rita E.; Blanco, Elvin; Mack, Aaron; Stafford, Susan J.; Amra, Sarah; Li, Qingpo; van de Ven, Anne L.; Tanaka, Takemi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as shape, composition and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light chain variable region, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. The anionic-surface favored equal accumulation of microparticles in the liver and spleen, while cationic-surfaces favored preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage internalization of both anionic and cationic silicon microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution. PMID:21303614

  6. Analysis of proteomic changes of the serum of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Chen Xiaohua; Dong Bo; Zhang Junquan; Rao Yalan; Gao Ronglian; Hou Lili; Mao Bingzhi

    2005-01-01

    To explore the early diagnostic factors, new therapeutic targets and mechanisms of acute radiation disease. Proteomic changes of the serum of irradiated mice were studied using 2-DE and Q-TOF-MS approaches. One higher level expressed protein after the irradiation was found, and it was identified as α chain of haptoglobin by Q-TOF-MS. The authors confirmed the result by Western blotting with anti-haptoglobin antibody. Haptoglobin may involve in the process of acute radiation injury. (authors)

  7. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with leukemia: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Ma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested that serum ADPN levels may be inversely correlated with leukemia, and ADPN levels can be used as an effective biologic marker in early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of leukemia.

  8. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  9. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  10. Serum analysis of coronary heart disease patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Hwa Moon; Yong-Sam Chung; Kwang-Won Park; Okhee Lee

    2007-01-01

    Due to changes of the dietary pattern and life style, cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) have been increasing in Korea. In this study, the levels of the serum minerals such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se for 75 patients with CHD and 25 normal persons, who were older than the age of 40, were investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For analytical quality control, the reference materials, INSPQ and Seronorm, were analyzed simultaneously. The relative errors of the analytical values for the reference materials were within 10% of the certified values. The average concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of the male patients were 2,850±260 mg/l, 3,400±310 mg/l, 160±30 mg/l, 80.9±11.7 mg/l, 1.57±0.73 mg/l, 0.094±0.019 mg/l and 0.795±0.163 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of the female patients were 2,890±240 mg/l, 3,430±350 mg/l, 169±27 mg/l, 81.8±13.0 mg/l, 1.26±0.44 mg/l, 0.099±0.015 mg/l and 0.769±0.105 mg/l, respectively. In a comparison between the patients and the normal group for both genders, while the levels of the elemental concentrations such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Se were similar, the Zn concentration level of the CHD patients was significantly lower than that of the normal ones. The present study showed that the Zn concentration in the serum could be associated with CHD in Korean adults. (author)

  11. Analysis of clinical application on determining serum inflammatory cytokines levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhao; Bai Yun; Yang Yongqing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate analysis of clinical application on determining serum inflammatory cytokines levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), high-sensitive C-reaction protein (hs-CRP) (with high-sensitive enzyme immunoassay) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (with radioimmunoassay) in serum were determined in 112 patients with ACS, 32 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 42 normal controls as well as did compared analysis. Results: The serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels in 112 patients with ACS were obviously higher than those in 42 controls (P all 0.05), serum hs-CRP level was increased only (P<0.05). The serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels in 46 patients with acute myocardial infraction (AMI) were prominently higher than those in 66 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and in 32 patients with SAP. The serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels with advanced degree SAP, UAP and AMI were increased. Conclusion: In the severity of the patients with SAP, UAP, AMI, the determination of serum inflammatory cytokines level were a good and important index, so that it was referential for heart coronary events happened. (authors)

  12. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  13. Impact of Instructional Decisions on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Chemistry through Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apugliese, Andrew; Lewis, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis can provide a robust description of the impact of educational reforms and also offer an opportunity to explore the conditions where such reforms are more or less effective. This article describes a meta-analysis on the impact of cooperative learning on students' chemistry understanding. Modifiers in the meta-analysis are purposefully…

  14. Evaluation of four commercial biuret reagent kits of serum total protein by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry reference measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    In China, the traceability of clinical chemistry methods is still immature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits using such established procedures. We reproduced the reference measurement procedure for serum total protein, as recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). We evaluated the performance by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP15-A and EP6-A. Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP9-A2. The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows: CVs ranged from 0.47% to 0.85% at medical decision levels (X(c)) of 45 g/L, 60 g/L and 80 g/L. Linearity was Y=1.0022X-0.2121 (r=0.9999), and recovery ranged from 100.2% to 102.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. The linear relationships of four commercial reagent kits, Merit Choice, KHB, Leadman, and Olympus, were, respectively: Y=0.9922X+0.5776 (r=0.9961); Y=0.9936X+0.4316 (r=0.9992); Y=0.9949X+0.9129 (r=0.9987) and Y=0.9923X+0.8876 (r=0.9989). KHB showed slight negative bias, and the mean±SD was -0.03±0.60 g/L. Merit Choice, Leadman, and Olympus all showed positive bias, and the mean±SDs were 0.02±0.63 g/L, 0.55±0.77 g/L and 0.34±0.71 g/L, respectively. The correlation and bias of four commercial reagent kits for serum total protein were found to be acceptable. Thus, these reagent kits can be used reliably in China.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddoor, Rouba; Al-Amoush, Siham; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the nature of intended secondary chemistry curricula, as they are represented by chemistry textbooks, from seven Arabic countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The curricula are evaluated through analysis of the officially approved 10th grade chemistry textbooks used nationwide in all…

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2...

  17. Analysis of irradiated biogenic amines by computational chemistry and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jorge L.S.P.; Borges Junior, Itamar; Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P.; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Lima, Keila S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic Amines (B A) are nitrogenous compounds able to cause food poisoning. In this work, we studied the tyramine, one of the most common BA present in foods by combining experimental measured IR (Infrared) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometry) spectra and computational quantum chemistry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Deformed Atoms in Molecules (DMA) method was used to compute the partition the electronic densities in a chemically-intuitive way and electrostatic potentials of molecule to identify the acid and basic sites. Trading pattern was irradiated using a Cs 137 radiator, and each sample was identified by IR and GC/MS. Calculated and experimental IR spectra were compared. We observed that ionizing gamma irradiation was very effective in decreasing the population of standard amine, resulting in fragments that could be rationalized through the quantum chemistry calculations. In particular, we could locate the acid and basic sites of both molecules and identify possible sites of structural weaknesses, which allowed to propose mechanistic schemes for the breaking of chemical bonds by the irradiation. Moreover, from this work we hope it will be also possible to properly choose the dose of gamma irradiation which should be provided to eliminate each type of contamination. (author)

  18. BIGCHEM: Challenges and Opportunities for Big Data Analysis in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetko, Igor V; Engkvist, Ola; Koch, Uwe; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Chen, Hongming

    2016-12-01

    The increasing volume of biomedical data in chemistry and life sciences requires the development of new methods and approaches for their handling. Here, we briefly discuss some challenges and opportunities of this fast growing area of research with a focus on those to be addressed within the BIGCHEM project. The article starts with a brief description of some available resources for "Big Data" in chemistry and a discussion of the importance of data quality. We then discuss challenges with visualization of millions of compounds by combining chemical and biological data, the expectations from mining the "Big Data" using advanced machine-learning methods, and their applications in polypharmacology prediction and target de-convolution in phenotypic screening. We show that the efficient exploration of billions of molecules requires the development of smart strategies. We also address the issue of secure information sharing without disclosing chemical structures, which is critical to enable bi-party or multi-party data sharing. Data sharing is important in the context of the recent trend of "open innovation" in pharmaceutical industry, which has led to not only more information sharing among academics and pharma industries but also the so-called "precompetitive" collaboration between pharma companies. At the end we highlight the importance of education in "Big Data" for further progress of this area. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  20. Analysis of ethyl glucuronide in human serum by capillary electrophoresis with sample self-stacking and indirect detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Caslavska, J.; Malášková, Hana; Gebauer, Petr; Thormann, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1081, č. 1 (2005), s. 2-8 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ethyl glucuronide * capillary electrophoresis * serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  1. Serum Immunoglobulin G4 in Discriminating Autoimmune Pancreatitis From Pancreatic Cancer: A Diagnostic Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Cao, Qin; Jiang, Min; Sun, Ming-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is a clinical challenge. Emerging published data on the accuracy of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) for the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC are inconsistent. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the clinical utility of serum IgG4 in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. We performed a systematic literature search of multiple electronic databases. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Random-effects model was used to summarize the diagnostic odds ratio and other measures of accuracy. Eleven studies comprising 523 AIP patients and 771 PC patients were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC were as follows: diagnostic odds ratio, 57.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.17-141.67); sensitivity, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68-0.76); specificity, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94). The area under the curve of serum IgG4 in distinguishing AIP from PC was 0.9200. Our meta-analysis found that serum IgG4 has high specificity and relatively low sensitivity in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. Therefore, serum IgG4 is useful in distinguishing AIP from PC.

  2. Setting a Standard for Chemistry Education in the Next Generation: A Retrosynthetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A diverse and highly qualified chemistry teaching workforce is critical for preparing equally diverse, qualified STEM professionals. Here, we analyze National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) data to provide a demographic comparison of the U.S. secondary chemistry teaching population in high-needs and non-high-needs public schools as well as private schools during the 2011–2012 academic year. Our analysis reveals that the chemistry teaching workforce is predominantly white and significantly lacks in-field degrees or certification across school types, though high-needs and private schools are most affected by this lack of teacher qualification. Given these results, we attempt to retrosynthetically identify the pathway yielding a qualified chemistry teaching workforce to draw attention to the various steps in this scheme where reform efforts on the part of individual faculty, academic institutions, and organizations can be concentrated. PMID:27924311

  3. Analysis of the Chemistry activities in 1st level of Spanish Bachelor Physics and Chemistry textbooks from a «Chemistry in context» approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea MARTÍNEZ DÍAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there are two worrying phenomenon happening in the science teaching environment, on one hand there are fewer students who choose science subjects at the time they’re optional and on the other hand the decreasing number of university students enrolled in science careers, if we add those two facts the results of the latest pisa tests, which show that students who choose these materials do not get satisfactory results, we have a hopeless outlook. One way of analysing the situation is exploring what happens in the classroom and in this context we find that the textbook is a resource used extensively in the teaching of Chemistry; one essential element for learning are planned activities in the classroom, so it seems essential to make a full review of them. The objectives in this study are: Analysing and classifying the activities contextualized of chemistry textbooks currently used in eleventh grade and comparing books from different educational laws based on their contextualized activities. For the review and classification of activities it uses a methodology of analysis for qualitative content. The results demonstrate the anecdotic presence of this kind of activities in textbooks; 8308 activities were reviewed of which only 6,46% corresponded to contextualized activities. In addition when comparing the different books, whether they are currently used or the ones from previous educational laws, we see that there is not a turnaround in what refers to the contextualized activities, as a significant variation is not observed in the percentages and therefore do not adapt well to curriculum changes. 

  4. Determination of mercury in human serum and packed blood cells by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieck, J.; Vanballenberghe, L.; Wittoek, A.; Vermeir, G.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of mercury in human blood serum and packed blood cells employing neutron activation analysis. Great attention was devoted to the collection and manipulation of the samples. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing biological reference materials and by comparing the concentrations measured in a number of serum samples to those obtained by another, independent technique (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry) in the same samples. The article reports the levels measured in blood serum and packed blood cells samples from 15 adult volunteers, as well as the figures determined in a open-quotes second-generationclose quotes biological reference material (freeze-dried human serum), prepared and conditioned at the University of Ghent

  5. Analysis of Citations to Books in Chemistry PhD Dissertations in an Era of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxbart, David

    2018-01-01

    A citation analysis of chemistry PhD dissertations at the University of Texas at Austin yielded data on how often graduate students cite books in their bibliographies, and on the characteristics of the books cited, in terms of age and local ownership. The analysis examined samples of dissertations selected from five discrete years--1988, 2006,…

  6. Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult miniature donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Samadieh, H

    2013-09-01

    To establish reference intervals for serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in clinically healthy adult miniature donkeys. Experiments were conducted on 10 female and 10 male clinically normal adult miniature donkeys, randomly selected from five herds. Lumbosacral CSF collection was performed with the sedated donkey in the standing position. Cell analysis was performed immediately after the samples were collected. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein immediately after CSF sample collection. Sodium, potassium, glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations were measured in CSF and serum samples. A paired t-test was used to compare mean values between female and male donkeys. The CSF was uniformly clear, colourless and free from flocculent material, with a specific gravity of 1.002. The range of total nucleated cell counts was 2-4 cells/μL. The differential white cell count comprised only small lymphocytes. No erythrocytes or polymorphonuclear cells were observed on cytological examination. Reference values were obtained for biochemical analysis of serum and CSF. Gender had no effect on any variables measured in serum or CSF (p>0.05). CSF analysis can provide important information in addition to that gained by clinical examination. CSF analysis has not previously been performed in miniature donkeys; this is the first report on the subject. In the present study, reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations of serum and CSF were determined for male and female miniature donkeys.

  7. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  8. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  9. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  10. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  11. The Potential of Angiogenin as a Serum Biomarker for Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Angiogenin (ANG is a multifunctional angiogenic protein that participates in both normal development and diseases. Abnormal serum ANG levels are commonly reported in various diseases. However, whether ANG can serve as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for different diseases remains a matter of debate. Methods. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus search engines to identify all publications comparing plasma or serum ANG levels between patients with different diseases and healthy controls, as were studies evaluating circulating ANG levels in healthy populations, pregnant women, or other demographic populations. Results. This study demonstrated that the serum ANG concentration in healthy populations was 336.14 ± 142.83 ng/ml and remained relatively stable in different populations and regions. We noted no significant differences in serum ANG levels between patients and healthy controls, except in cases in which patients suffered from cancer or cardiovascular diseases. The serum ANG concentrations were significantly higher in patients who developed colorectal cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes, and heart failure than those in healthy controls. Conclusion. ANG has the potential of being a serum biomarker for cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. A Routine 'Top-Down' Approach to Analysis of the Human Serum Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Arlene M; Hyett, Jon A; Coorssen, Jens R

    2017-06-06

    Serum provides a rich source of potential biomarker proteoforms. One of the major obstacles in analysing serum proteomes is detecting lower abundance proteins owing to the presence of hyper-abundant species (e.g., serum albumin and immunoglobulins). Although depletion methods have been used to address this, these can lead to the concomitant removal of non-targeted protein species, and thus raise issues of specificity, reproducibility, and the capacity for meaningful quantitative analyses. Altering the native stoichiometry of the proteome components may thus yield a more complex series of issues than dealing directly with the inherent complexity of the sample. Hence, here we targeted method refinements so as to ensure optimum resolution of serum proteomes via a top down two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) approach that enables the routine assessment of proteoforms and is fully compatible with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Testing included various fractionation and non-fractionation approaches. The data show that resolving 500 µg protein on 17 cm 3-10 non-linear immobilised pH gradient strips in the first dimension followed by second dimension resolution on 7-20% gradient gels with a combination of lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergents markedly improves the resolution and detection of proteoforms in serum. In addition, well established third dimension electrophoretic separations in combination with deep imaging further contributed to the best available resolution, detection, and thus quantitative top-down analysis of serum proteomes.

  13. Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level and Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Dian-Zhong

    2018-05-10

    This research sought to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between serum zinc level and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched up to October 2017 for observational studies on the association between serum zinc level and MetS. The standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of the serum zinc level for MetS versus control participants were calculated. In addition, the pooled odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) of MetS for the highest versus lowest category of serum zinc level, as well as their corresponding 95% CI, were also calculated. A total of 11 observational studies (8 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 2 cohort studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The combined SMD demonstrated that the serum zinc level in MetS was higher than that in control participants (SMD = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.19; p = 0.009). Moreover, the overall multivariable-adjusted RR showed that the increased serum zinc level was associated with a higher risk of MetS (RR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.33-2.50; p level and MetS (OR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; p = 0.841). Although the serum zinc level in participants with MetS was significantly higher than that in control ones, the existing evidence was still insufficient to conclude a definite relationship between serum zinc level and MetS. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to elaborate the concerned issues further.

  14. Applications of neutron activation analysis in chemistry and pollution fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, S.

    1978-01-01

    Some examples of applications of activation analysis are given such as: chemical analysis of precious metals, nuclear graphite and hydrocarbons; control of pollution of water and seawater, analysis of food and seafood, atmospheric, dust and hair for determination of impurities [fr

  15. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  16. Using foreground/background analysis to determine leaf and canopy chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, J. E.; Ustin, S. L.; Hart, Q. J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Smith, M. O.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) has become a well established procedure for analyzing imaging spectrometry data, however, the technique is relatively insensitive to minor sources of spectral variation (e.g., discriminating stressed from unstressed vegetation and variations in canopy chemistry). Other statistical approaches have been tried e.g., stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict canopy chemistry. Grossman et al. reported that SMLR is sensitive to measurement error and that the prediction of minor chemical components are not independent of patterns observed in more dominant spectral components like water. Further, they observed that the relationships were strongly dependent on the mode of expressing reflectance (R, -log R) and whether chemistry was expressed on a weight (g/g) or are basis (g/sq m). Thus, alternative multivariate techniques need to be examined. Smith et al. reported a revised SMA that they termed Foreground/Background Analysis (FBA) that permits directing the analysis along any axis of variance by identifying vectors through the n-dimensional spectral volume orthonormal to each other. Here, we report an application of the FBA technique for the detection of canopy chemistry using a modified form of the analysis.

  17. Analysis of 25(OHD serum concentrations of hospitalized elderly patients in the Shanghai area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Mao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find an association between basic characteristics, seasons as well as disease types and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations in Chinese patients. METHODS: We randomly selected 5470 Chinese patients with various diseases, who were hospitalized between May 2012 and August 2013 in Shanghai and analyzed their serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 (25 (OHD2 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentrations with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as well as their parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum creatinine blood levels. The resulting data were analyzed by linear regression and variance analyses or multivariate analysis with covariance. RESULTS: The 25(OHD serum concentrations were lowest in December. Among the subjects with a median age of 83.0 ± 16.0, the median 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3 and total 25(OHD serum concentrations were 1.00 ± 1.80 ng/ml, 12.20 ± 8.50 ng/ml and 14.80 ± 9.80 respectively, indicating a prevalent 25(OHD deficiency. According to our multivariate analysis of covariance, the factors affecting 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3 serum concentrations included age, creatinine, PTH, season and type of disease, whereas gender correlated only with 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD2 and D3 values correlated negatively with each other. Our results further revealed that 25(OHD3 levels were low while 25(OHD2 levels were high among patients with lung diseases, dyskinesia and coronary heart diseases. In addition, participants with diabetes and cerebral infarction had higher 25(OHD3 serum concentrations compared with lung disease patients. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D intake particularly during winter and summer seasons is important especially for elderly lung disease, dyskinesia and coronary heart disease patients to improve their quality of life.

  18. Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J A; Prins, Bram P; Feitosa, Mary F; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H; Folsom, Aaron R; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P; Lopez, Lorna M; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y D; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hicks, Andrew A; Koenig, Wolfgang; O' Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S; North, Kari E; Felix, Janine F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Cupples, L Adrienne; Perry, John R B; Morris, Andrew P

    2012-10-05

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety analysis of the nuclear chemistry Building 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvam, D.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety analysis that was done on Building 151. The report outlines the methodology, the analysis, and the findings that led to the low hazard classification. No further safety evaluation is indicated at this time. 5 tables

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  1. Analysis of a Natural Yellow Dye: An Experiment for Analytical Organic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villela, A.; Derksen, G.C.H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment exposes second-year undergraduate students taking a course in analytical organic chemistry to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantitative analysis using the internal standard method. This is accomplished using the real-world application of natural dyes for

  2. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  3. A SWOT Analysis of Male and Female Students' Performance in Chemistry: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, Florence O.; Chiaha, Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka; Anazor, Lynda Chioma; Eze, Justina Uzoamaka; Omeke, Faith Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do a SWOT analysis and compare performances of male and female students in chemistry. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two boys', two girls' and two coeducational schools involving 1319 males and 1831 females, were selected by a stratified, deliberate sampling technique. A…

  4. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  5. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  6. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  7. Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry in Northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Espada-Rios, M.I.; Lucas-Dominguez, T.

    1993-01-01

    149 samples of rainwater were collected in the proximity of a power station in northwestern Spain at three rainwater monitoring stations. The resulting data are analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Firstly, the Principal Component Analysis shows that there are three main sources of pollution in the area (a marine source, a rural source and an acid source). The impact from pollution from these sources on the immediate environment of the stations is studied using Factorial Discriminant Analysis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Multivariate statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry in Northwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Espada-Rios, M.I.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (University of Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Faculty of Mathematics, Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-07-01

    149 samples of rainwater were collected in the proximity of a power station in northwestern Spain at three rainwater monitoring stations. The resulting data are analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Firstly, the Principal Component Analysis shows that there are three main sources of pollution in the area (a marine source, a rural source and an acid source). The impact from pollution from these sources on the immediate environment of the stations is studied using Factorial Discriminant Analysis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  12. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  13. Analysis of the NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase profiles in serum-limited Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Piccoli Frasson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase family members, which hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, which hydrolyses AMP, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. For trichomonad culture, the growth medium is supplemented with 10% serum, which is an important source of nutrients, such as adenosine. Here, we investigated the ATP metabolism of T. vaginalis trophozoites from long-term cultures and clinical isolates under limited bovine serum conditions (1% serum. The specific enzymatic activities were expressed as nmol inorganic phosphate (Pi released/min/mg protein, the gene expression patterns were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography and the cell cycle analysis was assessed by flow cytometry. Serum limitation led to the profound activation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the levels of NTPDase A and B transcripts increased and extracellular ATP metabolism was activated, which led to enhanced ATP hydrolysis and the formation of ADP and AMP. Moreover, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 stage, which suggested adenosine uptake. Our data suggest that under conditions of serum limitation, NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase play a role in providing the adenosine required for T. vaginalis growth and that this process contributes to the establishment of parasitism.

  14. Targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of serum acylcarnitines in acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa M; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda G; Beger, Richard D; Sullivan, Janice E; Kearns, Gregory L; Reed, Michael D; Marshall, James D; Van Den Anker, John N; James, Laura P

    2014-01-01

    Aim Long-chain acylcarnitines have been postulated to be sensitive biomarkers of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse models. In the following study, the relationship of acylcarnitines with other known indicators of APAP toxicity was examined in children receiving low-dose (therapeutic) and high-dose (‘overdose’ or toxic ingestion) exposure to APAP. Materials & methods The study included three subject groups: group A (therapeutic dose, n = 187); group B (healthy controls, n = 23); and group C (overdose, n = 62). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each subject. Serum samples were used for measurement of APAP protein adducts, a biomarker of the oxidative metabolism of APAP and for targeted metabolomics analysis of serum acylcarnitines using ultra performance liquid chromatography–triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results Significant increases in oleoyl- and palmitoyl-carnitines were observed with APAP exposure (low dose and overdose) compared with controls. Significant increases in serum ALT, APAP protein adducts and acylcarnitines were observed in overdose children that received delayed treatment (time to treatment from overdose >24 h) with the antidote N-acetylcysteine. Time to peak APAP protein adducts in serum was shorter than that of the acylcarnitines and serum ALT. Conclusion Perturbations in long-chain acylcarnitines in children with APAP toxicity suggest that mitochrondrial injury and associated impairment in the β-oxidation of fatty acids are clinically relevant as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. PMID:24521011

  15. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  16. Organic cattle products: Authenticating production origin by analysis of serum mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Herrero-Latorre, Carlos; López-Alonso, Marta; Losada, David E; Iglesias, Roberto; Miranda, Marta

    2018-10-30

    An authentication procedure for differentiating between organic and non-organic cattle production on the basis of analysis of serum samples has been developed. For this purpose, the concentrations of fourteen mineral elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in 522 serum samples from cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from non-organic farms), determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, were used. The chemical information provided by serum analysis was employed to construct different pattern recognition classification models that predict the origin of each sample: organic or non-organic class. Among all classification procedures considered, the best results were obtained with the decision tree C5.0, Random Forest and AdaBoost neural networks, with hit levels close to 90% for both production types. The proposed method, involving analysis of serum samples, provided rapid, accurate in vivo classification of cattle according to organic and non-organic production type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Lin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetuin-A (FA suppresses arterial calcification, promotes insulin resistance, and appears to be elevated in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, but the data is still inconsistent. To clarify the correlation between serum FA levels and the presence and severity of CVDs, we performed this meta-analysis. Method. Potential relevant studies were identified covering the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine (CBM, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases. Data from eligible studies were extracted and included in the meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results. Ten case-control studies, including 1,281 patients with CVDs and 2,663 healthy controls, were included. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of FA between the CVDs patients and the healthy controls (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.37–2.36, P=0.007. Ethnicity-subgroup analysis implied that low serum FA levels are related to CVDs in Caucasians (SMD = 1.73, 95%CI: 0.20–3.26, P=0.026, but not in Asians (SMD = 1.04, 95%CI: −0.33–2.40, P=0.138. Conclusion. The data indicated that decreased serum FA level is correlated with the development of CVDs. FA might be clinically valuable for reflecting the progression of CVDs.

  18. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei-Min; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2005-01-01

    Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer

  19. Nonlinear optical polarization analysis in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Garth J

    2017-01-01

    This rigorous yet accessible guide presents a molecular-based description of nonlinear optical polarization analysis of chemical and biological assemblies. It includes discussion of the most common nonlinear optical microscopy and interfacial measurements used for quantitative analysis, specifically second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy/stimulated Raman spectroscopy (CARS/SRS). A linear algebra mathematical framework is developed, allowing step-wise systematic connections to be made between the observable measurements and the molecular response. Effects considered include local field corrections, the molecular orientation distribution, rotations between the molecular frame, the local frame and the laboratory frame, and simplifications from molecular and macromolecular symmetry. Specific examples are provided throughout the book, working from the common and relatively simple case studies ...

  20. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology, identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, illegal discharge of sewage and in environmental risk assessment. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the application of chiral analysis in biological and environmental samples and their relevance in the forensic field. Most frequently analytical methods used to quantify the enantiomers are liquid and gas chromatography using both indirect, with enantiomerically pure derivatizing reagents, and direct methods recurring to chiral stationary phases.

  1. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Ribeiro; Cristiana Santos; Valter Gonçalves; Ana Ramos; Carlos Afonso; Maria Elizabeth Tiritan

    2018-01-01

    Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology), identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, ille...

  2. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  3. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  4. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-12-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09-4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93-2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis.

  5. Development of a sandwich ELISA for the thrombin light chain identified by serum proteome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Sogawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We previously identified novel biomarker candidates in biliary tract cancer (BTC using serum proteome analysis. Among several candidates, we focused on thrombin light chain which is a 4204 Da peptide as the most promising biomarker for BTC. To move thrombin light chain toward potential diagnostic use, we developed an enzyme immunoassay that enables to measure serum thrombin light chain levels.Both one monoclonal antibody specific to the N-termini and one polyclonal antibody were used to develop a sandwich ELISA for thrombin light chain. The assay was evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by the ClinProt™ system. Serum samples were obtained from 20 patients with BTC, 20 patients with BBTDs and 20 HVs using the ClinProt™ system and ELISA.The results of the established ELISA showed a positive correlation with the findings by ClinProt™ system (slope=0.3386, intercept=34.901, r2=0.9641. The performance of the ELISA was satisfactory in terms of recovery (97.9–102.5% and within-run (1.5–4.8% and between-day (1.9–6.7% reproducibility. Serum thrombin light chain levels were significantly greater in BTC (176.5±47.2 ng/mL than in BBTDs (128.6±17.4 ng/mL and HVs (127.6±16.0 ng/mL (p<0.001.The sandwich ELISA developed in this study will be useful for validation of the diagnostic significance of serum thrombin light chain levels in various cancers. Keywords: Thrombin light chain, Biliary tract cancer, Sandwich ELISA, Serum biomarker

  6. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    . The vocabulary knowledge was examined by means of multiple-choice pre- and post-tests which were administered to all student participants. The choices included a scientific synonym, an everyday synonym, and a synonym based on a common misconception related to the term. Student understanding of the chemistry content was examined using chemistry content understanding pre- and post-tests comprised of four probes based on the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and linked to common student misconceptions which were administered to all student participants. Vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using a t-test. Only a slight gain in vocabulary knowledge mean effect scores was found in the TG compared to the CG; however, it was not statistically significant. Chemistry content understanding effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using Chi-square analysis. The results of the chemistry content understanding effect scores in the TG compared to the CG showed that the student participants in the CG did significantly better. Chemistry content understanding effect scores and vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared using a t-test. Chapter V provides explanations for the results which do not corroborate those found by other researchers. The researcher contends that the use of the Frayer model for specific terms in content across the curriculum is worth further study.

  7. Quantitative Secretome Analysis of Activated Jurkat Cells Using Click Chemistry-Based Enrichment of Secreted Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Kathrin E; Rosowski, Kristin; Müller, Christian; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Megger, Dominik A; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea; Bracht, Thilo; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-01-06

    Quantitative secretome analyses are a high-performance tool for the discovery of physiological and pathophysiological changes in cellular processes. However, serum supplements in cell culture media limit secretome analyses, but serum depletion often leads to cell starvation and consequently biased results. To overcome these limiting factors, we investigated a model of T cell activation (Jurkat cells) and performed an approach for the selective enrichment of secreted proteins from conditioned medium utilizing metabolic marking of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Marked glycoproteins were labeled via bioorthogonal click chemistry and isolated by affinity purification. We assessed two labeling compounds conjugated with either biotin or desthiobiotin and the respective secretome fractions. 356 proteins were quantified using the biotin probe and 463 using desthiobiotin. 59 proteins were found differentially abundant (adjusted p-value ≤0.05, absolute fold change ≥1.5) between inactive and activated T cells using the biotin method and 86 using the desthiobiotin approach, with 31 mutual proteins cross-verified by independent experiments. Moreover, we analyzed the cellular proteome of the same model to demonstrate the benefit of secretome analyses and provide comprehensive data sets of both. 336 proteins (61.3%) were quantified exclusively in the secretome. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004280.

  8. Implementation of picoSpin Benchtop NMR Instruments into Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories through Spectral Analysis of Fischer Esterification Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearty, Kasey L.; Sharp, Joseph T.; Meehan, Emma K.; Wallace, Doyle R.; Jackson, Douglas M.; Morrison, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis is an important analytical technique presented in introductory organic chemistry courses. NMR instrument access is limited for undergraduate organic chemistry students due to the size of the instrument, price of NMR solvents, and the maintenance level required for instrument upkeep. The University of Georgia Chemistry…

  9. Serum chemistry reference ranges for Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups from Alaska: stock differentiation and comparisons within a North Pacific sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Michelle E; Fadely, Brian S; Gelatt, Thomas S; Rea, Lorrie D; Loughlin, Thomas R

    2013-12-01

    Blood chemistry and hematologic reference ranges are useful for population health assessment and establishing a baseline for future comparisons in the event of ecosystem changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine if there was any population spatial structure for blood variables of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), an established sentinel species, and to report reference ranges for appropriate populations using standardized analyses. In addition to comparing reference ranges between populations with contrasting abundance trends, data were examined for evidence of disease or nutritional stress. From 1998 to 2011, blood samples were collected from 1,231 pups captured on 37 rookeries across their Alaskan range. Reference ranges are reported separately for the western and eastern distinct population segments (DPS) of Steller sea lion after cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA) supported underlying stock structure. Variables with greater loading scores for the DFA (creatinine, total protein, calcium, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase) also were greater for sea lions from the endangered western DPS, supporting previous studies that indicated pup condition in the west was not compromised during the first month postpartum. Differences between population segments were likely a result of ecological, physiological, or age related differences.

  10. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  11. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto functionalized polystyrene lattices: A theoretical modeling approach and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beragoui, Manel; Aguir, Chadlia; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Enciso, Eduardo; Torralvo, Maria José; Duclaux, Laurent; Reinert, Laurence; Vayer, Marylène; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    2015-03-01

    The present work involves the study of bovine serum albumin adsorption onto five functionalized polystyrene lattices. The adsorption measurements have been carried out using a quartz crystal microbalance. Poly(styrene-co-itaconic acid) was found to be an effective adsorbent for bovine serum albumin molecule adsorption. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using theoretical models based on a statistical physics approach, namely monolayer, double layer with two successive energy levels, finite multilayer, and modified Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. The equilibrium data were then analyzed using five different non-linear error analysis methods and it was found that the finite multilayer model best describes the protein adsorption data. Surface characteristics, i.e., surface charge density and number density of surface carboxyl groups, were used to investigate their effect on the adsorption capacity. The combination of the results obtained from the number of adsorbed layers, the number of adsorbed molecules per site, and the thickness of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin layer allows us to predict that the adsorption of this protein molecule can also be distinguished by monolayer or multilayer adsorption with end-on, side-on, and overlap conformations. The magnitudes of the calculated adsorption energy indicate that bovine serum albumin molecules are physisorbed onto the adsorbent lattices.

  12. Genetic variants in two pathways influence serum urate levels and gout risk: a systematic pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zheng; Zhou, Jingru; Xu, Xia; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Dongbao; Yang, Chengde; Ma, Yanyun; Wang, Yi; He, Hongjun; Ji, Hengdong; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Pang, Yafei; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Jiucun

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify candidate pathways associated with serum urate and to explore the genetic effect of those pathways on the risk of gout. Pathway analysis of the loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) showed that the ion transmembrane transporter activity pathway (GO: 0015075) and the secondary active transmembrane transporter activity pathway (GO: 0015291) were both associated with serum urate concentrations, with P FDR values of 0.004 and 0.007, respectively. In a Chinese population of 4,332 individuals, the two pathways were also found to be associated with serum urate (P FDR  = 1.88E-05 and 3.44E-04, separately). In addition, these two pathways were further associated with the pathogenesis of gout (P FDR  = 1.08E-08 and 2.66E-03, respectively) in the Chinese population and a novel gout-associated gene, SLC17A2, was identified (OR = 0.83, P FDR  = 0.017). The mRNA expression of candidate genes also showed significant differences among different groups at pathway level. The present study identified two transmembrane transporter activity pathways (GO: 0015075 and GO: 0015291) were associations with serum urate concentrations and the risk of gout. SLC17A2 was identified as a novel gene that influenced the risk of gout.

  13. Potential biomarkers of tardive dyskinesia: A multiplex analysis of blood serum

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko, Anastasia S; Kornetova, Elena G; Ivanova, Svetlana A.; Loonen, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    Potential biomarkers of tardive dyskinesia: a multiplex analysis of blood serum A.S. Boiko(1), E.G. Kornetova(2), S.A. Ivanova(1), A.J.M. Loonen(3) (1)Mental Health Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Tomsk, Russia (2)Mental Health Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Endogenous Disorders, Tomsk, Russia (3)Univers...

  14. Sigma metric analysis for performance of creatinine with fresh frozen serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Six sigma provides an objective and quantitative methodology to describe the laboratory testing performance. In this study, we conducted a national trueness verification scheme with fresh frozen serum (FFS) for serum creatinine to evaluate its performance in China. Two different concentration levels of FFS, targeted with reference method, were sent to 98 laboratories in China. Imprecision and bias of the measurement procedure were calculated for each participant to further evaluate the sigma value. Quality goal index (QGI) analysis was used to investigate the reason of unacceptable performance for laboratories with σ high concentration of creatinine had preferable sigma values. For the enzymatic method, 7.0% (5/71) to 45.1% (32/71) of the laboratories need to improve their measurement procedures (σ 1.2). Only 3.1-5.3% of the laboratories should improve both of the precision and trueness. Sigma metric analysis of the serum creatinine assays is disappointing, which was mainly due to the unacceptable analytical bias according to the QGI analysis. Further effort is needed to enhance the trueness of the creatinine measurement.

  15. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA-LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. O'Seaghdha (Conall); H. Wu (Hongsheng); Q. Yang (Qiong); K. Kapur (Karen); I. Guessous (Idris); P. Zuber (Patrick); A. Köttgen (Anna); C. Stoudmann (Candice); A. Teumer (Alexander); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); M. Mangino (Massimo); A. Dehghan (Abbas); W. Zhang (Weihua); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); G. Li (Guo); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L. Portas (Laura); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Lohman (Kurt); K. Matsuda (Koichi); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); D. Firsov (Dmitri); R. Sorice; S. Ulivi (Shelia); A.C. Brockhaus (A. Catharina); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); A. Mahajan (Anubha); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Mace (Aurelien); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.E. Arking (Dan); C. Tanikawa (Chizu); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); M.J. Brown (Morris); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); J.-M. Theler (Jean-Marc); D.S. Siscovick (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); A.F. Wright (Alan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); M. Boban (Mladen); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); E.M. Brown (Edward); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Ding (Jingzhong); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Girotto; D. Ruggiero; P. d' Adamo (Pio); A. Robino (Antonietta); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Meisinger (Christa); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Starr (John); J.C. Chambers (John); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); B. Winkelmann; J. Huang (Jian); D. Murgia (Daniela); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); A.D. Morris (Andrew); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); U. Vol̈ker (Uwe); M. Hannemann (Mario); R. Biffar (Reiner); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); S.-Y. Shin; P. Lescuyer (Pierre); H. Henry (Hughes); C. Schurmann (Claudia); P. Munroe (Patricia); P. Gasparini (Paolo); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Ciullo; C. Gieger (Christian); W. März (Winfried); L. Lind (Lars); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G.D. Smith; I. Rudan (Igor); J.F. Wilson (James); O. Polasek (Ozren); I.J. Deary (Ian); M. Pirastu (Mario); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Y. Liu (YongMei); B. Kestenbaum (Bryan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M. Nauck (Matthias); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); O. Bonny (Olivier); C. Fox (Craig); M. Bochud (Murielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCalcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17

  17. Feasibility of Biological Effective Monitoring of Chrome Electroplaters to Chromium through Analysis of Serum Malondialdehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, P; Rezazadeh Azari, M; Shokoohi, Y; Sayadi, M

    2016-10-01

    Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI]) has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA). 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating---categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers---and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI), served as the control group, were studied. Personal samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH method 7600. Serum MDA level was measured by HPLC using a UV detector. Median Cr (VI) exposure level was 0.38 mg/m(3) in near bath workers, 0.20 mg/m(3) in degreasers, and 0.05 mg/m(3) in washers. The median serum MDA level of three exposed groups (2.76 μmol/L) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that in the control group (2.00 μmol/L). There was a positive correlation between electroplaters' level of exposure to Cr (VI) and their serum MDA level (Spearman's ρ 0.806, p<0.001). Serum MDA level is a good biomarker for the level of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) in electroplaters.

  18. Feasibility of Biological Effective Monitoring of Chrome Electroplaters to Chromium through Analysis of Serum Malondialdehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI] has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA. Methods: 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating—categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers—and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI, served as the control group, were studied. Personal samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH method 7600. Serum MDA level was measured by HPLC using a UV detector. Results: Median Cr (VI exposure level was 0.38 mg/m3 in near bath workers, 0.20 mg/m3 in degreasers, and 0.05 mg/m3 in washers. The median serum MDA level of three exposed groups (2.76 μmol/L was significantly (p<0.001 higher than that in the control group (2.00 μmol/L. There was a positive correlation between electroplaters' level of exposure to Cr (VI and their serum MDA level (Spearman's ρ 0.806, p<0.001. Conclusion: Serum MDA level is a good biomarker for the level of occupational exposure to Cr (VI in electroplaters.

  19. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p 1; serum Cu MD = 4.06 μmol/L, p = 0.005; plasma and serum Cu MD = 2.67 μmol/L, p = 0.006). Stratification based on the type of diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  20. Quantification of fentanyl in serum by isotope dilution analysis using capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan); Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-06-01

    The quantitative determination of fentanyl (FT) in serum was examined by isotope dilution analysis using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector. The separation of FT and its deuterated analogue, FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}, was achieved within 15 min a column temperature of 260degC by using a 25 m column. Measurement of the samples prepared by the addition of a known amount of FT in the range of 0.2 to 40 ng/ml with 20 ng/ml of FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19} to human control serum allowed observation of a linear relationship between the peak area ratio and the added amount ratio. The correlation coefficient obtained by regression analysis was 0.999. The advantage of the present isotope dilution method was demonstrated by comparison with other FT analogues which substituted a propionyl group with an acetyl group or a phenethyl group with a benzyl group as the internal standard. The present method was used to determine the serum level of FT in surgical patients after i.v. administration. No endogenous compounds and concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT or FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}. This method was considered to be useful for the pharmacokinetic study of FT in patients. (author)

  1. Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Quantification of fentanyl in serum by isotope dilution analysis using capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi; Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    The quantitative determination of fentanyl (FT) in serum was examined by isotope dilution analysis using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector. The separation of FT and its deuterated analogue, FT- 2 H 19 , was achieved within 15 min a column temperature of 260degC by using a 25 m column. Measurement of the samples prepared by the addition of a known amount of FT in the range of 0.2 to 40 ng/ml with 20 ng/ml of FT- 2 H 19 to human control serum allowed observation of a linear relationship between the peak area ratio and the added amount ratio. The correlation coefficient obtained by regression analysis was 0.999. The advantage of the present isotope dilution method was demonstrated by comparison with other FT analogues which substituted a propionyl group with an acetyl group or a phenethyl group with a benzyl group as the internal standard. The present method was used to determine the serum level of FT in surgical patients after i.v. administration. No endogenous compounds and concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT or FT- 2 H 19 . This method was considered to be useful for the pharmacokinetic study of FT in patients. (author)

  3. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Nagame, Y.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Gotoh, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  4. Measurement and analysis of γ-spectra in the research of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxin; Sun Tongyu

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of γ-ray spectra and method of data analysis are described for the research of nuclear chemistry. Gamma-ray spectra are collected as a function of time and are analysed by the computer codes GAMA33 or LEONE. Decay curves are constructed by selection of characteristic γ-ray using the computer code SORT. The analysis of half-life and identification of nuclides are performed with the interactive computer code TAU85 and Tektronix graphics terminal. Nuclear reaction cross-sections are calculated on weighted average of all the observed γ-rays for each nuclide after duplicate or erroneous identifications are screened

  5. Effects of non-enzymatic glycation in human serum albumin. Spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, A.; Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Chudzik, M.; Równicka-Zubik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), transporting protein, is exposed during its life to numerous factors that cause its functions become impaired. One of the basic factors - glycation of HSA - occurs in diabetes and may affect HSA-drug binding. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) leads to diseases e.g. diabetic and non-diabetic cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, renal disfunction and in normal aging. The aim of the present work was to estimate how non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin altered its tertiary structure using fluorescence technique. We compared glycated human serum albumin by glucose (gHSAGLC) with HSA glycated by fructose (gHSAFRC). We focused on presenting the differences between gHSAFRC and nonglycated (HSA) albumin used acrylamide (Ac), potassium iodide (KI) and 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS). Changes of the microenvironment around the tryptophan residue (Trp-214) of non-glycated and glycated proteins was investigated by the red-edge excitation shift method. Effect of glycation on ligand binding was examined by the binding of phenylbutazone (PHB) and ketoprofen (KP), which a primary high affinity binding site in serum albumin is subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. At an excitation and an emission wavelength of λex 335 nm and λem 420 nm, respectively the increase of fluorescence intensity and the blue-shift of maximum fluorescence was observed. It indicates that the glycation products decreases the polarity microenvironment around the fluorophores. Analysis of red-edge excitation shift method showed that the red-shift for gHSAFRC is higher than for HSA. Non-enzymatic glycation also caused, that the Trp residue of gHSAFRC becomes less accessible for the negatively charged quencher (I-), KSV value is smaller for gHSAFRC than for HSA. TNS fluorescent measurement demonstrated the decrease of hydrophobicity in the glycated albumin. KSV constants for gHSA-PHB systems are higher than for the unmodified serum

  6. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  7. Effects of Anthocyanin on Serum Lipids in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Liu

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in dialysis patients.The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2 was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA.Six studies (seven arms involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64 mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08 mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85 mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14 mg/dL;I2 = 90%.Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia.

  8. Clinical Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1 were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden’s index (0.64, higher sensitivity (75.76%, and specificity (88.57%, which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.

  9. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  10. Quality assesment for the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Ecotechnologies, Lab. of Dioxins; Abad, E; Llerena, J J; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work was to optimise a relevant methodology for the ultratrace analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples. In order to carry out the study, different strategies including the elaboration of quality control samples, parallel sample analysis, control blanks and a number of quality assurance measures were implemented as analytical current practices. Some of the main drawbacks in the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in these kind of samples come from two conflicting aspects: the small sample size and the low levels expected to be found. Taking this into account, an unavoidable compromise between the sample amount and the minimum analytical requirements, mainly the detection limit (LOD), is mandatory. To reach this goal C{sub 18} solid phase extraction was used to remove the analytes from the matrix. Clean up was performed by solid-liquid adsorption chromatography using a variety of adsorbents. Instrumental analysis was achieved by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Finally, the optimised methodology was applied to evaluate the potential impact in general population living in the surroundings of an obsolete municipal waste incinerator plant (MWI). Thus, more than 400 individuals serum samples potentially exposed to the emission of the incinerator and people not exposed were considered in this study.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis by iTRAQ® for the identification of candidate biomarkers in ovarian cancer serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage when treatments are less successful. Novel serum protein markers are needed to detect ovarian cancer in its earliest stage; when detected early, survival rates are over 90%. The identification of new serum biomarkers is hindered by the presence of a small number of highly abundant proteins that comprise approximately 95% of serum total protein. In this study, we used pooled serum depleted of the most highly abundant proteins to reduce the dynamic range of proteins, and thereby enhance the identification of serum biomarkers using the quantitative proteomic method iTRAQ®. Results Medium and low abundance proteins from 6 serum pools of 10 patients each from women with serous ovarian carcinoma, and 6 non-cancer control pools were labeled with isobaric tags using iTRAQ® to determine the relative abundance of serum proteins identified by MS. A total of 220 unique proteins were identified and fourteen proteins were elevated in ovarian cancer compared to control serum pools, including several novel candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers: extracellular matrix protein-1, leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein-1, lipopolysaccharide binding protein-1, and proteoglycan-4. Western immunoblotting validated the relative increases in serum protein levels for several of the proteins identified. Conclusions This study provides the first analysis of immunodepleted serum in combination with iTRAQ® to measure relative protein expression in ovarian cancer patients for the pursuit of serum biomarkers. Several candidate biomarkers were identified which warrant further development.

  12. Determination of glycation sites by tandem mass spectrometry in a synthetic lactose-bovine serum albumin conjugate, a vaccine model prepared by dialkyl squarate chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouh, Farid; Hou, Shu-jie; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE Neoglycoconjugate vaccines synthesized by the squaric acid spacer method allow single point attachment of the carbohydrate antigen to the protein carrier. However, the localization of the carbohydrate antigen sites of conjugation on the protein carrier has been an elusive task difficult to achieve. METHOD Covalent attachment of the lactose antigen to the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was prepared by the squaric acid method using a hapten:BSA ratio of 20:1. Different reaction times were used during the conjugation reaction and two different lactose-BSA glycoconjugate vaccines were obtained. The carbohydrate antigen hapten:BSA ratios of these lactose-BSA glycoconjugate vaccines were determined by MALDI-TOF/RTOF-MS and the glycation sites in the neoglycoconjugates were determined using nano-LC/ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of the trypsin and GluC V8 digests of the conjugates. RESULTS We have identified a total of 15 glycation sites located on the BSA lysine residues for the neoglycoconjugate vaccine formed with a hapten:BSA ratio of 5.1:1, However, the tryptic and GluC V8 digests of the hapten-BSA glycoconjugate with a hapten:BSA ratio of 19.0:1 allowed identification of 30 glycation sites located on the BSA. These last results seem to indicate that this conjugation results in formation of various glycoforms. CONCLUSIONS It was observed that the number of identified glycation sites increased when the hapten:BSA ratio of glycoconjugate formation increased, and that the location of the glycation sites appears to be mainly on the outer surface of the BSA carrier molecule which is in line with the assumption that the sterically more accessible lysine residues, namely those located on the outer surface of the BSA, would be conjugated preferentially. PMID:22368054

  13. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Ni

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.

  14. Discrete mathematical data analysis approach: a valuable assessment method for sustainable chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristina; Scherb, Hagen; Bruggemann, Rainer; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable/Green Chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this respect, metrical scientific disciplines like Chemometrics are important, because they indicate criteria for chemicals being hazardous or not. We demonstrated that sustainable principles in the disciplines Green Chemistry, Green Engineering, and Sustainability in Information Technology have main aspects in common. The use of non-hazardous chemicals or the more efficient use of chemical substances is one of these aspects. We take a closer look on the topic of the hazards of chemical substances. Our research focuses on data analyses concerning environmental chemicals named Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which are found all over the world and pose a large risk to environment as well as to humans. The evaluation of the data is a major step in the elucidation of the danger of these chemicals. The data analysis method demonstrated here, is based on the theory of partially ordered sets and provides a generalized ranking. In our approach we investigate data sets of breast milk samples of women in Denmark, Finland, and Turkey which contained measurable levels of 20 POPs. The goal is twofold: On the one side the hazardous chemicals are to be identified and on the other side possible differences among the three nations should be detected, because in that case possible different uptake mechanisms may be supposed. The data analysis is performed by the free available software package PyHasse, written by the third author. We conclude that the data analysis method can well be applied for distinguishing between more or less dangerous existing chemicals. Furthermore, it should be used in sustainable chemistry in the same manner for detecting more and less sustainable chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective analysis of dengue specific IgM reactive serum samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nemai Bhattacharya; Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Hiranmoy Mukherjee; Srabani Talukdar; Ruby Mondal; Netai Pramanick; Goutam Chandra; Amiya K. Hati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of dengue cases in Kolkata, on the basis of presence of anti-dengue IgM in their sera and presence or absence of anti-dengue IgG and dengue specific Non structural 1 (NS1) antigen in each of the serum sample. Methods: Sample was tested quantitatively employing ELISA technique, using Biorad test kits, with a view to get a more comprehensive picture of dengue in an urban endemic area and also to evaluate individual cases. Results: Th...

  16. Reliable clinical serum analysis with reusable electrochemical sensor: Toward point-of-care measurement of the antipsychotic medication clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Eunkyoung; Winkler, Thomas E; Banis, George; Liu, Yi; Kitchen, Christopher A; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-09-15

    Clozapine is one of the most promising medications for managing schizophrenia but it is under-utilized because of the challenges of maintaining serum levels in a safe therapeutic range (1-3μM). Timely measurement of serum clozapine levels has been identified as a barrier to the broader use of clozapine, which is however challenging due to the complexity of serum samples. We demonstrate a robust and reusable electrochemical sensor with graphene-chitosan composite for rapidly measuring serum levels of clozapine. Our electrochemical measurements in clinical serum from clozapine-treated and clozapine-untreated schizophrenia groups are well correlated to centralized laboratory analysis for the readily detected uric acid and for the clozapine which is present at 100-fold lower concentration. The benefits of our electrochemical measurement approach for serum clozapine monitoring are: (i) rapid measurement (≈20min) without serum pretreatment; (ii) appropriate selectivity and sensitivity (limit of detection 0.7μM); (iii) reusability of an electrode over several weeks; and (iv) rapid reliability testing to detect common error-causing problems. This simple and rapid electrochemical approach for serum clozapine measurements should provide clinicians with the timely point-of-care information required to adjust dosages and personalize the management of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2003-09-01

    The feeding of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains adversely affects the performance of swine and poultry. Very little information is available, however, on adverse effects associated with feeding these mycotoxin-contaminated grains on the performance of horses. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses. A polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) was also tested for efficacy in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Nine mature, nonexercising, light, mixed-breed mares were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d. The horses were randomly reassigned and the experiment was subsequently replicated in time following a 14-d washout interval. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 2.8 kg of concentrates and 5 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay. The concentrates fed included the following: 1) control, 2) blend of contaminated grains (36% contaminated wheat and 53% contaminated corn), and 3) blend of contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer. Diets containing contaminated grains averaged 15.0 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.8 ppm of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 9.7 ppm of fusaric acid, and 2.0 ppm of zearalenone. Feed intake by all horses fed contaminated grains was reduced (P mycotoxins caused a decrease in feed intake and altered serum gamma glutamyltransferase activities. The supplementation of GM polymer prevented these mycotoxin-induced adverse effects.

  18. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 2 data release and analysis of R9.0 chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Miten; Tyson, John R; Loose, Matthew; Ip, Camilla L C; Eccles, David A; O'Grady, Justin; Malla, Sunir; Leggett, Richard M; Wallerman, Ola; Jansen, Hans J; Zalunin, Vadim; Birney, Ewan; Brown, Bonnie L; Snutch, Terrance P; Olsen, Hugh E

    2017-01-01

    Long-read sequencing is rapidly evolving and reshaping the suite of opportunities for genomic analysis. For the MinION in particular, as both the platform and chemistry develop, the user community requires reference data to set performance expectations and maximally exploit third-generation sequencing. We performed an analysis of MinION data derived from whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli K-12 using the R9.0 chemistry, comparing the results with the older R7.3 chemistry. We computed the error-rate estimates for insertions, deletions, and mismatches in MinION reads. Run-time characteristics of the flow cell and run scripts for R9.0 were similar to those observed for R7.3 chemistry, but with an 8-fold increase in bases per second (from 30 bps in R7.3 and SQK-MAP005 library preparation, to 250 bps in R9.0) processed by individual nanopores, and less drop-off in yield over time. The 2-dimensional ("2D") N50 read length was unchanged from the prior chemistry. Using the proportion of alignable reads as a measure of base-call accuracy, 99.9% of "pass" template reads from 1-dimensional ("1D")  experiments were mappable and ~97% from 2D experiments. The median identity of reads was ~89% for 1D and ~94% for 2D experiments. The total error rate (miscall + insertion + deletion ) decreased for 2D "pass" reads from 9.1% in R7.3 to 7.5% in R9.0 and for template "pass" reads from 26.7% in R7.3 to 14.5% in R9.0. These Phase 2 MinION experiments serve as a baseline by providing estimates for read quality, throughput, and mappability. The datasets further enable the development of bioinformatic tools tailored to the new R9.0 chemistry and the design of novel biological applications for this technology. K: thousand, Kb: kilobase (one thousand base pairs), M: million, Mb: megabase (one million base pairs), Gb: gigabase (one billion base pairs).

  19. Serum uric acid levels in patients with Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wen

    Full Text Available Lower serum uric acid (UA levels have been reported as a risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the results have been inconsistent so far.The aim of the present study was to clarify the potential relationship of uric acid with PD.Comprehensive electronic search in pubmed, web of science, and the Cochrane Library database to find original articles about the association between PD and serum uric acid levels published before Dec 2015. Literature quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using I2 and H2 statistics. Sensitivity analyses to assess the influence of individual studies on the pooled estimate. Publication bias was investigated using funnel plots and Egger's regression test. Analyses were performed by using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 11.0.Thirteen studies with a total of 4646 participants (2379 PD patients and 2267 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The current results showed that the serum UA levels in PD patients were significantly lower compared to sex and age-matched healthy controls (SMD: -0.49, 95% CI: [-0.67, -0.30], Z = 5.20, P < 0.001 and these results showed no geographic regional (Asia: SMD = -0.65, 95% CI [-0.84, -0.46], Z = 6.75, p <0.001; Non-Asia: SMD = -0.25, 95% CI [-0.43, -0.07], Z = 2.70, p = 0.007 and sex differences (women: SMD = -0.53, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.35], z = 5.98, p <0.001; men: SMD = -0.66, 95% CI [-0.87, -0.44], z = 6.03, p <0.001. Serum UA levels in middle-late stage PD patients with higher H&Y scales were significantly lower than early stage PD patients with lower H&Y scales (SMD = 0.63, 95% CI [0.36,0.89], z = 4.64, p <0.001.Our study showed that the serum UA levels are significantly lower in PD and the level is further decreased as the disease progresses. Thus it might be a potential biomarker to indicate

  20. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  1. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index [ru

  2. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia: Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Groen, Henk; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  3. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  4. Structural consistency analysis of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Liu, Li; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Mei, Qi-Bing; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) is potential alternatives for human serum albumin (HSA) which may ease severe shortage of HSA worldwide. In theory, rHSA and HSA are the same. Structure decides function. Therefore, the 3D structural consistency analysis of rHSA and HSA is outmost importance, which is the base of their function consistency. In this paper, the crystal structures of rHSA at resolution limit of 2.22 Å and HSA at 2.30 Å were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes 4G03 (rHSA) and 4G04 (HSA). The differences between rHSA and HSA were systematically analyzed from the crystallization behavior, diffraction data and three-dimensional (3D) structure. The superimposed contrasted analysis indicated that rHSA and HSA achieved a structural similarity of 99% with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.397 Å for the corresponding overall Cα atoms. In addition, the number of α-helices in the rHSA or HSA molecule was verified to be 30. As a result, rHSA can potentially replace HSA. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical and additional applications of rHSA. Meanwhile, it is also a good example for applications of genetic engineering.

  5. Identification of candidate diagnostic serum biomarkers for Kawasaki disease using proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yayoi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Ino, Yoko; Aketagawa, Mao; Matsuo, Michie; Okayama, Akiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Oba, Kunihiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Yokota, Shumpei; Hirano, Hisashi; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and childhood febrile disease that can lead to cardiovascular complications. The diagnosis of KD depends on its clinical features, and thus it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis. In order to identify diagnostic serum biomarkers for KD, we explored serum KD-related proteins, which differentially expressed during the acute and recovery phases of two patients by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 1,879 proteins by MS-based proteomic analysis. The levels of three of these proteins, namely lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and angiotensinogen (AGT), were higher in acute phase patients. In contrast, the level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was decreased. To confirm the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers, we analyzed a total of 270 samples, including those collected from 55 patients with acute phase KD, by using western blot analysis and microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Over the course of this experiment, we determined that the expression level of these proteins changes specifically in the acute phase of KD, rather than the recovery phase of KD or other febrile illness. Thus, LRG1 could be used as biomarkers to facilitate KD diagnosis based on clinical features. PMID:28262744

  6. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunla He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic and endocrine dysregulations in women with PCOS, and to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hormonal functions in PCOS patients. The literature search was undertaken through five databases until 16 January 2015 for both observational and experimental studies concerning relationships between vitamin D and PCOS. A total of 366 citations were identified, of which 30 were selected (n = 3182. We found that lower serum vitamin D levels were related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with PCOS. Specifically, PCOS patients with VDD were more likely to have dysglycemia (e.g., increased levels of fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR compared to those without VDD. This meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation reduced or mitigated metabolic and hormonal dysregulations in PCOS. VDD may be a comorbid manifestation of PCOS or a minor pathway in PCOS associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation. Future prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials with repeated VDD assessment and better characterization of PCOS disease severity at enrollment are needed to clarify whether VDD is a co-determinant of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS, represents a consequence of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS or both.

  7. Desomorphine (Krokodil): An overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Diego Hernando Ângulo; Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria; da Silva, Pedro Rafael; Brandão, Ricardo; Borges, Marcella Matos Cordeiro; de Santana, Fernando José Malagueño; Borges, Keyller Bastos

    2017-04-01

    "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis. It is of particular interest and concern because this cheaper injectable semisynthetic opioid drug has been largely used in recent years for recreational purposes in several Eastern European as well as North and South American countries, despite known damage to health that continuous use might induce. These injuries are much stronger and more aggressive than morphine's, infecting and rotting skin and soft tissue to the bone of addicts at the point of injection in less than three years, which, in most cases, evolves to death. On this basis, it is imperative that literature reviews focus on the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and analysis of dangerous Krokodil to find strategies for rapid and effective determination to mitigate its adverse effects on addicts and prevent consumption. It is crucial to know the symptoms and consequences of the use of Krokodil, as well as METHODS: for identification and quantification of desomorphine, contaminants and metabolites, which can help the forensic work of diagnosis and propose actions to control and eradicate this great danger to public health around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association analysis of PON2 genetic variants with serum paraoxonase activity and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzi Susan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low serum paraoxonase (PON activity is associated with the risk of coronary artery disease, diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Our prior studies have shown that the PON1/rs662 (p.Gln192Arg, PON1/rs854560 (p.Leu55Met, PON3/rs17884563 and PON3/rs740264 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly affect serum PON activity. Since PON1, PON2 and PON3 share high degree of structural and functional properties, in this study, we examined the role of PON2 genetic variation on serum PON activity, risk of SLE and SLE-related clinical manifestations in a Caucasian case-control sample. Methods PON2 SNPs were selected from HapMap and SeattleSNPs databases by including at least one tagSNP from each bin defined in these resources. A total of nineteen PON2 SNPs were successfully genotyped in 411 SLE cases and 511 healthy controls using pyrosequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or TaqMan allelic discrimination methods. Results Our pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis, using an r2 cutoff of 0.7, identified 14 PON2 tagSNPs that captured all 19 PON2 variants in our sample, 12 of which were not in high LD with known PON1 and PON3 SNP modifiers of PON activity. Stepwise regression analysis of PON activity, including the known modifiers, identified five PON2 SNPs [rs6954345 (p.Ser311Cys, rs13306702, rs987539, rs11982486, and rs4729189; P = 0.005 to 2.1 × 10-6] that were significantly associated with PON activity. We found no association of PON2 SNPs with SLE risk but modest associations were observed with lupus nephritis (rs11981433, rs17876205, rs17876183 and immunologic disorder (rs11981433 in SLE patients (P = 0.013 to 0.042. Conclusions Our data indicate that PON2 genetic variants significantly affect variation in serum PON activity and have modest effects on risk of lupus nephritis and SLE-related immunologic disorder.

  9. Characterization of changes in serum anti-glycan antibodies in Crohn's disease--a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rieder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anti-glycan antibodies are a promising tool for differential diagnosis and disease stratification of patients with Crohn's disease (CD. We longitudinally assessed level and status changes of anti-glycan antibodies over time in individual CD patients as well as determinants of this phenomenon. METHODS: 859 serum samples derived from a cohort of 253 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients (207 CD, 46 ulcerative colitis (UC were tested for the presence of anti-laminarin (Anti-L, anti-chitin (Anti-C, anti-chitobioside (ACCA, anti-laminaribioside (ALCA, anti-mannobioside (AMCA and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gASCA antibodies by ELISA. All patients had at least two and up to eleven serum samples taken during the disease course. RESULTS: Median follow-up time for CD was 17.4 months (Interquartile range (IQR 8.0, 31.6 months and for UC 10.9 months (IQR 4.9, 21.0 months. In a subgroup of CD subjects marked changes in the overall immune response (quartile sum score and levels of individual markers were observed over time. The marker status (positive versus negative remained widely stable. Neither clinical phenotype nor NOD2 genotype was associated with the observed fluctuations. In a longitudinal analysis neither changes in disease activity nor CD behavior led to alterations in the levels of the glycan markers. The ability of the panel to discriminate CD from UC or its association with CD phenotypes remained stable during follow-up. In the serum of UC patients neither significant level nor status changes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: While the levels of anti-glycan antibodies fluctuate in a subgroup of CD patients the antibody status is widely stable over time.

  10. Identification of new serum markers of pathological states by bioinformatic tools for the analysis of serum proteomics expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malorni, A.; Facchiano, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed new bioinformatic tools and strategies, aimed to the identification and characterization of proteins as markers of pathological states, for the analysis of data derived from protein expression profiles obtained by mass spectrometry techniques, for the study of structural and functional properties of the proteins, and for the analysis of data from omics approaches

  11. Historical Analysis of the Inorganic Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS Examinations as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Shalini; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Johnson, Adam R.; Lin, Shirley; Marek, Keith A.; Nataro, Chip; Murphy, Kristen L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    ACS Examinations provide a lens through which to examine historical changes in topic coverage via analyses of course-specific examinations. This study is an extension of work completed previously by the ACS Exams Research Staff and collaborators in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry to explore content changes in the…

  12. Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities on Drugs Analysis for High School Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I.; Sholichin, H.; Arifin, M.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory activity is an important part of chemistry learning, but cookbook instructions is still commonly used. However, the activity with that way do not improve students thinking skill, especially students creativity. This study aims to improve high school students creativity through inquiry-based laboratory on drugs analysis activity. Acid-base titration is used to be method for drugs analysis involving a color changing indicator. The following tools were used to assess the activity achievement: creative thinking test on acid base titration, creative attitude and action observation sheets, questionnaire of inquiry-based lab activities, and interviews. The results showed that the inquiry-based laboratory activity improving students creative thinking, creative attitude and creative action. The students reacted positively to this teaching strategy as demonstrated by results from questionnaire responses and interviews. This result is expected to help teachers to overcome the shortcomings in other laboratory learning.

  13. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional experiences. The comparative analysis yielded many more similarities than differences, and therefore, the team shifted its focus from “gap analysis” to an exploration of common curricular challenges. To address these challenges, the team developed content for targeted instructional resources that promoted the success of all STEM students across institutions. This article contextualizes the interinstitutional collaboration and closely examines the interactive components (awareness, analysis, and action), critical tools, and productive attitudes that undergirded the curricular alignment process of the STEM Transfer Student Success Initiative (t-STEM). PMID:29657334

  14. The hidden radiation chemistry in plasma modification and XPS analysis of polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, G.A.; Le, T.T.; Elms, F.M.; Wood, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The surface modification of polymers using plasma treatments is being widely researched to achieve changes in the surface energetics and consequent wetting and reactivity for a range of applications. These include i) adhesion for polymer bonding and composite material fabrication and ii) biocompatibility of polymers when used as orthopedic implants, catheters and prosthetics. A low pressure rf plasma produces a variety of species from the introduced gas which may react with the surface of a hydrocarbon polymer, such as polyethylene. In the case of 0 2 and H 2 0, these species include oxygen atoms, singlet molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, all of which may oxidise and, depending on their energy, ablate the polymer surface. In order to better understand the reactive species formed both in and downstream from a plasma and the relative contributions of oxidation and ablation, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkane thiols on gold are being used as well characterised substrates for quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The identification and quantification of oxidised carbon species on plasma treated polymers from broad, asymmetric XPS signals is difficult, so derivatisation is often used to enhance sensitivity and specificity. For example, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) selectively labels hydroxyl functionality. The surface analysis of a modified polymer surface may be confounded by high energy radiation chemistry which may occur during XPS analysis. Examples include scission of carbon-halogen bonds (as in TFM adducts), decarboxylation and main-chain polyene formation. The extent of free-radical chemistry occurring in polyethylene while undergoing XPS analysis may be seen by both ESR and FT-IR analysis

  15. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum Exosomes from Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mingrui; Lohse, Ines; Tan, Zhijing; Zhu, Jianhui; Wu, Jing; Kurapati, Himabindu; Morgan, Meredith A; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cuneo, Kyle C; Lubman, David M

    2017-04-07

    Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA. Despite extensive research, minimal improvements in patient outcomes have been achieved. Early identification of treatment response and metastasis would be valuable to determine the appropriate therapeutic course for patients. In this work, we isolated exosomes from the serum of 10 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer at serial time points over a course of therapy, and quantitative analysis was performed using the iTRAQ method. We detected approximately 700-800 exosomal proteins per sample, several of which have been implicated in metastasis and treatment resistance. We compared the exosomal proteome of patients at different time points during treatment to healthy controls and identified eight proteins that show global treatment-specific changes. We then tested the effect of patient-derived exosomes on the migration of tumor cells and found that patient-derived exosomes, but not healthy controls, induce cell migration, supporting their role in metastasis. Our data show that exosomes can be reliably extracted from patient serum and analyzed for protein content. The differential loading of exosomes during a course of therapy suggests that exosomes may provide novel insights into the development of treatment resistance and metastasis.

  16. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  17. Higher Serum Uric Acid May Contribute to Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-01-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid tend to increase the diabetes-related complications. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether the higher serum uric acid levels were associated with cerebral infarction in type 2 diabetes patients. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China BioMedicine, and VIP database until August 2015. All observational studies comparing serum uric acid levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without cerebral infarction were included. We calculated the ratio of means (RoM) of serum uric acid by mean cerebral infarction /mean diabetic control from the individual studies and then pooled RoM and its 95 % confidence intervals (CI). A total of 23 eligible studies were identified. Pooled estimates indicated that type 2 diabetes patients with cerebral infarction were associated with 29 % (RoM 1.29; 95 % CI 1.26-1.31) higher serum uric acid levels than those without cerebral infarction in a random effect model. Subgroup analyses based on gender indicated that RoM was 1.23 (95 % CI 1.09-1.38) for men and 1.12 (95 % CI 0.98-1.27) for women. This meta-analysis suggests that higher serum uric acid levels may contribute to cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics Research Center, Inje University, College of Medicine, Bokjiro 75, Busanjin-Gu, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik [Korea Institute of Toxicology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyung-Kyoon [College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jayoung [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 361-951 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics Research Center, Inje University, College of Medicine, Bokjiro 75, Busanjin-Gu, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hyun, E-mail: dhkim@inje.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics Research Center, Inje University, College of Medicine, Bokjiro 75, Busanjin-Gu, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30 mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats for 28 days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Endogenous metabolic profiles were assessed in rat after treatment of thioacetamide. • It significantly increased the levels of bile acids in serum but not in the liver. • Expression of the genes related to bile acid secretion and reuptake was decreased. • Increased serum bile acids result from block of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

  19. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung; Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jeong, Jayoung; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30 mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats for 28 days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Endogenous metabolic profiles were assessed in rat after treatment of thioacetamide. • It significantly increased the levels of bile acids in serum but not in the liver. • Expression of the genes related to bile acid secretion and reuptake was decreased. • Increased serum bile acids result from block of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

  20. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  1. A Sensitive Gold Nanoplasmonic SERS Quantitative Analysis Method for Sulfate in Serum Using Fullerene as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongning Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene exhibited strong catalysis of the redox reaction between HAuCl4 and trisodium citrate to form gold nanoplasmon with a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect at 1615 cm−1 in the presence of Vitoria blue B molecule probes. When fullerene increased, the SERS peak enhanced linearly due to formation of more AuNPs as substrate. Upon addition of Ba2+, Ba2+ ions adsorb on the fullerene surface to inhibit the catalysis of fullerene that caused the SERS peak decreasing. Analyte SO42− combined with Ba2+ to form stable BaSO4 precipitate to release free fullerene that the catalysis recovered, and the SERS intensity increased linearly. Thus, a new SERS quantitative analysis method was established for the detection of sulfate in serum samples, with a linear range of 0.03–3.4 μM.

  2. Hepatic copper content, urinary copper excretion, and serum ceruloplasmin in liver disease. [Activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritland, S; Skrede, S [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, E [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-01-01

    Liver copper content, urinary copper output and plasma ceruloplasmin have been evaluated in a variety of liver disorders. An activation analysis procedure for the determination of liver copper content is described. Dried biopsy samples were irradiated for two days at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10/sup 13/ ncm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. After one day's delay the samples were dissolved in an acid mixture with copper carrier, and separated on an anion exchange column. The /sup 64/Cu activity in the separated fractions was recorded by gamma spectrometry using a Ge(Li) solid detector. The urinary copper excretion and the serum ceruloplasmin were determined by conventional laboratory methods.

  3. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  4. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1983-04-01

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  5. Entering the 'big data' era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    The 'big data' concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate.

  6. Entering the ‘big data’ era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The ‘big data’ concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate. PMID:28670471

  7. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  8. Sequence analysis of serum albumins reveals the molecular evolution of ligand recognition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Gabriella; Ascenzi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Fasano, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is a circulating protein providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds. At least seven major binding sites have been identified by structural and functional investigations mainly in human SA. SA is conserved in vertebrates, with at least 49 entries in protein sequence databases. The multiple sequence analysis of this set of entries leads to the definition of a cladistic tree for the molecular evolution of SA orthologs in vertebrates, thus showing the clustering of the considered species, with lamprey SAs (Lethenteron japonicum and Petromyzon marinus) in a separate outgroup. Sequence analysis aimed at searching conserved domains revealed that most SA sequences are made up by three repeated domains (about 600 residues), as extensively characterized for human SA. On the contrary, lamprey SAs are giant proteins (about 1400 residues) comprising seven repeated domains. The phylogenetic analysis of the SA family reveals a stringent correlation with the taxonomic classification of the species available in sequence databases. A focused inspection of the sequences of ligand binding sites in SA revealed that in all sites most residues involved in ligand binding are conserved, although the versatility towards different ligands could be peculiar of higher organisms. Moreover, the analysis of molecular links between the different sites suggests that allosteric modulation mechanisms could be restricted to higher vertebrates.

  9. Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael James

    Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis

  10. A meta-analysis of the association of serum ischaemia-modified albumin levels with human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Mahato, Khageshwar; Kumar, Vinod; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Munikumar, Manne; Vodelu, Bramahanapally

    2017-02-28

    Serum levels of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) have been studied as a novel and simple measure of oxidative stress (OXS) in different thyroid pathologies. However, results of available studies in the literature were not consistent. This meta-analysis was attempted to quantify the overall effect size for serum IMA levels in human hypothyroidism (HT) and hyperthyroidism (HYT) and to study its associations with the thyroid profile. Databases of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched for articles. Data on serum IMA levels in HT, HYT patients and euthyroid controls were extracted to compute standardized mean differences (SMD) by the random-effects model. The associations between IMA and thyroid profile were computed by the meta-analysis of correlation coefficients. IMA levels in HT patients (SMD=1.12; Z=2.76; P=0.006) and HYT patients (SMD=1.64; Z=2.57; P=0.01) were significantly higher than in euthyroid controls and the thyroid treatment showed a favourble effect on serum IMA levels. There were strong and significant correlations between IMA and hormonal status in HT and HYT groups. This meta-analysis showing increased IMA level in both HT and HYT patients and its association with thyroid profile suggests that serum IMA could be used as a simple measure of increased OXS in thyroid dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Comparison of 2 electrophoretic methods and a wet-chemistry method in the analysis of canine lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling-Kelly, Erica

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of lipoprotein metabolism in small animal medicine is hindered by the lack of a gold standard method and paucity of validation data to support the use of automated chemistry methods available in the typical veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. The physical and chemical differences between canine and human lipoproteins draw into question whether the transference of some of these human methodologies for the study of canine lipoproteins is valid. Validation of methodology must go hand in hand with exploratory studies into the diagnostic or prognostic utility of measuring specific lipoproteins in veterinary medicine. The goal of this study was to compare one commercially available wet-chemistry method to manual and automated lipoprotein electrophoresis in the analysis of canine lipoproteins. Canine lipoproteins from 50 dogs were prospectively analyzed by 2 electrophoretic methods, one automated and one manual method, and one wet-chemistry method. Electrophoretic methods identified a higher proportion of low-density lipoproteins than the wet-chemistry method. Automated electrophoresis occasionally failed to identify very low-density lipoproteins. Wet-chemistry methods designed for evaluation of human lipoproteins are insensitive to canine low-density lipoproteins and may not be applicable to the study of canine lipoproteins. Automated electrophoretic methods will likely require significant modifications if they are to be used in the analysis of canine lipoproteins. Studies aimed at determining the impact of a disease state on lipoproteins should thoroughly investigate the selected methodology prior to the onset of the study. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Analysis of the Effect of Sequencing Lecture and Laboratory Instruction on Student Learning and Motivation Towards Learning Chemistry in an Organic Chemistry Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhira, Deblina

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic chemistry concepts in the laboratory can positively affect student performance, learning new chemistry concepts and building motivation towards learning chemistry in the lecture. In this study, quantitative methods were employed to assess differences in student performance, learning, and motivation in an organic chemistry…

  13. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P analysis of pooled data from nine case-control studies revealed an inverse correlation between the serum IL-10 levels and CI (SMD = 1.797, 95% CI 0.785~2.810, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on country showed that low serum levels of IL-10 may be the major risk factor for CI in Croatia (SMD = 2.961, 95% CI 2.480~3.443, P analysis based on ethnicity showed that IL-10 serum levels and CI displayed negative relationship in Asians (SMD = 2.522, 95% CI 0.468~4.576, P = 0.016) but not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). Our study provided convincing evidence that the patients

  14. Multidisciplinary approach and multi-scale elemental analysis and separation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariet, Clarisse

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for the analysis of trace elements is an important component of my research activities either for a radiometric measure or mass spectrometric detection. Many studies raise the question of the chemical signature of a sample or a process: eruptive behavior of a volcano, indicator of pollution, ion exchange in vectors vesicles of active principles,... Each time, highly sensitive analytical procedures, accurate and multi-elementary as well as the development of specific protocols were needed. Neutron activation analysis has often been used as reference procedure and allowed to validate the chemical lixiviation and the measurement by ICP-MS. Analysis of radioactive samples requires skills in analysis of trace but also separation chemistry. Two separation methods occupy an important place in the separation chemistry of radionuclides: chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction. The study of extraction of Lanthanide (III) by the oxide octyl (phenyl)-n, N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl phosphine (CMPO) and a calixarene-CMPO led to better understand and quantify the influence of operating conditions on their performance of extraction and selectivity. The high concentration of salts in aqueous solutions required to reason in terms of thermodynamic activities in relying on a comprehensive approach to quantification of deviations from ideality. In order to reduce the amount of waste generated and costs, alternatives to the hydrometallurgical extraction processes were considered using ionic liquids at low temperatures as alternative solvents in biphasic processes. Remaining in this logic of effluent reduction, miniaturization of the liquid-liquid extraction is also study so as to exploit the characteristics of microscopic scale (very large specific surface, short diffusion distances). The miniaturization of chromatographic separations carries the same ambitions of gain of volumes of wastes and reagents. The miniaturization of the separation Uranium

  15. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  16. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  17. Simple and suitable immunosensor for β-lactam antibiotics analysis in real matrixes: milk, serum, urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-03-15

    The anti-penicillin G was conjugated to avidin-peroxidase and biotin to obtain immunogen and competitor which were then used to develop a competitive immunosensor assay for the detection of penicillin G and other β-lactam antibiotics, with Kaff values of the order of 10(8) M(-1). The new immunosensor appears to afford a number of advantages in terms of sensitivity, possibility of "in situ" analysis, but especially of simplicity and lower costs, compared with other existing devices, or different chemical instrumental methods reported in the literature and used for the analysis of β-lactam compounds. Satisfactory results were found in the analysis of real matrixes and good recoveries were obtained by applying the standard addition method to spiked milk, urine, serum and drug samples. The new device uses an amperometric electrode for hydrogen peroxide as transducer, the BSA-penicillin G immobilized on polymeric membrane overlapping the amperometric transducer and the peroxidase enzyme as marker. It proved to be highly sensitive, inexpensive and easily reproducible; LOD was of the order of 10(-11)M. Lastly, the new immunosensor displayed low selectivity versus the entire class of β-lactam antibiotics and higher selectivity toward other classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. GC-MS-based metabolmics analysis of transgenic rice with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.; Wang, L.; Zhu, S.; Li, Hao; Yang, D.

    2017-01-01

    This study was to analyze the difference of the metabolite profiles between non-transgenic (TP309-8) and human serum albumin (HSA) transgenic rice (TP309-HSA-8, TP309-HSA-9, corresponding to 8th and 9th generation) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analyses methods including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). As a result, 12 differential metabolites were identified between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-8, of which 6 were known compounds (trehalose, citric acid, valine, glycine, asparagine and pantothenic acid) and they were enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and antidyslipidemic agents pathways, respectively. There were 4 different compounds between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-HSA-9, including known compounds [asparagine and oleic acid (C18:1)]. However, no pathways were enriched for them. Our findings preliminarily reveal transgenic HSA may be beneficial for rice growth and providing more essential amino acid for human beings by altering the metabolite profiles. (author)

  19. A metabonomic analysis of serum from rats treated with ricinine using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available A metabonomic approach based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS was used to study the hepatotoxicity of ricinine in rats. Potential biomarkers of ricinine toxicity and toxicological mechanism were analyzed by serum metabonomic method. The significant differences in the metabolic profiling of the control and treated rats were clear by using the principal components analysis (PCA of the chromatographic data. Significant changes of metabolite biomarkers like phenylalanine, tryptophan, cholic acid, LPC and PC were detected in the serum. These biochemical changes were related to the metabolic disorders in amino acids and phospholipids. This research indicates that UPLC/MS-based metabonomic analysis of serum samples can be used to predict the hepatotoxicity and further understand the toxicological mechanism induced by ricinine. This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in drug mechanism study.

  20. Application of failure mode and effects analysis in a clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hongmin; Ding, Siyi; Liu, Qin

    2015-08-25

    Timely delivery of correct results has long been considered as the goal of quality management in clinical laboratory. With increasing workload as well as complexities of laboratory testing and patient care, the traditional technical adopted like internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA) may not enough to cope with quality management problems for clinical laboratories. We applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, to reduce errors associated with the process beginning with sample collection and ending with a test report in a clinical chemistry laboratory. Our main objection was to investigate the feasibility of FMEA in a real-world situation, namely the working environment of hospital. A team of 8 people (3 laboratory workers, 2 couriers, 2 nurses, and 1 physician) from different departments who were involved in the testing process were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible clinical chemistry laboratory failures based on three aspects: the severity of the outcome (S), the likeliness of occurrence (O), and the probability of being detected (D). These three parameters were multiplied to calculate risk priority numbers (RPNs), which were used to prioritize remedial measures. Failure modes with RPN≥200 were deemed as high risk, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications that were put, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. A total of 33 failure modes were identified. Many of the failure modes, including the one with the highest RPN (specimen hemolysis) appeared in the pre-analytic phase, whereas no high-risk failure modes (RPN≥200) were found during the analytic phase. High-priority risks were "sample hemolysis" (RPN, 336), "sample delivery delay" (RPN, 225), "sample volume error" (RPN, 210), "failure to release results in a timely manner" (RPN, 210), and "failure to identify or report critical results" (RPN, 200). The

  1. Data set for mass spectrometric analysis of recombinant human serum albumin from various expression systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl G.S. Smith

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA is a versatile and important protein for the pharmaceutical industry (Fanali et al., Mol. Aspects Med. 33(3 (2012 209–290. Due to the potential transmission of pathogens from plasma sourced albumin, numerous expression systems have been developed to produce recombinant HSA (rHSA (Chen et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta (BBA—Gen. Subj. 1830(12 (2013 5515–5525; Kobayashi, Biologicals 34(1 (2006 55–59. Based on our previous study showing increased glycation of rHSA expressed in Asian rice (Frahm et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 116(15 (2012 4661–4670, both supplier-to-supplier and lot-to-lot variability of rHSAs from a number of expression systems were evaluated using reversed phase liquid chromatography linked with MS and MS/MS analyses. The data are associated with the research article ‘Determination of Supplier-to-Supplier and Lot-to-Lot Variability in Glycation of Recombinant Human Serum Albumin Expressed in Oryza sativa’ where further analysis of rHSA samples with additional biophysical methods can be found (Frahm et al., PLoS ONE 10(9 (2014 e109893. We determined that all rHSA samples expressed in rice showed elevated levels of arginine and lysine hexose glycation compared to rHSA expressed in yeast, suggesting that the extensive glycation of the recombinant proteins is a by-product of either the expression system or purification process and not a random occurrence.

  2. Assessment of Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions in Missile Exhaust Plume Signature Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W

    2002-01-01

    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulence chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  3. Flowfield and Radiation Analysis of Missile Exhaust Plumes Using a Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W. H; Kenzakowski, D. C

    2000-01-01

    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulent-chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  4. Prognostic role of serum C-reactive protein in esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Feng, Ji-Feng; Liu, Jin-Shi; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful predictive factor in several cancers; however, its role in esophageal cancer (EC) is controversial. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science to analyze the prognostic value of serum CRP in patients with EC. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between serum CRP and overall survival (OS) in patients with EC. A total of eight studies involving 1,471 patients were included in our study. Our pooled results demonstrated that a high level of serum CRP was associated with poor OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.57, I (2)=81.3%, P<0.0001). Subgroup analyses were performed in further investigations. When the patients were segregated according to treatment, pathological type, and cut-off level, high levels of serum CRP were found to be significantly correlated with OS. Our meta-analysis revealed that high levels of serum CRP were significantly associated with poor OS in patients with EC.

  5. Comparative analysis of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and selected traditional textbooks used in Texas community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Steven Walter

    The purpose of this study was to analyze questions within the chapters of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and the four general chemistry textbooks most widely used by Texas community colleges in order to determine if the questions require higher- or lower-order thinking according to Bloom's taxonomy. The study employed quantitative methods. Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) was utilized as the main instrument in the study. Additional tools were used to help classify the questions into the proper category of the taxonomy (McBeath, 1992; Metfessel, Michael, & Kirsner, 1969). The top four general chemistry textbooks used in Texas community colleges and Chemistry: A Project of the American Chemical Society (Bell et al., 2005) were analyzed during the fall semester of 2010 in order to categorize the questions within the chapters into one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Two coders were used to assess reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The descriptive method involved calculation of the frequencies and percentages of coded questions from the books as belonging to the six categories of the taxonomy. Questions were dichotomized into higher- and lower-order thinking questions. The inferential methods involved chi-square tests of association to determine if there were statistically significant differences among the four traditional college general chemistry textbooks in the proportions of higher- and lower-order questions and if there were statistically significant differences between the nontraditional chemistry textbook and the four traditional general chemistry textbooks. Findings indicated statistically significant differences among the four textbooks frequently used in Texas community colleges in the number of higher- and lower-level questions. Statistically significant differences were also found among the four textbooks and the nontraditional textbook. After the analysis of

  6. Trends in Ph.D. Productivity and Diversity in Top-50 U.S. Chemistry Departments: An Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Weston, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The education of doctoral chemists contributes to the chemical research enterprise and thus to innovation as an engine of the economy. This quantitative analysis describes trends in the production and diversity of chemistry Ph.D. degrees in the top-50 U.S. Ph.D.-granting departments in the past two decades. Time series data for individual…

  7. Drug Synthesis and Analysis on a Dime: A Capstone Medicinal Chemistry Experience for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streu, Craig N.; Reif, Randall D.; Neiles, Kelly Y.; Schech, Amanda J.; Mertz, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative, research-based experiences have shown tremendous potential as effective pedagogical approaches. Pharmaceutical development is an exciting field that draws heavily on organic chemistry and biochemistry techniques. A capstone drug synthesis/analysis laboratory is described where biochemistry students synthesize azo-stilbenoid compounds…

  8. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  9. Robustness analysis of a green chemistry-based model for the classification of silver nanoparticles synthesis processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper proposes a robustness analysis based on Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA). The ensuing model was used to assess the implementation of green chemistry principles in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Its recommendations were also compared to an earlier develo...

  10. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  11. Quantitative analysis of ibuprofen in pharmaceuticals and human control serum using kinetic spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA S. MITIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a new kinetic spectrophoto-metric method for the determination of ibuprofen in pharmaceutical for-mulations. Ibuprofen was determined in an acidic ethanolic medium by monitoring the rate of appearance of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol, resulting from the displacement by ibuprofen of Co(III from the tris(1-nitroso-2-naptholatocobalt(III complex. The optimum operating conditions regarding reagent concentrations and temperature were established. The tangent method was adopted for constructing the calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the concentration range 0.21–1.44 and 1.44–2.06 µg ml-1. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 0.03 µg ml-1 based on the 3.3 S0 criterion. The interference effects of the usual excipients of powdery drugs, foreign ions and amino acids on the reaction rate were studied in order to assess the selectivity of the method. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the rapid determination of ibuprofen in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and human control serum. The unique features of this procedure are that the determination can be performed at room temperature and the analysis time is short. The newly developed method is simple, inexpensive and efficient for use in the analysis of a large number of samples.

  12. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF SOME BISCHALCONES

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Garg; Mamta Singh; N. Raghav

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.

  13. Probing beer aging chemistry by nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.A.; Barros, A.S.; Carvalho, B.; Brandao, T.; Gil, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days) is described. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and an aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration revealed the importance of well known markers (e.g. 5-HMF) as well as of other compounds: amino acids, higher alcohols, organic acids, dextrins and some still unassigned spin systems. 2D correlation analysis enabled relevant compound variations to be confirmed and inter-compound correlations to be assessed, thus offering improved insight into the chemical aspects of beer aging. Highlights: · Use of NMR metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging. · Compositional variations evaluated by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. · Results reveal importance of known markers and other compounds: amino and organic acids, higher alcohols, dextrins. · 2D correlation analysis reveals inter-compound relationships, offering insight into beer aging chemistry. - Abstract: This paper describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in tandem with multivariate analysis (MVA), for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days). To evaluate the resulting compositional variations, both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and a clear aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration enabled the changing compounds to be identified, revealing the importance of well known markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5

  14. Probing beer aging chemistry by nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Carvalho, B.; Brandao, T. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955, S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Gil, Ana M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-09-30

    Graphical abstract: The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days) is described. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and an aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration revealed the importance of well known markers (e.g. 5-HMF) as well as of other compounds: amino acids, higher alcohols, organic acids, dextrins and some still unassigned spin systems. 2D correlation analysis enabled relevant compound variations to be confirmed and inter-compound correlations to be assessed, thus offering improved insight into the chemical aspects of beer aging. Highlights: {center_dot} Use of NMR metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging. {center_dot} Compositional variations evaluated by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. {center_dot} Results reveal importance of known markers and other compounds: amino and organic acids, higher alcohols, dextrins. {center_dot} 2D correlation analysis reveals inter-compound relationships, offering insight into beer aging chemistry. - Abstract: This paper describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in tandem with multivariate analysis (MVA), for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days). To evaluate the resulting compositional variations, both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and a clear aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration enabled the changing compounds to be identified, revealing the importance of well known

  15. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  16. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  17. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 50.03 μmol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P = 0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients (RR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.23-3.11, P = 0.005). Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have obvious increased serum uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk.

  18. Using Cluster Analysis to Characterize Meaningful Learning in a First-Year University Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective learning in the university chemistry laboratory. The MLLI was administered at the beginning and the end of the first semester to first-year university chemistry students to measure their expectations and experiences for learning in…

  19. Conformational Analysis of Drug Molecules: A Practical Exercise in the Medicinal Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuriev, Elizabeth; Chalmers, David; Capuano, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a specialized, scientific discipline. Computational chemistry and structure-based drug design constitute important themes in the education of medicinal chemists. This problem-based task is associated with structure-based drug design lectures. It requires students to use computational techniques to investigate conformational…

  20. Preliminary Analysis of Assessment Instrument Design to Reveal Science Generic Skill and Chemistry Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sudarmin; Supartono, Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design assessment instrument to evaluate science generic skill (SGS) achievement and chemistry literacy in ethnoscience-integrated chemistry learning. The steps of tool designing refers to Plomp models including 1) Investigation Phase (Prelimenary Investigation); 2) Designing Phase (Design); 3)…

  1. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  2. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  3. Potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for detecting colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rongqin; Wang, Yang; He, Liang; He, Yuanqing; Du, Zedong

    2018-04-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the diagnostic value of serum p53 (s-p53) antibody in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, results remain controversial. The present study aimed to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of s-p53 antibody in CRC. The present study utilized databases, including PubMed and EmBase, systematically regarding s-p53 antibody diagnosis in CRC, accessed on and prior to 31 July 2016. The quality of all the included studies was assessed using quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS). The result of pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were analyzed and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity were also assessed. A total of 11 trials that enrolled a combined 3,392 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Approximately 72.73% (8/11) of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score >7), and all were retrospective case-control studies. The pooled sensitivity was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.21] and pooled specificity was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.92-0.94). Results also demonstrated a PLR of 4.56 (95% CI, 3.27-6.34), NLR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.85) and DOR of 6.70 (95% CI, 4.59-9.76). The symmetrical summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73. Furthermore, no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis data indicated that s-p53 antibody possesses potential diagnostic value for CRC. However, discrimination power was somewhat limited due to the low sensitivity.

  4. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  5. Levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients Self-correlation factor analysis and comparison with healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanxin Wang; Bin Wang; Aihua Yin; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data indicate that the levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients are higher than those in normal subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of serum homocysteine in patients with major depressive disorder, to determine whether serum homocysteine levels differ with sex, family history, or drug treatment, and to compare depressive patients with normal subjects. DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent control trial.SETTING: Mental Heath Center of Shandong Province.PARTICIPANTS: Forty in-patients (23 males and 17 females, 18-63 years old) with major depressive disorder were selected from the Mental Health Center of Shandong Province from January to October 2006. All selected patients met the depressive diagnostic standard of Chinese Classification of Mental Disorder (3rd Edition, CCMD-3), and total scores evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were ≥ 20. Meanwhile, 36 healthy subjects (20 males and 16 females, 18-60 years old) were enrolled as controls; their total 17-item HRSD scores were ≤ 7. All selected subjects provided consent, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. METHODS: Fasting venous blood (3 mL) was drawn in both groups at 8:00 in the morning. The levels of serum homocysteine were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The 17-item HRSD was also compiled from the patients when entering groups. The higher the scores were, the more severe the depression was. Enumeration data for both groups were compared by Chi-square test, measurement data were compared by t-test, and correlations were detected using Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Levels of serum homocysteine; ② incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy); ③ correlation between HRSD17 scores and levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients.RESULTS: Forty depressive patients and 36 control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss of participants.

  6. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  9. Multiplexed Analysis of Serum Breast and Ovarian Cancer Markers by Means of Suspension Bead-quantum Dot Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Sokolova, Zinaida; Baryshnikova, Maria; Bilan, Regina; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    Multiplexed analysis of cancer markers is crucial for early tumor diagnosis and screening. We have designed lab-on-a-bead microarray for quantitative detection of three breast cancer markers in human serum. Quantum dots were used as bead-bound fluorescent tags for identifying each marker by means of flow cytometry. Antigen-specific beads reliably detected CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 125 in serum samples, providing clear discrimination between the samples with respect to the antigen levels. The novel microarray is advantageous over the routine single-analyte ones due to the simultaneous detection of various markers. Therefore the developed microarray is a promising tool for serum tumor marker profiling.

  10. Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. W.; Yan, X. L.; Dong, R. X.; Ban, G.; Li, K.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we show surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of serums from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication (coronary disease, glaucoma and cerebral infarction), and analyze the SERS through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). In particular, we find that there exist many adenines in these serums, which maybe come from DNA (RNA) damage. The relative intensity of the band at 725±2 cm-1 assigned to adenine is higher for patients than for the healthy volunteers; therefore, it can be used as an important ‘fingerprint’ in order to diagnose these diseases. It is also shown that serums from type II diabetes mellitus group, diabetic complication group and healthy volunteers group can be discriminated by PCA.

  11. The relationship between serum lipids and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a relatively common condition that is usually of unknown etiology. A number of individual studies have investigated the association between various serum lipids and SSNHL; however, the findings have been inconsistent. In an attempt to obtain more definitive information on the relationship between serum lipids and SSNHL, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis.Medline, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched using the following key words: lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride, fat, serum, blood, sudden hearing loss, hearing loss, hearing disorders. Randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, and retrospective case-control studies involving patients with SSNHL and healthy controls that examined the relationship (reported as odds ratios [OR] between lipid profiles and SSNHL were included. Primary outcomes were total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations. Secondary outcomes were triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a concentrations.A total of 6 case-control studies were included in this systematic review/meta-analysis. The total number of participants ranged from 30 to 250 in the case group and from 43 to 271 in the control group. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in total cholesterol levels between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 3.26, P = 0.057. Likewise, meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in LDL-C concentrations between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.64 to 2.07, P = 0.639. Since there were an insufficient number of studies reporting data for the secondary outcomes, meta-analysis was not possible.Our results do not provide evidence for serum lipids being associated with SSNHL, nor do they definitively rule out such an association. Additional studies are needed to ascertain the relationship, or lack

  12. Analysis of the discriminative methods for diagnosis of benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules based on serum markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanping; Liu, Mingyue; Wang, Jing; Tian, Rui; Dong, Junqiang; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Xianping; Wang, Yuanfang

    2014-01-01

    Screening indexes of tumor serum markers for benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) were analyzed to find the optimum method for diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an automatic immune analyzer and radioimmunoassay methods were used to examine the levels of 8 serum markers in 164 SPN patients, and the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of malignant or benign SPN was compared for detection using a single plasma marker or a combination of markers. The results for serological indicators that closely relate to benign and malignant SPNs were screened using the Fisher discriminant analysis and a non-conditional logistic regression analysis method, respectively. The results were then verified by the k-means clustering analysis method. The sensitivity when using a combination of serum markers to detect SPN was higher than that using a single marker. By Fisher discriminant analysis, cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA21-1), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and breast cancer antigen (CA153), which relate to the benign and malignant SPNs, were screened. Through non-conditional logistic regression analysis, CYFRA21-1, SCC and CA153 were obtained. Using the k-means clustering analysis, the cophenetic correlation coefficient (0.940) obtained by the Fisher discriminant analysis was higher than that obtained with logistic regression analysis (0.875). This study indicated that the Fisher discriminant analysis functioned better in screening out serum markers to recognize the benign and malignant SPN. The combined detection of CYFRA21-1, CA125, SCC and CA153 is an effective way to distinguish benign and malignant SPN, and will find an important clinical application in the early diagnosis of SPN. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external stress: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Ando

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are essential for various enzymatic reactions in the body associated with energy production and activation of the muscles and nerves. Mg2+ is also involved in blood pressure regulation, maintenance of body temperature, and glucose metabolism. Although various factors including foods and physical conditions have been reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+ in dogs exposed to external stress has been unclear. In this study, we examined serum levels of Mg2+ in dogs at different conditions using the guide dog candidates for the blind. Serum Mg2+ was decreased in winter and increased in summer. Guide dog candidates in an elementary class of the training showed markedly lower levels of serum Mg2+, compared with that of dogs in an advanced class. When healthy adult dogs were subjected to forced exercise using a treadmill, a significant reduction in serum Mg2+ levels was observed, particularly in winter. These findings suggest that serum levels of Mg2+ may be influenced by weather fluctuation such as air temperature, nervousness in unaccustomed situations, age, and physical stress induced by exercise. The results indicate that Mg2+ supplementation should be considered for working dogs, dogs moving or traveling to a new environment, and dogs during winter.

  14. Analysis of realization of the water chemistry modes in the NPP with the RBMK-1000 and main directions of their improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritskij, V.G.; Tyapkov, V.F.; Belous, V.N.; Egorova, T.M.; Gost'kov, V.V.; Tishkov, V.M.; Yatsko, O.V.

    2005-01-01

    Paper deals with the analysis of normalization of the RBMK reactor NPP water chemistry conditions. One analyzed the imposed restrictions at deviation of the normalized parameters from the ones recommended for the normal operating conditions. Paper contains data on water chemistry management and describes measures to improve radiation situation near NPP reactor equipment. One studied the reasons of corrosion damage of the RBMK-1000 reactor NPP pipelines and the ways to prevent them via optimization and improvement of water chemistry conditions [ru

  15. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DRUG-PROTEIN BINDING BY ULTRAFAST AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY USING IMMOBILIZED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Rangan; Yoo, Michelle J.; Briscoe, Chad J.; Hage, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) was explored for use as a stationary phase and ligand in affinity microcolumns for the ultrafast extraction of free drug fractions and the use of this information for the analysis of drug-protein binding. Warfarin, imipramine, and ibuprofen were used as model analytes in this study. It was found that greater than 95% extraction of all these drugs could be achieved in as little as 250 ms on HSA microcolumns. The retained drug fraction was then eluted from the same column under isocratic conditions, giving elution in less than 40 s when working at 4.5 mL/min. The chromatographic behavior of this system gave a good fit with that predicted by computer simulations based on a reversible, saturable model for the binding of an injected drug with immobilized HSA. The free fractions measured by this method were found to be comparable to those determined by ultrafiltration, and equilibrium constants estimated by this approach gave good agreement with literature values. Advantages of this method include its speed and the relatively low cost of microcolumns that contain HSA. The ability of HSA to bind many types of drugs also creates the possibility of using the same affinity microcolumn to study and measure the free fractions for a variety of pharmaceutical agents. These properties make this technique appealing for use in drug binding studies and in the high-throughput screening of new drug candidates. PMID:20227701

  17. Diagnostic prediction of renal failure from blood serum analysis by FTIR spectrometry and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.

  18. Retrospective analysis of dengue specific IgM reactive serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of dengue cases in Kolkata, on the basis of presence of anti-dengue IgM in their sera and presence or absence of anti-dengue IgG and dengue specific Non structural 1 (NS1 antigen in each of the serum sample. Methods: Sample was tested quantitatively employing ELISA technique, using Biorad test kits, with a view to get a more comprehensive picture of dengue in an urban endemic area and also to evaluate individual cases. Results: This reconstructed study revealed that of those 91 dengue cases, 70.3% (64 and 29.7% (27 were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively, showing that number of secondary dengue cases were much more than that of primary dengue cases with a possibility of emergence of DHF. A small proportion of cases 18.7% (17 were reactive for NS1. The duration of fever in NS1 antigen positive cases varied between 5 and 7 days. Of 17 NS1 reactive cases, 10 (10.9% and 7 (7.7% were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively. Conclusions: Early detection of primary and secondary dengue cases would be facilitated by utilizing all three parameters (NS1 antigen, anti-dengue IgM and IgG helping to evaluate, monitor and treat a dengue case effectively.

  19. Prognostic Significance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Level in Osteosarcoma: A Meta-Analysis of Published Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yong Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP is commonly elevated in osteosarcoma patients. A number of studies have investigated the prognostic role of SALP level in patients with osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results. Method. Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs and relative risks (RRs with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the prognostic value of SALP level. Results. Finally, 21 studies comprising 3228 patients were included. Overall, the pooled HRs of SALP suggested that elevated level had an unfavorable impact on osteosarcoma patients’ overall survival (OS (HR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.61–2.06; p<0.001 and event-free survival (EFS (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.61–2.42; p<0.001. Combined RRs of SALP indicated that elevated level was associated with presence of metastasis at diagnosis (RR = 5.55; 95% CI: 1.61–9.49; p=0.006. No significantly different results were obtained after stratified by variables of age range, cancer stage, sample size, and geographic region. Conclusion. This meta-analysis demonstrated that high SALP level is significantly associated with poor OS or EFS rate and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. SALP level is a convenient and effective biomarker of prognosis for osteosarcoma.

  20. Prognostic Significance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Level in Osteosarcoma: A Meta-Analysis of Published Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Yong; Sun, Ling-Ling; Li, Heng-Yuan; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in osteosarcoma patients. A number of studies have investigated the prognostic role of SALP level in patients with osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results. Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic value of SALP level. Finally, 21 studies comprising 3228 patients were included. Overall, the pooled HRs of SALP suggested that elevated level had an unfavorable impact on osteosarcoma patients' overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.61-2.06; p SALP indicated that elevated level was associated with presence of metastasis at diagnosis (RR = 5.55; 95% CI: 1.61-9.49; p = 0.006). No significantly different results were obtained after stratified by variables of age range, cancer stage, sample size, and geographic region. This meta-analysis demonstrated that high SALP level is significantly associated with poor OS or EFS rate and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. SALP level is a convenient and effective biomarker of prognosis for osteosarcoma.

  1. Quantitative bias analysis for epidemiological associations of perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and early onset of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Christopher D; Song, Gina; Yoon, Miyoung; Verner, Marc-André; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2017-02-01

    An association between increased serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and early menopause has been reported (Knox et al., 2011; Taylor et al., 2014). This association may be explained by the fact that women who underwent menopause no longer excrete PFAS through menstruation. Our objective was to assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and altered timing of menopause might be explained by reverse causality. We extended a published population life-stage physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFOS and PFOA characterized by realistic distributions of physiological parameters including age at menopause. We then conducted Monte Carlo simulations to replicate the Taylor population (Taylor et al., 2014) and the Knox population (Knox et al., 2011). The analysis of the simulated data overall showed a pattern of results that was comparable to those reported in epidemiological studies. For example, in the simulated Knox population (ages 42-51) the odds ratio (OR) for menopause in the fifth quintile of PFOA compared to those in the first quintile was 1.33 (95% CI 1.26-1.40), whereas the reported OR was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Using our model structure, a substantial portion of the associations reported can be explained by pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis of core fucosylation of serum proteins in liver diseases by LC-MS-MRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junfeng; Sanda, Miloslav; Wei, Renhuizi; Zhang, Lihua; Goldman, Radoslav

    2018-02-07

    Aberrant core fucosylation of proteins has been linked to liver diseases. In this study, we carried out multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides of serum proteins partially deglycosylated by a combination of endoglycosidases (endoF1, endoF2, and endoF3). To minimize variability associated with the preparatory steps, the analysis was performed without enrichment of glycopeptides or fractionation of serum besides the nanoRP chromatography. Specifically, we quantified core fucosylation of 22 N-glycopeptides derived from 17 proteins together with protein abundance of these glycoproteins in a cohort of 45 participants (15 disease-free control, 15 fibrosis and 15 cirrhosis patients) using a multiplex nanoUPLC-MS-MRM workflow. We find increased core fucosylation of 5 glycopeptides at the stage of liver fibrosis (i.e., N630 of serotransferrin, N107 of alpha-1-antitrypsin, N253 of plasma protease C1 inhibitor, N397 of ceruloplasmin, and N86 of vitronectin), increase of additional 6 glycopeptides at the stage of cirrhosis (i.e., N138 and N762 of ceruloplasmin, N354 of clusterin, N187 of hemopexin, N71 of immunoglobulin J chain, and N127 of lumican), while the degree of core fucosylation of 10 glycopeptides did not change. Interestingly, although we observe an increase in the core fucosylation at N86 of vitronectin in liver fibrosis, core fucosylation decreases on the N169 glycopeptide of the same protein. Our results demonstrate that the changes in core fucosylation are protein and site specific during the progression of fibrotic liver disease and independent of the changes in the quantity of N-glycoproteins. It is expected that the fully optimized multiplex LC-MS-MRM assay of core fucosylated glycopeptides will be useful for the serologic assessment of the fibrosis of liver. We have quantified the difference in core fucosylation among three comparison groups (healthy control, fibrosis and cirrhosis patients) using a sensitive and

  3. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  4. Discovery and Fine Mapping of Serum Protein Loci through Transethnic Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Prins, Bram P.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S.; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A.; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L.; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Id P.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y. D.; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J. Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Snieder, Harold; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    2012-01-01

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of the riboflavin-serum albumins interaction on silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicescu, Mariana, E-mail: voicescu@icf.ro; Angelescu, Daniel G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Romanian Academy (Romania); Ionescu, Sorana [University of Bucharest, Department of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Teodorescu, Valentin S. [Institute of Atomic Physics, National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    Spectrophotometric behavior of riboflavin (RF) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles as well as its interaction with two serum albumins, BSA and HSA, respectively, has been evidenced. The time evolution of the plasmonic features of the complexes formed by RF/BSA/HSA and Ag(0) nanoparticles having an average diameter of 10.0 {+-} 2.0 nm have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the structure, stability, and dynamics of the serum albumins have been studied. The efficiency of energy transfer process between RF and serum albumins on silver nanoparticles has been estimated. A reaction mechanism of RF with silver nanoparticles is also proposed and the results are discussed with relevance to the involvement of the silver nanoparticles to the redox process of RF and to the RF-serum albumins interaction into a silver nanoparticles complex.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of the riboflavin—serum albumins interaction on silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Angelescu, Daniel G.; Ionescu, Sorana; Teodorescu, Valentin S.

    2013-04-01

    Spectrophotometric behavior of riboflavin (RF) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles as well as its interaction with two serum albumins, BSA and HSA, respectively, has been evidenced. The time evolution of the plasmonic features of the complexes formed by RF/BSA/HSA and Ag(0) nanoparticles having an average diameter of 10.0 ± 2.0 nm have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the structure, stability, and dynamics of the serum albumins have been studied. The efficiency of energy transfer process between RF and serum albumins on silver nanoparticles has been estimated. A reaction mechanism of RF with silver nanoparticles is also proposed and the results are discussed with relevance to the involvement of the silver nanoparticles to the redox process of RF and to the RF-serum albumins interaction into a silver nanoparticles complex.

  7. Improved machine learning method for analysis of gas phase chemistry of peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Natalie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate peptide identification is important to high-throughput proteomics analyses that use mass spectrometry. Search programs compare fragmentation spectra (MS/MS of peptides from complex digests with theoretically derived spectra from a database of protein sequences. Improved discrimination is achieved with theoretical spectra that are based on simulating gas phase chemistry of the peptides, but the limited understanding of those processes affects the accuracy of predictions from theoretical spectra. Results We employed a robust data mining strategy using new feature annotation functions of MAE software, which revealed under-prediction of the frequency of occurrence in fragmentation of the second peptide bond. We applied methods of exploratory data analysis to pre-process the information in the MS/MS spectra, including data normalization and attribute selection, to reduce the attributes to a smaller, less correlated set for machine learning studies. We then compared our rule building machine learning program, DataSqueezer, with commonly used association rules and decision tree algorithms. All used machine learning algorithms produced similar results that were consistent with expected properties for a second gas phase mechanism at the second peptide bond. Conclusion The results provide compelling evidence that we have identified underlying chemical properties in the data that suggest the existence of an additional gas phase mechanism for the second peptide bond. Thus, the methods described in this study provide a valuable approach for analyses of this kind in the future.

  8. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  9. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  10. Paul Hagenmüller's contribution to solid state chemistry: A scientometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aichouchi, Adil; Gorry, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    Paul Hagenmüller (1921-2017) is an important figure of French solid-state chemistry, who enjoyed scientific and institutional recognition. He published 796 papers and has been cited more than 16,000 times. This paper explores Hagenmüller's work using scientometric analysis to reveal the impact of his work, his main research topics and his collaborations. Although Hagenmüller was a recognized scientist, a subset of his work, now highly cited, attracted little attention at the time of publication. To understand this phenomenon, we detect and study papers with delayed recognition, also called 'Sleeping Beauties' (SBs). In scientometrics, SBs are publications that go unnoticed, or 'sleep' for a long time before suddenly attracting a lot of attention in terms of citations. We identify 7 SBs published between 1965 and 1985, and awakened between 1993 and 2010. The first SB reports the discovery of the clathrate structure of silicon. The second reports the isolation of four new phases with the formula NaxCoO2 (x < =1). The five other SBs investigate the electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation of sodium, and the structure and properties of layered oxides. Through interviews with his coworkers, we attempt to identify the reasons for the delayed recognition and the context of the renewed interest in those papers.

  11. A retrospective analysis of serum tumor markers found in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the positive CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF rates were observed at low values during the NSLCLC serum diagnosis, they still played an important role in diagnosing lung cancer. Significant levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF were detected in the serum. The amounts found were useful for diagnosing NSCLC patients who depended on the currently limited biomarker development.

  12. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  13. Turkish Journal of Chemistry’nin Bibliyometrik Analizi / Bibliometric Analysis of Turkish Journal of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gülşen Birinci

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Bu makalede 1995 yılından beri Science Citation Index (SCI ve Chemical Abstracts tarafından indekslenen Turkish Journal of Chemistry (TJC bibliyometrik açıdan ele alınarak, bu dergide 1995-2007 yılları arasında yayınlanan 861 makale incelenmiştir. Araştırmada cevap aranan sorular şunlardır: TJC’de en verimli yazarlar kimlerdir ve yazarlar arasındaki ilişki durumu nedir? TJC’de çok yazarlılık durumu nedir? TJC’ye katkıda bulunan yazarların kurumları nelerdir? TJC’de yayınlanan makaleler Bradford, Lotka, Price Yasası ve 80/20 Kuralı’na uymakta mıdır? TJC’de yazarların atıf yaptıkları kaynak türleri nelerdir? En sık atıf yapılan dergiler hangileridir? Yapılan atıflar gözönüne alıdığında Kimya alanındaki çekirdek dergiler hangileridir? TJC’de yayınlanan makalelerin aldıkları ortalama atıf sayısı nedir ve atıflarda yıllara göre bir artış söz konusu mudur? Journal Citation Reports (JCR’da ve SCI’de TJC’nin yeri nedir? Yazarlara ve kurumlara özgü tekil sonuçlar, makalede açıklanmıştır. Diğer taraftan yazarların durumu, Price ve Lotka Yasası ve 80/20 Kuralı’na uymamaktadır., Öte yandan, TJC’de yapılan atıfların Bradford Yasası’na ve 80/20 Kuralı’na uyduğu saptanmıştır. Yazarlar ağ analizi ile incelendiğinde ise, beş ve daha fazla makale ile katkıda bulunan yazarların iki ayrı etkileşimli grup oluşturduğu saptanmıştır. TJC’ye yapılan atıflar 1996 yılından beri istikrarlı bir atış göstermektedir.[English abstract] This article dealing with the bibliometric analysis of 861 articles published between the years 1995-2007 of Turkish Journal of Chemistry which has been indexed by the Social Science Citation Index and Chemical Abstract since 1995. The following research questions have been discussed: Who are the most productive author? What is the relationship between the authors? What is the trend towards

  14. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

  15. The prognostic value of serum S100B in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Zavagno, Giorgio; Nitti, Donato

    2008-11-15

    S100B protein detected in the serum of patients with cutaneous melanoma has been long reported as a prognostic biomarker. However, no consensus exists on its implementation in the routine clinical setting. This study aimed to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the evidence on the suitability of serum S100B to predict patients' survival. Twenty-two series enrolling 3393 patients with TNM stage I to IV cutaneous melanoma were reviewed. Standard meta-analysis methods were applied to evaluate the overall relationship between S100B serum levels and patients' survival (meta-risk). Serum S100B positivity was associated with significantly poorer survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.92-2.58, p < 0.0001). Between-study heterogeneity was significant, which appeared to be related mainly to dissemination bias and the inclusion of patients with stage IV disease. Considering stage I to III melanoma (n = 1594), the meta-risk remained highly significant (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.8-2.89; p < 0.0001) and studies' estimates were homogeneous. Subgroup analysis of series reporting multivariate survival analysis supported S100B as a prognostic factor independent of the TNM staging system. Our findings suggest that serum S100B detection has a clinically valuable independent prognostic value in patients with melanoma, with particular regard to stage I-III disease. Further investigation focusing on this subset of patients is justified and warranted before S100B can be implemented in the routine clinical management of melanoma. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  17. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  18. The Role of Serum High Mobility Group Box 1 and Interleukin-6 Levels in Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuo; Wang, Bao-Ming; Cai, Shuang; Liu, Peng-Liang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively investigate the correlation between high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to acute pancreatitis. A highly regulated exploration of various electronic databases, supplemented by manual searching methods, was performed in an attempt to identify pertinent articles of a useful nature. Subsequently, high-quality cohort studies that were deemed to comply with the arduous inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for our meta-analysis. The extensive data analyses reported in our meta-analysis were conducted in connection with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). A total of 395 studies (135 Chinese studies and 260 English studies) were initially retrieved. 27 of those studies were selected for our meta-analysis, comprising of 896 cases of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), 700 cases of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) as well as 312 healthy controls. Pooled data suggested that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP and MAP patients were higher than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP patients exhibited significantly higher levels than in that of MAP patients. Based on the rigorous investigation of our meta-analysis, it was concluded that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels might be used as effective indicators for pancreatic lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response, owing ultimately to the observations and data analyses, suggesting that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels share a close correlation with the severity of pancreatitis. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 616-624, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Surface chemistry analysis of lithium conditioned NSTX graphite tiles correlated to plasma performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.N., E-mail: chase.taylor@inl.gov [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Luitjohan, K.E. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kollar, L. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Lithium wall conditioning in NSTX has resulted in reduced divertor recycling, improved energy confinement, and reduced frequency of edge-localized modes (ELMs), up to the point of complete ELM suppression. NSTX tiles were removed from the vessel following the 2008 campaign and subsequently analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as nuclear reaction ion beam analysis. In this paper we relate surface chemistry to deuterium retention/recycling, develop methods for cleaning of passivated NSTX tiles, and explore a method to effectively extract bound deuterium from lithiated graphite. Li–O–D and Li–C–D complexes characteristic of deuterium retention that form during NSTX operations are revealed by sputter cleaning and heating. Heating to ∼850 °C desorbed all deuterium complexes observed in the O 1s and C 1s photoelectron energy ranges. Tile locations within approximately ±2.5 cm of the lower vertical/horizontal divertor corner appear to have unused Li-O bonds that are not saturated with deuterium, whereas locations immediately outboard of this region indicate high deuterium recycling. X-ray photo electron spectra of a specific NSTX tile with wide ranging lithium coverage indicate that a minimum lithium dose, 100–500 nm equivalent thickness, is required for effective deuterium retention. This threshold is suspected to be highly sensitive to surface morphology. The present analysis may explain why plasma discharges in NSTX continue to benefit from lithium coating thickness beyond the divertor deuterium ion implantation depth, which is nominally <10 nm.

  20. Discovering Factors that Influence the Decision to Pursue a Chemistry-Related Career: A Comparative Analysis of the Experiences of Non Scientist Adults and Chemistry Teachers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Katerina; Gekos, Michael; Petsimeri, Irene; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at identifying factors that influence students' choice not to pursue a chemistry-related career by analyzing the experiences of secondary education chemistry teachers in Greece and of Greek adults who have not pursued studies related to science. Data collection was done with the method of individual structured interviews. The…

  1. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  2. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (p<0.05), DTPa2 and DT (p<0.001 vs. both) vaccines. 6/3,085 and 2/3,085 peptides were exclusively recognized in (10/10) sera from children with whooping cough and DTPa2 vaccination, respectively. DTPwc resembles more closely the whooping cough reactome as compared to acellular vaccines. We could identify a unique recognition signature common for each vaccination group (10/10 children). Peptide microarray technology allows detection of subtle differences in

  3. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  4. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  5. Cloning, expression analysis, and antibacterial propertiesof three serum amyloid A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juhua; Tang, Yongkai; Li, Jianlin; Li, Hongxia; Yu, Fan; Yu, Wenjuan; He, Feng; Fu, Chunjie; Mao, Shuntao

    2017-06-01

    Three serum amyloid A (SAA) genes were identified from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by PCR and RT-PCR. Considering both direction and sequence similarity with mammal's orthologs, they were named CcSAA3a, CcSAA3b and CcSAA1. CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 are adjacent on contig LHQP01017858, suggesting that the prototype of or the simplest SAA multigene family have occurred in common carp. A phylogenetic analysis of the SAAs indicated that the fish SAAs were closer to those of invertebrates and Ornithorhynchus anatinus, a primitive mammal, than to mammalian SAAs. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results displayed different expression profiles of three CcSAAs. The CcSAA3a was detected in all tested tissues, and was most abundant in the muscle; CcSAA3b was predominately expressed in the intestine and liver, and CcSAA1 in the skin. The expression level of CcSAA3a was higher than that of CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 in most tissues. Stimulation with Aeromonas hydrophila dramatically induced the expression of the three CcSAAs in all examined tissues, especially in the liver. Like Epinephelus coioides SAA, all of three rCcSAA fusion proteins could bind to both Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila and E. coli) and Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus), playing a role in the identification of bacteria. However, only rCcSAA3a showed significantly anti-A. hydrophila and anti-E. coli in vitro antibacterial activity assays. These results suggested that the three CcSAAs were in functional differentiation and play significant roles in the innate immunity of common carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles informs the amount and distribution of hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Catherine J; Hill, Nathan; Dattani, Mehul T; Charmandari, Evangelia; Matthews, David R; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy is based on a dosing regimen derived from estimates of cortisol secretion, but little is known of how the dose should be distributed throughout the 24 h. We have used deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles to determine 24-h cortisol secretion and distribution to inform hydrocortisone dosing schedules in young children and older adults. Twenty four hour serum cortisol profiles from 80 adults (41 men, aged 60-74 years) and 29 children (24 boys, aged 5-9 years) were subject to deconvolution analysis using an 80-min half-life to ascertain total cortisol secretion and distribution throughout the 24-h period. Mean daily cortisol secretion was similar between adults (6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.1-9.3) and children (8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.3-12.0). Peak serum cortisol concentration was higher in children compared with adults, whereas nadir serum cortisol concentrations were similar. Timing of the peak serum cortisol concentration was similar (07.05-07.25), whereas that of the nadir concentration occurred later in adults (midnight) compared with children (22.48) (P = 0.003). Children had the highest percentage of cortisol secretion between 06.00 and 12.00 (38.4%), whereas in adults this took place between midnight and 06.00 (45.2%). These observations suggest that the daily hydrocortisone replacement dose should be equivalent on average to 6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in adults and 8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in children. Differences in distribution of the total daily dose between older adults and young children need to be taken into account when using a three or four times per day dosing regimen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rom William N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Methods Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Results Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p Conclusion Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer.

  8. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  9. Preparation of the low molecular weight serum proteome for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waybright, Timothy J; Chan, King C; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xiao, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of viable biomarkers or indicators of disease states is complicated by the inherent complexity of the chosen biological specimen. Every sample, whether it is serum, plasma, urine, tissue, cells, or a host of others, contains thousands of large and small components, each interacting in multiple ways. The need to concentrate on a group of these components to narrow the focus on a potential biomarker candidate becomes, out of necessity, a priority, especially in the search for immune-related low molecular weight serum biomarkers. One such method in the field of proteomics is to divide the sample proteome into groups based on the size of the protein, analyze each group, and mine the data for statistically significant items. This chapter details a portion of this method, concentrating on a method for fractionating and analyzing the low molecular weight proteome of human serum.

  10. The teaching of chemistry in the landscaping of the three pedagogical moments: an analysis of scientific productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rita Machado Ferreira Crestani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographical researches help in the study and understanding of several subjects in a certain area of knowledge. Research in the field of Chemistry Teaching has been increasing significantly in recent years and has gained space for debate in several graduate programs in Brazil as well as in events in the area. Retrieving and analyzing these research is important for reflection on teaching and the expansion of discussions and actions that promote improvement in the quality of the same. In this article, a “state of the Art” research is presented on the use of the methodology of Three Pedagogical Moments (3MP in Teaching Chemistry. In order to do so, Bardin content analysis was carried out in dissertations and scientific papers that presented such an approach in the period from 2010 to 2016. In total, 57 papers were found and analyzed, which were divided into six categories of analysis, namely: Science-Technology-Society (STS, Teaching Practices, Problem-based Experimentation, Curricular Reorganization, Contextualization and Teacher Training. In the discussion about each of the categories, it is presented which papers were analyzed as well as it was chosen to briefly describe some works that presented more prominence in the Teaching of Chemistry. The analysis of the works, their reading and re-reading allowed to broaden the knowledge regarding the 3MP, as well as to broaden the perspective from the perspective of work with this approach.

  11. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please~ all information. Use...routes. Methods: 15 Yorkshire swine were anesthetized, hemorrhaged 35% of their blood volume, equilibrated and randomized to IV, 10, or IM...measurements or hemorrhage percentage between groups and all were in a congruent state of class Ill shock. Serum sample analysis showed all three routes

  12. Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in University Lectures of Politics and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kashiha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Referred to as extended collocations, lexical bundles are considered as a main factor in building fluency in academic discourse; helping to shape meaning and coherence in a text or speech. For decades, lexical bundles have attracted considerable amount of attention in corpus-based research in English for Academic Purposes (EAP. While, the focus of the most of the studies on lexical bundles was to explore the use of these multi-word expressions in academic written registers such as research articles, academic spoken registers such as university lectures have not received that amount of attention from the scholars. In this vein, there is still an open question of how they are structurally different across disciplines. With these concerns in mind, this study aimed to explore how lexical bundles are used structurally in a 50291 words corpus of 8 university lectures across two disciplines: chemistry and politics. To this aim, the most frequent four-word bundles in the corpus were classified according to their grammatical types to see the possible disciplinary variations in their frequency of use as well as the structure involved in their use. Results of the analysis revealed that noun phrase and prepositional phrase fragments were the most common structures in the lectures of the two disciplines, accounting for more than half of the bundles in politics. University lecturers appear to apply a variety of structures in the use of lexical bundles often peculiar to the discipline in order to convey their disciplinary messages.  This would lead to the need to emphasize the instruction of the most common structures in that discipline in a way for the lectures to be as comprehensive as possible for the intended audiences.

  13. Cross-disciplinary thermoregulation and sweat analysis laboratory experiences for undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines [chemistry (CHEM) and exercise physiology (EPHE)] combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis. Twenty-eight senior BSc Kinesiology (EPHE) students and 42 senior BSc CHEM students participated as part of their mutually exclusive, respective courses. The effectiveness of this laboratory environment was evaluated qualitatively using written comments collected from all students as well as from formal focus groups conducted after the CD laboratory with a representative cohort from each class (n = 16 CHEM students and 9 EPHE students). An open coding strategy was used to analyze the data from written feedback and focus group transcripts. Coding topics were generated and used to develop five themes found to be consistent for both groups of students. These themes reflected the common student perceptions that the CD experience was valuable and that students enjoyed being able to apply academic concepts to practical situations as well as the opportunity to interact with students from another discipline of study. However, students also reported some challenges throughout this experience that stemmed from the combination of laboratory groups from different disciplines with limited modification to the design of the original, pre-CD, learning environments. The results indicate that this laboratory created an effective learning opportunity that fostered student interest and enthusiasm for learning. The findings also provide information that could inform subsequent design and implementation of similar CD experiences to enhance engagement of all students and improve instructor efficacy.

  14. Persistent high serum bilirubin level after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 32 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, In Wook; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1986-01-01

    The aim of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is to decrease serum bilirubin level and promote liver function in patient with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. But some patients showed persistent high serum bilirubin level or higher than pre-PTBD level. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed in 341 patients of obstructive jaundice for 5 years form July, 1981 to July, 1986 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Follow up check of the serum bilirubin level was possible in 188 patients. Among them the authors analysed 32 patients who showed persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3.4:1 and the age ranged from 33 to 75. 2. The causes of obstructive jaundice included 30 malignant diseases and 2 benign diseases. Malignant disease were 16 cases of bile duct carcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic cancer and 7 cases of metastasis from stomach, colon and uterine cervix. Benign disease were 1 case of common hepatic duct stone and 1 case of intrahepatic duct stones. 3. The most common level of obstruction was trifurcation in 17 cases. 4. The most common indication of PTBD was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 28 cases. 5. Change of serum bilirubin level ratio (post-PTBD level/pre-PTBD level) was 1.28, 1.22, 1.38, 1.51 in serial period of 1-3 days, 4-6 days, 1-2 week 2-3 week after PTBD. 6. Causes of persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD were 12 cases of partial drainage of intrahepatic bile, 13 cases of hepatic dysfunction including 9 cases of metastatic nodule, 2 cases of biliary cirrhosis, 2 cases of multiple liver abscess, and 7 cases of poor function of catheter including 4 cases of hemobilia, 1 case of multiple intrahepatic stones, pyobilia and intrahepatic Clonorchis sinensis.

  15. Persistent high serum bilirubin level after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 32 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, In Wook; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The aim of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is to decrease serum bilirubin level and promote liver function in patient with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. But some patients showed persistent high serum bilirubin level or higher than pre-PTBD level. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed in 341 patients of obstructive jaundice for 5 years form July, 1981 to July, 1986 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Follow up check of the serum bilirubin level was possible in 188 patients. Among them the authors analysed 32 patients who showed persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3.4:1 and the age ranged from 33 to 75. 2. The causes of obstructive jaundice included 30 malignant diseases and 2 benign diseases. Malignant disease were 16 cases of bile duct carcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic cancer and 7 cases of metastasis from stomach, colon and uterine cervix. Benign disease were 1 case of common hepatic duct stone and 1 case of intrahepatic duct stones. 3. The most common level of obstruction was trifurcation in 17 cases. 4. The most common indication of PTBD was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 28 cases. 5. Change of serum bilirubin level ratio (post-PTBD level/pre-PTBD level) was 1.28, 1.22, 1.38, 1.51 in serial period of 1-3 days, 4-6 days, 1-2 week 2-3 week after PTBD. 6. Causes of persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD were 12 cases of partial drainage of intrahepatic bile, 13 cases of hepatic dysfunction including 9 cases of metastatic nodule, 2 cases of biliary cirrhosis, 2 cases of multiple liver abscess, and 7 cases of poor function of catheter including 4 cases of hemobilia, 1 case of multiple intrahepatic stones, pyobilia and intrahepatic Clonorchis sinensis.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Serum Lipid Profile in Gallstone Patients and Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of serum lipid profile in gallstone formation. For this serum lipid profile such as total, free and bound cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids were determined in 109 gallstone patients and 100 controls (matched for age, sex and with negative personal or family history of gallstones) treated at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Comparison for serum lipid profile between different groups of gallstone patients and controls revealed no significant variation except for the triacylglycerols and total lipids, which were differed significantly between females of up to 45 and above 45 years age. Comparison for serum lipid profile between pure cholesterol and mixed composition gallstone formers showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. The serum lipid profile significantly varied between gallstone patients and controls except bound cholesterol level. Comparison of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids between gallstone patients and controls revealed that there was a significant difference between gallstone patients and controls for (a) females with or without gallstones, (b) females of up to 45 years age and (c) females having more than 3 children. HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in all the groups of gallstone patients as compared to controls, whereas, bound cholesterol remained non significant in all the groups of gallstone patients when compared with controls. In conclusion, elevated serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol seem to play major contributing role in the pathogenesis of gallstones in females of up to 45 years age with more than three children. (author)

  17. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  18. Serum periostin is associated with fracture risk in postmenopausal women: a 7-year prospective analysis of the OFELY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J C; Sornay-Rendu, E; Bertholon, C; Chapurlat, R; Garnero, P

    2014-07-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is a secreted γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein expressed mainly in the periosteum in adult individuals. POSNT deficient mice develop periodontis and osteoporosis with decreased bone strength. The relationship between serum POSTN and bone metabolism and fracture risk in postmenopausal women is unknown. Serum POSTN was measured in 607 postmenopausal women (mean age 66.6 ± 8.4 y) from the Os des Femmes de Lyon cohort at the ninth annual follow-up visit (baseline visit of the current analysis). Nonvertebral and clinical vertebral incident fragility fractures were reported annually during 7 years. Areal bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) of the hip and bone markers (intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and serum type I collagen C-telopeptide) were also measured. At baseline, serum POSTN did not correlate with age, bone markers, and BMD. After a median of 7 years of follow-up, 75 women sustained an incident clinical vertebral or nonvertebral fragility fracture. The proportion of women who had an incident fracture was significantly higher in women with levels of POSTN in the highest quartile than that of women in the three other quartiles (19.5% vs 10.1%, P = .018) after adjustment for age and prevalent fracture. The highest quartile of POSTN was associated with an increased risk of incident fracture with a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.88 (1.1-3.2) after adjustment for age, prevalent fracture, and hip BMD T-score. Patients with both low hip BMD (T-score women. These data suggest that serum POSTN could be useful to improve fracture risk assessment.

  19. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3 and ONIHL subjects (n=3. Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05. Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05. A total of 659 (27.0% genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3′ UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01. Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05. This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  20. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Yang, Y; Yan, Y T; Xu, L W; Ma, H Y; Shao, Y X; Cao, C J; Wu, X; Qi, M J; Wu, Y Y; Chen, R; Hong, Y; Tan, X H; Yang, L

    2018-01-11

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3) and ONIHL subjects (n=3). Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p) and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p) in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05). Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05). A total of 659 (27.0%) genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3' UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01). Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05). This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  1. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  2. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of trace elements in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheek, D.B.; Hay, H.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Proton induced x-ray emission has been used for quantitative analyses of trace elements in blood serum samples. This work is part of a survey concerned with Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn and Se in Australian Aboriginal people not receiving optimal diet. Special attention is being directed to Cr because of the high incidence of diabetes mellitus in these people

  3. Optimization of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Analysis for Subclassification of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halushka, Marc K; Eng, George; Collins, A Bernard; Judge, Daniel P; Semigran, Marc J; Stone, James R

    2015-06-01

    Accurate and rapid classification of cardiac amyloidosis is important for patient management. We have optimized the use of serum free light chain kappa and lambda values to differentiate immunoglobulin light chain amyloid (AL) amyloidosis from transthyretin amyloid and amyloid A using 85 cases of tissue-proven cardiac amyloidosis, in which there was direct classification of amyloidosis by mass spectrometry or immunofluorescence. The serum free light chain kappa/lambda ratios were non-overlapping for the three major groups: AL-lambda (0.01-0.41, n = 30), non-AL (0.52-2.7, n = 43), and AL-kappa (6.7-967, n = 12). A kappa/lambda ratio value between 0.5 and 5.0 had 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for distinguishing AL amyloidosis from non-AL amyloidosis. This optimized range for serum light chain kappa/lambda ratio provides extremely robust classification of cardiac amyloidosis. Cases of cardiac amyloidosis in which the serum kappa/lambda free light chain ratio falls close to these new cutoff values may benefit most from direct amyloid subtyping.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS IN EARLY SECOND TRIMESTER AS AN EARLY PREDICTOR FOR PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertensive disorders complicate 5-10% of all pregnancies. Screening for these factors in the second trimester of pregnancy will help in early detection of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, thus enabling. 1. Early identification of patients at risk of developing preeclampsia and eclampsia. 2. Prophylactic medication to prevent hypertension or to reduce its severity. 3. Proper antenatal care. The aim of the study is to study the accuracy of serum uric acid levels in early second trimester (14-20 weeks as early predictor of preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant normotensive women between 14-20 weeks gestation with singleton pregnancy irrespective of parity were selected randomly and serum levels of uric acid was estimated. Regular follow up of the cases was done till delivery. Number of cases developing preeclampsia was noted. Results were analysed statistically. RESULTS Out of the 100 patients enrolled in the study, 11 developed preeclampsia while rest 89 remained normotensive. Mean value of uric acid in preeclampsia cases was 6.28±0.86 mg/dL while that in normotensive cases was 3.42±0.94 mg/dL. This result was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Serum uric acid level at 14-20 weeks of gestation was significantly raised in the cases who developed preeclampsia as compared to those who remained normotensive. Hence, serum uric acid estimation at 14-20 weeks of gestation could be used as an effective parameter for predicting preeclampsia.

  5. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. Methods: a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE. All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. Results: eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; p<0.00001. Subgroup analyses were done based on study design, gender, non-diabetic subjects, non-obese subjects. All subgroup analyses showed statistically significant adjusted OR and most of which having low to moderate heterogeneity. Two studies revealed relationship between increased serum uric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. Conclusion: our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  6. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Evaluation of the base case groundwater data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, P.F.; Apted, M.J. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-05-01

    The groundwater chemistry is one of important geological environment for performance assessment of high level radioactive disposal system. This report describes the results of geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Over 15,000 separate groundwater analyses have been collected of deep Japanese groundwaters for the purpose of evaluating the range of geochemical conditions for geological radioactive waste repositories in Japan. The significance to issues such as radioelement solubility limits, sorption, corrosion of overpack, behavior of compacted clay buffers, and many other factors involved in safety assessment. It is important therefore, that a small, but representative set of groundwater types be identified so that defensible models and data for generic repository performance assessment can be established. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to categorize representative deep groundwater types from this extensive data set. PCA is a multi-variate statistical analysis technique, similar to factor analysis or eigenvector analysis, designed to provide the best possible resolution of the variability within multi-variate data sets. PCA allows the graphical inspection of the most important similarities (clustering) and differences among samples, based on simultaneous consideration of all variables in the dataset, in a low dimensionality plot. It also allows the analyst to determine the reasons behind any pattern that is observed. In this study, PCA has been aided by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), in which statistical indices of similarity among multiple samples are used to distinguish distinct clusters of samples. HCA allows the natural, a priori, grouping of data into clusters showing similar attributes and is graphically represented in a dendrogram Pirouette is the multivariate statistical software package used to conduct the PCA and HCA for the Japanese groundwater dataset. An audit of the initial 15,000 sample dataset on the basis of

  7. Simulation analysis of 9033 cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reduce the screening positive rate (SPR and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. Methods Nine thousand and thirty-three cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome were included from Apr. 2013 to Apr. 2014 in the present study. The screening results, all basic data and equation curves were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the data from the authors' laboratory, the important adjustment parameters were simulated. Combined with postnatal follow-up results, the quality and clinical performance of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome were evaluated. Results The SPR of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome was 6.69%(604/9033, the detection rate (DR was 75%(3/4, and FPR was 6.65%(601/9033. The median multiple of median (MOM of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP was low and SPR was high, and MOM of free human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (free hCGβ were high and SPR was high, while MOM of unconjugated estriol (uE3 were a little bit low, and SPR was slightly high. Considering these three factors, it is believed that the screening positive rate is high. By the simulation adjustments of MOM value equations (AFP and free hCGβ and weight correction equation, the SPR reduced to 4.11%(371/9033 after recalculating the risk, FPR declined to 4.07%(368/9033, and no more Down's syndrome fetus were missed compared with postnatal follow-up results. Conclusion Based on a localized setting depending on the local laboratory data, we suggest that the MOM value distributions(AFP, free hCGβ and uE3 and maternal weight should be regularly adjusted since it is a useful way to reduce the false-positive rate and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.13

  8. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels and macular pigment optical density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimura S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigeto Fujimura,1,2 Kohei Ueda,1 Yoko Nomura,1 Yasuo Yanagi3,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Ishikawa, Japan; 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, 4Medical Retina Department, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Purpose: To assess the relationship between combined serum lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD, and to investigate the effect of L+Z+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA dietary supplementation on the spatial distribution of MPOD.Methods: Twenty healthy fellow eyes with unilateral wet age-related macular degeneration or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were included. All participants received a dietary supplement for 6 months that contained 20 mg L, 1 mg Z, and 200 mg DHA. The best-corrected visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (CS were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Serum L+Z concentrations were measured at baseline and at 3 months. MPOD was calculated at each time point using fundus autofluorescent images.Results: Serum L+Z concentration was correlated with MPOD at 1°–2° eccentricity at baseline (r=0.63, P=0.003 and 3 months (r=0.53, P=0.015. Serum L+Z concentration increased by a factor of 2.3±1.0 (P<0.0001. At 6 months, MPOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline level at 0°–0.25° (P=0.034 and 0.25°–0.5° (P=0.032 eccentricity. CS improved after 3 or 6 months of L+Z+DHA supplementation (P<0.05.Conclusion: Juxtafoveal MPOD was associated with serum L+Z concentration. Foveal MPOD was increased by L+Z+DHA dietary supplementation. Keywords: fundus autofluorescence, supplement, spatial distribution

  9. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  10. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel determinants of circulating serum progranulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönjes, Anke; Scholz, Markus; Krüger, Jacqueline; Krause, Kerstin; Schleinitz, Dorit; Kirsten, Holger; Gebhardt, Claudia; Marzi, Carola; Grallert, Harald; Ladenvall, Claes; Heyne, Henrike; Laurila, Esa; Kriebel, Jennifer; Meisinger, Christa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif; Prokopenko, Inga; Isomaa, Bo; Beutner, Frank; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Krohn, Knut; Spranger, Joachim; Thiery, Joachim; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Progranulin is a secreted protein with important functions in processes including immune and inflammatory response, metabolism and embryonic development. The present study aimed at identification of genetic factors determining progranulin concentrations. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis for serum progranulin in three independent cohorts from Europe: Sorbs (N = 848) and KORA (N = 1628) from Germany and PPP-Botnia (N = 335) from Finland (total N = 2811). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with progranulin levels were replicated in two additional German cohorts: LIFE-Heart Study (Leipzig; N = 967) and Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (Berlin cohort; N = 833). We measured mRNA expression of genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by micro-arrays and performed mRNA expression quantitative trait and expression-progranulin association studies to functionally substantiate identified loci. Finally, we conducted siRNA silencing experiments in vitro to validate potential candidate genes within the associated loci. Heritability of circulating progranulin levels was estimated at 31.8% and 26.1% in the Sorbs and LIFE-Heart cohort, respectively. SNPs at three loci reached study-wide significance (rs660240 in CELSR2-PSRC1-MYBPHL-SORT1, rs4747197 in CDH23-PSAP and rs5848 in GRN) explaining 19.4%/15.0% of the variance and 61%/57% of total heritability in the Sorbs/LIFE-Heart Study. The strongest evidence for association was at rs660240 (P = 5.75 × 10-50), which was also associated with mRNA expression of PSRC1 in PBMC (P = 1.51 × 10-21). Psrc1 knockdown in murine preadipocytes led to a consecutive 30% reduction in progranulin secretion. In conclusion, the present meta-GWAS combined with mRNA expression identified three loci associated with progranulin and supports the role of PSRC1 in the regulation of progranulin secretion. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  11. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  12. Innovative methods for data analysis in analytical chemistry using Bayesian statistics and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    In analytical chemistry, rapid advancement in instrumentation, especially in high resolution mass-spectrometry is making a significant contribution for further developments of the field. As such, in separation science, nowadays, several hyphenated techniques have proven to be the state-of-the-art

  13. Analysis of Insertion of Environmental Issues in two Degree Course Chemistry of a Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago do Nascimento Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in a research on the inclusion of environmental matters in two degree courses of Chemistry in a public university. We started from the idea that discussing environmental issues in the academic context, in particular in the context of the Degree in Chemistry, is being very necessary nowadays, due to what society is going through, which is what we call "environmental crisis". Our main objective was to identify how the formation of the Chemistry teacher in these two courses has contemplated the inclusion of environmental issues as defined in the guidelines of official documents which they are subjected to. To structure all our discussion, we had as the theoretical background the production cycle of the curriculum policies developed by Ball and Bowe (1992, establishing this research in three main contexts presented by them (context influence, text production context and practice context. Therefore, a documental research in the national curriculum guidelines that drive the training of teachers / Chemistry teachers and educational projects of each course was conducted as well as interviews with coordinators and teachers of these courses, trying to understand the inclusion of discussions and questions that lead to an environmentally oriented education.

  14. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis Study for the Scale of High School Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Gökhan; Aslan, Aysegül; Yadigaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It is important to develop students' positive attitudes chemistry lessons in school because research has suggested that attitudes are linked with academic achievement. Therefore, how to evaluate the attitudes is an important topic in education. The purpose of this study was to develop a Likert-type scale that could measure high school students'…

  16. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  17. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Sarah; Sutphin, Kathy; Gierasch, Tiffany; Hamilton, Pauline; Lilly, Kathleen; Miller, Kristine; Newlin, Donald; Pires, Richard; Sherer, Maureen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional…

  18. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  19. Procedure for hazards analysis of plutonium gloveboxes used in analytical chemistry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1977-06-01

    A procedure is presented to identify and assess hazards associated with gloveboxes used for analytical chemistry operations involving plutonium. This procedure is based upon analytic tree methodology and it has been adapted from the US Energy Research and Development Administration's safety program, the Management Oversight and Risk Tree

  20. Teachers implementing context-based teaching materials : a framework for case-analysis in chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.A.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Pilot, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for analysing the interplay between context-based teaching material and teachers, and for evaluating the adequacy of the resulting implementation of context-based pedagogy in chemistry classroom practice. The development of the framework is described, including an account of

  1. Spectroscopy 101: A Practical Introduction to Spectroscopy and Analysis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Lucas A.; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that provides an introduction to various spectroscopic techniques is reported. Whereas organic spectroscopy is most often learned and practiced in the context of reaction analyses, this laboratory experiment allows students to become comfortable with [superscript 1]H NMR, [superscript 13]C NMR, and IR…

  2. A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

  3. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  4. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  5. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of serum interleukin-6 expression in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Wang,1 Pin Wu,1,2 Dang Wu,1 Zhigang Zhang,3 Guoming Hu,1 Shuai Zhao,1 Yucheng Lai,1 Jian Huang1,41Cancer Institute, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences, China National Ministry of Education, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, 3Department of Gynecology, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: Interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays an important role in human colorectal cancer (CRC development. However, the exact clinical and prognostic significance of IL-6 in CRC is still unclear. Here, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore this issue in detail.Methods: A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the association between serum IL-6 expression and clinical outcomes in articles published up to June 2015. Weighted mean difference (WMD and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were used to assess the association between serum IL-6 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC. Hazard ratio (HR with 95% CI was used to quantify the predictive value of IL-6 on CRC prognosis.Results: Fourteen studies comprising 1,245 patients were included. Analysis of these data showed that serum IL-6 expression was highly correlated with poor 5-year overall survival (OS rate (HR =0.43, 95% CI: 0.31–0.59, P=0.755. Simultaneously, we also found that serum IL-6 expression was associated with certain clinical parameters of CRC, such as tumor invasion (T category: T0–T2, T3–T4 (WMD =3.15, 95% CI: 1.92–4.39, P=0.816, distant metastasis (M category: M0, M1 (WMD =4.69, 95% CI: 3.33–6.06, P=0.377, and tumor stage (I–II, III–IV (WMD =2.65, 95% CI: 1.09–4.21, P=0.066.Conclusion: A high serum IL-6 expression is associated with adverse OS in CRC. The IL-6 expression can be an important supplement in establishing prognostic score

  6. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  7. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  8. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  9. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  10. The need analysis of chemistry module based on REACT (relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating and transferring) to improve critical thinking ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyffani, D. M.; Utomo, S. B.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    This research was aimed to find out how students’ need of chemistry module based REACT (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating and Transferring) to improve students’ critical thinking ability. The subjects of this research was the studentsof XI grade in three school in even semester of academic year 2016-2017 that contained of 48 students of Senior High School 2 Bandar Lampung, 38 students of Senior High School 3 Bandar Lampung and 46 students of Senior High School 12 Bandar Lampung. The data was gathering used non-test method by using open questionnaire with 13 questions. The results showed that 84,84% of students stated that the development of chemistry module based REACT on colloid material is needed. The analysis of hand’s book was used aspects of critical thinking proposed by Facione (2011) are interpretation, analysis, evaluation, conclusion, and explanation. Based on the result of the analysis of hand’s book at Senior High School 12 Bandar Lampung for critical thinking in colloid material that indicate 50% indicator is appropriate, while for indicator of inference and explanation only 16,67% appropriate, then for indicator analysis and evaluation doesn’t have conformity. Based on the results of the analysis shows that the hand’s book used have not empowered critical thinking ability with maximum. The development of chemistry module on colloid material is needed to overcome the problem of hand’s book that hasn’t maximized critical thinking ability, then the development of module oriented to REACT learning model (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating, and Transferring).

  11. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  12. Validation of an ion selective electrode system for the analysis of serum fluoride ion

    OpenAIRE

    Duly, Ellie B.; Luney, Stephen R.; Trinick, Thomas R.; Murray, James M.; Comer, John E. A.

    1995-01-01

    A high impedance unit was developed for use with a fluoride/pH electrode system for the measurement of serum fluoride. The linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit of the system is reported. At a pH of 1.55, the system was linear over a range of serum fluoride concentrations up to 100 μmol l-1, with a lower limit of detection of 0.3 μmol l-1. Recoveries at this pH were 94-105% in the range 2.6-100 μmol l-1. Within-run CVs ranged from 4.2% at a level of 2.3 μmol l-1 to 1.2% at a leve...

  13. Serum quantitative proteomic analysis reveals potential zinc-associated biomarkers for nonbacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Chengdong; Lin, Zhidi; Zhang, Xinhua; Zhang, Youjie; Yu, Yanbao; Liu, Kun; Li, Muyan; Zhang, Yuening; Lv, Wenxin; Xie, Yuanliang; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Chunlei; Teng, Ruobing; Lu, Shaoming; He, Min; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-10-01

    Prostatitis is one of the most common urological problems afflicting adult men. The etiology and pathogenesis of nonbacterial prostatitis, which accounts for 90-95% of cases, is largely unknown. As serum proteins often indicate the overall pathologic status of patients, we hypothesized that protein biomarkers of prostatitis might be identified by comparing the serum proteomes of patients with and without nonbacterial prostatitis. All untreated samples were collected from subjects attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). We profiled pooled serum samples from four carefully selected groups of patients (n = 10/group) representing the various categories of nonbacterial prostatitis (IIIa, IIIb, and IV) and matched healthy controls using a mass spectrometry-based 4-plex iTRAQ proteomic approach. More than 160 samples were validated by ELISA. Overall, 69 proteins were identified. Among them, 42, 52, and 37 proteins were identified with differential expression in Category IIIa, IIIb, and IV prostatitis, respectively. The 19 common proteins were related to immunity and defense, ion binding, transport, and proteolysis. Two zinc-binding proteins, superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), and carbonic anhydrase I (CA1), were significantly higher in all types of prostatitis than in the control. A receiver operating characteristic curve estimated sensitivities of 50.4 and 68.1% and specificities of 92.1 and 83.8% for CA1 and SOD3, respectively, in detecting nonbacterial prostatitis. The serum CA1 concentration was inversely correlated to the zinc concentration in expressed-prostatic secretions. Our findings suggest that SOD3 and CA1 are potential diagnostic markers of nonbacterial prostatitis, although further large-scale studies are required. The molecular profiles of nonbacterial prostatitis pathogenesis may lay a foundation for discovery of new therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Combined segregation and linkage analysis of genetic hemochromatosis using affection status, serum iron, and HLA.

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki, I B; Lathrop, G M; Bonney, G E; Yaouanq, J; Rao, D C

    1990-01-01

    Characterizing the distribution of parameters of iron metabolism by hemochromatosis genotype remains an important goal vis-à-vis potential screening strategies to identify individuals at genetic risk, since a specific marker to detect the abnormal gene has not been identified as yet. In the present investigation, we analyze serum iron values in ascertained families using a method which incorporates both segregation of the clinical affection status and the HLA linkage information to identify t...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Serum Levels of Aluminum and Lead in Dialysis Patients, Pre and post Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Atieh Makhlough; Mohammad Shokrzadeh; Maryam Shaliji; Siyavash Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation or deficiency of trace elements can occur in hemodialysis patients and it increases risk of cardiovascular or other organs disorders. Special ions levels such as sodium and bicarbonate in dialysis fluid are accurately regulated but the remaining elements are not regularly measured. Aluminum and lead belong to the biologic performance free heavy metals .They also has a tendency to accumulate in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to compare serum aluminum and lead l...

  16. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Zoriah; Wong, Su Yuen; Chong, Nyuk Jet

    2013-11-25

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been promoted for reducing cholesterol levels, but its reported impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent. The study aimed to assess systematically the evidence and quality of current research on the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on blood lipids and its adverse effects. Electronic databases were searched up to June 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The efficacy results of similar studies were pooled if they used the same comparator. Outcomes examined were levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Six studies involving 474 subjects met our inclusion criteria. These studies varied in terms of the types of interventions, comparators used, and duration of trials. Overall, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. did not produce any significant effect on any of the outcomes examined, when compared with placebo, black tea or diet. With short-term use it is well tolerated. The available evidence from RCTs does not support the efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in lowering serum lipids. Further rigorously designed trials with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the effects of HS on serum lipids. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Guntur; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Hasan, Irsan

    2017-04-01

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; puric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  18. Aerosols, Chemistry, and Radiative Forcing: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite and ACE-Asia data (ACMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng

    2005-01-01

    We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into

  19. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  20. Representation and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the representations of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…

  1. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowska, Barbara, E-mail: barbara@immchem.am.wroc.pl [Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Dudka, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.dudka@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.bugla-ploskonska@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna, E-mail: aszyman@mp.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: wlodzimierz.doroszkiewicz@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Gancarz, Roman, E-mail: roman.gancarz@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Andrzejak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta, E-mail: jola@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  2. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  3. Diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-Juan; Chen, Long-Hua; Dong, Wen-Zhu

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and SCCA-IgM for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After a comprehensive search of PubMed and Web of Science databases, we identified eligible studies on the diagnostic value serum SCCAs for HCC. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) tool. The overall diagnostic value of SCCAs for HCC was pooled using a bivariate model. Twelve studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivities for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.81) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.82), respectively. The corresponding specificities were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.52-0.94) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.51-0.72), respectively. The areas under summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66-0.74), respectively. Major design deficiencies of the included studies were two-gate design and partial verification bias. Therefore, we concluded that both serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM have a fair diagnostic value for HCC.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies six new Loci for serum calcium concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conall M O'Seaghdha

    Full Text Available Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤ 21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12, rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09 and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10 implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11, also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10 are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis.

  5. An analysis of interest in students learning of physical chemistry experiment using Scientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widinda Normalia Arlianty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze interest in student learning of physical chemistry experiment on Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was quantitative. The samples of this research were 2nd-semester student academic year 2015. The data learning interest of students were collected by questionnaire and documentation of seven title experimental. Learning interest consisted of three indicators, concluded feeling good, attention and activity in the learning process. The results of this research showed that score mean of feeling good  indicator was  25,9;  score  mean  of attention indicator 17,8, and score mean of  activity indicator 8,41.  Score Mean  students for the questionnaire interest in student learning  was 51,83 and this data was categorized as “good”.

  6. Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

  7. Immunoassays in clinical chemistry (principles of immunoradiometric assays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The use of antibodies as reagents in clinical chemistry for the quantitation of a wide range of analytes has now become widely established. Initially antibodies were employed in precipitation techniques, usually for the analysis of serum proteins, in solution or in the form of antibody containing gels, e.g. immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis. Further developments have led to the highly sensitive techniques of radioimmunoassay and recently immunometric assay for the measurement of drugs, tumour markers and hormones. In general, those techniques without the addition of a label e.g. immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion and immunoturbidimetry are the older techniques used for the measurement of serum proteins. These techniques are relatively insensitive, measuring at the g/L. level, and in the case of immunodiffusion are generally slow. Automation coupled with the development of chemistries to enhance precipitation has, however, reduced measurement times to minutes in modern laboratories. Nevertheless these methods have detection limits of the order of 1 g/L

  8. Analytical Chemistry as Methodology in Modern Pure and Applied Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Takaharu

    2001-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is an indispensable methodology in pure and applied chemistry, which is often compared to a foundation stone of architecture. In the home page of jsac, it is said that analytical chemistry is a learning of basic science, which treats the development of method in order to get usefull chemical information of materials by means of detection, separation, and characterization. Analytical chemistry has recently developed into analytical sciences, which treats not only analysis ...

  9. Serum ARCHITECT PIVKA-II reference interval in healthy Chinese adults: Sub-analysis from a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cunling; Hu, Jian; Yang, Jia; Chen, Zhaoyun; Li, Huijun; Wei, Lianhua; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Hao; Sang, Guoyao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Han, Ruilin; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhihui; Li, Zhiyan; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Li; Li, Shunjun; Dai, Shuyang; Wang, Nianyue; Yang, Yongfeng; Ma, Li; Soh, Andrew; Beshiri, Agim; Shen, Feng; Yang, Tian; Fan, Zhuping; Zheng, Yijie; Chen, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) has been widely used as a biomarker for liver cancer diagnosis in Japan for decades. However, the reference intervals for serum ARCHITECT PIVKA-II have not been established in the Chinese population. Thus, this study aimed to measure serum PIVKA-II levels in healthy Chinese subjects. This is a sub-analysis from the prospective, cross-sectional and multicenter study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03047603). A total of 892 healthy participants (777 Han and 115 Uygur) with complete health checkup results were recruited from 7 regional centers in China. Serum PIVKA-II level was measured by ARCHITECT immunoassay. All 95% reference ranges were estimated by nonparametric method. The distribution of PIVKA-II values showed significant difference with ethnicity and sex, but not age. The 95% reference range of PIVKA-II was 13.62-40.38 mAU/ml in Han Chinese subjects and 15.16-53.74 mAU/ml in Uygur subjects. PIVKA-II level was significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.001). The 95% reference range of PIVKA-II was 15.39-42.01 mAU/ml in Han males while 11.96-39.13 mAU/ml in Han females. The reference interval of serum PIVKA-II on the Architect platform was established in healthy Chinese adults. This will be valuable for future clinical and laboratory studies performed using the Architect analyzer. Different ethnic backgrounds and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the reference interval of analytes such as PIVKA-II, in central laboratories in different countries. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  11. Combined serum and EPS-urine proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology for discovery of potential prostate cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Chen, Lizhu; Yuan, Zhengwei; Yang, Zeyu; Li, Yue; Shan, Liping; Yin, Bo; Fei, Xiang; Miao, Jianing; Song, Yongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant tumors and a major cause of cancer-related death for men worldwide. The aim of our study was to identify potential non-invasive serum and expressed prostatic secretion (EPS)-urine biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of PCa. Here, we performed a combined isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to compare protein profiles using pooled serum and EPS-urine samples from 4 groups of patients: benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), localized PCa and metastatic PCa. The differentially expressed proteins were rigorously selected and further validated in a large and independent cohort using classical ELISA and Western blot assays. Finally, we established a multiplex biomarker panel consisting of 3 proteins (serum PF4V1, PSA, and urinary CRISP3) with an excellent diagnostic capacity to differentiate PCa from BPH [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.941], which showed an evidently greater discriminatory ability than PSA alone (AUC, 0.757) (P<0.001). Importantly, even when PSA level was in the gray zone (4-10 ng/mL), a combination of PF4V1 and CRISP3 could achieve a relatively high diagnostic efficacy (AUC, 0.895). Furthermore, their combination also had the potential to distinguish PCa from HGPIN (AUC, 0.934). Our results demonstrated that the combined application of serum and EPS-urine biomarkers can improve the diagnosis of PCa and provide a new prospect for non-invasive PCa detection.

  12. The present status of iodine chemistry research in Canada and its application to reactor safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K R [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Kupferschmid, W C.H.; Wren, J C; Ball, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    The current need to understand iodine chemistry in a reactor safety context has become more sharply focussed as the level of that understanding has advanced. At the same time, the situations of most concern within containment, from an iodine perspective, are also being redefined in the light of that understanding. The present paper summarises these developments. Over the past five years, considerable advances have occurred in our understanding of iodine chemistry under conditions of interest in reactor accidents. A number of key experiments have yielded important results in the areas of solution chemistry, the role of surfaces, the importance of organics and the effects of impurities. This understanding supplements the already substantial gains made in characterising the key roles of pH and the effects of radiation. All these factors underline the now evident fact that the kinetics of iodine are the controlling factor when radiation is involved, and that a number of reactive species, not present in thermal reactions, effectively control the observed volatility of iodine. In this paper, recent advances are summarised and the present status of our understanding of iodine chemistry is reviewed. Specifically, an attempt is made to identify those areas where our understanding appears to be relatively complete, and to flag the remaining critical areas where our attention is currently focussed. The state of our modelling capability is reviewed, as is the significance or related areas such as the role of mass transfer. Finally, an overview is presented of the significance of this work for reactor safety, and our expectations for its application over the near term future. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs.

  13. Predicting Student Success on the Texas Chemistry STAAR Test: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Background: The context is the new Texas STAAR end-of-course testing program. Purpose: The authors developed a logistic regression model to predict who would pass-or-fail the new Texas chemistry STAAR end-of-course exam. Setting: Robert E. Lee High School (5A) with an enrollment of 2700 students, Tyler, Texas. Date of the study was the 2011-2012…

  14. Immersive virtual reality in computational chemistry: Applications to the analysis of QM and MM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Andrea; Del Frate, Gianluca; Pagliai, Marco; Mancini, Giordano; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-11-15

    The role of Virtual Reality (VR) tools in molecular sciences is analyzed in this contribution through the presentation of the Caffeine software to the quantum chemistry community. Caffeine, developed at Scuola Normale Superiore, is specifically tailored for molecular representation and data visualization with VR systems, such as VR theaters and helmets. Usefulness and advantages that can be gained by exploiting VR are here reported, considering few examples specifically selected to illustrate different level of theory and molecular representation.

  15. The present status of iodine chemistry research in Canada and its application to reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.R.; Kupferschmid, W.C.H.; Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The current need to understand iodine chemistry in a reactor safety context has become more sharply focussed as the level of that understanding has advanced. At the same time, the situations of most concern within containment, from an iodine perspective, are also being redefined in the light of that understanding. The present paper summarises these developments. Over the past five years, considerable advances have occurred in our understanding of iodine chemistry under conditions of interest in reactor accidents. A number of key experiments have yielded important results in the areas of solution chemistry, the role of surfaces, the importance of organics and the effects of impurities. This understanding supplements the already substantial gains made in characterising the key roles of pH and the effects of radiation. All these factors underline the now evident fact that the kinetics of iodine are the controlling factor when radiation is involved, and that a number of reactive species, not present in thermal reactions, effectively control the observed volatility of iodine. In this paper, recent advances are summarised and the present status of our understanding of iodine chemistry is reviewed. Specifically, an attempt is made to identify those areas where our understanding appears to be relatively complete, and to flag the remaining critical areas where our attention is currently focussed. The state of our modelling capability is reviewed, as is the significance or related areas such as the role of mass transfer. Finally, an overview is presented of the significance of this work for reactor safety, and our expectations for its application over the near term future. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs

  16. Association of Drug Effects on Serum Parathyroid Hormone, Phosphorus, and Calcium Levels With Mortality in CKD: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Saglimbene, Valeria; Craig, Jonathan C; Macaskill, Petra; Tonelli, Marcello; de Berardis, Giorgia; Ruospo, Marinella; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-12-01

    Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, and calcium levels are surrogate outcomes that are central to the evaluation of drug treatments in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systematic review evaluates the evidence for the correlation between drug effects on biochemical (PTH, phosphorus, and calcium) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality end points in adults with CKD. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Adults with CKD. Randomized trials reporting drug effects on biochemical and mortality end points. Drug interventions with effects on serum PTH, phosphorus, and calcium levels, including vitamin D compounds, phosphate binders, cinacalcet, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin. Correlation between drug effects on biochemical and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. 28 studies (6,999 participants) reported both biochemical and mortality outcomes and were eligible for analysis. Associations between drug effects on surrogate biochemical end points and corresponding effects on mortality were weak and imprecise. All correlation coefficients were less than 0.70, and 95% credible intervals were generally wide and overlapped with zero, consistent with the possibility of no association. The exception was an inverse correlation between drug effects on serum PTH levels and all-cause mortality, which was nominally significant (-0.64; 95% credible interval, -0.85 to -0.15), but the strength of this association was very imprecise. Risk of bias within available trials was generally high, further reducing confidence in the summary correlations. Findings were robust to adjustment for age, baseline serum PTH level, allocation concealment, CKD stage, and drug class. Low power in analyses and combining evidence from many different drug comparisons with incomplete data across studies. Drug effects on serum PTH, phosphorus, and calcium levels are weakly and imprecisely correlated with all-cause and cardiovascular death in the setting of CKD. Risks of mortality (patient

  17. Concentration differences between serum and plasma of the elements cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Iyengar, G.V.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in concentrations of cesium, cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc between serum and plasma were examined with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Eighty serum and plasma samples obtained from 13 donors were compared. Serum was prepared in plastic tubes immediately after clotting, and plasma was separated with heparin as anticoagulant. No significant differences in the concentrations of cesium, cobalt, mercury and selenium were observed. However, the concentrations of iron, rubidium and zinc were significantly higher in serum than in plasma. The average differences were 322, 12 and 20 ng/ml for iron, rubidium and zinc, respectively. The average differences found for cesium, rubidium and zinc were far below that which can be expected from a complete, or considerable release of these elements from platelets which aggregate or disintegrate during the clotting process in preparing serum. (orig.)

  18. Structure analysis of molecular systems in the Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, 2a (2010), k32-k34 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura 2010. Soláň, 14.06.2010-17.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic * X-ray structure analysis * crystallography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http:// xray .cz/ms/bul2010-2a/hasek.pdf

  19. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  20. Determination of platinum in urine and serum after the administration of cisplatin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Drobnik, J.

    1982-01-01

    A simple neutron activation method is described for platinum determination in urine and serum of dogs when studying the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin, an antitumour drug. The procedure is based on the nuclear reaction 198 Pt(n,ν,ν) 199 Au, a radiochemical separation of gold, and gamma-spectrometry of the radionuclide 199 Au. Gold is separated as metal by coprecipitation with selenium after the addition of ascorbic acid in a highly acidic medium. The interference contribution of 199 Au originating from stable gold is evaluated, too. (author)

  1. Fluorescent analysis of interaction of flavonols with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchouk, V. V.; Bondaryuk, E. V.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescent properties of flavonols (quercetin, fisetin, morin, rutin) with the aim of studying possible interaction with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We observed an increase in the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence for all the flavonols except rutin in the presence of BSA. From the changes in the fluorescence spectra, we concluded that tautomeric forms are formed on interaction with hemoglobin. We determined the interconnection between the structure of related flavonols and their fluorescent properties on interaction with proteins, and we determined the binding constants for binding with BSA and hemoglobin.

  2. The death of the Job plot, transparency, open science and online tools, uncertainty estimation methods and other developments in supramolecular chemistry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn Hibbert, D; Thordarson, Pall

    2016-10-25

    Data analysis is central to understanding phenomena in host-guest chemistry. We describe here recent developments in this field starting with the revelation that the popular Job plot method is inappropriate for most problems in host-guest chemistry and that the focus should instead be on systematically fitting data and testing all reasonable binding models. We then discuss approaches for estimating uncertainties in binding studies using case studies and simulations to highlight key issues. Related to this is the need for ready access to data and transparency in the methodology or software used, and we demonstrate an example a webportal () that aims to address this issue. We conclude with a list of best-practice protocols for data analysis in supramolecular chemistry that could easily be translated to other related problems in chemistry including measuring rate constants or drug IC 50 values.

  3. Serum vitamin D levels in relation to schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Ghazaleh; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Although several observational studies have investigated the association between vitamin D status and schizophrenia, we are aware of no comprehensive meta-analysis in this regard. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize the available data on the association between serum vitamin D levels and schizophrenia. A systematic research on all published articles until October 2013 was conducted in PubMed, ISI (Web of science), SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. All observational studies that had measured serum vitamin D levels in schizophrenic patients were included in the systematic review. After considering exclusion criteria, we had 19 studies for the systematic review that were included in three separate meta-analyses: 1) a meta-analysis on mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (n = 13); 2) a meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (n = 8); 3) a meta-analysis on odds ratios (n = 8). Findings from a meta-analysis on means revealed that the overall mean difference in serum 25(OH)D levels between schizophrenic patients and control participants was -5.91 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) -10.68, -1.14]. Subgroup analyses based on study design, the patient's hospitalization status, study quality, and study location did not explain between-study heterogeneity; however, type of biomarker assessed [25-hydroxyvitamin D3 vs 25-hydroxyvitamin D (D2 & D3)] could account for some degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS from the meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency indicated that the overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenic patients was 65.3% (95% CI 46.4%-84.2%). Findings from the meta-analysis on odds ratios indicated that vitamin D-deficient persons were 2.16 times (95% CI 1.32, 3.56) more likely to have schizophrenia than those with vitamin D sufficiency. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected. We found a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia

  4. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA–PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug–HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings. Keywords: Human serum albumin, X-ray crystallography, Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, Drug interaction, Drug site 2

  5. Interaction of tea polyphenols with serum albumins: A fluorescence spectroscopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Adity, E-mail: adityc17j@gmail.com

    2016-01-15

    Interactions of some tea polyphenols, namely (−) Catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (–) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are outlined with the serum albumin proteins. These interactions had all resulted in binding with the proteins with a concomitant static quenching of the protein fluorescence. A fluorescence technique has been considered as the tool to comprehend the polyphenol–protein interactions mainly and simultaneously other spectroscopic techniques used to verify the results have been discussed. In this mini review the different types of equations usually employed to calculate the binding constant values have been outlined, namely, modified Stern Volmer plot, Scatchard plot and Lineweaver Burk equation, with their corresponding results. The n values (number of binding sites) had always been close to unity suggesting a 1:1 complexation with the polyphenols and the protein. A structural change in the polyphenols has been found to alter the binding constant value and the galloyl moiety attached to the C ring of the polyphenols have been found to play a crucial role in this regard. It has been found that an increase in galloyl moiety increases binding of the catechins with proteins. - Highlights: • Review on interactions of some tea polyphenols with the serum albumin proteins. • Tea polyphenols include Catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin. • Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is mainly outlined. • Binding constant studies have been given importance. • Galloyl moiety in the C ring is crucial in increasing binding constant.

  6. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2015-01-01

    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation

  7. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation.

  8. Analysis of DuPont and Kodak duplicating films and chemistries in a Fultron spray processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was conducted with duPont duplicating film type SR 112 and SCOLOR developer and Kodak duplicating film types 2430, 2422, and FE 2628 (SO-467) and MX-641 developer to determine sensitometric and image quality characteristics of these materials when used with a fultron spray processor. The test results show that the SCOLOR developer foams excessively in the fultron processor when used with or without the addition of an antifoaming agent. The Kodak type FE 2628 film with MX-641 chemistry had the longest linear Log E range at a 1.0 gamma. Sensitometric curves and granularity traces for all film process combinations tested are included.

  9. Directing functional chemistries on micropatterned conducting polymers for all-polymer cell analysis microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    Micrometer scale electrical circuits of PEDOT (poly(3,4-dioxythiophene)) were created by locally oxidizing PEDOT thin films with an agarose stamp containing the oxidizing agent NaOCl. The oxidized PEDOT was removed completely by applying detergents. The process was sufficiently mild that chemical...... groups on the underlying substrate, such as azides or alkynes, were preserved for subsequent specific functionalization. Moreover entire PMOXA (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)) films preventing cell binding could be hidden below the PEDOT and be re-exposed upon stamping, allowing for cell capturing...... microelectrodes on a cell non-adhesive background. Chemically functionalized PEDOT types permitted the introduction of multiple additional types of micropatterned chemistry....

  10. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  11. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  12. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  13. Student's Need Analysis for the Development of Chemistry Modules Based Guided Inquiry to Improve Science Process Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arantika

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science process skills (SPS are an important aspect of learning science. SPS help students to develop creativity in learning. Process skills such as observing, formulating questions, interpreting, experimenting, hypothesizing, applying concepts, and communicating. This study aims to analyze the need for development resources needs of science filled with science process skills. Requirement analysis of the development of teaching materials with the skill of the process of science needs to be done because the textbook is the reference a teacher in the class. The subjects matter of chemistry the study was three senior high schools in Sambas, West Borneo. Needs analysis conducted using a qualitative approach, in terms of needs in classroom learning and content of process skills on teaching materials. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that as many as 27 percents of students perceive the book used in learning has not yet trained the science process skills. As many as 73 percents of students perceive that they need instructional materials in the form of inquiry-based chemistry modules to improve science process skills. Modules are developed based guided inquiry for having guided inquiry learning stages that can practice students' science process skills.

  14. Validation of a Multiresidue Analysis Method for 379 Pesticides in Human Serum Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongho; Lee, Jonghwa; Lee, Jiho; Lee, Junghak; Kim, Eunhye; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hye Suk; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2018-04-04

    A screening method for simultaneous analysis of 379 pesticides in human serum was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Electrospray ionization with positive/negative switching mode of LC-MS/MS was adopted, and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring for each target compound was established. The limit of quantitation was 10 ng/mL for 94.5% of the total pesticides, and the correlation coefficients of calibration were ≥0.990 for 93.9% of the pesticides. For the sample preparation, scaled-down QuEChERS were used. Serum (100 μL) was extracted with acetonitrile (400 μL), partitioned with magnesium sulfate (40 mg) and sodium chloride (10 mg), and the upper layer was used for analysis without further cleanup steps. For the accuracy and precision tests, most of the pesticides showed excellent results in intra- and interday conditions. In the recovery tests at 10, 50, and 250 ng/mL, 85.8-91.8% of all target compounds satisfied the recovery range of 70-120% (relative standard deviation ≤20%).

  15. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Patients with De Novo, Drug Naïve Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Hui Li

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is reported to be neuroprotective in the setting of Parkinson's disease (PD, and there is increasing interest in the possible association of serum IGF-1 levels with PD patients, but with conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of serum IGF-1 levels in de novo, drug naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls.Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, OVID, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases from 1966 to October 2014 were utilized to identify candidate studies using Medical Subjective Headings without language restriction. A random-effects model was chosen, with subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis conducted to reveal underlying heterogeneity among the included studies.In this meta-analysis, we found that PD patients had higher serum IGF-1 levels compared with healthy controls (summary mean difference [MD] = 17.75, 95%CI = 6.01, 29.48. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the source of heterogeneity was population differences within the total group. Sensitivity analysis showed that the combined MD was consistent at any time omitting any one study.The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in de novo, drug-naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls. Nevertheless, additional endeavors are required to further explore the association between serum IGF-1 levels and diagnosis, prognosis and early therapy for PD.

  16. Analysis of temporal evolution of quantum dot surface chemistry by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İlker; Gresback, Ryan; Nozaki, Tomohiro; van de Sanden, Mauritius C M

    2016-07-08

    Temporal evolution of surface chemistry during oxidation of silicon quantum dot (Si-QD) surfaces were probed using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A monolayer of hydrogen and chlorine terminated plasma-synthesized Si-QDs were spin-coated on silver oxide thin films. A clearly enhanced signal of surface modes, including Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes were observed from as-synthesized Si-QDs as a result of the plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signal at Si-QD/silver oxide interface. Upon oxidation, a gradual decrease of Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes, and an emergence of Si-Ox and Si-O-Hx modes have been observed. In addition, first, second and third transverse optical modes of Si-QDs were also observed in the SERS spectra, revealing information on the crystalline morphology of Si-QDs. An absence of any of the abovementioned spectral features, but only the first transverse optical mode of Si-QDs from thick Si-QD films validated that the spectral features observed from Si-QDs on silver oxide thin films are originated from the SERS effect. These results indicate that real-time SERS is a powerful diagnostic tool and a novel approach to probe the dynamic surface/interface chemistry of quantum dots, especially when they involve in oxidative, catalytic, and electrochemical surface/interface reactions.

  17. Convection and chemistry effects in CVD: A 3-D analysis for silicon deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.; Tsui, P.; Chait, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT has been adopted to simulate the entire rectangular-channel-like (3-D) geometry of an experimental CVD reactor designed for Si deposition. The code incorporated the effects of both homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (surface) chemistry with finite reaction rates of important species existing in silane dissociation. The experiments were designed to elucidate the effects of gravitationally-induced buoyancy-driven convection flows on the quality of the grown Si films. This goal is accomplished by contrasting the results obtained from a carrier gas mixture of H2/Ar with the ones obtained from the same molar mixture ratio of H2/He, without any accompanying change in the chemistry. Computationally, these cases are simulated in the terrestrial gravitational field and in the absence of gravity. The numerical results compare favorably with experiments. Powerful computational tools provide invaluable insights into the complex physicochemical phenomena taking place in CVD reactors. Such information is essential for the improved design and optimization of future CVD reactors.

  18. Analysis of low Z elements in serum of patients with leukemias by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Leukemia is a disease that occurs all over the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is a kind of cancer that begins in blood cells. There are four common types of leukemia: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). In this work, low Z elements were determined in serum of patients with four groups of leukemia (CML, AML, CLL and ALL) and control group (CG) or healthy subjects using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence induced by Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). We studied thirty patients - male gender and feminine gender - with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, suffering from CML, AML, CLL, ALL and thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples were collected from people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. All of them were submitted to medical history. This study was performed with the approval of the ethics committee. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following six elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. By using t-test it could be seen significant differences (alpha = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and four groups of leukemia. The t- test showed real differences among the elemental concentrations. Thus, our findings indicate that the elements can be directly related to the biochemical processes in leukemias. The significant differences found between the groups may be indicators of these diseases. This could help biomedical field with regard to early diagnosis and improved medical treatment. (author)

  19. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  20. Analysis of low Z elements in serum of patients with leukemias by SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia is a disease that occurs all over the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is a kind of cancer that begins in blood cells. There are four common types of leukemia: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). In this work, low Z elements were determined in serum of patients with four groups of leukemia (CML, AML, CLL and ALL) and control group (CG) or healthy subjects using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence induced by Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). We studied thirty patients - male gender and feminine gender - with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, suffering from CML, AML, CLL, ALL and thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples were collected from people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. All of them were submitted to medical history. This study was performed with the approval of the ethics committee. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following six elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. By using t-test it could be seen significant differences (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and four groups of leukemia. The t- test showed real differences among the elemental concentrations. Thus, our findings indicate that the elements can be directly related to the biochemical processes in leukemias. The significant differences found between the groups may be indicators of these diseases. This could help biomedical field with regard to early diagnosis and improved medical treatment. (author)

  1. Untargeted LC-QTOF (ESI + MS Analysis of Small Serum Metabolites Related to Prostate Cancer and Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria Maxim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer has an increasing incidence and there is an urgent need for development of new serum biomarkers for early diagnostic as the ones known are ineffective. The aim of the study was to use untargeted metabolomics in order to identify and characterize small metabolite fingerprints in patients with normal vs pathologic values of PSA ( previously determined by electrochemiluminiscence. A cohort of one hundred patients with different Prostate Specific amtigen values were investigated by untargeted metabolomics. The serum small metabolite profile determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, LC-QTOF(ESI+MS in order to identify specific biomarkers, for normal patient group (PSA = 0-4 ng.ml and four pathologic groups, having PSA values from 4 to >1000 ng/ml. The major molecules identified in the samples were polar phospholipids, maily lysophosphatidyl choline derivatives, having m/z values from 496 to 524, like LPC(O-16:0/O-1:0, LPC(18:1/2:0 or PS(18:1(9Z/0:0, LPC(18:2(9Z,12Z/0:0 and their isomers and  LPC(O-18:1(11Z/2:0, respectively. Also, small molecules (free fatty acids and prostaglandin derivatives were identified and are significantly different in pathologic vs normal serum samples. Generally the pathologic samples had increased concentrations of all above mentioned molecules. The Principal Component analysis showed , by plot and loadings scores, significant clustering of normal vs pathological groups.

  2. Clinical usefulness of serum free light chains measurement in patients with multiple myeloma: comparative analysis of two different tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kubicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are two commercially available tests for measurement of serum free light chains (sFLC in multiple myeloma (MM patients – Freelite and N Latex FLC. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment and direct comparison of the usefulness of the methods in routine clinical practice.Methods: 40 refractory/relapsed MM patients underwent routine disease activity assessment studies, along with sFLC analysis using both assays. Correlation and concordance between the tests and sensitivity of studied methods of sFLC assessment were established. Special attention was focused on sFLC results in patients finally evaluated after completing the treatment. Results: A weak correlation for the measurement of both κ [Passing–Bablok slope (PB = 0.7681] and λ chains [(PB = 1.542] was found. Using Bland–Altman plots, a bias of 0.0467 (κ and -0.2133 (λ between the measurements was documented. The concordance coefficient equaled 0.87 for κ, 0.62 for λ and 0.52 for κ/λ ratio. Ten patients had an abnormal Freelite assay κ/λ ratio and normal N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio. Three of these patients had negative serum protein electrophoresis results and fulfilled diagnostic criteria of stringent complete remission (sCR according to N Latex FLC (but not according to Freelite. When the κ/λ ratio obtained by both methods was compared to patients’ serum/urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation results, sensitivity of Freelite and N Latex FLC was established to be 62.5% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: There was no strong correlation or concordance between the two assays, and the sensitivity in terms of sFLC detection was different. This may cause problems when diagnosis of sCR is considered.

  3. Quantification of Endogenous Cholesterol in Human Serum on Paper Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Li, Li-Hua; Hsu, Ren-Yu; Kao, Wei-Fong; Huang, Ying-Chen; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-06-06

    Blood testing for endogenous small metabolites to determine physiological and biochemical states is routine for laboratory analysis. Here we demonstrate that by combining the commercial direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source with an ion trap mass spectrometer, native cholesterol in its free alcohol form is readily detected from a few hundred nanoliters of human serum loaded onto chromatography paper. Deuterium-labeled cholesterol was used as the internal standard to obtain the absolute quantity of the endogenous cholesterol. The amount of the cholesterol measured by this paper-loaded DART mass spectrometry (pDART-MS) is statistically comparable with that obtained by using commercially available fluorometric-enzymatic assay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Furthermore, sera from 21 participants at three different time points in an ultramarathon were collected to obtain their cholesterol levels. The test requires only very minimal sample preparation, and the concentrations of cholesterol in each sample were acquired within a minute.

  4. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  5. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  6. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  7. Blood mercury can be a factor of elevated serum ferritin: analysis of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Choi, Young-Hwa; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Serum ferritin as well as blood mercury are reported to be associated with chronic inflammation. However, the relation between serum ferritin and blood mercury has not yet been established. We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012) 10,977 subjects (5433 males and 5544 females). To evaluate the association of serum ferritin and blood mercury cross-sectionally, complex sample analysis was conducted after adjustment for the relevant variables. Serum concentrations of ferritin and blood mercury were higher in males than in females (115.7 ± 1.7 vs. 40.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL and 5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Serum ferritin and blood mercury concentrations had significant correlations in both genders after adjustment (r = 0.062, P mercury (P = 0.007) in males. The adjusted odds ratio of having the highest tertile of serum ferritin in the top tertile of blood mercury in males was 1.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.21). Thus, the current study indicates that blood mercury concentration can be a factor for the elevated serum ferritin concentration.

  8. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  9. Serum tumor-associated autoantibodies as diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ming Tang

    Full Text Available We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic values of serum single and multiplex tumor-associated autoantibodies (TAAbs in patients with lung cancer (LC.We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for relevant studies investigating serum TAAbs for the diagnosis of LC. The primary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the test.The systematic review and meta-analysis included 31 articles with single autoantibody and 39 with multiplex autoantibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was the most common detection method. For the diagnosis of patients with all stages and early-stage LC, different single or combinations of TAAbs demonstrated different diagnostic values. Although individual TAAbs showed low diagnostic sensitivity, the combination of multiplex autoantibodies offered relatively high sensitivity. For the meta-analysis of a same panel of autoantibodies in patients at all stages of LC, the pooled results of the panel of 6 TAAbs (p53, NY-ESO-1, CAGE, GBU4-5, Annexin 1 and SOX2 were: sensitivity 38% (95% CI 0.35-0.40, specificity 89% (95% CI 0.86-0.91, diagnostic accuracy 65.9% (range 62.5-81.8%, AUC 0.52 (0.48-0.57, while the summary estimates of 7 TAAbs (p53, CAGE, NY-ESO-1, GBU4-5, SOX2, MAGE A4 and Hu-D were: sensitivity 47% (95% CI 0.34-0.60, specificity 90% (95% CI 0.89-0.92, diagnostic accuracy 78.4% (range 67.5-88.8%, AUC 0.90 (0.87-0.93. For the meta-analysis of the same panel of autoantibodies in patients at early-stage of LC, the sensitivities of both panels of 7 TAAbs and 6 TAAbs were 40% and 29.7%, while their specificities were 91% and 87%, respectively.Serum single or combinations of multiplex autoantibodies can be used as a tool for the diagnosis of LC patients at all stages or early-stage, but the combination of multiplex autoantibodies shows a higher detection capacity; the diagnostic value of the panel of 7 TAAbs is higher than the panel of 6 TAAbs, which

  10. Quantitative analysis of glycated albumin in serum based on ATR-FTIR spectrum combined with SiPLS and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Li, Fucui; Yang, Xinhao; Guo, Liu; Huang, Furong; Chen, Zhenqiang; Chen, Xingdan; Zheng, Shifu

    2018-08-05

    A rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the glycated albumin (GA) content based on Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combining with linear SiPLS and nonlinear SVM has been developed. Firstly, the real GA content in human serum was determined by GA enzymatic method, meanwhile, the ATR-FTIR spectra of serum samples from the population of health examination were obtained. The spectral data of the whole spectra mid-infrared region (4000-600 cm -1 ) and GA's characteristic region (1800-800 cm -1 ) were used as the research object of quantitative analysis. Secondly, several preprocessing steps including first derivative, second derivative, variable standardization and spectral normalization, were performed. Lastly, quantitative analysis regression models were established by using SiPLS and SVM respectively. The SiPLS modeling results are as follows: root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV T ) = 0.523 g/L, calibration coefficient (R C ) = 0.937, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP T ) = 0.787 g/L, and prediction coefficient (R P ) = 0.938. The SVM modeling results are as follows: RMSECV T  = 0.0048 g/L, R C  = 0.998, RMSEP T  = 0.442 g/L, and R p  = 0.916. The results indicated that the model performance was improved significantly after preprocessing and optimization of characteristic regions. While modeling performance of nonlinear SVM was considerably better than that of linear SiPLS. Hence, the quantitative analysis model for GA in human serum based on ATR-FTIR combined with SiPLS and SVM is effective. And it does not need sample preprocessing while being characterized by simple operations and high time efficiency, providing a rapid and accurate method for GA content determination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutant p53 protein over-expression has been reported to induce serum antibodies against p53. We assessed the diagnostic precision of serum p53 (s-p53 antibodies for diagnosis of cancer patients and compared the positive rates of the s-p53 antibody in different types of cancers. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase, through May 31, 2012. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR and negative likelihood ratio (NLR were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs and Area under the curve(AUC. Meta regression and subgroup analyses were done, and heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1089 studies initially identified, 100 eligible studies with 23 different types of tumor met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis (cases = 15953, controls = 8694. However, we could conduct independent meta analysis on only 13 of 36 types of tumors. Approximately 56% (56/100 of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score≥8. The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of serum p53 antibody in the diagnosis of cancers were: PLR 5.75 (95% CI: 4.60-7.19, NLR 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.83 and DOR 7.56 (95% CI: 6.02-9.50. However, for the 13 types of cancers on which meta-analysis was conducted, the ranges for PLR (2.33-11.05, NLR (0.74-0.97, DOR (2.86-13.80, AUC(0.29-0.81, and positive rate (4.47%-28.36% indicated significant heterogeneity. We found that breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic, lymphoma, lung and ovarian cancer had relatively reasonable diagnostic accuracy. The remaining results of the five types of cancers suggested that s-p53 antibody had limited value. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that s-p53 antibody has potential diagnostic value for cancer, especially for breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic

  12. Influence of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohai Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that L-carnitine plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism of hemodialysis (HD patients. However, there are still some reservations about its benefits. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile in HD patients. Methods: Literature search was performed to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the lipid profile of subjects. Two independent authors used an Excel file to extract data and assess trials quality. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final lipid measurements between the intervention and control groups. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Results: Twelve studies with a total of 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. The use of L-carnitine was not associated with a reduction in the total cholesterol (SMD, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.09, HDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.39, VLDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.54; 95% CI, -0.06 to 1.14, and the serum triglycerides (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.12. However, L-carnitine can significantly decrease the LDL-cholesterol (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.06 in HD patients. In a subgroup meta-analysis, a significant LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of L-carnitine supplementation was observed in intravenous application group, and patients with longer interventional duration and renal diseases. Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that there was no effect of L-carnitine on serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. By contrast, this meta-analysis suggests a promising effect of L-carnitine on LDL-cholesterol. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed

  13. [Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Huo, Li

    2012-07-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of Taxus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.

  14. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Dave, Himanshu L.; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  15. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2015-11-21

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  16. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  17. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  18. The prognostic value of serum neuron-specific enolase in traumatic brain injury: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that neuron-specific enolase (NSE in serum may be a biomarker of traumatic brain injury. However, whether serum NSE levels correlate with outcomes remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum NSE protein after traumatic brain injury. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant studies published up to October 2013. Full-text publications on the relationship of NSE to TBI were included if the studies concerned patients with closed head injury, NSE levels in serum after injury, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS or Extended GOS (GOSE scores or mortality. Study design, inclusion criteria, assay, blood sample collection time, NSE cutoff, sensitivity and specificity of NSE for mortality prediction (if sufficient information was provided to calculate these values, and main outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were eligible for the current meta-analysis. In the six studies comparing NSE concentrations between TBI patients who died and those who survived, NSE concentrations correlated with mortality (M.D. 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.21 to 0.34; I2 55%. In the eight studies evaluating GOS or GOSE, patients with unfavorable outcomes had significantly higher NSE concentrations than those with favorable outcomes (M.D. 0.24, 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.31; I2 64%. From the studies providing sufficient data, the pooled sensitivity and specificity for mortality were 0.79 and 0.50, and 0.72 and 0.66 for unfavorable neurological prognosis, respectively. The areas under the SROC curve (AUC of NSE concentrations were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66-0.80 for unfavorable outcome and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.62-0.90 for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and unfavorable outcome were significantly associated with greater NSE concentrations. In addition, NSE has moderate discriminatory ability to predict mortality and neurological outcome in TBI patients. The optimal discrimination cutoff

  19. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  20. Serum and urine analysis of the aminoterminal procollagen peptide type III by radioimmunoassay with antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, H; Langer, I; Krieg, T; Timpl, R

    1983-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay based on antibody Fab fragments was developed for the aminoterminal peptide Col 1-3 of bovine type III procollagen. This assay does not distinguish the intact aminopropeptide Col 1-3 from its globular fragment Col 1. Parallel inhibition profiles were observed with human serum and urine allowing the simultaneous quantitative determination of intact and fragmented antigens in these samples. Most of the material has a size similar to that of fragment Col 1 indicating that the aminopropeptide is degraded under physiologic conditions. The concentration of aminopeptide in normal sera was in the range 15-63 ng/ml. Daily excretion was found to be in the range 30-110 micrograms. More than 50% of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum levels of aminopropeptide by the Fab assay. Elevated concentrations were detected more frequently with an antibody radioimmunoassay which measures mainly the intact form of the aminopropeptide. It is suggested that analysis of patients material by both assays could improve their diagnostic application.

  1. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  2. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  3. Interference factors in digoxin analysis, especially in the serum of pregnant women, by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratz, A.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of false digoxin concentrations measured in pregnant women by RIA were gone into; 103 sera of healthy women in their last trimester of pregnancy were analyzed by 4 different RIA methods. In 6 cases, falsepositive digoxin levels above 1.0 ng/ml were found; 4 of the measured digoxin levels were above 2.0 ng/ml, i.e. a clinically toxic concentration. No pseudodigoxin was detected post partum; however, the author was only able to make control measurements of 2 of the 3 positive sera between the 6th and 12th week post partum. The causes of this phenomenon remain unclear. It cannot be excluded that these pregnant women may have a still unknown hormone metabolite, resulting from a possible enzymatic defect, which cross-reacts with the digoxin antiserum and thus causes false-positive results. In those rare cases where pregnant women receive digitalis treatment, digoxin serum measurements by RIA must be analyzed very critically due to the possibility of false-positive results. (orig.) [de

  4. Biomarker identification and pathway analysis of preeclampsia based on serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; He, Ping; Tan, Yong; Xu, Dongying

    2017-03-25

    Preeclampsia presents serious risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers for the detection of preeclampsia are critical for risk assessment and targeted intervention. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia and to illuminate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia development based on the differential expression network. Two groups of subjects, including healthy pregnant women, subjects with preeclampsia, were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects' serum were obtained by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Correlation between metabolites was analyzed by bioinformatics technique. Results showed that the PC(14:0/00), proline betaine and proline were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for preeclampsia diagnosis and prognosis. Perturbation of corresponding biological pathways, such as iNOS signaling, nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial dysfunction were responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study indicated that the metabolic profiling had a good clinical significance in the diagnosis of preeclampsia as well as in the study of its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Akito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Enokida, Taisuke; Miyamoto, Shuichi; Otagiri, Masaki

    2018-03-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA-PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug-HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings.

  6. Analysis of the hydration water around bovine serum albumin using terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Meliga, Stefano; Ferachou, Denis; Cinque, Gianfelice; Zeitler, J Axel; Falconer, Robert J

    2014-01-09

    Terahertz spectroscopy was used to study the absorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water. The Diamond Light Source operating in a low alpha mode generated coherent synchrotron radiation that covered a useable spectral bandwidth of 0.3-3.3 THz (10-110 cm(-1)). As the BSA concentration was raised, there was a nonlinear change in absorption inconsistent with Beer's law. At low BSA concentrations (0-1 mM), the absorption remained constant or rose slightly. Above a concentration of 1 mM BSA, a steady decrease in absorption was observed, which was followed by a plateau that started at 2.5 mM. Using a overlapping hydration layer model, the hydration layer was estimated to extend 15 Å from the protein. Calculation of the corrected absorption coefficient (αcorr) for the water around BSA by subtracting the excluded volume of the protein provides an alternative approach to studying the hydration layer that provides evidence for complexity in the population of water around BSA.

  7. Productivity Analysis of the Botosani Karakul Sheep Depending on the Genetic Types of Serum Transferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrincă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sheep productivity of the Botosani Karakul breed in relation to their belonging in different transferrin genotypes. Thirteen electrophoretic phenotypes of transferrin have been identified in this breed. Experimental results show that it is possible to establish correlations between genetic types of serum transferrin and quantitative characteristics of production (meat, wool, milk in this breed depending on age and sex of animals. In lambs, the values of the productive parameters are more grouped in most transferrin genotypes, while in adult animals, more important differentiations of productivity occur among different transferrin genotypes. In adult animals, the productive differentiation among the genotypes Tf is more obvious in rams than in ewes. Irrespective of age and sex, the differences of productivity among transferrin genotypes, in their reciprocity, seldom present significant statistical assurance, a relatively frequent part of them is situated near the first critical threshold of significance, and most of them are unsignificant. Thus, a certain production metabolism is characteristic to each genotype transferrin. But the transferrin genotypes which enhance the sheep productivity, those that differ significantly from the rest of transferrin genotypes, deserve to be taken into account, in the selection works of this breed for its productive improvement.

  8. Comparison and analysis on the serum-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Xin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Hong-Lin; Li, Li-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the protein-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex (AZN) with those of aspirin itself. AZN was synthesized and interacted with a model transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Three-dimensional fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were used to characterize the interaction of AZN with HSA under physiological conditions. The interaction mechanism was explored using a fluorescence quenching method and thermodynamic calculation. The binding site and binding locality of AZN on HSA were demonstrated using a fluorescence probe technique and Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory. Synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra were employed to reveal the effect of AZN on the native conformation of the protein. The HSA-binding results for AZN were compared with those for aspirin under consistent experimental conditions, and indicated that aspirin acts as a guide in AZN when binding to Sudlow's site I, in subdomain IIA of the HSA molecule. Moreover, compared with aspirin, AZN showed greater observed binding constants with, but smaller changes in the α-helicity of, HSA, which proved that AZN might be easier to transport and have less toxicity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Analysis of Drug Effects on Primary Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells Activated by Serum Amyloid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. RA patients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the general population. Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute-phase protein, upregulated in sera of RA patients. Aim. To determine the effects of medications on SAA-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC. Methods. HCAEC were preincubated for 2 h with medications from sterile ampules (dexamethasone, methotrexate, certolizumab pegol, and etanercept, dissolved in medium (captopril or DMSO (etoricoxib, rosiglitazone, meloxicam, fluvastatin, and diclofenac. Human recombinant apo-SAA was used to stimulate HCAEC at a final 1000 nM concentration for 24 hours. IL-6, IL-8, sVCAM-1, and PAI-1 were measured by ELISA. The number of viable cells was determined colorimetrically. Results. SAA-stimulated levels of released IL-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1 from HCAEC were significantly attenuated by methotrexate, fluvastatin, and etoricoxib. Both certolizumab pegol and etanercept significantly decreased PAI-1 by an average of 43%. Rosiglitazone significantly inhibited sVCAM-1 by 58%. Conclusion. We observed marked influence of fluvastatin on lowering cytokine production in SAA-activated HCAEC. Methotrexate showed strong beneficial effects for lowering released Il-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1. Interesting duality was observed for NSAIDs, with meloxicam exhibiting opposite-trend effects from diclofenac and etoricoxib. This represents unique insight into specific responsiveness of inflammatory-driven HCAEC relevant to atherosclerosis.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of four pituitary peptide hormones: human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH), growth hormone (hGH), follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH), and luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been carried out using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor. A commercial SPR biosensor was employed. The immobilization of the hormones was optimized and monoclonal antibodies were selected in order to obtain the best sensor performance. Assay parameters as running buffer and regeneration solution composition or antibody concentration were adjusted to achieve a sensitive analyte detection. The performance of the assays was assessed in buffer solution, serum and urine, showing sensitivity in the range from 1 to 6 ng/mL. The covalent attachment of the hormones ensured the stability of the SPR signal through repeated use in up to 100 consecutive assay cycles. Mean intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were all <7%, while batch-assay variability using different sensor surfaces was <5%. Taking account both the excellent reutilization performance and the outstanding reproducibility, this SPR immunoassay method turns on a highly reliable tool for endocrine monitoring in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings.

  11. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid–Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students’ writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid–base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student explanations were rated by two independent raters. Responses were also analyzed using SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys and a custom library of science-related terms and lexical categories relevant to the assessment item. These analyses revealed conceptual connections made by students, student difficulties explaining these topics, and the heterogeneity of student ideas. We validated the lexical analysis by correlating student interviews with the lexical analysis. We used discriminant analysis to create classification functions that identified seven key lexical categories that predict expert scoring (interrater reliability with experts = 0.899). This study suggests that computerized lexical analysis may be useful for automatically categorizing large numbers of student open-ended responses. Lexical analysis provides instructors unique insights into student thinking and a whole-class perspective that are difficult to obtain from multiple-choice questions or reading individual responses. PMID:22949425

  12. The influence of ganglioside on the blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jing Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of ganglioside on the blood gas analysis and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Method: A total of 100 newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group and the observation group. Conventional oxygen inhalation, reducing intracranial pressure, controlling eclampsia and neurotrophic drug treatment were given to the observation group. Treatment of ganglioside was given to the control group on the basis of observation group. Blood gas analysis and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected before treatment (T0, 3 d after treatment (T1, and 7 d after treatment (T2. Result: (1 The comparison of pH, PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 in the two groups in T0 was not statistically significant. The comparison of pH, PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 in T0, T1, T2 was considered to be statistically significant. Among these, the result of comparision of pH, PaO2, SaO2: T0<T1<T2. comparision of PaCO2: T0>T1>T2. The pH, PaO2, SaO2 in observation group were higher, PaCO2 in observation group was lower compared with that in control group in T1 and T2. The difference was considered to be statistically significant. (2 The comparision of IL-2, IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α in the two groups in T0 was not statistically significant. IL-2 in the observation in T1 and T2 was higher than that in the control group, IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α in the observation in T1 and T2 was lower than that in the control group. The difference was considered to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Ganglioside can improve blood gas analysis indexes, decrease the serum inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

  13. The change of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chao Qiao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was used meta-analysis to investigate changes of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Relevant literatures were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang and Chinese-Cqvip databases (published from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2016. Eligible reports were included for pooled analysis of serum TNF-α level and subgroup analysis was performed in relation with age, disease duration and ethnicity.A total of 23 articles (1631 T1DM cases, 1429 healthy controls were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls, the patients had significantly increased serum TNF-α level (P < 0.001. Similar results were also found among all subgroup analysis of different age, disease duration and ethnicity (with the exception of Asian (all P < 0.05. Regression analysis indicated that age (P = 0.680, disease duration (P = 0.957, and ethnicity (P = 0.526 of patients were not significant impact factors for the high heterogeneity. The results were stable according to the sensitivity analysis and no publication bias existed in this meta-analysis.Serum TNF-α level in T1DM patients has significantly elevated among all age, disease duration and ethnicity groups.

  14. Serum Albumin Predicts Long-Term Neurological Outcomes After Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bobo; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Grassner, Lukas; Schwab, Jan M; Casha, Steve; Geisler, Fred; Kramer, John L K

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to identify reliable biomarkers of spinal cord injury recovery for clinical practice and clinical trials. Our objective was to correlate serum albumin levels with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. We performed a secondary analysis of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (n = 591) participating in the Sygen clinical trial. Serum albumin concentrations were obtained as part of routine blood chemistry analysis, at trial entry (24-72 hours), 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injury. The primary outcomes were "marked recovery" and lower extremity motor scores, derived from the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic and linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. Serum albumin was significantly associated with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. Higher serum albumin concentrations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks were associated with higher 52-week lower extremity motor score. Similarly, the odds of achieving "marked neurological recovery" was greater for individuals with higher serum albumin concentrations. The association between serum albumin concentrations and neurological outcomes was independent of initial injury severity, treatment with GM-1, and polytrauma. In spinal cord injury, serum albumin is an independent marker of long-term neurological outcomes. Serum albumin could serve as a feasible biomarker for prognosis at the time of injury and stratification in clinical trials.

  15. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wulaningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years. We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04 and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97. No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations.

  16. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  17. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  19. Analysis of interrelationship between the protein fractions content and blood serum immunoglobulins with irradiation of atomic industry enterprises workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'nov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    989 workers of atomic industry at the age from 35 to 78 years old subjected to the general external gamma radiation and incorporation of plutonium 239 in a wide range of doses about 17-40 years ago have been examined for the protein indices with the radiation effect bearing in mind nine non-radiation factors. The step-by-step regression analysis revealed a positive linear link for the total protein level, absolute content of alpha-1-globulins with the total dose of external gamma radiation. Increasing of serum proteins entropy, correlated with external radiation by protein shifts effect, had not coincided with its age increasing. The influence of plutonium-239 incorporation on the examined protein parameters was not found

  20. Combining random forest and 2D correlation analysis to identify serum spectral signatures for neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin R; Ashton, Katherine M; Brodbelt, Andrew; Dawson, Timothy; Jenkinson, Michael D; Hunt, Neil T; Palmer, David S; Baker, Matthew J

    2016-06-07

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has long been established as an analytical technique for the measurement of vibrational modes of molecular systems. More recently, FTIR has been used for the analysis of biofluids with the aim of becoming a tool to aid diagnosis. For the clinician, this represents a convenient, fast, non-subjective option for the study of biofluids and the diagnosis of disease states. The patient also benefits from this method, as the procedure for the collection of serum is much less invasive and stressful than traditional biopsy. This is especially true of patients in whom brain cancer is suspected. A brain biopsy is very unpleasant for the patient, potentially dangerous and can occasionally be inconclusive. We therefore present a method for the diagnosis of brain cancer from serum samples using FTIR and machine learning techniques. The scope of the study involved 433 patients from whom were collected 9 spectra each in the range 600-4000 cm(-1). To begin the development of the novel method, various pre-processing steps were investigated and ranked in terms of final accuracy of the diagnosis. Random forest machine learning was utilised as a classifier to separate patients into cancer or non-cancer categories based upon the intensities of wavenumbers present in their spectra. Generalised 2D correlational analysis was then employed to further augment the machine learning, and also to establish spectral features important for the distinction between cancer and non-cancer serum samples. Using these methods, sensitivities of up to 92.8% and specificities of up to 91.5% were possible. Furthermore, ratiometrics were also investigated in order to establish any correlations present in the dataset. We show a rapid, computationally light, accurate, statistically robust methodology for the identification of spectral features present in differing disease states. With current advances in IR technology, such as the development of rapid discrete

  1. Evaluation of Individual and Combined Applications of Serum Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical value of Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP to detect early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been questioned due to its low sensitivity and specificity found in recent years. Other than AFP, several new serum biomarkers including the circulating AFP isoform AFP-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP and Golgi protein-73 (GP73 have been identified as useful HCC markers. In this investigation, we review the current knowledge about these HCC-related biomarkers, and sum up the results of our meta-analysis on studies that have addressed the utility of these biomarkers in early detection and prognostic prediction of HCC. A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed for articles published in English from 1999 to 2012, focusing on serum biomarkers for HCC detection. Data on sensitivity and specificity of tests were extracted from 40 articles that met the inclusion criteria, and the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (sROC was obtained. A meta-analysis was carried out in which the area under the curve (AUC for each biomarker or biomarker combinations (AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73 was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different biomarker tests. The AUC of AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73 are 0.835, 0.797, 0.914, 0.710, 0.874, 0.748, and 0.932 respectively. A combination of AFP + GP73 is superior to AFP in detecting HCC and differentiating HCC patients from non-HCC patients, and may prove to be a useful marker in the diagnosis and screening of HCC. In addition, the AUC of GP73, AFP + DCP and AFP + GP73 are better than that of AFP. The clinical value of GP73, AFP + DCP, or AFP + GP73 as serological markers for HCC diagnosis needs to be addressed further in future studies.

  2. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  3. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Johns

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2–10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended.

  4. Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs

  5. The harmful chemistry behind "krokodil": Street-like synthesis and product analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Soares, José Xavier; Afonso, Carlos Manuel; Grund, Jean-Paul C; Agonia, Ana Sofia; Cravo, Sara Manuela; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2015-12-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for a drug, which has been attracting media and researchers attention due to its increasing spread and extreme toxicity. "Krokodil" is a homemade injectable mixture being used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Its use begun in Russia and Ukraine, but it is being spread throughout other countries. The starting materials for "krokodil" synthesis are tablets containing codeine, caustic soda, gasoline, hydrochloric acid, iodine from disinfectants and red phosphorus from matchboxes, all of which are easily available in a retail market or drugstores. The resulting product is a light brown liquid that is injected without previous purification. Herein, we aimed to understand the chemistry behind "krokodil" synthesis by mimicking the steps followed by people who use this drug. The successful synthesis was assessed by the presence of desomorphine and other two morphinans. An analytical gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS) methodology for quantification of desomorphine and codeine was also developed and validated. The methodologies presented herein provide a representative synthesis of "krokodil" street samples and the application of an effective analytical methodology for desomorphine quantification, which was the major morphinan found. Further studies are required in order to find other hypothetical by-products in "krokodil" since these may help to explain signs and symptoms presented by abusers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  7. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  8. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  9. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  10. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  11. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  12. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  13. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  14. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum from pregnant women carrying a fetus with conotruncal heart defect using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD fetus, using proteomic analysis.The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14-18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

  16. Elevated serum magnesium associated with SGLT2 inhibitor use in type 2 diabetes patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huilin; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Yufeng; Del Gobbo, Liana C; Zhai, Suodi; Song, Yiqing

    2016-12-01

    By analysing available evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to examine whether and to what extent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors affect serum electrolyte levels in type 2 diabetes patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and ClinicalTrials.gov up to 24 May 2016 for published RCTs of SGLT2 inhibitors that reported changes in serum electrolyte levels. Weighted mean differences (WMD) between each SGLT2 inhibitor and placebo were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-dependent relationships for each SGLT2 inhibitor were evaluated using meta-regression analysis. Eighteen eligible RCTs, including 15,309 patients and four SGLT2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) were evaluated. In patients without chronic kidney disease, each SGLT2 inhibitor significantly increased serum magnesium levels compared with placebo (canagliflozin: WMD 0.06 mmol/l for 100 mg and 0.09 mmol/l for 300 mg; dapagliflozin: WMD 0.1 mmol/l for 10 mg; empagliflozin: WMD 0.04 mmol/l for 10 mg and 0.07 mmol/l for 25 mg; and ipragliflozin: WMD 0.05 mmol/l for 50 mg). Canagliflozin increased serum magnesium in a linear dose-dependent manner (p = 0.10). Serum phosphate was significantly increased by dapagliflozin. Serum sodium appeared to significantly differ by SGLT2 inhibitor type. No significant changes in serum calcium and potassium were observed. Findings were robust after including trials involving patients with chronic kidney disease. SGLT2 inhibitors marginally increased serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes patients indicating a drug class effect. Further investigations are required to examine the clinical significance of elevated magnesium levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  17. GC/TOFMS analysis of metabolites in serum and urine reveals metabolic perturbation of TCA cycle in db/db mice involved in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Wang, Xufang; Aa, Jiye; Qin, Weisong; Zha, Weibin; Ge, Yongchun; Liu, Linsheng; Zheng, Tian; Cao, Bei; Shi, Jian; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Xinwen; Yu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Guangji; Liu, Zhihong

    2013-06-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is difficult although it is of crucial importance to prevent its development. To probe potential markers and the underlying mechanism of DN, an animal model of DN, the db/db mice, was used and serum and urine metabolites were profiled using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolic patterns were evaluated based on serum and urine data. Principal component analysis of the data revealed an obvious metabonomic difference between db/db mice and controls, and db/db mice showed distinctly different metabolic patterns during the progression from diabetes to early, medium, and later DN. The identified metabolites discriminating between db/db mice and controls suggested that db/db mice have perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, citrate, malate, succinate, and aconitate), lipid metabolism, glycolysis, and amino acid turnover. The db/db mice were characterized by acidic urine, high TCA intermediates in serum at week 6 and a sharp decline thereafter, and gradual elevation of free fatty acids in the serum. The sharp drop of serum TCA intermediates from week 6 to 8 indicated the downregulated glycolysis and insulin resistance. However, urinary TCA intermediates did not decrease in parallel with those in the serum from week 6 to 10, and an increased portion of TCA intermediates in the serum was excreted into the urine at 8, 10, and 12 wk than at 6 wk, indicating kidney dysfunction occurred. The relative abundances of TCA intermediates in urine relative to those in serum were suggested as an index of renal damage.

  18. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  19. Analysis of hide-out return and the composition of the steam generators' combined blowdown under ethanolamine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Aliciardi, M; Belloni, M; Croatto, F; Ferrari, F; Herrera, C; Mendizabal, M; Montes, J; Saucedo, R; Rodriguez, I; Chocron, M

    2012-01-01

    Among the techniques recommended for the surveillance of the steam generators (SG's) are (i) the follow-up of the corrosion products in the feed water and blown-down water and the corresponding accumulation mass balance and (ii) the follow-up of the ionic impurities normally present in the main condensate and feed water that can enter in the cycle either through condenser leakages or even with the make-up water. This is, no matter how well the cycle is constructed or the make-up water plant behaves, given the continuous phase change present in the cycle, a concentration equilibrium is established. Moreover, a synergistic effect exists between both, corrosion products and impurities, (i) and (ii), because impurities concentrate in crevices and deposits creating a potentially corrosion risky environment for the SG's tubes. Hide-out return determination consists in the measurement of ions' concentrations, present in the blown-down water which are eluted in the shutdown during the power and temperature reduction. The integrated values allow graphical representations for performing several evaluations like: (i) the performance make-up water plant during a period, (ii) the presence of condenser in-leakages, (iii) the SG's deposits estimation and (iv) the internal chemistry of the SG's liquid phase inside the sludge pile. CNE, a CANDU 6 pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) located in Embalse, Cordoba Province, Argentina, is close to reach the end-of-design-life and a life extension project is currently ongoing. In the plant also the chemistry of the BOP has been modified from a morpholine to an ethanolamine chemistry (Fernandez et. al, NPC'2010, October 3-7, Quebec City, Canada) to enhance protection of SG's internals and new SG's will be installed. Then, it is of interest to set up a hide-out return procedure and analysis of the combined blown-down crud collected during the shut down as a base line for the second period of

  20. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  1. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen Der

    2016-03-29

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) or with distant metastasis (G3, n = 22). The number of CECs expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The medium number of EpCAM+-CECs was 6 (interquartile range 1-11), 12 (interquartile range 7-16) and 91 (interquartile range 31-206) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. EpCAM+-CEC counts were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 (p interquartile range 3-13), 16 (interquartile range 10-24) and 100 (interquartile range 31-226) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The TSHR+-CEC counts also distinguished G3 from G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). With an appropriate cut off value of CEC count, the disease status for 97.9% (47/48) of the cases was clearly defined. Notably, the metastatic disease for all patients in G3 (22/22) was revealed by combined analysis of serum Tg and CEC. This study implicates that CEC testing can supplement the current standard methods for monitoring disease status of PTC.

  2. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Adams, John S; Stewart, Paul M; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220μL of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of total laboratory automation on the management of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Retrospective analysis of 36 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozi, Laszlo; Simson, Elkin; Ramanathan, Lakshmi

    2003-03-01

    Thirty-six years of data and history of laboratory practice at our institution has enabled us to follow the effects of analytical automation, then recently pre-analytical and post-analytical automation on productivity, cost reduction and enhanced quality of service. In 1998, we began the operation of a pre- and post-analytical automation system (robotics), together with an advanced laboratory information system to process specimens prior to analysis, deliver them to various automated analytical instruments, specimen outlet racks and finally to refrigerated stockyards. By the end of 3 years of continuous operation, we compared the chemistry part of the system with the prior 33 years and quantitated the financial impact of the various stages of automation. Between 1965 and 2000, the Consumer Price Index increased by a factor of 5.5 in the United States. During the same 36 years, at our institution's Chemistry Department the productivity (indicated as the number of reported test results/employee/year) increased from 10,600 to 104,558 (9.3-fold). When expressed in constant 1965 dollars, the total cost per test decreased from 0.79 dollars to 0.15 dollars. Turnaround time for availability of results on patient units decreased to the extent that Stat specimens requiring a turnaround time of productivity together with decreased operational cost. It enabled us to significantly increase our workload together with a reduction of personnel. In addition, stats are handled easily and there are benefits such as safer working conditions and improved sample identification, which are difficult to quantify at this stage.

  4. Impact of Probiotic Administration on Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of probiotic administration on serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. We searched PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, the Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases (until May 2016 to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of probiotic administration on CRP. We used a random effects models and generic inverse variance methods to synthesize quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. The systematic review registration number was: CRD42016039457. From a total of 425 entries identified via searches, 20 studies were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP following probiotic administration with a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.35 mg/L, (95% confidence interval (CI −2.15 to −0.55, I2 65.1%. The WMDs for interleukin 10 (IL10 was −1.65 pg/dL, (95% CI −3.45 to 0.14, I2 3.1%, and −0.45 pg/mL, (95% CI −1.38 to 0.48, I2 10.2% for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. This meta-analysis suggests that probiotic administration may significantly reduce serum CRP while having no significant effect on serum IL10 and TNF-α.

  5. Is coffee consumption associated with a lower level of serum C-reactive protein? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Dian-Zhong

    2018-02-06

    The association between coffee consumption and the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been evaluated in several epidemiological studies with conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and the serum CRP level. A comprehensive literature search up to August 2017, using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases, was conducted to identify the relevant observational studies that examined the association between coffee consumption and the serum CRP level. A total of nine cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis. According to the combined standard mean difference (SMD) between the highest and the lowest coffee intake category, coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum CRP level (SMD = -0.34, 95%CI: -0.62 to -0.06; p = .016). Subgroup analysis for CRP marker showed that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) (SMD = -0.51, 95%CI: -0.88 to -0.14; p = .007), but not standard CRP (SMD = 0.02, 95%CI: -0.28 to 0.32; p = .913). The existing evidence suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum CRP. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to elaborate the concerned issues further.

  6. Simple and sensitive analysis of nereistoxin and its metabolites in human serum using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, A; Watanabe, T; Yashiki, M; Kojima, T; Urabe, T

    1999-03-01

    A simple method for the analysis of nereistoxin and its metabolites in human serum using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed. A vial containing a serum sample, 5M sodium hydroxide, and benzylacetone (internal standard) is heated to 70 degrees C, and an SPME fiber is exposed for 30 min in the headspace of the vial. The compounds extracted by the fiber are desorbed by exposing the fiber in the injection port of the GC-MS. The calibration curves show linearity in the range of 0.05-5.0 micrograms/mL for nereistoxin and N-methyl-N-(2-methylthio-1-methylthiomethyl)ethylamine, 0.01-5.0 micrograms/mL for S,S'-dimethyl dihydronereistoxin, and 0.5-10 micrograms/mL for 2-methylthio-1-methylthiomethylethylamine in serum. No interferences are found, and the analysis time is 50 min for one sample. In addition, this proposed method is applied to a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting Padan 4R, a herbicide. Padan 4R contains 4% cartap hydrochloride, which is an analogue of nereistoxin. Nereistoxin and its metabolites are detected in the serum samples collected from the patient during hospitalization. The concentration ranges of nereistoxin in the serum are 0.09-2.69 micrograms/mL.

  7. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Children's Toys and Jewelry: A Multi-Instrument, Multitechnique Exercise in Analytical Chemistry and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Lauren E.; Hillyer, Margot M.; Leopold, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    For most chemistry curricula, laboratory-based activities in quantitative and instrumental analysis continue to be an important aspect of student development/training, one that can be more effective if conceptual understanding is delivered through an inquiry-based process relating the material to relevant issues of public interest and student…

  9. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 ...

  10. Multivariate Analysis Approach to the Serum Peptide Profile of Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agostini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is currently epidemic in many countries worldwide and is strongly related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mass spectrometry, in particular matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF is currently used for detecting different pattern of expressed protein. This study investigated the differences in low molecular weight (LMW peptide profiles between obese and normal-weight subjects in combination with multivariate statistical analysis.

  11. George de Hevesy (1885-1966). Discoverer of hafnium, founder of radioanalytical chemistry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and father of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    George de Hevesy known as discoverer of hafnium, founder of radioanalytical chemistry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and father of nuclear medicine has done important research work in inorganic, physical and radioanalytical and physiological chemistry as well as in geochemistry, radiation biology and medicine. When he must flee for political reasons from a country he must change his colleagues, his equipments, and the topic of his work. It is extremely surprising that he could receive important results under such circumstances even at an advanced age. (author)

  12. When the Sun's Away, N2O5 Comes Out to Play: An Updated Analysis of Ambient N2O5 Heterogeneous Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneous chemistry of N2O5 impacts the budget of tropospheric oxidants, which directly controls air quality at Earth's surface. The reaction between gas-phase N2O5 and aerosol particles occurs largely at night, and is therefore more important during the less-intensively-studied winter season. Though N2O5-aerosol interactions are vital for the accurate understanding and simulation of tropospheric chemistry and air quality, many uncertainties persist in our understanding of how various environmental factors influence the reaction rate and probability. Quantitative and accurate evaluation of these factors directly improves the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models, used to inform mitigation strategies for wintertime air pollution. In an update to last year's presentation, The Wintertime Fate of N2O5: Observations and Box Model Analysis for the 2015 WINTER Aircraft Campaign, this presentation will focus on recent field results regarding new information about N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry and future research directions.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of whole blood and serum protein analysis of mice exposed to the neurotoxin Pacific Ciguatoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James C; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Morey, Jeanine S; Rezvani, Amir; Levin, Edward D; Gordon, Christopher J; Ramsdell, John S; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2007-11-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTX) are a suite of cyclic polyether toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus sp., are potent activators of voltage-gated sodium channels and a leading cause of human poisoning from food fish. This report characterizes the genomic and proteomic response in whole blood of adult male mice exposed i.p. to 264 ng/kg of the Pacific congener of CTX (P-CTX-1) at 1, 4 and 24h. Whole genome microarray expression data were filtered by tightness of fit between replicates, fold change (1.8) and p-value (10(-5)), resulting in 183 annotated genes used for trending analysis, K-means clustering and ontology classification. Genes involved with cytokine signaling, proteasome complex and ribosomal function were dominant. qPCR performed on 19 genes of interest had a correlation of 0.95 to array results by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Serum protein analysis showed small but significant changes in 6 of 60 proteins assayed: Ccl2, Ccl12, CD40, IL-10, leptin and M-CSF. In large part, the gene expression was consistent with a Th2 immune response with interesting similarities to expression seen in asthmatic models.

  14. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  15. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF 1-(4-METHYLPHENYL)-3-PHENYLPROP-2-EN-1-ONES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Garg; N. Raghav

    2013-01-01

    A series of chalcones was synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and the structures of 1- (4-methylphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones were established with the help of IR and NMR study, then their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized chalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin and produce a great effect on their presence.

  16. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  17. Quantitative analysis of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in serum samples of Japanese citizens allegedly exposed to sarin: Estimation of internal dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Platenburg, D.H.J.M.; Polhuijs, M.; Benschop, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and rapid micro-anion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) procedure was developed for quantitative analysis in serum of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the hydrolysis product of the nerve agent sarin. The mass spectrometric procedure

  18. Alkylation of human serum albumin by sulfur mustard in vitro and in vivo : Mass spectrometric analysis of a cysteine adduct as a sensitive biomarker of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    To develop a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of sulfur mustard adducts with human serum albumin, the following steps were performed: quantitation of the binding of the agent to the protein by using [14C] sulfur mustard and analysis of acidic and tryptic digests of albumin from blood after

  19. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2013-01-01

    A microdialytic device was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis for direct injection of blood samples. Its performance was demonstrated on rapid analysis of formic acid in various blood samples including serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning.

  20. Analysis of the results of serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentrations in bone imagines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xingyong; Jiang Min; Geng Jun; Hu Desheng; He Jian; Fan Xiandong

    2008-01-01

    To study the serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in whole body bone imagine, 73 patients with malignancy were under a whole body bone scan. The serum tumor markers levels of AFP, CEA, CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 were measured in 73 patients and 37 normal people. The results showed that there was significant difference only on serum CEA level (P<0.005), and no significant difference on CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 levels (P<0.05) between 36 patients with multiple abnormal concentration and the others with normal bone imagine. The serum levels of CEA, CA125 and CA19-9 in patients were significant higher than that of normal controls (P<0.005). Combined the whole body bone scan and detection of serum tumor markers might be regarded as clinical significance for the diagnosis of bone metastases. (authors)

  1. Meta-analysis: Serum creatinine changes following contrast enhanced CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooiman, Judith; Pasha, Sharif M.; Zondag, Wendy; Sijpkens, Yvo W.J.; Molen, Aart J. van der; Huisman, Menno V.; Dekkers, Olaf M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as a decrease in renal function following administration of contrast media. The aim of this meta-analysis was to asses the overall risk of CIN, chronic loss of kidney function and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) after intravenous contrast enhanced CT-scan. Secondly, we aimed to identify subgroups at increased risk for CIN. Materials and methods: A literature search in Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was performed. Data extraction was carried out independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using an exact likelihood approach. Results: Forty studies evaluating the incidence of CIN after CT were included. The pooled incidence of CIN was 6.4% (95% CI 5.0–8.1). The risk of RRT after CIN was low, 0.06% (95% CI 0.01–0.4). The decline in renal function persisted in 1.1% of patients (95% CI 0.6–2.1%). Patients with chronic kidney disease (odds ratio 2.26, p < 0.001) or diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 3.10, p < 0.001) were at increased risk for the development of CIN. Conclusion: CIN occurred in 6% of patients after contrast enhanced CT. In 1% of all patients undergoing contrast enhanced CT the decline in renal function persisted

  2. Meta-analysis: Serum creatinine changes following contrast enhanced CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooiman, Judith, E-mail: j.kooiman@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasha, Sharif M., E-mail: s.m.pasha@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Zondag, Wendy, E-mail: w.zondag@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Sijpkens, Yvo W.J., E-mail: ysijpens@bronovo.nl [Department of Nephrology, Bronovo Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Molen, Aart J. van der, E-mail: molen@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, Menno V., E-mail: m.v.huisman@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Dekkers, Olaf M., E-mail: o.m.dekkers@lumc.nl [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Department of Endocrinology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as a decrease in renal function following administration of contrast media. The aim of this meta-analysis was to asses the overall risk of CIN, chronic loss of kidney function and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) after intravenous contrast enhanced CT-scan. Secondly, we aimed to identify subgroups at increased risk for CIN. Materials and methods: A literature search in Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was performed. Data extraction was carried out independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using an exact likelihood approach. Results: Forty studies evaluating the incidence of CIN after CT were included. The pooled incidence of CIN was 6.4% (95% CI 5.0–8.1). The risk of RRT after CIN was low, 0.06% (95% CI 0.01–0.4). The decline in renal function persisted in 1.1% of patients (95% CI 0.6–2.1%). Patients with chronic kidney disease (odds ratio 2.26, p < 0.001) or diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 3.10, p < 0.001) were at increased risk for the development of CIN. Conclusion: CIN occurred in 6% of patients after contrast enhanced CT. In 1% of all patients undergoing contrast enhanced CT the decline in renal function persisted.

  3. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Müllerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79 and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+/- SD age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45 yrs, and mean (+/- SD terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +/- 4056 pmol/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65 was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44 was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61, suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol/l; p = 0.029. Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  4. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  5. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  6. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  7. U.S. Forest Service Region 1 Lake Chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Mark Story

    2009-01-01

    This report was developed to address the need for comprehensive analysis of U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Region 1 air quality monitoring data. The monitoring data includes Phase 3 (long-term data) lakes, National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Annual and seasonal data for the periods of record...

  8. Content Analysis of Chemistry Curricula in Germany Case Study: Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Roxana S.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-assessment alignment is a well known foundation for good practice in educational assessment, for items' curricular validity purposes. Nowadays instruments are designed to measure pupils' competencies in one or more areas of competence. Sub-competence areas could be defined theoretically and statistical analysis of empirical data by…

  9. UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS and multivariate data analysis for blood plasma and serum metabolomics: effect of experimental artefacts and anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barri, Thaer; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    agents, e.g. heparin, EDTA and citrate. In the present study, we looked into metabolite and other differences in matched serum and plasma samples and different plasma preparations by using untargeted UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS profiling and multivariate data analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Metabolite differences......Clotting and anticoagulation of blood samples may give rise to different metabolic profiles of serum and plasma samples, respectively. The anticoagulant used for blood plasma preparation may affect the resulting metabolic profile due to different mechanisms involved in anticoagulation by various...... between serum and plasma samples were mainly related to small peptides reflecting presence or absence of coagulation. Only subtle metabolite differences between the different plasma preparations were noticed, which were primarily related to ion suppression or enhancement caused by citrate and EDTA...

  10. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determination of trace elements in human blood serum and in the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Juergensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    Ag, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn were determined in biological materials by gamma-spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides after long-time irradiation with thermal neutrons. Blood was taken from a vein in the arm of the test person via an indwelling plastic cannula. The serum was separated from other blood components by centrifugation and stored at a temperature of -20 deg C. Ampoules of high purity silica quartz were chosen as irradiation containers. The vials were cleaned by etching with 40% hydrofluoric acid. For the analysis 300 μl of serum were taken. The ampoules were irradiated for 10 days at a thermal neutron flux density of 5.10 13 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . They were then cleaned by etching for 5 min with hydrofluoric acid. The gamma-ray spectra of the irradiated samples were measured twice. From the first spectra, which were obtained 10 days after irradiation, the concentrations of Br and Na were calculated. From the gamma-peaks after a decay time of 3 months Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were tested, using the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' and identical serum samples. In the case of blood serum the method proved to be suitable for the determination of Br, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. By analysing samples from several subjects information about element levels in human serum was obtained. (T.G.)

  12. Bioinformatical Analysis of Organ-Related (Heart, Brain, Liver, and Kidney and Serum Proteomic Data to Identify Protein Regulation Patterns and Potential Sepsis Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hohn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, proteomic studies have revealed several interesting findings in experimental sepsis models and septic patients. However, most studies investigated protein alterations only in single organs or in whole blood. To identify possible sepsis biomarkers and to evaluate the relationship between protein alteration in sepsis affected organs and blood, proteomics data from the heart, brain, liver, kidney, and serum were analysed. Using functional network analyses in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that protein regulation patterns in organ tissues as well as in serum are highly dynamic. In the tissue proteome, the main functions and pathways affected were the oxidoreductive activity, cell energy generation, or metabolism, whereas in the serum proteome, functions were associated with lipoproteins metabolism and, to a minor extent, with coagulation, inflammatory response, and organ regeneration. Proteins from network analyses of organ tissue did not correlate with statistically significantly regulated serum proteins or with predicted proteins of serum functions. In this study, the combination of proteomic network analyses with cluster analyses is introduced as an approach to deal with high-throughput proteomics data to evaluate the dynamics of protein regulation during sepsis.

  13. Future perspectives of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Future perspectives of radiation chemistry are discussed by the analysis of the related information in detail as obtained from our recent surveys of publications and scientific meetings in radiation chemistry and its neighboring research fields, giving some examples, and are summarized as follows. (1) Traditionally important core-parts of radiation chemistry should be activated more. The corresponding research programs are listed in detail. (2) Research fields of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and technology in radiation research should interact more among them with each other. (3) Basic research of radiation chemistry should interact more with its applied research. (4) Interface research fields with radiation chemistry should be produced more with mutually common viewpoints and research interests between the two. Interfaces are not only applied research but also basic one.

  14. Development of radiochemical method of analysis of binding of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with human blood serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The albumin, being a basic functional linkage of numerous endogenous and exogenous substances is the most important protein of blood plasma. At the diseases connected to liver disfunction, collected in blood metabolite reduce connecting ability of albumino. The aim of the present research was a development of radiochemical method of determination of ability of albumin to bind the tritium labeled preparation drotaverine hydrochloride (no - spa). We had developed a micromethod of definition of connecting ability of albumin, allowing to analyse 20 mkl of blood serum. The method consists in incubation of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with blood serum in vitro, the following fractionation of serum proteins by gel - filtration on a microcolumn with Sephadex G-25, and direct measurement of the radioactivity connected to fraction of proteins of blood serum. The method has been tested on a series of blood serum of control group of healthy people and on a series of blood serum of patients with hepatitis B. We received quantitative characteristics of binding of drotaverine hydrochloride with albumin of patients with hepatitis B. It was preliminary established that binding ability of serum albumin of children with various forms of acute virus hepatitis tends to decrease in comparison with group of the control. Advantage of the developed radiochemical method is high precision and the high sensitivity of detection of infringement of binding ability of albumin. Application of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride allows to measure directly levels of binding of a preparation with albumin

  15. Analysis of serum copper and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a chronic debilitating disease and a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well established. Trace elements such as copper and iron play an important role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Estimation of these elements in serum of the patients may be helpful in understanding the pathologic mechanism. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze the level of serum copper and iron in the population of Central India. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was carried out on 35 patients with clinically diagnosed of OSF and 35 healthy controls. OSF patients were categorized by clinical staging. Serum copper and iron concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Results of the study shows that the mean serum copper concentration was greater in study group (133.3 ± 19.2 compared to control group (113.9 ± 22.1 and the mean serum iron was lower in study group (116.0 ± 24.1 compared to control group (128.2 ± 23.4. The result obtained was statistically significant. The serum copper level increases as the clinical staging of OSF progresses, whereas serum iron level decreases as clinical staging progresses. Conclusion: There was an increase in copper level and decrease in iron level in study group compared to control group; this suggests that there is an increase in copper level with the advancement of clinical staging of OSF.

  16. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, S; Shab-Bidar, S; Speakman, J R; Yousefi Rad, E; Djafarian, K

    2015-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, has a major role in the etiology of chronic disease. Vitamin E may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no consensus on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on CRP levels in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report on the effects of vitamin E supplementation (α- and γ-tocopherols) on CRP levels. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted on Medline and EMBASE through PubMed, Scopus, Ovid and Science Direct, and completed by a manual review of the literature up to May 2014. Pooled effects were estimated by using random-effects models and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed according to intervention duration, dose of supplementation and baseline level of CRP. Of 4734 potentially relevant studies, only 12 trials met the inclusion criteria with 246 participants in the intervention arms and 249 participants in control arms. Pooled analysis showed a significant reduction in CRP levels of 0.62 mg/l (95% confidence interval = -0.92, -0.31; P vitamin E-treated individuals, with the evidence of heterogeneity across studies. This significant effect was maintained in all subgroups, although the univariate meta-regression analysis showed that the vitamin E supplementation dose, baseline level of CRP and duration of intervention were not the sources of the observed heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that supplementation with vitamin E in the form of either α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol would reduce serum CRP levels.

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  18. Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake, serum magnesium concentration and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hedong; Fang, Xin; Wei, Xin; Liu, Yuzhou; Jin, Zhicao; Chen, Qi; Fan, Zhongjie; Aaseth, Jan; Hiyoshi, Ayako; He, Jia; Cao, Yang

    2017-05-05

    The findings of prospective cohort studies are inconsistent regarding the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentration and the risk of hypertension. We aimed to review the evidence from prospective cohort studies and perform a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of hypertension. We searched systematically PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from October 1951 through June 2016. Prospective cohort studies reporting effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension in more than two categories of dietary magnesium intake and/or serum magnesium concentrations were included. Random-effects models were used to combine the estimated effects. Nine articles (six on dietary magnesium intake, two on serum magnesium concentration and one on both) of ten cohort studies, including 20,119 cases of hypertension and 180,566 participates, were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We found an inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension [relative risk (RR) = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98] comparing the highest intake group with the lowest. A 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was associated with a 5% reduction in the risk of hypertension (RR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.00). The association of serum magnesium concentration with the risk of hypertension was marginally significant (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.02). Current evidence supports the inverse dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension. However, the evidence about the relationship between serum magnesium concentration and hypertension is limited.

  19. Synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression: analysis of a proof-of-concept randomised clinical trial of cytokine blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rooney, Terence

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression during biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with active RA entered a randomised study of anakinra 100 mg\\/day, administered as monotherapy or in combination with pegsunercept 800 microg\\/kg twice a week. Arthroscopic synovial tissue biopsies were obtained at baseline and two further time points. Following immunohistochemical staining, selected mediators of RA pathophysiology were quantified using digital image analysis. Selected mediators were also measured in the serum. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned: 11 received monotherapy and 11 combination therapy. American College of Rheumatology 20, 50 and 70 response rates were 64%, 64% and 46% with combination therapy and 36%, 9% and 0% with monotherapy, respectively. In synovial tissue, T-cell infiltration, vascularity and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) expression demonstrated significant utility as biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic response. In serum, interleukin 6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were most useful in this regard. An early decrease in serum levels of TIMP-1 was predictive of the later therapeutic outcome. Pretreatment tissue levels of T-cell infiltration and the growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor\\/TGFbeta, and serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, TIMP-1, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor types I and II and IL-18 correlated with radiographic progression. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial tissue analysis identified biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression. Biomarker expression in tissue was independent of the levels measured in the serum.

  20. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  1. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  2. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  3. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  4. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  5. [A study of growth and malignancy grading of stomach and colorectal cancers by serial serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Y; Miyahara, T; Yoshida, M; Isobe, S; Oba, N; Harada, Y

    1990-06-01

    Changes in serum CEA levels were analyzed on a time-course basis in 33 patients with stomach cancer and 20 patients with colorectal cancer. A linear relationship between log CEA and time could be evaluated and individual CEA doubling time (CEA D.T.) was calculated. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The CEA D.T. was not constant from the onset of the disease to death in stomach cancer and colorectal cancer. 2) The CEA D.T. was distributed widely with 5 to 140 days in stomach cancer and 8 to 134 days in colorectal cancer. It tended to be shortened at the terminal stage in both tumors. 3) In terms of age, sex and histology, the CEA D.T. tended to be short in the young, female and poorly differentiated cancer. These background appeared to have an influence on the growth of tumor. 4) The CEA D.T. was well correlated with the period of survival of the patients with gastric cancer (r = 0.636, p less than 0.001). The analysis of serial CEA levels on a time-course basis is considered useful in studying the relationship between tumor-bearing hosts and malignancy of the tumor.

  6. Specifications for trueness and precision of a reference measurement system for serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Dietmar; Sluss, Patrick M; Thienpont, Linda M

    2009-10-01

    The divergence in analytical quality of serum/plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D analysis calls for defining specifications for a reference measurement system. Fundamentally, in a reference measurement system, there should be a relationship between the analytical specifications for higher- (reference) and lower-order (routine) measurements. Therefore, when setting specifications, we started with limits for routine imprecision (CV(rou)) and bias (B(rou)) using 4 models: (1) the misclassifications in diagnosis, (2) biological variation data (reference interval (RI) and monitoring), (3) expert recommendations, and (4) state-of-the-art performance. Then, we used the derived goals to tailor those for reference measurements and certified reference materials (CRMs) for calibration by setting the limits for CV(ref) at 0.5 CV(rou), B(ref) at 0.33 B(rou)(,) max. uncertainty (U(max)) at 0.33 B(ref). The established specifications ranged between CV(rou)model 3) and CV(rou)model 2, monitoring). Model 2 (monitoring) gave the most stringent goals, model 3, the most liberal ones. Accounting for state-of-the-art performance and certification capabilities, we used model 2 (RI) to recommend achievable goals: for routine testing, CV(rou)measurements, CV(ref)

  7. Radioanalytical chemistry. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Kyrs, M.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the monograph covers the following topics: activation analysis, non-activation interaction analysis (elastic scattering of charged particles, absorption and backscattering of beta radiation and photons, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis, thermalization, scattering and absorption of neutrons, use of ionization caused by nuclear radiation, use of ionization by alpha or beta radiation for the measurement of pressure, density and flow rate of gases), and automation in radioanalytical chemistry. (P.A.)

  8. Lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA): a novel and general methodology for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Mark; Lieberman, Harvey; Tserlin, Elina; Rocnik, Jennifer; Ge, Jie; Fitzgerald, Maria; Patel, Vinod; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel and general method, lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA), to benchmark two distinct small-molecule lead series using a relatively unbiased, simple technique and commercially available software. We illustrate this approach with data collected during lead optimization of two independent oncology programs as a case study. Easily generated graphics and attrition curves enabled us to calibrate progress and support go/no go decisions on each program. We believe that this data-driven technique could be used broadly by medicinal chemists and management to guide strategic decisions during drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of hepatitis B virus intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA and serum viral markers in treatment-naive patients with acute and chronic HBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB, and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. RESULTS: The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r = 0.665, P = 0.003, as well as serum HBV DNA (r = 0.536, P = 0.022. In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r = 0.392, P = 0.005, and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r = 0.301, P = 0.036 and ENH phase (r = 0.588, P = 0.013. HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis. In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r = 0.308, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection.

  10. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  11. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  12. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  13. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  14. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  15. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  16. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  17. Crystal chemistry and Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of clays around Riyadh for brick industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: mkhalil@ksu.edu.sa [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-15

    A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.

  18. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [-0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF.

  19. Elevation of serum uric acid and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Li Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, several cohort studies suggested a positive relationship between serum uric acid (SUA and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which is inconsistent with the results of functional research. Our aim was to further evaluate this correlation by conducting a systematic review. Methods: Computerized literature searches of the Medline database, EMBASE database, and PubMed were used to evaluate the relationship between SUA and T2DM in cohort studies. Cochran's Q and I2 statistics were used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies, and pooled relative risk (RR and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects and fixed-effects models. The summary RR and OR of per 1 mg/ml-SUA increase were calculated separately because of their different epidemiological implications and calculation methods. Additionally, sensitivity analysis, stratified analysis, meta-regression, and multiple meta-regression were applied to investigate the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of 970 articles were retrieved from the searches. Sixteen publications of cohort studies containing 61,714 participants were included. The pooled RR was 1.131 (95% CI: 1.084–1.179 with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 51.9%, P = 0.018. Adjusted RR to evaluate the stability of the relationship between SUA and T2DM in the sensitivity analysis was similar (RR = 1.140, 95% CI: 1.087–1.197, with statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 54.5%, P = 0.015. Stratified analysis and meta-regression showed that the positive relationship remained irrespective of age, sex, region, and adjustment for confounding factors including body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption, smoking, blood cholesterol, waist circumference, fatty liver, and drugs affecting SUA. Conclusion: Although SUA is independently associated with

  20. Metabonomic profiling of renal cell carcinoma: High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human serum with multivariate data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hongchang; Dong Baijun; Liu Xia; Xuan Hanqing; Huang Yiran; Lin Donghai

    2008-01-01

    Metabonomic profiling using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis of human serum samples was used to characterize metabolic profiles in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We found distinct, easily detectable differences between (a) RCC patients and healthy humans, (b) RCC patients with metastases and without metastases, and (c) RCC patients before and after nephrectomy. Compared to healthy human serum, RCC serum had higher levels of lipid (mainly very low-density lipoproteins), isoleucine, leucine, lactate, alanine, N-acetylglycoproteins, pyruvate, glycerol, and unsaturated lipid, together with lower levels of acetoacetate, glutamine, phosphatidylcholine/choline, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and glucose. This pattern was somewhat reversed after nephrectomy. Altered metabolite concentrations are most likely the result of the cells switching to glycolysis to maintain energy homeostasis following the loss of ATP caused by impaired TCA cycle in RCC. Serum NMR spectra combined with principal component analysis techniques offer an efficient, convenient way of depicting tumour biochemistry and stratifying tumours under different pathophysiological conditions. It may be able to assist early diagnosis and postoperative surveillance of human malignant diseases using single blood samples