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Sample records for serrulatus scorpion toxin

  1. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

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    Troncon L.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

  2. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

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    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  3. Antifungal Activity against Filamentous Fungi of Ts1, a Multifunctional Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

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    Welligton M. Santussi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv, its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium corylophilum, P. ochrochloron, P. verrucosum, P. viridicatum, P. waksmanii, and Talaromyces flavus was evaluated by quantitative microplate reader assay. Tsv (100 and 500 μg/well, which correspond to 1 and 5 mg/mL, respectively, of total soluble protein was active in inhibiting growth of A. nidulans, A. terreus, P. corylophilum, and P. verrucosum, especially in the higher concentration used and at the first 30 h. After this period, fungi might have used Tsv components as alternative sources of nutrients, and therefore, increased their growth tax. Only fractions IX, X, XI, XIIA, XIIB (3 and 7.5 μg/well, which correspond to 30 and 75 μg/mL, respectively, of total soluble protein and Ts1 (1.5, 3, and 6 μg/well, which correspond to 2.18, 4.36, and 8.72 μM, respectively showed antifungal activity. Ts1 showed to be a non-morphogenic toxin with dose-dependent activity against A. nidulans, inhibiting 100% of fungal growth from 3 μg/well (4.36 μM. The inhibitory effect of Ts1 against A. nidulans growth was accompanied by fungistatic effects and was not amended by 1 mM CaCl2 or tetrodotoxin (46.98 and 93.96 μM. The structural differences between Ts1 and drosomycin, a potent cysteine-rich antifungal peptide, are discussed here. Our results highlight the antifungal potential of the first

  4. Effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin TsTX-V on neurotransmitter uptake in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, Alessandra L.; Vasconcelos, Flavio; Amara, Susan G.; Giglio, Jose Roberto; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2006-01-01

    Scorpion neurotoxins targeting the Na v channel can be classified into two classes: α- and β-neurotoxins and are reported as highly active in mammalian brain. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Ts venom) and its α-neurotoxin TsTX-V on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) uptake in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. TsTX-V was isolated from Ts venom by ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse-phase (C18) high-performance liquid chromatography. Neither Ts venom nor TsTX-V was able to affect 3 H-Glu uptake. On the other hand, Ts venom (0.13 μg/mg) significantly inhibited both 3 H-GABA and 3 H-DA uptake (∼ 50%). TsTX-V showed IC 5 values of 9.37 μM and 22.2 μM for the inhibition of 3 H-GABA and 3 H-DA uptake, respectively. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM), indicating the involvement of voltage-gated Na + channels in this process. In the absence of Ca 2+ , and at low Ts venom concentrations, the reduction of 3 H-GABA uptake was not as marked as in the presence of Ca 2+ . TsTX-V did not reduce 3 H-GABA uptake in COS-7 cells expressing the GABA transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3, suggesting that this toxin indirectly reduces the transport. The reduced 3 H-GABA uptake by synaptosomes might be due to rapid cell depolarization as revealed by confocal microscopy of C6 glioma cells. Thus, TsTX-V causes a reduction of 3 H-GABA and 3 H-DA uptake in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner, not directly affecting GABA transporters, but, in consequence of depolarization, involving voltage-gated Na + channels

  5. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

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    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  6. Technetium-99m labeling of tityustoxin and venom from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus

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    Nunan, E.A.; Cardoso, V.N.; Moraes-Santos, T. E-mail: tmoraes@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br

    2002-12-01

    The tityustoxin, the most toxic fraction from scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom, has been used as a tool in several neurochemical and neuropharmacological studies. Biological activities of labeled and unlabeled tityustoxin and venom were compared. The samples were labeled in the presence of stannous chloride and sodium borohydride with a yield of 60-70% for the venom and 75-85% for tityustoxin and then chromatographed in Sephadex G-10. Biological activities of tityustoxin and venom were preserved after labeling.

  7. Age effects on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats

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    Nunan E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of scorpion venom and its toxins has been investigated in experimental models using adult animals, although, severe scorpion accidents are associated more frequently with children. We compared the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin, one of the most active principles of Tityus serrulatus venom, in young male/female rats (21-22 days old, N = 5-8 and in adult male rats (150-160 days old, N = 5-8. Tityustoxin (6 µg labeled with 99mTechnetium was administered subcutaneously to young and adult rats. The plasma concentration vs time data were subjected to non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis to obtain estimates of various pharmacokinetic parameters such as total body clearance (CL/F, distribution volume (Vd/F, area under the curve (AUC, and mean residence time. The data were analyzed with and without considering body weight. The data without correction for body weight showed a higher Cmax (62.30 ± 7.07 vs 12.71 ± 2.11 ng/ml, P < 0.05 and AUC (296.49 ± 21.09 vs 55.96 ± 5.41 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 and lower Tmax (0.64 ± 0.19 vs 2.44 ± 0.49 h, P < 0.05 in young rats. Furthermore, Vd/F (0.15 vs 0.42 l/kg and CL/F (0.02 ± 0.001 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 l h-1 kg-1, P < 0.05 were lower in young rats. However, when the data were reanalyzed taking body weight into consideration, the Cmax (40.43 ± 3.25 vs 78.21 ± 11.23 ng kg-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 and AUC (182.27 ± 11.74 vs 344.62 ± 32.11 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 were lower in young rats. The clearance (0.03 ± 0.002 vs 0.02 ± 0.002 l h-1 kg-1, P < 0.05 and Vd/F (0.210 vs 0.067 l/kg were higher in young rats. The raw data (not adjusted for body weight strongly suggest that age plays a pivotal role in the disposition of tityustoxin. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the differences in the severity of symptoms observed in children and adults after scorpion envenomation can be explained in part by differences in the pharmacokinetics of the toxin.

  8. Insights into the Hypertensive Effects of Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: Purification of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Like Peptidase.

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    Cajado-Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre Kazuo; Duzzi, Bruno; Iwai, Leo Kei; Oliveira, Úrsula Castro de; Junqueira de Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles; Kodama, Roberto Tadashi; Portaro, Fernanda Vieira

    2016-11-24

    The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T. serrulatus venom. The crude venom cleaved natural and fluorescent substrates and these activities were inhibited by captopril. Regarding the serum neutralization, the scorpion antivenom was more effective at blocking the ACE-like activity than arachnid antivenom, although neither completely inhibited the venom cleavage action, even at higher doses. ACE-like was purified from the venom after three chromatographic steps and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometric and transcriptomic analyses. Bioinformatics analysis showed homology between the ACE-like transcript sequences from Tityus spp. and human testis ACE. These findings advance our understanding of T. serrulatus venom components and may improve treatment of envenomation victims, as ACE-like may contribute to envenomation symptoms, especially the resulting hypertension.

  9. Insights into the Hypertensive Effects of Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: Purification of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Like Peptidase

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    Daniela Cajado-Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like purified from T. serrulatus venom. The crude venom cleaved natural and fluorescent substrates and these activities were inhibited by captopril. Regarding the serum neutralization, the scorpion antivenom was more effective at blocking the ACE-like activity than arachnid antivenom, although neither completely inhibited the venom cleavage action, even at higher doses. ACE-like was purified from the venom after three chromatographic steps and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometric and transcriptomic analyses. Bioinformatics analysis showed homology between the ACE-like transcript sequences from Tityus spp. and human testis ACE. These findings advance our understanding of T. serrulatus venom components and may improve treatment of envenomation victims, as ACE-like may contribute to envenomation symptoms, especially the resulting hypertension.

  10. Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: In Vitro Tests and Their Correlation with In Vivo Lethal Dose Assay

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    Daniela Cajado-Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are the main cause of human envenomation in Brazil and, for the treatment of victims, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of antivenoms. The first step to achieve effective antivenom is to use a good quality venom pool and to evaluate it, with LD50 determination as the most accepted procedure. It is, however, time-consuming and requires advanced technical training. Further, there are significant ethical concerns regarding the number of animals required for testing. Hence, we investigated the correspondence between LD50 results, in vitro assays, and a strong correlation with proteolytic activity levels was observed, showing, remarkably, that proteases are potential toxicity markers for Tityus serrulatus venom. The comparison of reversed-phase chromatographic profiles also has a potential application in venoms’ quality control, as there were fewer neurotoxins detected in the venom with high LD50 value. These results were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Therefore, these methods could precede the LD50 assay to evaluate the venom excellence by discriminating—and discarding—poor-quality batches, and, consequently, with a positive impact on the number of animals used. Notably, proposed assays are fast and inexpensive, being technically and economically feasible in Tityus serrulatus venom quality control to produce effective antivenoms.

  11. Experimental Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation: age- and sex-related differences in symptoms and mortality in mice

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    Pucca MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods for evaluating animal venom toxicity, the calculation of the median lethal dose (LD50 is the most widely used. Although different protocols can be used to calculate the LD50, the source of the venom and the method of extraction, as well as the strain, age, and sex of the animal model employed, should be taken into consideration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sex and age on the toxicity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in Swiss mice. Although the symptoms of envenomation were similar in male and female animals, female mice proved to be more resistant to the venom. In females, age had no impact on the susceptibility to scorpion envenomation. Male mice were more sensitive to T. serrulatus venom. Moreover, in males, age was an important parameter since sensitivity to the venom increased with age.

  12. Overview of Scorpion Species from China and Their Toxins

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    Zhijian Cao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins.

  13. Electrophysiological Characterization of Ts6 and Ts7, K+ Channel Toxins Isolated through an Improved Tityus serrulatus Venom Purification Procedure

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    Felipe A. Cerni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Tityus serrulatus (Ts is the species responsible for most of the scorpion related accidents. Among the Ts toxins, the neurotoxins with action on potassium channels (α-KTx present high interest, due to their effect in the envenoming process and the ion channel specificity they display. The α-KTx toxins family is the most relevant because its toxins can be used as therapeutic tools for specific target cells. The improved isolation method provided toxins with high resolution, obtaining pure Ts6 and Ts7 in two chromatographic steps. The effects of Ts6 and Ts7 toxins were evaluated in 14 different types of potassium channels using the voltage-clamp technique with two-microelectrodes. Ts6 toxin shows high affinity for Kv1.2, Kv1.3 and Shaker IR, blocking these channels in low concentrations. Moreover, Ts6 blocks the Kv1.3 channel in picomolar concentrations with an IC50 of 0.55 nM and therefore could be of valuable assistance to further designing immunosuppressive therapeutics. Ts7 toxin blocks multiple subtypes channels, showing low selectivity among the channels analyzed. This work also stands out in its attempt to elucidate the residues important for interacting with each channel and, in the near future, to model a desired drug.

  14. THE MOUSE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR TITYUS SERRULATUS SCORPION ENVENOMING

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    Mônica de Mônico Magalhães

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The scorpion toxin induces a number of physiological parameters alterations, as disturbance of cardiac rhythm, heart failure, shock, pancreatic hypersecretion, abortion, respiratory arrhytmias and pulmonary edema. As the purification of the venom fractions is a laborious process, one alternative for this would be the utilization of small animals. We utilized in the present study thity-six mice that received progressive doses of scorpion toxin TsTX, i.p. or i.v., and were observed for three hours or sacrificed, and the pulmonary alterations were determined by the lung-body index and by histological analysis of the lungs in order to determine if the mouse can be an esperimental model for scorpion envenomation. The data were analyzed by One Way analysis of variance with pA toxina do escorpião induz a várias alterações fisiológicas, como disturbio do ritmo cardíaco, insuficiência cardíaca, choque, hipersecreção pancreática, aborto, arritmias respiratórias e edema pulmonar. A purificação de frações do veneno é um processo trabalhoso. Como alternativa utilizam-se animais pequenos. No presente estudo utilizou-se 36 camundongos que receberam doses progressivas de toxinas do escorpião (TsTX, intraperitoneal ou intravenosa e foram observados por tres horas ou sacrificados. As alteraçòes pulmonares foram determinadas pela fórmula peso do pulmão x 100/ peso corporal e pela análise hitológica dos pulmões a fim de determinar que o camundongo pode ser um modelo experimental do envenenamento pelo escorpião. Os dados foram analizados pela análise de variância considerando-se p<0,05 indicando significancia. Os experimentos não mostraram diferença nos sinais clínicos do envenenamento comparando-se o camundongo com outros mamíferos. Os efeitos foram dose-dependente e que pela via venosa necessita-se menos quantidade para produzir as mesmas alterações. Nos aspectos histológicos pulmonares observou-se edema septal e não alveolar

  15. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Peptide Ts11 Shows Evidence of a Novel Subfamily of Scorpion Venom Toxins

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    Cremonez, Caroline M.; Maiti, Mohitosh; Peigneur, Steve; Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Dutra, Alexandre A. A.; Waelkens, Etienne; Lescrinier, Eveline; Herdewijn, Piet; de Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To date, several families of peptide toxins specifically interacting with ion channels in scorpion venom have been described. One of these families comprise peptide toxins (called KTxs), known to modulate potassium channels. Thus far, 202 KTxs have been reported, belonging to several subfamilies of KTxs (called α, β, γ, κ, δ, and λ-KTxs). Here we report on a previously described orphan toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom, named Ts11. We carried out an in-depth structure-function analysis combining 3D structure elucidation of Ts11 and electrophysiological characterization of the toxin. The Ts11 structure is highlighted by an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) type scaffold, completely devoid of the classical secondary structure elements (α-helix and/or β-strand). This has, to the best of our knowledge, never been described before for scorpion toxins and therefore represents a novel, 6th type of structural fold for these scorpion peptides. On the basis of their preferred interaction with voltage-gated K channels, as compared to all the other targets tested, it can be postulated that Ts11 is the first member of a new subfamily, designated as ε-KTx. PMID:27706049

  16. 99mTc labeling of the scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) antivenom

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    Cardoso, D.S.; Nunan, E.A.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Moraes-Santos, T.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    F(ab') 2 is the fragment involved in the immunotherapy for scorpion stings and it would be convenient to label it with 99m Tc for organ distribution and pharmacokinetics studies. The aim of the present study was to label scorpion antivenom F(ab') 2 with 99m Tc keeping its biological activity, integrity and stability. High labeling yield was obtained using stannous chloride and sodium borohydride. Stability, immunoreactivity and integrity of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 was preserved. It was not observed any difference between potencies of unlabeled and labeled antivenom. 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 can be a useful tool for use in biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on the evaluation of the efficacy of the antivenom against scorpion envenomation. (author)

  17. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

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    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  18. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of

  19. A single conserved basic residue in the potassium channel filter region controls KCNQ1 insensitivity toward scorpion toxins.

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    Chen, Zongyun; Hu, Youtian; Wang, Bin; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-09-01

    Although many studies concerning the sensitivity mechanism of scorpion toxin-potassium channel interactions have been reported, few have explored the biochemical insensitivity mechanisms of potassium channel receptors toward natural scorpion toxin peptides, such as the KCNQ1 channel. Here, by sequence alignment analyses of the human KCNQ1 channel and scorpion potassium channel MmKv2, which is completely insensitive to scorpion toxins, we proposed that the insensitivity mechanism of KCNQ1 toward natural scorpion toxins might involve two functional regions, the turret and filter regions. Based on this observation, a series of KCNQ1 mutants were constructed to study molecular mechanisms of the KCNQ1 channel insensitivity toward natural scorpion toxins. Electrophysiological studies of chimera channels showed that the channel filter region controls KCNQ1 insensitivity toward the classical scorpion toxin ChTX. Interestingly, further residue mutant experiments showed that a single basic residue in the filter region determined the insensitivity of KCNQ1 channels toward scorpion toxins. Our present work showed that amino acid residue diversification at common sites controls the sensitivity and insensitivity of potassium channels toward scorpion toxins. The unique insensitivity mechanism of KCNQ1 toward natural scorpion toxins will accelerate the rational design of potent peptide inhibitors toward this channel.

  20. Structural and functional diversity of acidic scorpion potassium channel toxins.

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    Zong-Yun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the basic scorpion K(+ channel toxins (KTxs are well-known pharmacological tools and potential drug candidates, characterization the acidic KTxs still has the great significance for their potential selectivity towards different K(+ channel subtypes. Unfortunately, research on the acidic KTxs has been ignored for several years and progressed slowly. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the identification of nine new acidic KTxs by cDNA cloning and bioinformatic analyses. Seven of these toxins belong to three new α-KTx subfamilies (α-KTx28, α-KTx29, and α-KTx30, and two are new members of the known κ-KTx2 subfamily. ImKTx104 containing three disulfide bridges, the first member of the α-KTx28 subfamily, has a low sequence homology with other known KTxs, and its NMR structure suggests ImKTx104 adopts a modified cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-β-sheet (CS-α/β fold motif that has no apparent α-helixs and β-sheets, but still stabilized by three disulfide bridges. These newly described acidic KTxs exhibit differential pharmacological effects on potassium channels. Acidic scorpion toxin ImKTx104 was the first peptide inhibitor found to affect KCNQ1 channel, which is insensitive to the basic KTxs and is strongly associated with human cardiac abnormalities. ImKTx104 selectively inhibited KCNQ1 channel with a K(d of 11.69 µM, but was less effective against the basic KTxs-sensitive potassium channels. In addition to the ImKTx104 toxin, HeTx204 peptide, containing a cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-helix (CS-α/α fold scaffold motif, blocked both Kv1.3 and KCNQ1 channels. StKTx23 toxin, with a cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-β-sheet (CS-α/β fold motif, could inhibit Kv1.3 channel, but not the KCNQ1 channel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize the structural and functional diversity of acidic KTxs, and could accelerate the development and clinical use of acidic KTxs as pharmacological tools and

  1. Global transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Centruroides noxius: new toxin families and evolutionary insights from an ancestral scorpion species.

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    Martha Rendón-Anaya

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms have been studied for decades, leading to the identification of hundreds of different toxins with medical and pharmacological implications. However, little emphasis has been given to the description of these arthropods from cellular and evolutionary perspectives. In this report, we describe a transcriptomic analysis of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, performed with a pyrosequencing platform. Three independent sequencing experiments were carried out, each including three different cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from the whole body of the scorpion after telson removal, and from the venom gland before and after venom extraction. Over three million reads were obtained and assembled in almost 19000 isogroups. Within the telson-specific sequences, 72 isogroups (0.4% of total unique transcripts were found to be similar to toxins previously reported in other scorpion species, spiders and sea anemones. The annotation pipeline also revealed the presence of important elements of the small non-coding RNA processing machinery, as well as microRNA candidates. A phylogenomic analysis of concatenated essential genes evidenced differential evolution rates in this species, particularly in ribosomal proteins and proteasome components. Additionally, statistical comparison of transcript abundance before and after venom extraction showed that 3% and 2% of the assembled isogroups had higher expression levels in the active and replenishing gland, respectively. Thus, our sequencing and annotation strategies provide a general view of the cellular and molecular processes that take place in these arthropods, allowed the discovery of new pharmacological and biotechnological targets and uncovered several regulatory and metabolic responses behind the assembly of the scorpion venom. The results obtained in this report represent the first high-throughput study that thoroughly describes the universe of genes that are expressed in

  2. Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom improves survival and lung inflammation in lethal sepsis induced by CLP in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Márcia C G; Fialho, Eder M S; Guerra, Rosane N M; Borges, Valéria M; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2014-10-01

    Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) modifies the behavior of immune cells and induces the production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; such action may interfere with physiological or pathological states. Because sepsis is characterized as an inflammatory disorder, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of a non-lethal dose of Tsv in mice submitted to a polymicrobial infection by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. The parameters evaluated were survival index, cellularity on lymphoid organs, peritoneal cavity and brochoalveolar space, production of IL-10, IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1, pulmonary inflammation and oxidative burst. The results demonstrated that in sharp contrast to CLP group in which sepsis was lethal in a 24 h period all mice pretreated with Tsv survived even 60 h after CLP. Lung inflammation, another hallmark of CLP group, was also dramatically down regulated in Tsv/CLP group. Despite pretreatment with Tsv did not reduce the inflammatory serum cytokines when compared to CLP group; there was an increase in IL-10. In conclusion, subcutaneous Tsv administration 6 h before CLP was able to control the harmful effects of sepsis (lethality and lung inflammation). We suggest that both systemic IL-10 and oxidative burst are involved in this effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imobilização de proteínas do veneno do escorpião Tytius Serrulatus em blenda condutora de Polianilina-Poli(Metacrilato de Hidroxietila Proteins associated with the venom of the tytius serrulatus scorpion immobilized within polyaniline-poly(Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate conducting blends

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    Lívio Bruno

    2004-09-01

    the presence of a given molecule in a specific environment. Biosensors always have a biological recognition system that distinguishes them from any other kind of sensor. The goals of this work were to develop conductive hydrogels from the combination of polyaniline and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate and to evaluate some important aspects related to the possibility of using these materials as matrices in biosensors that would detect toxic fractions of antigens associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion. Different conductive blends from poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate and polyaniline were produced by dissolving the polymers in a common solvent. The electrical conductivity, morphology and swelling ability were measured the four-probe measuring system, scanning electron microscopy and weight gain in water, respectively. Immobilization and bioactivity of molecules associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion were evaluated by combining the ELISA immunoassay method and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results showed that even low concentrations of polyaniline led to high values of electrical conductivity and swelling. The biological tests indicated that the immobilization and bioactivity of the biomacromolecules associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion were successfully achieved within the conductive hydrogel.

  4. Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more people around the world than any other animal, except snakes (from snake bites). However, most varieties of North American scorpions are NOT poisonous. The poisonous ones in the United States live ...

  5. New binding site on common molecular scaffold provides HERG channel specificity of scorpion toxin BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Yuliya V; Bocharov, Eduard V; Angelo, Kamilla

    2002-01-01

    The scorpion toxin BeKm-1 is unique among a variety of known short scorpion toxins affecting potassium channels in its selective action on ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG)-type channels. BeKm-1 shares the common molecular scaffold with other short scorpion toxins. The toxin spatial structure...... resolved by NMR consists of a short alpha-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. By toxin mutagenesis study we identified the residues that are important for the binding of BeKm-1 to the human ERG K+ (HERG) channel. The most critical residues (Tyr-11, Lys-18, Arg-20, Lys-23) are located...... in the alpha-helix and following loop whereas the "traditional" functional site of other short scorpion toxins is formed by residues from the beta-sheet. Thus the unique location of the binding site of BeKm-1 provides its specificity toward the HERG channel....

  6. Covalent structure of the insect toxin of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbon, H.; Kopeyan, C.; van Rietschoten, J.; Rochat, H. (I.N.S.E.R.M. U172 and S.C. 10, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Marseilles, France); Zlotkin, E. (Department of Zoology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)

    1982-01-01

    The complete covalent structure of the insect toxin purified from the venom of the North-African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was described. Its amino acid sequence was established by phenylisothiocyanate degradation of several protein derivatives and proteolytic fragments in a liquid protein sequencer using either a ''protein'' or a ''peptide'' program. The position of the four disulfide bridges were deduced by analysis of proteolytic peptides before and after performic oxidation, and by partial labeling of the half cystine residues with (/sup 14/C)-iodoacetic acid and determining the specific radioactivities of the S-(/sup 14/C)-carboxymethylated phenylthiohydantoin cysteines. The sequences of the insect and mammal toxins from scorpions can be aligned with homology with the positions of seven half-cystine residues as registers. The mammal and insect toxins have three disulfide bridges at homologous positions. The fourth bridge is different in that Cys/sup 12/ in mammal toxin II is replaced by Cys/sup 38/ in the insect toxin. It is likely that the position of the disulfide bridges is the same for all scorpion neurotoxins active on mammals. We believe that the shift of one half-cystine residue in the insect toxin may induce a conformational change in the structure of the protein, which, in turn, may partially account for the total specificity of this toxin for insect nervous system.

  7. Scorpions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1940-01-01

    This survey of the scorpions of the Leeward Group is based on author’s collection and therefore includes some mainlandrecords from northern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. Material from Curaçao, deposited in the “Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam” (A) and the “Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie,

  8. Standardization of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting circulating toxic venom antigens in patients stung by the scorpion Tityus serrulatus Padronização de um teste imunoenzimático (ELISA para detectar antígenos tóxicos circulantes do veneno em pacientes picados pelo escorpião Tityus serrulatus

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    Nilton Alves de Rezende

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens from toxic components of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom was determined in patients stung by T. serrulatus before antivenom administration. Thirty-seven patients were classified as mild cases and 19 as moderate or severe cases. The control absorbance in the venom assay was provided by serum samples from 100 individuals of same socioeconomic group and geographical area who had never been stung by scorpions or treated with horse antisera. The negative cutoff value (mean + 2 SD corresponded to a venom concentration of 4.8 ng/ml. Three out of the 100 normal sera were positive, resulting in a specificity of 97%. The sensitivity of the ELISA when all cases of scorpion sting were included was 39.3%. When mild cases were excluded, the sensitivity increased to 94.7%. This study showed that this ELISA can be used for the detection of circulating venom toxic antigens in patients with systemic manifestations following. T. serrulatus sting but cannot be used for clinical studies in mild cases of envenoming since the test does not discriminate mild cases from control patients.Neste trabalho foram determinadas a sensibilidade e a especificidade da técnica imunoenzimática (ELISA desenvolvida por CHAVÉZ-OLORTEGUI et al. para detectar antígenos circulantes de veneno em pacientes picados po Tityus serrulatus. A média mais dois desvios padrão da observância do soro de 100 pacientes controles foi utilizada como limite entre teste positivo e teste negativo ("cutoff". A especificidade do ELISA foi igual a 97,0%. A sensibilidade do método, quando incluidos pacientes classificados como casos leves, moderados e graves de escorpionismo, foi de 39,3% e aumentou para 94,7% quando considerados apenas os casos moderados e graves. Estes resultados mostram que o ELISA pode ser utilizado para detecção de antígenos tóxicos circulantes em pacientes

  9. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

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    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  10. Characterization of Am IT, an anti-insect β-toxin isolated from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukkache, Naoual; ElJaoudi, Rachid; Chgoury, Fatima; Rocha, Marisa Teixeira; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, a 'novel' toxin, called Am IT from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus is isolated and characterized. A detailed analysis of the action of Am IT on insect axonal sodium currents is reported. Am IT was purified through gel filtration followed by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. Toxicity of Am IT in vivo was assessed on male German cockroach (Blattella germanica) larvae and C57/BL6 mice. Cross-reactivity of Am IT with two β-toxins was evidenced using (125)I-iodinated toxin-based radioimmunoassays with synaptosomal preparations from rat brain. The complete amino acid sequence of Am IT was finally determined by Edman sequencing. Am IT was observed to compete with AaH IT4 purified from the venom of scorpion Androctonus australis in binding assays. It was recognized by an antibody raised against a β-type toxin, which indicated some structural similarity with β-toxins (or related toxin family). The 'novel' toxin exhibited dual activity since it competed with anti-mammal toxins in binding assays as well as showed contracting activity to insect. The toxin competed with radio-labeled β-toxin Css IV by binding to Na(+) channels of rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis of toxin amino acid sequences showed that Am IT shares high structural identity (92%) with AaH IT4. In conclusion, Am IT not only reveals an anti-insect compound properties secreted by 'Old World' scorpions, paralyzing insect larvae by binding to Na(+) channels on larvae's nerve-cell membranes, but also exerts toxic activity in mice, which is similar to anti-mammal toxins from 'New World' scorpions (North and South Americas). Therefore, Am IT appears to be structurally and functionally similar to AaH IT4.

  11. delta-Atracotoxins from australian funnel-web spiders compete with scorpion alpha-toxin binding but differentially modulate alkaloid toxin activation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M J; Zappia, C; Gilles, N; Connor, M; Tyler, M I; Martin-Eauclaire, M F; Gordon, D; Nicholson, G M

    1998-10-16

    delta-Atracotoxins from the venom of Australian funnel-web spiders are a unique group of peptide toxins that slow sodium current inactivation in a manner similar to scorpion alpha-toxins. To analyze their interaction with known sodium channel neurotoxin receptor sites, we studied their effect on [3H]batrachotoxin and 125I-Lqh II (where Lqh is alpha-toxin II from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus) binding and on alkaloid toxin-stimulated 22Na+ uptake in rat brain synaptosomes. delta-Atracotoxins significantly increased [3H]batrachotoxin binding yet decreased maximal batrachotoxin-activated 22Na+ uptake by 70-80%, the latter in marked contrast to the effect of scorpion alpha-toxins. Unlike the inhibition of batrachotoxin-activated 22Na+ uptake, delta-atracotoxins increased veratridine-stimulated 22Na+ uptake by converting veratridine from a partial to a full agonist, analogous to scorpion alpha-toxins. Hence, delta-atracotoxins are able to differentiate between the open state of the sodium channel stabilized by batrachotoxin and veratridine and suggest a distinct sub-conductance state stabilized by delta-atracotoxins. Despite these actions, low concentrations of delta-atracotoxins completely inhibited the binding of the scorpion alpha-toxin, 125I-Lqh II, indicating that they bind to similar, or partially overlapping, receptor sites. The apparent uncoupling between the increase in binding but inhibition of the effect of batrachotoxin induced by delta-atracotoxins suggests that the binding and action of certain alkaloid toxins may represent at least two distinguishable steps. These results further contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamic interactions between neurotoxin receptor site areas related to sodium channel gating.

  12. A Combinational Strategy upon RNA Sequencing and Peptidomics Unravels a Set of Novel Toxin Peptides in Scorpion Mesobuthus martensii

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    Ning Luan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom is deemed to contain many toxic peptides as an important source of natural compounds. Out of the two hundred proteins identified in Mesobuthus martensii (M. martensii, only a few peptide toxins have been found so far. Herein, a combinational approach based upon RNA sequencing and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS was employed to explore the venom peptides in M. martensii. A total of 153 proteins were identified from the scorpion venom, 26 previously known and 127 newly identified. Of the novel toxins, 97 proteins exhibited sequence similarities to known toxins, and 30 were never reported. Combining peptidomic and transcriptomic analyses, the peptide sequence of BmKKx1 was reannotated and four disulfide bridges were confirmed within it. In light of the comparison of conservation and variety of toxin amino acid sequences, highly conserved and variable regions were perceived in 24 toxins that were parts of two sodium channel and two potassium channel toxins families. Taking all of this evidences together, the peptidomic analysis on M. martensii indeed identified numerous novel scorpion peptides, expanded our knowledge towards the venom diversity, and afforded a set of pharmaceutical candidates.

  13. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.

  14. Genomic and structural characterization of Kunitz-type peptide LmKTT-1a highlights diversity and evolution of scorpion potassium channel toxins.

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    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a new subfamily of long-chain toxins with a Kunitz-type fold was found in scorpion venom glands. Functionally, these toxins inhibit protease activity and block potassium channels. However, the genomic organization and three-dimensional (3-D structure of this kind of scorpion toxin has not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we characterized the genomic organization and 3-D nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the scorpion Kunitz-type toxin, LmKTT-1a, which has a unique cysteine pattern. The LmKTT-1a gene contained three exons, which were interrupted by two introns located in the mature peptide region. Despite little similarity to other Kunitz-type toxins and a unique pattern of disulfide bridges, LmKTT-1a possessed a conserved Kunitz-type structural fold with one α-helix and two β-sheets. Comparison of the genomic organization, 3-D structure, and functional data of known toxins from the α-KTx, β-KTx, γ-KTx, and κ-KTx subfamily suggested that scorpion Kunitz-type potassium channel toxins might have evolved from a new ancestor that is completely different from the common ancestor of scorpion toxins with a CSα/β fold. Thus, these analyses provide evidence of a new scorpion potassium channel toxin subfamily, which we have named δ-KTx. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the genomic, structural, and evolutionary diversity of scorpion potassium channel toxins. These findings may accelerate the design and development of diagnostic and therapeutic peptide agents for human potassium channelopathies.

  15. Active Sites of Spinoxin, a Potassium Channel Scorpion Toxin, Elucidated by Systematic Alanine Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneur, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kawano, Chihiro; Nose, Takeru; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-05-31

    Peptide toxins from scorpion venoms constitute the largest group of toxins that target the voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv). Spinoxin (SPX) isolated from the venom of scorpion Heterometrus spinifer is a 34-residue peptide neurotoxin cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. SPX is a potent inhibitor of Kv1.3 potassium channels (IC50 = 63 nM), which are considered to be valid molecular targets in the diagnostics and therapy of various autoimmune disorders and cancers. Here we synthesized 25 analogues of SPX and analyzed the role of each amino acid in SPX using alanine scanning to study its structure-function relationships. All synthetic analogues showed similar disulfide bond pairings and secondary structures as native SPX. Alanine replacements at Lys(23), Asn(26), and Lys(30) resulted in loss of activity against Kv1.3 potassium channels, whereas replacements at Arg(7), Met(14), Lys(27), and Tyr(32) also largely reduced inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the side chains of these amino acids in SPX play an important role in its interaction with Kv1.3 channels. In particular, Lys(23) appears to be a key residue that underpins Kv1.3 channel inhibition. Of these seven amino acid residues, four are basic amino acids, suggesting that the positive electrostatic potential on the surface of SPX is likely required for high affinity interaction with Kv1.3 channels. This study provides insight into the structure-function relationships of SPX with implications for the rational design of new lead compounds targeting potassium channels with high potency.

  16. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the efficiency of the scorpion alpha toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Milena; Pawlowska-Mainville, Agnieszka; Stankiewicz, Maria; Rogalska, Justyna; Wyszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is produced by electric power transmission lines and electronic devices of everyday use. Some phenomena are proposed as "first effects" of ELF-EMF: the discrete changes in the membrane potential and the increase of the calcium channel activity as well as the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+). Interaction of the scorpion alpha toxin with the sodium channel depends on the orientation of the charges and may be perturbed by changes in the membrane polarization. The toxin induces overexcitability in the nervous system and an increase in the neurotransmitters released with different consequences, mainly the paralysis of muscles. We assumed that the exposure to ELF-EMF 0.7 mT will change the effects of the insect selective scorpion alpha toxin (recombinant LqhαIT from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus) at the level of the cercal nerve function, the synaptic transmission and on the level of entire insect organism. Taking into account the compensatory mechanisms in organisms, we tested in addition ten times higher ELF-EMF on whole insects. Experiments were performed in vivo on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and in vitro - on isolated cockroach abdominal nerve cord with cerci. In biotests, the effects of LqhαIT (10(-8) M) were estimated on the basis of the insect ability to turn back from dorsal to ventral side. Three groups were compared: the control one and the two exposed to ELF-EMF - 0.7 and 7 mT. Bioelectrical activity of the cercal nerve and of the connective nerve that leaves the terminal abdominal ganglion was recorded using extracellular electrodes. LqhαIT (5 × 10(-8) M) induced modifications of neuronal activity that were observed in the control cockroach preparations and in the ones exposed to ELF-EMF (0.7 mT). The exposure to ELF-EMF was carried out using coils with a size appropriate to the examined objects. The exposure to ELF-EMF (0.7 mT) modified the effects of LqhαIT (5

  17. Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases scorpion toxin-induced gastric secretion in rats Ligadura do esôfago abdominal diminui a secreção gástrica induzida por toxina de escorpião em ratos

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    Claudia S. Vidal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Scorpion toxin purified from Tityus serrulatus venom (Tx induces an increase in volume, acidity and pepsin secretion in the gastric juice of rats. Ligation of oesophagus has been shown to reduce the acid gastric secretion in rats. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of the esophageal ligation on gastric secretion induced by Tx in rats METHODS: Forty-four male albino rats were given water ad libitum, but no food for 20 to 24 hours, anesthetized with urethane and the trachea and jugular vein cannulated. Cervical or abdominal esophageal ligation or sham-operations were performed before and after the injection of 0.25 mg/kg of scorpion toxin (fraction T1 into the jugular vein. One hour later, the volume, acidity, pH and peptic activity of gastric juice were determined. RESULTS: The scorpion toxin induced an increase in gastric juice volume, acidity and pepsin output and a decrease in pH when injected into the vein of intact animals or in sham-operated animals. Cervical esophagus ligation did not interfere with the effects of toxin, however, ligation of the abdominal esophageal decreased the toxin effect on the rat stomach. CONCLUSION: Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases the gastric secretion induced by scorpion toxin.OBJETIVO: A toxina de escorpião purificada do veneno do escorpião Tityus serrulatus (Tx induz um aumento no volume, acidez e secreção de pepsina no suco gástrico de ratos. A ligadura do esôfago diminui a secreção ácida do estômago em ratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da ligadura do esôfago sobre a secreção gástrica induzida pela Tx em ratos. MÉTODOS: 44 ratos machos, brancos foram administrados água ad libitum, mas não alimentados por 20 a 24 horas, anestesiados com uretana e canulados a traquéia e a veia jugular. Foram realizadas as ligaduras do esôfago cervical ou abdominal ou operações simuladas antes e após a administração na veia jugular de 0

  18. Partial purification of toxins HI1, HI2 and HI3 from Hadruroides lunatus Koch, 1867 scorpion venom (Scorpionida : Vejovidae

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    Enrique Escobar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proteins from the venom of the scorpion Hadruroides lunatus were separated by ionexchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 with 0,05M ammonium acetate buffer pH 7, getting six protein peaks in the process. The toxicity tests allowed the identification of three toxins that were denominated Hl1, Hl2 y Hl3; which immobilize, respectively, insects (Grillus sp., crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and the inoculated limb of white mice. The three toxins are basic proteins and have no proteolitic or phospholipase activity. In addition, Hl3 increases the plasmatic level of creatine kinase after its inoculation in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. By PAGE-SDS, Hl3 shows only one protein band of 12,5 KDa, while the other toxins have protein contaminants.

  19. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

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    F. F. Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  20. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  1. The Effects of a Chactoid Scorpion Venom and Its Purified Toxins on Rat Blood Pressure and Mast Cells Histamine Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the venom of the Chactoid family of scorpions on blood pressure was scantly investigated and was addressed in the present study using the venom of the Israeli scorpion, Scorpio maurus palmatus. Blood pressure in rats was monitored via cannulated femoral artery, while venom and toxins were introduced into femoral vein. Venom injection elicited a biphasic effect, expressed first by a fast and transient hypotensive response, which lasted up to 10 min, followed by a hypertensive response, which lasted up to one hour. It was found that these effects resulted from different venom components. Phospholipase A2 produced the hypotensive effect, while a non-enzymatic neurotoxic polypeptide fraction produced the hypertensive effect. Surprisingly, the main neurotoxic polypeptide to mice had no effect on blood pressure. In vitro experiments indicated that the hypertensive factors caused histamine release from the peritoneal mast cells, but this effect is assumed to be not relevant to their in vivo effect. In spite of the cytotoxic activity of phospholipase A2, it did not release histamine. These findings suggest that the effects of venom and isolated fractions on blood pressure parameters are mediated by different mechanisms, which deserve further pharmacological investigation.

  2. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer on the voltage-dependent sodium channel. Spatial relationship and site coupling between the batrachotoxin and Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus alpha-scorpion toxin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, K J; Brown, G B

    1984-05-25

    A fluorescent N- methylanthraniloyl derivative of the potent depolarizing agent batrachotoxin has been used to probe the structural and conformational properties of the neurotoxin receptor site on the voltage-dependent sodium channel. Batrachotoxin A 20-alpha-N- methylanthranilate (BTX-NMA) retains high affinity for its receptor site on the synaptosomal sodium channel with a Kd between 78 and 91 nM and an average site capacity of 2 pmol/mg of synaptosomal protein in the presence of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus alpha-scorpion toxin. The fluorescence emission of BTX-NMA upon binding to synaptosomes indicates a hydrophobic environment. Toxin V from L. quinquestriatus, an allosteric activator, effects a 20-nm red shift in the spectrum of bound BTX-NMA and a 4-fold enhancement in the fluorescence quantum yield disclosing a conformational change into a hydrophilic environment. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements show that the distance separating the receptor sites is 37 +/- 10 A. Thus, the binding of alpha-scorpion toxin must involve conformational changes that extend over large distances from the batrachotoxin-binding locus. This information together with the distance measurements between the tetrodotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin receptors and the conformational transition associated with this distance upon batrachotoxin addition indicate a conformationally flexible channel with coupling of sites through the polyatomic framework of individual subunits or through extensive alterations in subunit/subunit interactions.

  3. Multiple actions of phi-LITX-Lw1a on ryanodine receptors reveal a functional link between scorpion DDH and ICK toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer J; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Lam, Alexander; Gallant, Esther M; Beard, Nicole A; Alewood, Paul F; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2013-05-28

    We recently reported the isolation of a scorpion toxin named U1-liotoxin-Lw1a (U1-LITX-Lw1a) that adopts an unusual 3D fold termed the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) motif, which is the proposed evolutionary structural precursor of the three-disulfide-containing inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif found widely in animals and plants. Here we reveal that U1-LITX-Lw1a targets and activates the mammalian ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel (RyR) with high (fM) potency and provides a functional link between DDH and ICK scorpion toxins. Moreover, U1-LITX-Lw1a, now described as ϕ-liotoxin-Lw1a (ϕ-LITX-Lw1a), has a similar mode of action on RyRs as scorpion calcines, although with significantly greater potency, inducing full channel openings at lower (fM) toxin concentrations whereas at higher pM concentrations increasing the frequency and duration of channel openings to a submaximal state. In addition, we show that the C-terminal residue of ϕ-LITX-Lw1a is crucial for the increase in full receptor openings but not for the increase in receptor subconductance opening, thereby supporting the two-binding-site hypothesis of scorpion toxins on RyRs. ϕ-LITX-Lw1a has potential both as a pharmacological tool and as a lead molecule for the treatment of human diseases that involve RyRs, such as malignant hyperthermia and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

  4. Multiple actions of φ-LITX-Lw1a on ryanodine receptors reveal a functional link between scorpion DDH and ICK toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer J.; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Lam, Alexander; Gallant, Esther M.; Beard, Nicole A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation of a scorpion toxin named U1-liotoxin-Lw1a (U1-LITX-Lw1a) that adopts an unusual 3D fold termed the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) motif, which is the proposed evolutionary structural precursor of the three-disulfide-containing inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif found widely in animals and plants. Here we reveal that U1-LITX-Lw1a targets and activates the mammalian ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel (RyR) with high (fM) potency and provides a functional link between DDH and ICK scorpion toxins. Moreover, U1-LITX-Lw1a, now described as φ-liotoxin-Lw1a (φ-LITX-Lw1a), has a similar mode of action on RyRs as scorpion calcines, although with significantly greater potency, inducing full channel openings at lower (fM) toxin concentrations whereas at higher pM concentrations increasing the frequency and duration of channel openings to a submaximal state. In addition, we show that the C-terminal residue of φ-LITX-Lw1a is crucial for the increase in full receptor openings but not for the increase in receptor subconductance opening, thereby supporting the two-binding-site hypothesis of scorpion toxins on RyRs. φ-LITX-Lw1a has potential both as a pharmacological tool and as a lead molecule for the treatment of human diseases that involve RyRs, such as malignant hyperthermia and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:23671114

  5. Second record of Tityus bahiensis (Scorpiones, Buthidae from Venezuela: epidemiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the scorpion Tityus bahiensis Perty from Venezuela. The specimen was found alive in a wardrobe at a hotel resort in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela. Morphological characterization allowed its assignment to the Tityus bahiensis population inhabiting the southernmost area of the species' geographic range, e.g. the state of São Paulo in Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. The fact that the only available Venezuelan antiscorpion (anti-Tityus discrepans serum does not neutralize the effects of alpha- and beta-toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom (which resembles in composition that of T. bahiensis constitutes a warning to local clinicians confronted with envenomations by noxious species transported to Venezuela from Brazil by human agency.

  6. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmila, Issam; Cosyns, Bernard; Tounsi, Hayfa; Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky; Abderrazek, Rahma Ben; Boubaker, Samir; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Lahoutte, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′ 2 based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′ 2 product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′ 2 based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  7. Clinical update on scorpion envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cupo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Scorpion stings are currently the leading cause of venom-related injury to humans in Brazil and are a significant public health problem globally. Only scorpions of the Tityus genus are of medical importance in Brazil, and Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most serious envenomations and deaths. The toxic effects of scorpion envenomation are due to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters; the severity is related to cardiac and hemodynamic changes, with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema contributing to the main causes of death. The pathophysiology of cardiac involvement has been discussed for decades and has been attributed to adrenergic discharge and a possible toxic effect of venom on the myocardium, while acute pulmonary edema may have a cardiogenic and/or non-cardiogenic origin. Currently, the clinical data point to catecholamine excess as the cause for reversible scorpion cardiomyopathy . These data include electrocardiographic changes, profiling of cardiac enzymes and troponin I, echocardiographic data with global or regional left ventricle dysfunction, and myocardial perfusion alterations compatible with spasm in the coronary microcirculation. Furthermore, recent data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings, which are similar to those observed for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, have also been linked to catecholamine excess. The efficiency of antivenom serum treatment is controversial in the literature. Our experience in Brazil is that the management of patients with systemic manifestations of scorpion stings is based on three approaches, all of which are extremely important. These include symptomatic treatment, antivenom serum, and cardiorespiratory support.

  8. TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 recognize venom-associated molecular patterns from Tityus serrulatus to induce macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Furlani Zoccal

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting-induced human envenomation provokes an intense inflammatory reaction. However, the mechanisms behind the recognition of scorpion venom and the induction of mediator release in mammalian cells are unknown. We demonstrated that TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 receptors sense Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV and its major component, toxin 1 (Ts1, to mediate cytokine and lipid mediator production. Additionally, we demonstrated that TsV induces TLR2- and TLR4/MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation and TLR4-dependent and TLR2/MyD88-independent c-Jun activation. Similar to TsV, Ts1 induces MyD88-dependent NF-κB phosphorylation via TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, while c-Jun activation is dependent on neither TLR2 nor TLR4/MyD88. Therefore, we propose the term venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP to refer to molecules that are introduced into the host by stings and are recognized by PRRs, resulting in inflammation.

  9. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmila, Issam [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Cosyns, Bernard [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Tounsi, Hayfa [Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Abderrazek, Rahma Ben [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Boubaker, Samir [Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Muyldermans, Serge [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Structural Biology, VIB, Brussels (Belgium); El Ayeb, Mohamed [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss, E-mail: balkiss.bouhaouala@pasteur.rns.tn [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Université de Tunis-El Manar (Tunisia); Lahoutte, Tony [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′{sub 2} based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′{sub 2} product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′{sub 2} based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  10. What do we know about some of the most conspicuous scorpion species of the genus Tityus? A historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, comments are proposed on historical aspects of the most conspicuous scorpion species of the genus Tityus found in Brazil. Both Tityus bahiensis (Perty) and Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello are better known for their infamous reputation of noxious species. However, the original discovery and description of both species are associated with interesting historical episodes. A short comment is also provided on Tityus costatus (Karsch), the species possibly involved in the first record of a scorpion incident in Brazil.

  11. Hemograma de cães submetidos ao envenenamento experimental por Tityus serrulatus Canine blood profile after experimental envenomation by Tityus serrulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma de 12 cães adultos, saudáveis (14,2±5,4kg após a inoculação de veneno do escorpião amarelo (Tityus serrulatus. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G, com seis em cada: os do GI foram usados como controle e receberam 0,5mL de salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS por via subcutânea (SC na face medial da coxa esquerda (FMCE, e os do GII receberam veneno liofilizado do T. serrulatus (250µg/kg diluído em PBS por via SC na FMCE. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue com anticoagulante EDTA a 10% antes da inoculação do veneno (T0 e após 2h, (T1, 6h (T2, 12h (T3, 24h (T4, 48h (T5 e 72h (T6, para contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos e plaquetas em aparelho contador eletrônico e esfregaços sanguíneos para contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Houve aumento significativo (PThe canine blood profile after scorpion envenomation was evaluated using 12 healthy mongrel male dogs (14.2±5.4kg distributed in two groups, with six animals in each: group I (control group and group II (venom group. The lyophilized yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus venom (250µg/kg diluted in 0.5mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS was given to group II animals by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Group I animals received only 0.5mL of PBS, by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Blood samples were collected with EDTA before (T0 and 2 (T1, 6 (T2, 12 (T3, 24 (T4, 48 (T5, and 72h (T6 after envenomation. Significant increases (P<0.05 in erythrocytes counting, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, 2 and 6h after envenomation were observed. Leukocytosis with significant increases (P<0.05 of neutrophils and lymphocytes 2 and 6h after envenomation was found. Then, T. serrulatus venom may induce alterations in blood profile in dogs, probably due to spleen contraction evoked by pain and catecholamines releasing.

  12. [Scorpionism in Belo Horizonte, MG: a retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcely Regina Martins; Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; De Maria, Mário

    2002-01-01

    Scorpions, especially in urban areas, due to the great demographic density and confrontation possibility, represent a risk to the public health. Tityus serrulatus is the most important species, causing the highest number of accidents. This study intended to raise epidemic data and the occurrence of scorpionism in Belo Horizonte, between 1990 and 1997. The data were gathered from the records of Hospital de Pronto Socorro João XXIII. Of the 3265 cases, most occurred in 1996, of which six were fatal accidents. With greater incidence in January, the male sex, superior members and 25-65 year-old age group were the most affected. The results constitute an important tool for the control of scorpionism, since they delimit the areas most involved and the victims' profile, enabling more efficient and durable prevention educational campaigns.

  13. Scorpion Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also the most common house scorpion, hiding in firewood, garbage pails, bed linen and shoes. Travel. Not ... from around your house and don't store firewood against the house or inside. Keep grass closely ...

  14. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. Harunur; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Khoo, Keith K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael W.; Beeton, Christine; Kuyucak, Serdar; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-03-01

    HsTX1 toxin, from the scorpion Heterometrus spinnifer, is a 34-residue, C-terminally amidated peptide cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. Here we describe new HsTX1 analogues with an Ala, Phe, Val or Abu substitution at position 14. Complexes of HsTX1 with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 were created using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, then umbrella sampling simulations were performed to construct the potential of mean force (PMF) of the ligand and calculate the corresponding binding free energy for the most stable configuration. The PMF method predicted that the R14A mutation in HsTX1 would yield a > 2 kcal/mol gain for the Kv1.3/Kv1.1 selectivity free energy relative to the wild-type peptide. Functional assays confirmed the predicted selectivity gain for HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14Abu], with an affinity for Kv1.3 in the low picomolar range and a selectivity of more than 2,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. This remarkable potency and selectivity for Kv1.3, which is significantly up-regulated in activated effector memory cells in humans, suggest that these analogues represent valuable leads in the development of therapeutics for autoimmune diseases.

  15. Maintenance of scorpions of the genus Tityus Koch (Scorpiones, Buthidae for venom obtention at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Candido

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the experience of the Laboratory of Arthropods at Instituto Butantan, which maintains scorpions in captivity in order to obtain the venom used in the production of anti-arachnid serum. Between 1993 and 2000, the laboratory received 24.781 specimens of Tityus serrulatus in order to obtain poison for the production of anti-scorpion serum. In the first extraction, performed by electrical stimulation, the animals gave an average quantity of 0.4 mg venom per specimen. Animal acquisition and involved professional safety are considered. In addition, the captivity, handling and feeding techniques are described, as well as the method and equipment used for venom extraction. It shows the importance of regular campaigns, offering information to the general population in order to motivate these to catch and send alive scorpions to the Institute to assuring a regular entrance of scorpions.

  16. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  17. Homology modeling and docking of AahII-Nanobody complexes reveal the epitope binding site on AahII scorpion toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Ayoub; Ghedira, Kais; Ben Abderrazek, Rahma; Shankar, B A Gowri; Benkahla, Alia; Bishop, Ozlem Tastan; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2018-02-19

    Scorpion envenoming and its treatment is a public health problem in many parts of the world due to highly toxic venom polypeptides diffusing rapidly within the body of severely envenomed victims. Recently, 38 AahII-specific Nanobody sequences (Nbs) were retrieved from which the performance of NbAahII10 nanobody candidate, to neutralize the most poisonous venom compound namely AahII acting on sodium channels, was established. Herein, structural computational approach is conducted to elucidate the Nb-AahII interactions that support the biological characteristics, using Nb multiple sequence alignment (MSA) followed by modeling and molecular docking investigations (RosettaAntibody, ZDOCK software tools). Sequence and structural analysis showed two dissimilar residues of NbAahII10 CDR1 (Tyr27 and Tyr29) and an inserted polar residue Ser30 that appear to play an important role. Indeed, CDR3 region of NbAahII10 is characterized by a specific Met104 and two negatively charged residues Asp115 and Asp117. Complex dockings reveal that NbAahII17 and NbAahII38 share one common binding site on the surface of the AahII toxin divergent from the NbAahII10 one's. At least, a couple of NbAahII10 - AahII residue interactions (Gln38 - Asn44 and Arg62, His64, respectively) are mainly involved in the toxic AahII binding site. Altogether, this study gives valuable insights in the design and development of next generation of antivenom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scorpiones, Ischnuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-07-07

    Jul 7, 1997 ... Hadogenes zump/i Newlands & Cantrell 1985 (Scorpiones, Ischnuridae), from the Richtersveld, South Africa, is redescribed. This is the only species of Hadogenes Kraepelin 1894 in which the adults of both sexes are without a lobe at the base of the movable finger of the chela. The significance of the ...

  19. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Ferreira Rocha, Keyla Borges; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2017-11-11

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry with Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD-MS) showed one major chemical component, the flavonoid rutin and phenolics compounds. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan. For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. serrulatus venom and were, simultaneously, treated with extracts, antivenom, rutin or saline. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs. This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. pyrifolium against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom and carrageenan, revealing that this extract and its bioactive molecules, specifically rutin, may present potential anti-inflammatory application.

  20. Two-dimensional sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of AaH IT, an anti-insect toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. Sequential resonance assignments and folding of the polypeptide chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbon, H. (Laboratoire de Biochimie, Marseille (France)); Weber, C.; Braun, W. (Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    1991-02-19

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for the polypeptide backbone and for most of the amino acid side-chain protons, as well as the general folding of AaH IT, are described. AaH IT is a neurotoxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector and is specifically active on the insect nervous system. The secondary structure and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in the regular secondary structure elements are deduced from nuclear Overhauser effects and the sequence locations of the slowly exchanging amide protons. The backbone folding is determined by distance geometry calculations with the DISMAN program. The regular secondary structure includes two and a half turns of {alpha}-helix running from residues 21 to 30 and a three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet including peptides 3-5, 34-38, and 41-46. Two tight turns are present, one connecting the end of the {alpha}-helix to an external strand of the {beta}-sheet, i.e., turn 31-34, and another connecting this same strand to the central one, i.e., turn 38-41. The differences in the specificity of these related proteins, which are able to discriminate between mammalian and insect voltage-dependent sodium channels of excitable tissues, are most probably brought about by the position of the C-terminal peptide with regard to a hydrophobic surface common to all scorpion toxins examined thus far. Thus, the interaction of a given scorpion toxin with its receptor might well be governed by the presence of this solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface, whereas adjacent areas modulate the specificity of the interaction.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using 125I-alpha scorpion toxin. I. Preferential labeling of glial cells on the presynaptic side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudier, J.L.; Jover, E.; Cau, P.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-scorpion toxins bind specifically to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in excitable membranes, and binding is potential-dependent. The radioiodinated toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (alpha ScTx) was used to localize voltage-sensitive sodium channels on the presynaptic side of mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopy. Silver grain localization was analyzed by the cross-fire method. At the light-microscopic level, grain density over NMJ appeared 6-8x higher than over nonjunctional muscle membrane. The specificity of labeling was verified by competition/displacement with an excess of native alpha ScTx. Labeling was also inhibited by incubation in depolarizing conditions, showing its potential-dependence. At the electron-microscopic level, analysis showed that voltage-sensitive sodium channels labeled with alpha ScTx were almost exclusively localized on membranes, as expected. Due to washout after incubation, appreciable numbers of binding sites were not found on the postsynaptic membranes. However, on the presynaptic side, alpha ScTx-labeled voltage-sensitive sodium channels were localized on the membrane of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells covering NMJ. The axonal presynaptic membrane was not labeled. These results show that voltage-sensitive sodium channels are present on glial cells in vivo, as already demonstrated in vitro. It is proposed that these glial channels could be indirectly involved in the ionic homeostasis of the axonal environment

  2. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  3. Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous to humans. Toxins also include some medicines that are helpful in small doses, but poisonous in large amounts. Most toxins that cause problems ...

  4. Assembling an arsenal, the scorpion way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishmar Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For survival, scorpions depend on a wide array of short neurotoxic polypeptides. The venoms of scorpions from the most studied group, the Buthida, are a rich source of small, 23–78 amino acid-long peptides, well packed by either three or four disulfide bridges that affect ion channel function in excitable and non-excitable cells. Results In this work, by constructing a toxin transcripts data set from the venom gland of the scorpion Buthus occitanus israelis, we were able to follow the evolutionary path leading to mature toxin diversification and suggest a mechanism for leader peptide hyper-conservation. Toxins from each family were more closely related to one another than to toxins from other species, implying that fixation of duplicated genes followed speciation, suggesting early gene conversion events. Upon fixation, the mature toxin-coding domain was subjected to diversifying selection resulting in a significantly higher substitution rate that can be explained solely by diversifying selection. In contrast to the mature peptide, the leader peptide sequence was hyper-conserved and characterized by an atypical sub-neutral synonymous substitution rate. We interpret this as resulting from purifying selection acting on both the peptide and, as reported here for the first time, the DNA sequence, to create a toxin family-specific codon bias. Conclusion We thus propose that scorpion toxin genes were shaped by selective forces acting at three levels, namely (1 diversifying the mature toxin, (2 conserving the leader peptide amino acid sequence and intriguingly, (3 conserving the leader DNA sequences.

  5. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH INSECTS AND SCORPIONS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Stinging or biting insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. ...

  6. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  7. Scorpion toxins prefer salt solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikouee, A.; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), 287/1-287/14 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : ionic solutions * molecular dynamics * nonaqueous media * secondary structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2015

  8. Scorpion sting in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of scorpion stings in a district with potentially lethal scorpions. Design. Case series of consecutive scorpion sting victims. Setting. Manama HospitaJ and all seven rural health centres in Gwanda South District, Zimbabwe (population. 62500). Participants.

  9. Proteínas do soro sanguíneo de cães inoculados com veneno de Tityus serrulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein profile of twelve healthy adult dogs averaging 14.2±5.4kg was evaluated after the inoculation of yellow scorpion venom (Tityus serrulatus. The animals were randomly divided in two experimental groups (G (n= 6: GI control, which received 0.5mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS subcutaneously in the medial side of the left thigh (MSLT, and GII which received T. serrulatus venom (250μg/kg, diluted in 0.5mL of PBS subcutaneously in the MSLT. Blood samples were collected before the venom inoculation (time zero and after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h to obtain serum for measurement of total proteins. The fractionated protein profile was done by electrophoresis on agarose films using Tris and Amido Black staining and quantification of albumin and globulin fractions by software. The results showed no changes in the levels of total proteins, albumin and α, β and γ globulin or reversal of the albumin:globulin ratio between the groups, concluding that the dose of 250μg/kg of Tityus serrulatus venom did not induce acute phase proteins in dogs.

  10. A simple protocol for venom peptide barcoding in scorpions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schaffrath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms contain many species-specific peptides which target ion channels in cell membranes. Without harming the scorpions, these peptides can easily be extracted and detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. So far, only few studies compared the venom of different species solely for taxonomic purposes. Here, we describe a very simple protocol for venom extraction and mass fingerprinting that was developed for peptide barcoding (venom code for species identification and facilitates reproducibility if sample preparation is performed under field conditions. This approach may serve as suitable basis for a taxonomy-oriented scorpion toxin database that interacts with MALDI-TOF mass spectra.

  11. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest...... at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation...

  12. Study of the Influence of Gamma Radiation on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Action s of Leiurus Quinquestriatus Scorpion Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabo, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, scorpions have no back bone, as they are invertebrates. Scorpions belong to the phylum arthropoda, their bodies are segmented and their legs are jointed. They belong to the class arachnida, because they have eight legs, two pedipalps, two chelicerae and a body composed of eighteen segments. The most important species of Buthidae family are Buthotus tamulus, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus australis, Tityus serrulatus, and Centruroides suffusus (Minton, 2010). Scorpions are found in East Africa, Middle East, India, as well as Central and South America. Classification of scorpions from Africa and Middle East, has been summarized by Vachon, (1966). Unlike snakes, all scorpions are venomous. The venom is injected by means of a stinger found at the tip of the telson, the terminal structure of the tail. The smallest adults may range from approximately 2 to 3 cm and the largest between 15 to 25 cm (Bucherl, 1971). Scorpions have quite variable life spans. The age range appears to be approximately 4–25 years. Scorpions prefer to live in areas where the temperatures range from 20 °C to 37 °C, but may survive from freezing temperatures to the desert heat (Hadley, 1970; Hannah's et al., 2006). The death stalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus), is a member of the Buthidae family. It is also known as Palestine yellow scorpion, Omdurman scorpion, Israeli desert scorpion and numerous other colloquial names. To eliminate confusion, especially with potentially dangerous species, the scientific name is normally used to refer to them. The name Leiurus quinquestriatus roughly translates into English as f ive-striped smooth-tail . Other species of the genus Leiurus are often referred to as d eathstalkers a s well (Werness, 2004; Minton, 2010).

  13. An ERG channel inhibitor from the scorpion Buthus eupeus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Y.V.; Kozlov, S.A.; Lipkin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The isolation of the peptide inhibitor of M-type K(+) current, BeKm-1, from the venom of the Central Asian scorpion Buthus eupeus has been described previously (Fillipov A. K., Kozlov, S. A., Pluzhnikov, K. A., Grishin, E. V., and Brown, D. A. (1996) FEBS Lett. 384, 277-280). Here we report...... that the precursor contains a signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues. The mature toxin consists of 36 amino acid residues. BeKm-1 belongs to the family of scorpion venom potassium channel blockers and represents a new subgroup of these toxins. The recombinant BeKm-1 was produced as a Protein A fusion product...

  14. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  15. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    .... Presentations on arthropod toxins included work on scorpion neurotoxins, K+ channel-blocking peptides, lice and wasp proteins, stinging insect venom allergens and Australian funnel-web spider toxins...

  16. Heterologous expression of rTsHyal-1: the first recombinant hyaluronidase of scorpion venom produced in Pichia pastoris system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Boldrini-França, Johara; de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Karla; Cardoso, Iara Aimê; De Pauw, Edwin; Quinton, Loïc; Kashima, Simone; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2018-04-01

    In general, hyaluronidases have a broad potential application on medicine and esthetics fields. Hyaluronidases from animal venoms cleave hyaluronan present in the extracellular matrix, acting as spreading factors of toxins into the tissues of the victim. However, the in-depth characterization of hyaluronidase from animal venoms has been neglected due to its instability and low concentration in the venom, which hamper its isolation. Thus, heterologous expression of hyaluronidase acts as a biotechnological tool in the obtainment of enough amounts of the enzyme for structural and functional studies. Therefore, this study produced a recombinant hyaluronidase from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom, designated as rTsHyal-1, in the Pichia pastoris system. Thus, a gene for TsHyal-1 (gb|KF623285.1) was synthesized and cloned into the pPICZαA vector (GenScript Corporation) for heterologous expression in P. pastoris. rTsHyal-1 was expressed in laboratorial scale in a buffered minimal medium containing methanol (BMM) for 96 h with daily addition of methanol. Expression of rTsHyal-1 resulted in a total protein yield of 0.266 mg/mL. rTsHyal-1 partially purified through cation exchange chromatography presented a specific activity of 1097 TRU/mg, against 838 TRU/mg for the final expressed material, representing a 1.31-fold purification. rTsHyal-1 has molecular mass of 49.5 kDa, and treatment with PNGase F and analysis by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) indicated a potential N-glycosylation of 4.5 kDa. Additionally, de novo sequencing of rTsHyal-1, performed in MALDI-TOF and Q Exactive Orbitrap MS, resulted in 46.8% of protein sequence coverage. rTsHyal-1 presents the highest substrate specificity to hyaluronan followed by chondroitin-6-sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate and showed an optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 40 °C. These results validate the biotechnological process for the heterologous expression of rTsHyal-1. This is the first recombinant

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the Mexican scorpion Hadrurus gertschi (Arachnida: Scorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de la Vega Ricardo C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scorpions like other venomous animals posses a highly specialized organ that produces, secretes and disposes the venom components. In these animals, the last postabdominal segment, named telson, contains a pair of venomous glands connected to the stinger. The isolation of numerous scorpion toxins, along with cDNA-based gene cloning and, more recently, proteomic analyses have provided us with a large collection of venom components sequences. However, all of them are secreted, or at least are predicted to be secretable gene products. Therefore very little is known about the cellular processes that normally take place inside the glands for production of the venom mixture. To gain insights into the scorpion venom gland biology, we have decided to perform a transcriptomic analysis by constructing a cDNA library and conducting a random sequencing screening of the transcripts. Results From the cDNA library prepared from a single venom gland of the scorpion Hadrurus gertschi, 160 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were analyzed. These transcripts were further clustered into 68 unique sequences (20 contigs and 48 singlets, with an average length of 919 bp. Half of the ESTs can be confidentially assigned as homologues of annotated gene products. Annotation of these ESTs, with the aid of Gene Ontology terms and homology to eukaryotic orthologous groups, reveals some cellular processes important for venom gland function; including high protein synthesis, tuned posttranslational processing and trafficking. Nonetheless, the main group of the identified gene products includes ESTs similar to known scorpion toxins or other previously characterized scorpion venom components, which account for nearly 60% of the identified proteins. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this report contains the first transcriptome analysis of genes transcribed by the venomous gland of a scorpion. The data were obtained for the species Hadrurus gertschi, belonging

  18. Whole Transcriptome of the Venom Gland from Urodacus yaschenkoi Scorpion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Australian scorpion venoms have been poorly studied, probably because they do not pose an evident threat to humans. In addition, the continent has other medically important venomous animals capable of causing serious health problems. Urodacus yaschenkoi belongs to the most widely distributed family of Australian scorpions (Urodacidae and it is found all over the continent, making it a useful model system for studying venom composition and evolution. This communication reports the whole set of mRNA transcripts produced by the venom gland. U. yaschenkoi venom is as complex as its overseas counterparts. These transcripts certainly code for several components similar to known scorpion venom components, such as: alpha-KTxs, beta-KTxs, calcins, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, sodium-channel toxins, toxin-like peptides, allergens, La1-like, hyaluronidases, ribosomal proteins, proteasome components and proteins related to cellular processes. A comparison with the venom gland transcriptome of Centruroides noxius (Buthidae showed that these two scorpions have similar components related to biological processes, although important differences occur among the venom toxins. In contrast, a comparison with sequences reported for Urodacus manicatus revealed that these two Urodacidae species possess the same subfamily of scorpion toxins. A comparison with sequences of an U. yaschenkoi cDNA library previously reported by our group showed that both techniques are reliable for the description of the venom components, but the whole transcriptome generated with Next Generation Sequencing platform provides sequences of all transcripts expressed. Several of which were identified in the proteome, but many more transcripts were identified including uncommon transcripts. The information reported here constitutes a reference for non-Buthidae scorpion venoms, providing a comprehensive view of genes that are involved in venom production. Further, this work

  19. Whole Transcriptome of the Venom Gland from Urodacus yaschenkoi Scorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Juárez-González, Víctor Rivelino; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-01-01

    Australian scorpion venoms have been poorly studied, probably because they do not pose an evident threat to humans. In addition, the continent has other medically important venomous animals capable of causing serious health problems. Urodacus yaschenkoi belongs to the most widely distributed family of Australian scorpions (Urodacidae) and it is found all over the continent, making it a useful model system for studying venom composition and evolution. This communication reports the whole set of mRNA transcripts produced by the venom gland. U. yaschenkoi venom is as complex as its overseas counterparts. These transcripts certainly code for several components similar to known scorpion venom components, such as: alpha-KTxs, beta-KTxs, calcins, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, sodium-channel toxins, toxin-like peptides, allergens, La1-like, hyaluronidases, ribosomal proteins, proteasome components and proteins related to cellular processes. A comparison with the venom gland transcriptome of Centruroides noxius (Buthidae) showed that these two scorpions have similar components related to biological processes, although important differences occur among the venom toxins. In contrast, a comparison with sequences reported for Urodacus manicatus revealed that these two Urodacidae species possess the same subfamily of scorpion toxins. A comparison with sequences of an U. yaschenkoi cDNA library previously reported by our group showed that both techniques are reliable for the description of the venom components, but the whole transcriptome generated with Next Generation Sequencing platform provides sequences of all transcripts expressed. Several of which were identified in the proteome, but many more transcripts were identified including uncommon transcripts. The information reported here constitutes a reference for non-Buthidae scorpion venoms, providing a comprehensive view of genes that are involved in venom production. Further, this work identifies new putative

  20. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest...

  1. Functional and structural study comparing the C-terminal amidated β-neurotoxin Ts1 with its isoform Ts1-G isolated from Tityus serrulatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, V A; Cremonez, C M; Anjolette, F A P; Aguiar, J F; Varanda, W A; Arantes, E C

    2014-06-01

    Mature Ts1, the main neurotoxin from Tityus serrulatus venom, has its C-terminal Cys amidated, while the isolated isoform of Ts1, named Ts1-G, keeps the non-amidated Gly residue at the C-terminal region, allowing the study of the comparative functional importance of amidation at the C-terminal between these two native toxins. Voltage dependent sodium current measurements showed that the affinity of Ts1-G for sodium channels is smaller than that of the mature Ts1, confirming the important role played by the C-terminal amidation in determining Ts1 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scorpionism in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    venom is used in the treatment of latrodectism.4 It was consequently difficult to distinguish between a sponta- .... who were mechanically ventilated in Tygerberg Hospital showed signs of aspiration pneumonia on the chest ..... from guinea pig ileum by scorpion venom. Toxieon 1968; 5: 277-. 281. 14. RomeI' G, Abita JP, ...

  3. A sensitive radioimmunoassay of scorpion neurotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, M.; Delori, P.; Bechis, G.; Rochat, H.

    1978-01-01

    Scorpion neurotoxins form a family of homologous proteins which are basic and have approx. mol. wt. 7000. They consist of a single peptide chain crosslinked by four disulfide bridges. The complete amino acid sequences of some of them as well as the N-terminal of others, have been determined: their comparison has led to a classification into four groups. They have been shown to affect the conduction of ions through membrane channels and are thus good tools for the study of these structures on the molecular level. Toxins I and II of Androctonus australis Hector have been labelled with 125 I and specific radioactivities up to 2000 Ci/mmol have been obtained. Here the setting up of a radioimmunoassay allowing a sensitive and specific detection of toxin I of Androctonus australis Hector is reported

  4. Scorpion sting and hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ratti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scorpion stings are very frequent in Centre-South America. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms are: local pain and redness, tachycardia, irritability, hypertensive crisis; but it differs with the scorpion species involved. CLINICAL CASE We describe a scorpion sting in a woman who came back from a holiday in Mexico. Consequently she had a hypertensive crisis treated with furosemide. DISCUSSION The scorpion sting can be very dangerous. There are many species which could be lethal; in these cases, identifying the exact species can be essential to save the patient’s life. The treatment consists of symptomatic measures, support of vital functions and i.v. antivenom.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Quintero-Hernández

    Full Text Available Scorpions belonging to the Buthidae family have traditionally drawn much of the biochemist's attention due to the strong toxicity of their venoms. Scorpions not toxic to mammals, however, also have complex venoms. They have been shown to be an important source of bioactive peptides, some of them identified as potential drug candidates for the treatment of several emerging diseases and conditions. It is therefore important to characterize the large diversity of components found in the non-Buthidae venoms. As a contribution to this goal, this manuscript reports the construction and characterization of cDNA libraries from four scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus of the Vaejovidae family: Vaejovis mexicanus, V. intrepidus, V. subcristatus and V. punctatus. Some sequences coding for channel-acting toxins were found, as expected, but the main transcribed genes in the glands actively producing venom were those coding for non disulfide-bridged peptides. The ESTs coding for putative channel-acting toxins, corresponded to sodium channel β toxins, to members of the potassium channel-acting α or κ families, and to calcium channel-acting toxins of the calcin family. Transcripts for scorpine-like peptides of two different lengths were found, with some of the species coding for the two kinds. One sequence coding for La1-like peptides, of yet unknown function, was found for each species. Finally, the most abundant transcripts corresponded to peptides belonging to the long chain multifunctional NDBP-2 family and to the short antimicrobials of the NDBP-4 family. This apparent venom composition is in correspondence with the data obtained to date for other non-Buthidae species. Our study constitutes the first approach to the characterization of the venom gland transcriptome for scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovidae family.

  6. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  7. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N.; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with ∼ 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI ∼ 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI ∼ 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with ∼ 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI ∼ 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course

  8. Arizona bark scorpion venom resistance in the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus.

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    Bradley H Hopp

    Full Text Available The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus, a gleaning bat found in the western United States and Mexico, hunts a wide variety of ground-dwelling prey, including scorpions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the pallid bat is resistant to scorpion venom, but no systematic study has been performed. Here we show with behavioral measures and direct injection of venom that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus. Our results show that the pallid bat is stung multiple times during a hunt without any noticeable effect on behavior. In addition, direct injection of venom at mouse LD50 concentrations (1.5 mg/kg has no effect on bat behavior. At the highest concentration tested (10 mg/kg, three out of four bats showed no effects. One of the four bats showed a transient effect suggesting that additional studies are required to identify potential regional variation in venom tolerance. Scorpion venom is a cocktail of toxins, some of which activate voltage-gated sodium ion channels, causing intense pain. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG contain nociceptive neurons and are principal targets of scorpion venom toxins. To understand if mutations in specific ion channels contribute to venom resistance, a pallid bat DRG transcriptome was generated. As sodium channels are a major target of scorpion venom, we identified amino acid substitutions present in the pallid bat that may lead to venom resistance. Some of these substitutions are similar to corresponding amino acids in sodium channel isoforms responsible for reduced venom binding activity. The substitution found previously in the grasshopper mouse providing venom resistance to the bark scorpion is not present in the pallid bat, indicating a potentially novel mechanism for venom resistance in the bat that remains to be identified. Taken together, these results indicate that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the bark scorpion and altered sodium ion channel function may

  9. Scorpion Venom and the Inflammatory Response

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    Vera L. Petricevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms consist of a complex of several toxins that exhibit a wide range of biological properties and actions, as well as chemical compositions, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. These venoms are associated with high morbility and mortality, especially among children. Victims of envenoming by a scorpion suffer a variety of pathologies, involving mainly both sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation as well as central manifestations such as irritability, hyperthermia, vomiting, profuse salivation, tremor, and convulsion. The clinical signs and symptoms observed in humans and experimental animals are related with an excessive systemic host inflammatory response to stings and stings, respectively. Although the pathophysiology of envenomation is complex and not yet fully understood, venom and immune responses are known to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators that are largely mediated by cytokines. In models of severe systemic inflammation produced by injection of high doses of venom or venoms products, the increase in production of proinflammatory cytokines significantly contributes to immunological imbalance, multiple organ dysfunction and death. The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and also physiological events in the host such as activation of vasodilatation, hypotension, and increased of vessel permeability.

  10. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

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    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  11. Scorpion Potassium Channel-blocking Defensin Highlights a Functional Link with Neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lanxia; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongyun; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-03-25

    The structural similarity between defensins and scorpion neurotoxins suggests that they might have evolved from a common ancestor. However, there is no direct experimental evidence demonstrating a functional link between scorpion neurotoxins and defensins. The scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 from Mesobuthus martensiiKarsch contains 37 amino acid residues and a conserved cystine-stabilized α/β structural fold. The recombinant BmKDfsin4, a classical defensin, has been found to have inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteusas well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Interestingly, electrophysiological experiments showed that BmKDfsin4,like scorpion potassium channel neurotoxins, could effectively inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channel currents, and its IC50value for the Kv1.3 channel was 510.2 nm Similar to the structure-function relationships of classical scorpion potassium channel-blocking toxins, basic residues (Lys-13 and Arg-19) of BmKDfsin4 play critical roles in peptide-Kv1.3 channel interactions. Furthermore, mutagenesis and electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the channel extracellular pore region is the binding site of BmKDfsin4, indicating that BmKDfsin4 adopts the same mechanism for blocking potassium channel currents as classical scorpion toxins. Taken together, our work identifies scorpion BmKDfsin4 as the first invertebrate defensin to block potassium channels. These findings not only demonstrate that defensins from invertebrate animals are a novel type of potassium channel blockers but also provide evidence of a functional link between defensins and neurotoxins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Severe scorpion envenomation in Brazil: clinical, laboratory and anatomopathological aspects Escorpionismo grave no Brasil: aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e anatomopatológicos

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    Palmira Cupo

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings in Brazil are important not only because of their incidence but also for their potential ability to induce severe, and often fatal, clinical situations, especially among children. In this report we present the clinical and laboratory data of 4 patients victims of scorpion stings by T. serrulatus, who developed heart failure and pulmonary edema, with 3 of them dying within 24 hours of the sting. Anatomopathologic study of these patients revealed diffuse areas of myocardiocytolysis in addition to pulmonary edema. The surviving child presented enzymatic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes compatible with severe cardiac involvement, which were reversed within 5 days. These findings reinforce the need for continuous monitoring of patients with severe scorpion envenoming during the hours immediately following the sting.Os acidentes escorpiônicos no Brasil, assumem grande importancia não só pela sua incidência como pela sua potencialidade em induzir quadros clínicos graves, muitas vezes fatais, principalmente em crianças. Apresentamos neste relato os dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 4 pacientes vítimas de escorpionismo, causado pelo T. serrulatus, que evoluíram com falência cardíaca e edema pulmonar, sendo que 3 foram a óbito dentro das primeiras 24 horas após acidente. O estudo anátomopatológico desses pacientes revelou áreas de miocardiocitólise, além do edema pulmonar. Na criança que sobreviveu foram detectadas alterações enzimáticas, eletro e ecocardiográficas compatíveis com grave comprometimento cardíaco, reversíveis dentro de 5 dias. Tais achados reafirmam a necessidade de monitorização contínua no paciente com escorpionismo grave, nas horas subsequentes ao envenenamento.

  13. Scrotum Injury by Scorpion Sting

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    R Dehghani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Androctonus crassicauda is the second most frequent causes of scorpion sting in south-west Iran. Its venom can cause sever pain, autonomic, central nervous system (CNS, muscle function disturbances, and death. Appropriate medi­cal and nursing cares can lead to complete recovery with no sequel .The majority of scorpion stings are oligosympto­matic, occurring mainly on the hands and feet (about 90%. Here one rare case of a scorpion sting on the scro­tum is reported from Kashan, central Iran.                                                 

  14. Scrotum Injury by Scorpion Sting

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    R Dehghani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Androctonus crassicauda is the second most frequent causes of scorpion sting in south-west Iran. Its venom can cause sever pain, autonomic, central nervous system (CNS, muscle function disturbances, and death. Appropriate medi­cal and nursing cares can lead to complete recovery with no sequel .The majority of scorpion stings are oligosympto­matic, occurring mainly on the hands and feet (about 90%. Here one rare case of a scorpion sting on the scro­tum is reported from Kashan, central Iran.                                                 

  15. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.

  16. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

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    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  17. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  18. In vitro vasodilatory effect of aqueous leaf extract of Thymus serrulatus on thoracic aorta of Guinea pigs

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    Bekesho Geleta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that T. serrulatus aqueous leaf extract has vasodilatory activity which might result in antihypertensive effect and its vasodilatory effect is endothelium-dependent. This might support the traditional claim of the plant in hypertensive.

  19. ClanTox: a classifier of short animal toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Naamati, Guy; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Toxins are detected in sporadic species along the evolutionary tree of the animal kingdom. Venomous animals include scorpions, snakes, bees, wasps, frogs and numerous animals living in the sea such as the stonefish, snail, jellyfish, hydra and more. Interestingly, proteins that share a common scaffold with animal toxins also exist in non-venomous species. However, due to their short length and primary sequence diversity, these, toxin-like proteins remain undetected by classical search engines...

  20. The scorpion families and their geographical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    A synoptic table is proposed for the families and genera of scorpions currently regarded as valid. Because there is considerable disagreement about the classification of scorpions, many changes are to be expected in the future. The classification proposed here is followed by considerations regarding the geographical distribution of each family.

  1. The action of red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus coconsis, pocock venom and its isolated protein fractions on blood sodium levels

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    R. V. Badhe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus or Buthus tamulus venom samples were collected at different regions of India: western (Chiplun and Ahmednagar from Maharashtra State and southern (Ratnagiri and Chennai from Tamil Nadu State. The action of whole venoms on the blood sodium levels of mice was assessed using flame photometry. Seven peptides were common to all venom samples. They were separated using the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique and their activities were also studied using flame photometry. There was a decrease in the concentration of sodium ions in the serum, which suggested the blockage of such ions by scorpion venom toxins. Among the 10 protein bands isolated, the band at 79.6 kDa presented maximum activity in decreasing serum sodium ions concentration. Whole venom from Chiplun region also showed maximum activity. The western blotting technique demonstrated that the anti-scorpion venom sera produced by Haffkine Biopharmaceuticals Corporation Ltd., India, neutralized all four venom samples.

  2. Scorpion envenomation in children and its management

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    R V Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed to describe our experience with epidemiological characteristics, management options, and outcome of scorpion envenomation in children. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted at Narayana Medical College and Hospital. The epidemiologic details including geographical locality of the event, age distribution, gender, and sting sites were noted in all hospitalized children with scorpion bite injury. Results: During the study period, a total 52 children were managed for scorpion sting. Mean age was 8.87 years. Male children were commoner victims of scorpion sting. Scorpion sting had bimodal pattern. Prazocin was used in 25 children. There was evidence of pulmonary edema in 23 cases. Seven patients required elective ventilation, and 5 of them could be weaned off within 72 hours. Mean hospital stay was 3.69 days. Two children expired in the present series. Conclusion: In present study, there was bimodal distribution of the scorpion sting cases, male children were more affected, and almost all of them improved with good outcome. We did not use anti-venin in the present study. The data from the study will serve not only to create heightened public awareness about scorpion envenomation but also to develop public awareness strategies and preventive measures.

  3. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae) Scorpion Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Ya?mur, Ersen Ayd?n; ?zkan, ?zcan; Karaer, K Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal...

  4. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

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    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  5. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  6. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E.

    1990-01-01

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels

  7. Sex Differences in Defensive Behavior and Venom of The Striped Bark Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D W; Jones, A D; Goldston, J S; Rowe, M P; Rowe, A H

    2016-11-01

    Studies of venom variability have advanced from describing the mechanisms of action and relative potency of medically important toxins to understanding the ecological and evolutionary causes of the variability itself. While most studies have focused on differences in venoms among taxa, populations, or age-classes, there may be intersexual effects as well. Striped bark scorpions (Centruroides vittatus) provide a good model for examining sex differences in venom composition and efficacy, as this species exhibits dramatic sexual dimorphism in both size and defensive behavior; when threatened by an enemy, larger, slower females stand and fight while smaller, fleeter males prefer to run. We here add evidence suggesting that male and female C. vittatus indeed have different defensive propensities; when threatened via an electrical stimulus, females were more likely to sting than were males. We reasoned that intersexual differences in defensive phenotypes would select for venoms with different functions in the two sexes; female venoms should be effective at predator deterrence, whereas male venoms, less utilized defensively, might be better suited to capturing prey or courting females. This rationale led to our predictions that females would inject more venom and/or possess more painful venom than males. We were wrong. While females do inject more venom than males in a defensive sting, females are also larger; when adjusted for body size, male and female C. vittatus commit equal masses of venom in a sting to a potential enemy. Additionally, house mice (Mus musculus) find an injection of male venom more irritating than an equal amount of female venom, likely because male venom contains more of the toxins that induce pain. Taken together, our results suggest that identifying the ultimate causes of venom variability will, as we move beyond adaptive storytelling, be hard-won. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and

  8. Scorpion envenomation and its management in adults

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    Meriga Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, management, and outcome of adult patients of scorpion envenomation. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study involving a total of 40 patients conducted at Narayana Medical College and Hospital. All the patients had complete blood count, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, liver function test, urine examination, electrocardiography, X-ray chest, and two-dimensional echocardiography as and when indicated. Results: During the study period, a total 40 adult patients were managed for scorpion sting. Mean age was 34.93 ± 12.6 years. Farmers 34 (85% cases were more commonly bitten by scorpion. Lower limbs (65% were common site of sting than upper limbs. Stings were more frequent during daytime 27 67.5% vs. 32.5%. Only 12 patients (30% received first aid before coming to our hospital. Many patients 28 (70% reached the hospital within 6 h of scorpion sting. Most of the patients 32 (80% were conscious. There was evidence of pulmonary edema in 15 (37.5% patients. Eight (20% patients required elective ventilation and one of the patients had fatal outcome giving an overall mortality of 2.5%. Mean hospital stay was 3.15 ± 1.67 days. Conclusion: Scorpion stings are more frequent in male farmers with most stings occurring in the lower limbs during the daytime in the study population. Local pain was the most common manifestation. Scorpion stings could nonetheless be associated with severe complications with fatal outcome. We recommend public awareness about preventive measures and early management of scorpion sting as measures of reducing scorpion sting related morbidity and mortality.

  9. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

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    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae Scorpion Venom

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    ErsenAydın Yağmur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip injections into mice (20±1g and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining.Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness.Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the venom from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, B I; Coronas, F I V; Restano-Cassulini, R; Rodríguez, R R; Possani, L D

    2011-07-01

    This communication describes the first general biochemical, molecular and functional characterization of the venom from the Cuban blue scorpion Rhopalurus junceus, which is often used as a natural product for anti-cancer therapy in Cuba. The soluble venom of this arachnid is not toxic to mice, injected intraperitoneally at doses up to 200 μg/20 g body weight, but it is deadly to insects at doses of 10 μg per animal. The venom causes typical alpha and beta-effects on Na+ channels, when assayed using patch-clamp techniques in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. It also affects K+ currents conducted by ERG (ether-a-go-go related gene) channels. The soluble venom was shown to display phospholipase, hyaluronidase and anti-microbial activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom can separate at least 50 components, among which are peptides lethal to crickets. Four such peptides were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses and N-terminal amino acid sequence were determined. The major component (RjAa12f) was fully sequenced by Edman degradation. It contains 64 amino acid residues and four disulfide bridges, similar to other known scorpion toxins. A cDNA library prepared from the venomous glands of one scorpion allowed cloning 18 genes that code for peptides of the venom, including RjA12f and eleven other closely related genes. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cloned genes showed that this scorpion contains sodium channel like toxin sequences clearly segregated into two monophyletic clusters. Considering the complex set of effects on Na+ currents verified here, this venom certainly warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Cardiogenic Shock due to Scorpion Envenomation

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    Carlos Henrique Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of severe scorpion envenomation in an adult patient, with the presence of very rapid sustained ventricular tachycardia followed by cardiogenic shock, which was reversed by scorpion antivenom administration. Scorpion venom causes cardiac changes that can lead to an environment favoring arrhythmogenesis.

  13. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Boadas, Jenny; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Borges, Adolfo; Boadas, Jesús; Marcano, Jenny; Turkali, Iván; De Los Ríos, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae) are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school), in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.

  14. Stool C difficile toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... be analyzed. There are several ways to detect C difficile toxin in the stool sample. Enzyme immunoassay ( ...

  15. Identification and determination of Lorestan scorpions funa

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    mahmood reza Taherian

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Results shows that most of the scorpions belonged to the Buthidae family and Buthuthus Snulcyi kind which have painful stings which affect on nervous system , and are very dangerous and fatal for children and aged people , so it is important to know the treatment methods to fight against their poisons.

  16. Scorpion sting pain: Which way to treat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... injected lidocaine. However, when lidocaine fails to relieve pain, alternative therapy must be sought. Chloroquine, a quinoline derivative, which can disrupt neural transmission, was tried successfully in the case reported. Case Report. U.E., a 16‑year‑old boy presented with a 1‑hour history of scorpion sting ...

  17. Pulmonary Edema and Myocarditis Developing Due to Scorpion Stings

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    Sevdegul Karadas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.

  18. Profiling the resting venom gland of the scorpion Tityus stigmurus through a transcriptomic survey

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    Almeida Diego D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scorpion Tityus stigmurus is widely distributed in Northeastern Brazil and known to cause severe human envenoming, inducing pain, hyposthesia, edema, erythema, paresthesia, headaches and vomiting. The present study uses a transcriptomic approach to characterize the gene expression profile from the non-stimulated venom gland of Tityus stigmurus scorpion. Results A cDNA library was constructed and 540 clones were sequenced and grouped into 153 clusters, with one or more ESTs (expressed sequence tags. Forty-one percent of ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, with transcripts encoding antimicrobial toxins (AMP-like being the most abundant, followed by alfa KTx- like, beta KTx-like, beta NaTx-like and alfa NaTx-like. Our analysis indicated that 34% of the transcripts encode “other possible venom molecules”, which correspond to anionic peptides, hypothetical secreted peptides, metalloproteinases, cystein-rich peptides and lectins. Fifteen percent of ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts. Sequences without good matches corresponded to 11%. Conclusions This investigation provides the first global view of gene expression of the venom gland from Tityus stigmurus under resting conditions. This approach enables characterization of a large number of venom gland component molecules, which belong either to known or non yet described types of venom peptides and proteins from the Buthidae family.

  19. Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Francke, Oscar F.; Ureta, Carolina; Possani, Lourival D.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world’s medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided. PMID:26712787

  20. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Coronas, Fredy I V; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Gonz?lez-Morales, Lidia; L?pez, Georgina Espinosa; Urquiola, Ariel Ruiz; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones)...

  1. Scorpion envenomation study in Behbahan County, Southwest Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and epidemiology of scorpion sting cases that were referred to the health services centers of Behbahan County, Khuzistan Province, southwestern Iran, during the two yeare (2007-2008. Methods: In this descriptive retrospective research, the data has come from files of scorpionstung patients referring to the health services centers of Behbahan during study period. A special scorpion sting sheet was prepared and completed for every case of scorpion sting. Analysis of 3441 case sheets received during this period was carried out. The frequencies of medical and entomoepidemiologic parameters were turned to the percentage position. Results: A total of 3 441 cases of scorpion stings were reported during the two-year period from 2007 to 2008. The average incidence of scorpion stings was 8.8‰ in the two years. The frequency of cases was higher during August, September, June and July that 2 056 cases of scorpion stings were reported. Most stings were occurred during summer. Nearly 51.3% of the cases were men. All cases had received antivenin. Majority of scorpion sting cases (56.5% lived in the rural areas. The most common sting site was the hand. About 74.4% have received the antivenin 0-6 h after the sting. The early injection of the antivenin is very important. The most of the cases of scorpion stings (59% were occurred by yellow scorpions. Conclusions: Surveillance for cases of scorpion stings must begin at all regions of Behbahan County. Treatment of cases of scorpion stings is conducted according to a protocol set by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This protocol included directions for lines of treatment and the dose of antivenin recommended. Thereafter all cases are referred to hospital for further observation and management.

  2. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  3. Phylogeography of Buthus Leach , 1815 (Scorpiones: Buthidae): a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeography of Buthus Leach , 1815 (Scorpiones: Buthidae): a multigene molecular approach reveals a further complex evolutionary history in the Maghreb. ... The distribution of the scorpion genus Buthus Leach, 1815 includes southwestern Europe, North and Central Africa and extends east towards the Arabian ...

  4. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  5. Mass fingerprinting of the venom and transcriptome of venom gland of scorpion Centruroides tecomanus.

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    Laura L Valdez-Velázquez

    Full Text Available Centruroides tecomanus is a Mexican scorpion endemic of the State of Colima, that causes human fatalities. This communication describes a proteome analysis obtained from milked venom and a transcriptome analysis from a cDNA library constructed from two pairs of venom glands of this scorpion. High perfomance liquid chromatography separation of soluble venom produced 80 fractions, from which at least 104 individual components were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, showing to contain molecular masses from 259 to 44,392 Da. Most of these components are within the expected molecular masses for Na(+- and K(+-channel specific toxic peptides, supporting the clinical findings of intoxication, when humans are stung by this scorpion. From the cDNA library 162 clones were randomly chosen, from which 130 sequences of good quality were identified and were clustered in 28 contigs containing, each, two or more expressed sequence tags (EST and 49 singlets with only one EST. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis from 53% of the total ESTs showed that 81% (24 sequences are similar to known toxic peptides that affect Na(+-channel activity, and 19% (7 unique sequences are similar to K(+-channel especific toxins. Out of the 31 sequences, at least 8 peptides were confirmed by direct Edman degradation, using components isolated directly from the venom. The remaining 19%, 4%, 4%, 15% and 5% of the ESTs correspond respectively to proteins involved in cellular processes, antimicrobial peptides, venom components, proteins without defined function and sequences without similarity in databases. Among the cloned genes are those similar to metalloproteinases.

  6. Scorpion sheds 'tail' to escape: consequences and implications of autotomy in scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris.

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    Camilo I Mattoni

    Full Text Available Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or 'tail' in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion's digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism.

  7. Epidemiology of Scorpionism in Iran during 2009

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    Sina Rafizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scorpion sting is a major health problem in Iran. The aim of current study was to measure the inci­dence rates of scorpion stings, mortality, recovery, and affected age groups. The results of treatment with and with­out anti venom also were considered in the entire country during 2009.Methods: All the data were collected from emergency section of different hospitals and then were analyzed by re­lated software. The responsibility of such data collection and surveillance is related to the Department of Violence and Injury, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran.Results: A total incidence of 59.5/100000 was found for the 12-month period. During the study period the most and the least cases were reported from Khuzestan and Mazandaran provinces with incidence of 541 and 0 per 100000 respectively. Totally 40220 anti venom vials were used, i.e., the ratio of 91 vial/ 100 affected cases. The stings occur mainly in rural areas (57.7%. Young people with the age group of 15–24 years old were the most victims of stings. The mortality and recovery rates of cases who had received anti venom less than 6 h of stings were calculated as 0.01% and 99.9% respectively.Conclusion: The high incidence of scorpion stings in Iran especially in Khuzestan suggests the necessity of preven­tive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by community educating in the high prevalent areas. In addition prompt and local treatment is particularly important for infants and pre-school children.

  8. Adaptive evolution of insect selective excitatory β-type sodium channel neurotoxins from scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlan; Li, Zhongjie; Ma, Yibao

    2017-06-01

    Insect selective excitatory β-type sodium channel neurotoxins from scorpion venom (β-NaScTxs) are composed of about 70-76 amino acid residues and share a common scaffold stabilized by four unique disulfide bonds. The phylogenetic analysis of these toxins was hindered by limited sequence data. In our recent study, two new insect selective excitatory β-NaScTxs, LmIT and ImIT, were isolated from Lychas mucronatus and Isometrus maculatus, respectively. With the sequences previously reported, we examined the adaptive molecular evolution of insect selective excitatory β-NaScTxs by estimating the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous rate ratio (ω=d N /d S ). The results revealed 12 positively selected sites in the genes of insect selective excitatory β-NaScTxs. Moreover, these positively selected sites match well with the sites important for interacting with sodium channels, as demonstrated in previous mutagenesis study. These results reveal that adaptive evolution after gene duplication is one of the most important genetic mechanisms of scorpion neurotoxin diversification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiac disorders and mode of action of the Egyptian scorpion venom Androctonus bicolor on isolated toad’s heart

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    Mohamed A. Abdel-Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom is a complex mixture of components with various pharmacological and toxicological effects. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of toxins that specifically interact with ion channels of excitable cells. The Egyptian scorpion Androctonus bicolor belongs to the family of Buthidae and until now no information is available about the effect of its venom on cardiac muscles. Using an in vitro approach, cardiotoxicity and mode of action of A. bicolor venom on isolated toad’s heart were investigated. Direct application of scorpion venom (0.5 μg/ml into isolated toad’s heart induced a remarkable bradycardia concomitant with a protraction in the conduction time (P–R interval. In the meantime, a significant increase in the R-wave amplitude (ventricular contraction was noticed after 5 min of venom perfusion. Various cases of cardiac disorders were recorded such as sinus arrhythmias, ectopic beats and different degrees of heart block. Through using different autonomic and ion channel blockers, the possible mechanism of action of A. bicolor venom on isolated toad’s heart was revealed. The application of both atropine (4 μg/ml and verapamil (5 μg/ml could not alleviate the pronounced negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects. Meanwhile, a significant decrease in the R-wave amplitude was observed after propranolol (5 μg/ml application. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the venom of A. bicolor directly influenced the cardiac electrical activity of toads through β-adrenergic receptors. The direct effect of this venom on cardiac tissues may significantly contribute in the development of several cardiotoxic effects following scorpion sting.

  10. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

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    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  11. Reviewing the structure and function of the scorpion's hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Warburg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During a long-terms study of scorpions, it was possible to follow changes taking place in the mass, water and lipid content of the hepatopancreas in freshly caught Scorpio maurus fuscus. Cyclic events in the female's reproductive state were shown to be affected by the hepatopancreas. There was a high variability among scorpions in the concentrations of metals in the hepatopancreas. The significance of the hepatopancreas in the scorpion, as a multifunctional organ for both storage and filtering constituents, is reviewed and discussed, and various future avenues of research are outlined.

  12. S-alkylation of soft scorpionates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan-Nair, Rajeev; Moore, Dean; Chalmers, Kirsten; Wallace, Dawn; Diamond, Louise M; Darby, Lisa; Armstrong, David R; Reglinski, John; Spicer, Mark D

    2013-02-11

    The alkylation reactions of soft scorpionates are reported. The hydrotris(S-alkyl-methimazolyl)borate dications (alkyl = methyl, allyl, benzyl), which were prepared by the reaction of Tm(Me) anion and primary alkyl halides, have been isolated and structurally characterised. The reaction is, however, not universally successful. DFT analysis of these alkylation reactions (C=S versus B-H alkylation) indicates that the observed outcome is driven by kinetic factors. Extending the study to incorporate alternative imine thiones (mercaptobenzothiazole, bz; thiazoline, tz) led to the structural characterisation of di[aquo-μ-aquohydrotris(mercaptobenzothiazolyl)boratosodium], which contains sodium atoms in the κ(3)-S,S,S coordination mode. Alkylation of Na[Tbz] and Na[tzTtz] leads to decomposition resulting in the formation of the simple S-alkylated heterocycles. The analysis of the species involved in these reactions shows an inherent weakness in the B-N bond in soft scorpionates, which has implications for their use in more advanced chemistry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of two purified toxic fractions from Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom

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    SP Shirmardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iranian scorpions belong mainly to the Buthidae and Scorpionidae families, distributed into 16 genera and 25 species. In Iran, similar to other parts of the world, there are a few known species of scorpions responsible for severe envenoming; amongst which Mesobuthus eupeus is the most common. Its venom contains several toxin fractions that may affect the ion channel. In the present study purification, labeling and biological evaluation of M. eupeus venom are described. For separation, soluble venom was loaded on a chromatography column packed with Sephadex G-50 gel. Subsequently, the fractions were collected according to UV absorption at a wavelength of 280 nm. Toxic fraction (F3 was loaded on an anionic ion exchanger resin and then on a cationic resin. Finally, toxic subfractions F3.1.6 and F3.1.9 were labeled with 99mTc and injected into normal mice to distinguish excretion pathway. The venom toxic fraction was successfully obtained in its purified form. Radiolabeling of toxic fractions was performed at high specific activity with radiochemical purity of more than 97 and 95% respectively for F3.1.6 and F3.1.9. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with two toxic fractions usually show rapid clearance of the compounds from blood and tissue except for kidneys. Since tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical purpose, the present findings suggest that 99mTc labeling of venom is a useful tool for in vivo studies and comprises an excellent approach to monitoring the process of biodistribution and kinetics of toxins.

  14. A remarkable new cave scorpion of the family Pseudochactidae Gromov (Chelicerata, Scorpiones from Vietnam

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    Wilson Lourenco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of scorpion belonging to the family Pseudochactidae are described based on four specimens collected in the Tien Son cave at the Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. The new species represents a true troglobitic element, the first one known for the family Pseudochactidae. This represents the third known record of a pseudochactid, and the first from Vietnam.

  15. Enzymatic analysis of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-Garc?a, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny Laura; Yglesias-Rivera, Arianna; Rodr?guez-S?nchez, Hermis; Riquenes Garlobo, Yanelis; Fleitas Martinez, Osmel; Fraga Castro, Jos? A

    2015-01-01

    Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has been identified as a natural extract with anticancer potential. Interestingly, this scorpion venom does not cause adverse symptoms in humans. However, there is scarce information about its composition and enzymatic activity. In this work, we determined the electrophoretic profile of the venom, the gelatinase and caseinolytic activity, and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hemolytic activity. The effect of different venom doses (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) on g...

  16. [Scorpionism causing severe acute flaccid paralysis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Vázquez-Solís, Ma Guadalupe; Zamora-López, Xochitl Xitlalli; Arias-Corona, Fernando; Palomera-Ávila, Francisco Miguel; Pulido-Galaviz, Carlos; Pacifuentes-Orozco, Adán

    2016-01-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in various regions of the world, being Mexico the country with the highest number of cases. Clinical manifestations range from local symptoms to severe disease with an impact on cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological level, and even death. There are no reports of acute flaccid paralysis as a manifestation of the clinical picture of the scorpion sting of the Centruroides gender, Family Buthidae, highly toxic, causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in our region. We documented a case of scorpionism, caused by a scorpion gender Buthidae, Centruroides family, which caused acute flaccid paralysis, after resolution of other severe manifestations. There is only one case report of scorpionism that produces acute flaccid paralysis in the literature, but it is related to the Parabuthus scorpion, endemic of South Africa. The knowledge of this complication, new for our region, will maximize efforts to diagnose and appropriately manage this symptoms, with the adequate application of the specific fabotherapy and advanced life support for proper survival in the patients with compromise of vital functions and imminent risk of death mainly by respiratory failure.

  17. Registro de variação cromática em escorpião Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922: principal espécie de interesse médico no BrasilRegistration of chromatic variation in Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922:major species of medical interest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Tityus serrulatus apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil, sendo o escorpião responsável pela maior parte de acidentes potencialmente graves. Objetivo: Relatar a ocorrência de um exemplar com variação cromática de Tityus. Comunicação: Foi capturada uma fêmea do escorpião Tityus serrulatus, com variação cromática no Estado de Minas Gerais, Município do Prata, Bairro Esperança (19°18’18.91”S; 48°55’3.62”O. Conclusão: É registrado o primeiro caso de variação cromática em T. serrulatus.

  18. Effect of Tityus serrulatus venom on cytokine production and the activity of murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Petricevich

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (TSV on murine peritoneal macrophages evaluated in terms of activation. The effects of crude TSV were analysed by detection of cytokines, oxygen intermediate metabolites (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO in supernatants of peritoneal macrophages. Several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for envenomating: cytotoxicity of TSV was assessed using the lyses percentage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF activity was assayed by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L-929 cells, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas NO levels were detected by Griess colorimetric reactions in culture supernatant of macrophages incubated with TSV and subsequently exposed to either lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ. Incubation of macrophages with TSV increased production of IL-6 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. TNF production was not detected in supernatants treated with TSV at any concentration. The increase in IL-6 secretion was not associated with concentration-dependent cytoxicity of TSV on these cells. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity does not appear to be the main cause of an increased cytokine production by these cells. Although NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the inducing potential of the test compounds for its release was found to be very moderate, ranging from 125 to 800 mM. Interestingly, NO levels of peritoneal macrophages were increased after IFN-γ. Moreover, NO production had an apparent effect on macrophage activity. The results obtained here also shown that the TSV induces an important elevation in H2O2 release. These results combined with NO production suggest that TSV possesses significant immunomodulatory activities capable of stimulating immune functions in vitro.

  19. Preparation of a potent anti-scorpion-venom-serum against the venom of red scorpion (Buthus tamalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankonkar R

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of children and adults, especially pregnant women succumb to the sting by red Scorpion (Buthus tamalus in Konkan region--particularly on the coastal line. No specific antiserum or any other antidote is available to treat a victim of scorpion bite and hence the need to prepare a potent antiserum. Red Scorpion (B. tamalus venom is a mixture of a number of protein moieties and neurotoxins of low molecular weight. Therefore, the venom is poor in antigenic composition and it is difficult to get antibodies specific to neutralise lethal factor/factors. Using Bentonite as an adjuvant and extending the period of immunization a potent antiserum has been prepared capable of neutralising the lethal factor/factors. In vivo testing carried out in albino mice, guinea pigs, dogs and langurs confirms this finding and shows that the antiserum is quite effective in neutralising the scorpion venom to save the life of envenomated animals.

  20. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice

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    Ranjana S Kale

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability.

  1. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Chang, Cheon-Young

    2005-01-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process. PMID:16340303

  2. ClanTox: a classifier of short animal toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naamati, Guy; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Toxins are detected in sporadic species along the evolutionary tree of the animal kingdom. Venomous animals include scorpions, snakes, bees, wasps, frogs and numerous animals living in the sea such as the stonefish, snail, jellyfish, hydra and more. Interestingly, proteins that share a common scaffold with animal toxins also exist in non-venomous species. However, due to their short length and primary sequence diversity, these, toxin-like proteins remain undetected by classical search engines and genome annotation tools. We construct a toxin classification machine and web server called ClanTox (Classifier of Animal Toxins) that is based on the extraction of sequence-driven features from the primary protein sequence followed by the application of a classification system trained on known animal toxins. For a given input list of sequences, from venomous or non-venomous settings, the ClanTox system predicts whether each sequence is toxin-like. ClanTox provides a ranked list of positively predicted candidates according to statistical confidence. For each protein, additional information is presented including the presence of a signal peptide, the number of cysteine residues and the associated functional annotations. ClanTox is a discovery-prediction tool for a relatively overlooked niche of toxin-like cell modulators, many of which are therapeutic agent candidates. The ClanTox web server is freely accessible at http://www.clantox.cs.huji.ac.il.

  3. Polyamine toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Jensen, Lars S; Vogensen, Stine B

    2005-01-01

    Polyamine toxins, isolated from spiders and wasps, have been used as pharmacological tools for the study of ionotropic receptors, but their use have so far been hampered by their lack of selectivity. In this mini-review, we describe how careful synthetic modification of native polyamine toxins ha...

  4. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chippaux JP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe ChippauxUMR 216 (Institute of Research for Development and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cotonou, Bénin, FranceAbstract: Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings is related to the presence of neurotoxins in the venom that cause a sudden release of neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, predominantly sympathetic. There is also a strong inflammatory response that worsens symptoms, including those of a respiratory nature. Several vital functions may be directly affected, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromuscular systems. Hypertension is constant at the beginning of systemic envenoming and sometimes has a severe cardiac and respiratory impact. Although controversial, immunotherapy is the only etiological treatment. Administered early, it prevents many complications and improves the outcome. New antivenoms are highly purified immunoglobulin fragments, the efficacy and safety of which are excellent. As a consequence, adverse reactions to antivenoms are now very rare and usually mild, which should limit any reluctance regarding their routine use. Symptomatic treatment is still necessary to support immunotherapy, especially in cases of delayed arrival at hospital. A combination of both approaches should be considered, based on local resources and constraints.Keywords: scorpion, envenoming, treatment, antivenom

  5. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

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    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  6. A newly described scorpion species, Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpion: Buthidae, and the lethal potency and in vivo effects of its venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, medically significant scorpion species belong to the Buthidae family and are represented by the genera Androctonus, Buthus, Mesobuthus, Hottentotta, Parabuthus, Tityus, Centruroides, Leiurus. Although Leiurus was originally considered a monotypic genus, four additional species have since been described. Leiurus abdullahbayrami (previously identified as L. quinquestriatus in Turkey was classified as a new Leiurus species. This is the first report conducted on the lethality and biologic effects of L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom in mice. In this study, the electrophoretic protein pattern of its venom was also determined. Two protein bands with molecular masses of 4 and 6 kDa were more strongly detected than other protein bands in the venom sample. Electrophoresis showed that L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom possesses both short- and long-chain neurotoxins. The median lethal dose of this venom was found to be 0.19 mg/kg by subcutaneous (SC injection in mice. Animals experimentally envenomed with L. abdullahbayrami venom exhibited hyperexcitability, agitation, aggressive behavior, squeaking and fighting, tachypnea, weakness, convulsions, and death due to cardiac and respiratory failure. In further studies, the potency of antivenom should be investigated in relation to the scorpion venom. Molecular and pharmacological studies are also required to identify and characterize L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom.

  7. Exploration of refuge preference in the Arizona bark scorpion (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher Stephen; Bengston, Sarah Elizabeth; Gouge, Dawn H

    2014-10-01

    The ongoing difficulty in understanding how Centruroides sculpturatus (Ewing) uses the built environment has prompted this study in exploring refuge choices in a school environment and in laboratory behavioral assays. Radio telemetry tags were used at an urban site heavily populated with C. sculpturatus to track scorpions for a period of 21 d from 1 to 21 August 2013. Complimentary laboratory work tested scorpions in refuge choice arenas targeting variables of four crevice widths--14.0, 9.3, 7.0, and 4.6 mm--or of a vertical versus horizontal orientation preference. These crevice sizes were picked as a response to crevices being naturally used in the field. Telemetry and observations tallied significant preference for artificial structural harborage. Ninety-five percent of the structure refuge use occurred in hollow block walls. Vegetative harborage, debris, and underground burrows were not selected with any significance compared with each other or structures. Generalized additive models (GAMs) indicated the strongest predictive power from individual preference. The behavioral choice assays yielded a significant preference for the largest of crevice widths offered, 14.0 mm and to a lesser extent 9.3 mm, both horizontally and vertically. GAMs for these assays indicated size as the strongest predictive factor in choices. The orientation tests and GAMs showed individual preference driving choice favoring vertical planes. Observations about negative geotaxis in assay and refuge use details from the field are also reported.

  8. Microallopatry caused strong diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa.

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    Jan C Habel

    Full Text Available The immense biodiversity of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa might be the result of high rates of microallopatry caused by mountain barriers surpassing 4000 meters leading to patchy habitat distributions. We test the influence of geographic structures on the phylogenetic patterns among Buthus scorpions using mtDNA sequences. We sampled 91 individuals of the genus Buthus from 51 locations scattered around the Atlas Mountains (Antiatlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas and Jebel Sahro. We sequenced 452 bp of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene which proved to be highly variable within and among Buthus species. Our phylogenetic analysis yielded 12 distinct genetic groups one of which comprised three subgroups mostly in accordance with the orographic structure of the mountain systems. Main clades overlap with each other, while subclades are distributed parapatrically. Geographic structures likely acted as long-term barriers among populations causing restriction of gene flow and allowing for strong genetic differentiation. Thus, genetic structure and geographical distribution of genetic (subclusters follow the classical theory of allopatric differentiation where distinct groups evolve without range overlap until reproductive isolation and ecological differentiation has built up. Philopatry and low dispersal ability of Buthus scorpions are the likely causes for the observed strong genetic differentiation at this small geographic scale.

  9. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Coronas, Fredy I V; Zamudio, Fernando Z; González-Morales, Lidia; López, Georgina Espinosa; Urquiola, Ariel Ruiz; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-05-20

    The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides purified from other scorpions that

  10. Characterization of the venom from the Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi: Molecular mass analysis of components, cDNA sequences and peptides with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Quintero-Hernández, Veronica; Vargas-Jaimes, Leonel; Batista, Cesar V F; Winkel, Kenneth D; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-03-01

    The Urodacidae scorpions are the most widely distributed of the four families in Australia and represent half of the species in the continent, yet their venoms remain largely unstudied. This communication reports the first results of a proteome analysis of the venom of the scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi performed by mass fingerprinting, after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. A total of 74 fractions were obtained by HPLC separation allowing the identification of approximately 274 different molecular masses with molecular weights varying from 287 to 43,437 Da. The most abundant peptides were those from 1 K Da and 4-5 K Da representing antimicrobial peptides and putative potassium channel toxins, respectively. Three such peptides were chemically synthesized and tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showing minimum inhibitory concentration in the low micromolar range, but with moderate hemolytic activity. It also reports a transcriptome analysis of the venom glands of the same scorpion species, undertaken by constructing a cDNA library and conducting random sequencing screening of the transcripts. From the resultant cDNA library 172 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed. These transcripts were further clustered into 120 unique sequences (23 contigs and 97 singlets). The identified putative proteins can be assorted in several groups, such as those implicated in common cellular processes, putative neurotoxins and antimicrobial peptides. The scorpion U. yaschenkoi is not known to be dangerous to humans and its venom contains peptides similar to those of Opisthacanthus cayaporum (antibacterial), Scorpio maurus palmatus (maurocalcin), Opistophthalmus carinatus (opistoporines) and Hadrurus gerstchi (scorpine-like molecules), amongst others. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Botulinum toxin

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    Nigam P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G. All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice.

  12. The ultrastructure of book lung development in the bark scorpion Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae

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    Farley Roger D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for the homology of book lungs in arachnids and book gills in the horseshoe crab. Early studies with the light microscope showed that book gill lamellae are formed by outgrowth and possibly some invagination (infolding of hypodermis (epithelium from the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds. Scorpion book lungs are formed near the bilateral sites of earlier limb buds. Hypodermal invaginations in the ventral opisthosoma result in spiracles and sac-like cavities (atria. In early histological sections of embryo book lungs, widening of the atrial entrance of some lamellae (air channels, air sacs, saccules was interpreted as an indication of invagination as hypothesized for book gill lamellae. The hypodermal infolding was thought to produce the many rows of lamellar precursor cells anterior to the atrium. The ultrastructure of scorpion book lung development is compared herein with earlier investigations of book gill formation. Results In scorpion embryos, there is ingression (inward migration of atrial hypodermal cells rather than invagination or infolding of the atrial hypodermal layer. The ingressing cells proliferate and align in rows anterior to the atrium. Their apical-basal polarity results in primordial air channels among double rows of cells. The cuticular walls of the air channels are produced by secretion from the apical surfaces of the aligned cells. Since the precursor cells are in rows, their secreted product is also in rows (i.e., primordial air channels, saccules. For each double row of cells, their opposed basal surfaces are gradually separated by a hemolymph channel of increasing width. Conclusions The results from this and earlier studies show there are differences and similarities in the formation of book lung and book gill lamellae. The homology hypothesis for these respiratory organs is thus supported or not supported depending on which

  13. Investigations on the role of insulin and scorpion antivenom in scorpion envenoming syndrome

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    K. Radha Krishna Murthy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardiopathy in alloxan treated experimental dogs and rabbits was induced by subcutaneous (SQ injection of scorpion venom from Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Envenoming resulted in an initial transient hypertension (180-320 mm Hg. followed by hypotension. Simultaneous administration of venom and species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV prevented hypertension and hypotension. Hypotension did not occur when SAV was given 60 min after envenoming. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, platelet count, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG, and glutathione levels were increased 60 and 90 min after envenoming. Total white blood cell (WBC count was reduced 60 min and increased 90 min after envenoming. Simultaneous administration of venom and SAV did not alter Hb, MCHC, and packed cell volume (PCV levels, or ECG, and cardiovascular, biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal changes. Hematological parameters were reversed when SAV was given 30 and 60 min after envenoming. PCV, Hb, and MCHC values returned to normal 120 min after SAV. Alloxan-treated dogs showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon, cortisol levels; reduced glycogen content of liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles; and reduced insulin levels and insulin/ glucagon ratio (I/G ratio. Envenoming in the alloxan pre-treated dogs further increased these levels and reduced tissue glycogen content, insulin levels, and I/G ratio. Administration of 4 U of insulin to alloxan pre-treated envenomed rabbits caused a biochemical and clinical improvement and increased glycogen content of all tissues in comparison with the values from those administered with SAV to alloxan pre-treated envenomed animals. SAV administration to envenomed alloxan pre-treated rabbits did not cause clinical or

  14. Oral Absorption of Mesobuthus eupeus Scorpion Venom in Mice

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    Zohreh Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To explore the oral absorption of scorpion venom an ELISA were designed in this study. Scorpions and their venom were been used for centuries as medical treatments in traditional medicine. The oral administration of drug referred as the convenient way, as there was not any publication about gastro-intestinal absorption of scorpion venom; this experiment checked oral absorption of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in mice. Methods: Six groups of mice orally received 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg of M. eupeus venom and their blood samples were tacked after 15, 30, 60 min and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 h after that. The presence of venom the blood samples were detected with a house- antigen capture ELISA. Results: The venom was absorbed after its feeding to mice. The animals expressed no signs of envenomation and, the venom was detectable by AC-ELISA as soon as 15 min after its feed. Maximum serum levels were 2 h after its meal. Conclusion: The orally administrated venom was absorbed to the blood circulation without any clinically symptoms.

  15. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

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    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  16. Inhibition Effects of Scorpion Venom Extracts ( Buthus matensii karsch)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the extracts of scorpion venom blocked the cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase and decreased cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1 level after drug intervention compared ... sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; DAB: Diaminobenzidine; B-NHL: B-cell non-Hodgkin's tumors; DED: Death effector domain ; PTP:

  17. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, S.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Tata Hospital Annexe. Radiation Medicine Center; Murthy, K. Radha Krishna [Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Physiology

    1999-07-01

    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  18. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, S.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M.; Murthy, K. Radha Krishna

    1999-01-01

    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  19. Exon Shuffling and Origin of Scorpion Venom Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom is a complex combinatorial library of peptides and proteins with multiple biological functions. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic techniques has revealed its enormous molecular diversity, as identified by the presence of a large number of ion channel-targeted neurotoxins with different folds, membrane-active antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and protease inhibitors. Although the biodiversity of scorpion venom has long been known, how it arises remains unsolved. In this work, we analyzed the exon-intron structures of an array of scorpion venom protein-encoding genes and unexpectedly found that nearly all of these genes possess a phase-1 intron (one intron located between the first and second nucleotides of a codon near the cleavage site of a signal sequence despite their mature peptides remarkably differ. This observation matches a theory of exon shuffling in the origin of new genes and suggests that recruitment of different folds into scorpion venom might be achieved via shuffling between body protein-coding genes and ancestral venom gland-specific genes that presumably contributed tissue-specific regulatory elements and secretory signal sequences.

  20. Growth and developmental time in the parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

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    Adriano Medeiros de Souza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes variation in ontogenetic development of the parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus stigmurus based on variations in size, intermolt period, and number of instars. Individuals were created under laboratory conditions (28 ± 3ºC and subjected to similar diet regime. Comparative measurements of carapace, segment V of the metasoma, and the movable finger are used to estimate variations in size among instars. The application of Dyar rule shows a growth factor from 1.14 to 1.38 depending on the parameter analysed with intense variations in size between and within the different instars. The duration of the period from birth to adulthood was 871 days, after six moults. These data suggest that T. stigmurus has the longest post-embryonic development of Tityus genus and the existence of an extra molt to reach maturity.

  1. Fine structural analysis of the stinger in venom apparatus of the scorpion Euscorpius mingrelicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae

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    N Yigit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphology, histology and fine structure of the stinger, a part of the venom apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae were studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The stinger, located at the end section of the telson, is sickle-shaped. The venom is ejected through a pair of venom pores on its subterminal portion. Both venom ducts extend along the stinger without contact with each other since they are separated by connective tissue cells. The stinger cuticle is composed of two layers. Additionally, there are many pore canals and some hemolymph vessels in the cuticle. This work constitutes the first histological and fine structure study on Euscorpius mingrelicus stinger.

  2. The venom gland of the scorpion species Euscorpius mingrelicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae: morphological and ultrastructural characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of venom glands in the scorpion Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874 are described and illustrated in the current study for the first time by employing light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The venom apparatus is composed of a pair of venom glands and a stinger, both situated in the last segment of the metasoma. The venom glands are completely separate but similar. The two glands are segregated within the telson by striated muscle bundles, and their outer surfaces are surrounded by a cuticle. An internal layer constitutes the secretory epithelium. This epithelium is made up of simple columnar cells. The nucleus and organelles involved in cellular synthetic activity are situated basally. In the apical portion, near the gland lumen, there are many secretory granules of different sizes, shapes and electron densities.

  3. Enzymatic analysis of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny Laura; Yglesias-Rivera, Arianna; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Riquenes Garlobo, Yanelis; Fleitas Martinez, Osmel; Fraga Castro, José A

    2015-01-01

    Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has been identified as a natural extract with anticancer potential. Interestingly, this scorpion venom does not cause adverse symptoms in humans. However, there is scarce information about its composition and enzymatic activity. In this work, we determined the electrophoretic profile of the venom, the gelatinase and caseinolytic activity, and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hemolytic activity. The effect of different venom doses (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) on gastrocnemius muscle was also measured as CK and LDH activity in serum. The presence of hyaluronidase was determined by turbidimetric assay. The effect of different fractions obtained by gel filtration chromatography were evaluated at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6mg/ml) against lung cancer cell A549 and lung normal cell MRC-5 using MTT assay. The electrophoretic profile demonstrated the presence of proteins bands around 67kDa, 43kDa, 18.4kDa and a majority band below 14.3kDa. The venom did not showed caseinolytic, gelatinase, PLA2 and hemolytic activity even at highest venom concentration used in the study. Scorpion venom only showed a significant toxic effect on gastrocnemius muscles identified by CK and LDH release after subcutaneous injection of 12.5 and 25mg/kg. Low molecular weight fractions (Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has low enzymatic activity, which could contribute to the low toxic potential of this scorpion venom.

  4. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro de; Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Pires, Sofia Campos Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE). Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the State of Pernambuco and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the fi rst time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  5. ADAMTS-13 deficiency following Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion sting

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    Ehsan Valavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemiscorpius lepturus is a lethal scorpion with potentially cytotoxic venom. Various degrees of local and systemic toxicity have been observed after its envenomation ranging from local erythema to disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure and severe pulmonary hemorrhage. In this case report, we report on a seven-year-old patient who developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS after being stung by the scorpion H. lepturus. This condition is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and uremia. We evaluated the causes of HUS and found that the levels of C3, C4, CH50 and H factors were normal, but the activity of Von Willebrand factor cleaving protease was decreased (less than 5% of the normal activity. The patient improved after administering therapy with plasma exchange.

  6. Pediatric electrocardiograph abnormalities following Centruroides limpidus tecomanus scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, P; Chowell, G; Ceja, G; D'Auria, T C; Lloyd, R C; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Mexico [Hoffmann, C.C., 1936. La distribucion geografica de los alacranes peligrosos en la Republica Mexicana. Bol. Inst. Hygiene Mex. 2, 321; Hoffmann, C.C., Nieto, D.R., 1939. Segunda contribucion al conocimiento de los alacranes mexicanos. Anal. Inst. Biol. 10, 83-92; Mazzoti, L., Bravo-Becherelle, M.A., 1963. Scorpionism in the Mexican Republic. In: Keegan, H.L., McFarlane, W.V. (Eds.), Venomous and Poissonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Area. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 119-131; Monroy-Velasco, J., 1961. Alacranes venenosos de Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cien. Med. Biol., Mex. 1, 1-23; Diaz-Najera, A., 1975. Listas y datos de distribucion geografica de los alacranes de Mexico. Rev. Inv. Salud. Publica. (Mex.) 35, 1; Velasco-Castrejon, O., Lara-Aguilera, R., Alatorre, H., 1976. Aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos de la picadura de alacran en una area hiperendemica. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica. (Mex.) 36, 93-103; Dehesa-Davila, M., Possani, L.D., 1994. Scorpionism and serotherapy in Mexico. Toxicon 32 (9), 1015-1018]. In this prospective study, we assess cardiovascular disorders in children via electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings following envenomation by scorpion species Centruroides limpidus tecomanus found in the state of Colima, Mexico. We analyzed 113 cases between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Among the most frequent symptoms presented included local pain (99.1%) and paresthesia (75.2%), pruritus (36.3%), sialorrhoea (35.4%), and nystagmus (24.8%). Cardiovascular disorders were observed in 39.8% of cases, 71% of which were rhythm abnormalities. We find a significant association between the frequency of ECG alterations and age, whereby 8-9-year-old children are more likely to experience ECG alterations when compared with other tested age groups.

  7. Embryotoxicity following repetitive maternal exposure to scorpion venom

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    BN Hmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a frequent accident in a few countries, scorpion envenomation during pregnancy remains scarcely studied. In the present study, the effects of repetitive maternal exposure to Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom are investigated and its possible embryotoxic consequences on rats. Primigravid rats received a daily intraperitoneal dose of 1 mL/kg of saline solution or 300 µg/kg of crude scorpion venom, from the 7th to the 13th day of gestation. On the 21st day, the animals were deeply anesthetized using diethyl-ether. Then, blood was collected for chemical parameter analysis. Following euthanasia, morphometric measurements were carried out. The results showed a significant increase in maternal heart and lung absolute weights following venom treatment. However, the mean placental weight per rat was significantly diminished. Furthermore, blood urea concentration was higher in exposed rats (6.97 ± 0.62 mmol/L than in those receiving saline solution (4.94 ± 0.90 mmol/L. Many organs of venom-treated rat fetuses (brain, liver, kidney and spleen were smaller than those of controls. On the contrary, fetal lungs were significantly heavier in fetuses exposed to venom (3.2 ± 0.4 g than in the others (3.0 ± 0.2 g. Subcutaneous blood clots, microphthalmia and total body and tail shortening were also observed in venom-treated fetuses. It is concluded that scorpion envenomation during pregnancy potentially causes intrauterine fetal alterations and growth impairment.

  8. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  9. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Confrontation With Scorpions As an Environmental Permanent Risk in Iran: A Review

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    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Among the Iranians, scorpion is considered as one of the most important natural hazards and introduced as a dangerous animal. The outcome of this confrontation is to create stories and different beliefs about them .The primary aim of this study is to investigate and deliberate on the validity and fraudulence of these beliefs in how Iranian looked upon scorpions. Materials & Methods: The study is a review of descriptive analysis. In other words, the study was conducted, considering the key terms such as: treatment of scorpion venom, motifs of humans and scorpions in internet and related websites; moreover, the study was carried on by professional journals, articles and researches as well as related published books in this filed. By considering the situation and its requirements, the references were chosen to be analyzed. Results: Owing to the fact that scorpions have poisonous, painful and sometimes mortal venoms, they have attracted more attention compared to other creatures in the history and culture of Iran. Such creatures are regarded as the symbol of power and sentry in several references as they can be found in the works and studies remained from ancients throughout Iran. Conclusions: Due to the medical importance of scorpions and Iranian’s cultural beliefs, scorpion motifs has been regarded as a significant symbol of Iran’s history. Moreover, in creating the scorpion motifs about the dangers of this creature, beliefs, the realities and the analysis of customs have been playing the great roles.

  11. Male and female meiosis in the mountain scorpion Zabius fuscus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): heterochromatin, rDNA and TTAGG telomeric repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mattoni, Camilo Iván; Mola, Liliana María

    2015-08-01

    All cytogenetically studied scorpions present male achiasmatic meiosis and lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In contrast, information about female meiosis in scorpions is scarce due to the difficulty of finding meiotic cells. The genus Zabius includes three described species and no chromosome studies have been performed on it until now. We analyzed the constitutive heterochromatin distribution, NORs and telomeric sequences in mitosis and meiosis of males and females of different populations of Zabius fuscus. All specimens presented 2n = 18 holokinetic chromosomes that gradually decreased in size. Male meiosis presented nine bivalents and a polymorphism for one reciprocal translocation in one population. Telomeric signals were detected at every terminal region, confirming also the presence of a (TTAGG) n motif in Buthidae. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in three chromosome pairs at a terminal region; moreover, NORs were embedded in the heterochromatic region of the largest pair. Chromosome size and landmarks allowed us to propose the chromosomes involved in the rearrangement. In four females, cells at different prophase I stages were analyzed. We describe a diffuse stage and the presence of ring-shaped bivalents. We discuss the possible origin of these bivalents in the framework of chiasmatic or achiasmatic female meiosis. These results contribute to increase the scarce evidence of female meiosis in scorpions and raise new questions about its mechanism.

  12. Isoform-specific effects of a novel BmK 11(2) peptide toxin on Na channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiev, Andrei; Hahin, Richard; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2003-03-01

    BmK 11(2) is a 7216Da polypeptide toxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Nanomolar concentrations of the toxin prolong amphibian nerve action potentials without attenuation of the amplitude. The pharmacological action of the toxin and its sequence similarity to other alpha-scorpion toxins suggest that BmK 11(2) selectively alters voltage-gated Na channels. In order to test whether BmK 11(2) preferentially modulates the gating or kinetics of certain channel isoforms, we applied BmK 11(2) to muscle, heart and neuronal Na channels. 100nM BmK 11(2) increased the peak current amplitude of skeletal muscle (micro1) and neuronal (N1E-115) Na currents by 40 and 20%, respectively, and reduced the cardiac Na (hH1) current by 15%. The toxin slowed current decay of all isoforms, most prominently in N1E-115 (tau(BmK)/tau(Control)=12), micro1 (11), and less so for hH1 (1.3). BmK 11(2) shifted the voltage dependence of activation of micro1 and N1E-115 currents. BmK 11(2) had no effect on steady-state inactivation, use-dependent availability, and the kinetics of entry into slowly recovering inactivated states.

  13. Effects of Animal Venoms and Toxins on Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Prasongsook, Naiyarat

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a cocktail of proteins and peptides, targeting vital physiological processes. Venoms have evolved to assist in the capture and digestion of prey. Key venom components often include neurotoxins, myotoxins, cardiotoxins, hematoxins and catalytic enzymes. The pharmacological activities of venom components have been investigated as a source of potential therapeutic agents. Interestingly, a number of animal toxins display profound anticancer effects. These include toxins purified from snake, bee and scorpion venoms effecting cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptotic activity and neovascularization. Indeed, the mechanism behind the anticancer effect of certain toxins is similar to that of agents currently used in chemotherapy. For example, Lebein is a snake venom disintegrin which generates anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). In this review article, we highlight the biological activities of animal toxins on the multiple steps of tumour formation or hallmarks of cancer. We also discuss recent progress in the discovery of lead compounds for anticancer drug development from venom components. PMID:27471574

  14. The epidemiology of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah province, Iran, during 2008 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Fatahpour, Tahereh; Towhidi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-sting incidence in tropical areas of Kermanshah province during 2008 and 2009. In a retrospective study, all records related to scorpion sting patients from the health centers of tropical areas of Kermanshah were studied by a census and checklist. Data were analyzed by the software SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests. The incidence of scorpion stings was 334.37/100,000 inhabitants in 2008 and 339.07/100000 in 2009. Mean and standard deviation of age were 30.55 ± 16.99. Scorpion stings were more common in rural areas (59.6 %) and occurred more often in summer (52.9 %). Nearly 48 % of bites were to patients' hands and 47.5 % of patients were injured between midnight and 6 a.m. While 92.9 % of patients had mild symptoms, scorpion antivenom was prescribed to 88.8 % of victims, 94.5 % of whom were discharged after outpatient treatment. The relationship between antivenom therapy and clinical symptoms was not significant. Due to the relatively high incidence of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah, it is recommended that the inhabitants be educated through the mass media about how to prevent the stings and apply preliminary treatment.

  15. Modelling the scorpion stings using surveillance data in El Bayadh Province, Algeria

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    Schehrazad Selmane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine some epidemiological features of scorpion envenomations, analyse and interpret the recorded data, find any relationship between the incidence of scorpion stings and climatic factors, and finally develop a statistical model to estimate the variability among future cases in El Bayadh Province, Algeria. Methods: To assess the effects of climate variability on the scorpion envenomations, we applied the count data regression models to the monthly recorded scorpion stings in El Bayadh Province from 2001 to 2012. Results: The epidemiological analysis of data revealed that scorpion stings occured mainly in rural areas, round the clock, all year long with the highest seasonal incidence in summer, and the lowest in winter, all ages with male predominance. The ends of upper and lower limbs were the most affected parts of the human body. The majority of cases (95.7% were classified as mild envenomations and systemic toxicity was observed in 4.3% of cases. The use of count data regression models showed that the negative binomial regression was appropriate to forecast cases and the fitted data agreed considerably with the actual data. Moreover, the model had predicted the monthly scorpion sting cases for the year of 2013, with satisfactory accuracy. Conclusions: This study shows an optimism for forecasting scorpion stings by modelling and calibration with surveillance data and climate information. This knowledge could help to contain any unusual situation and assist health decision-makers to strengthen the prevention and control measures and to be in a state of readiness.

  16. Upper lobe pulmonary edema and dry gangrene in scorpion sting

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    Stalin Viswanathan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17 year old student admitted to our hospital following a red scorpion sting had pulmonary edema and hypotension. Chest radiography revealed asymmetrical upper lobe pulmonary edema with air bronchogram. Due to high counts, antibiotics were initiated. Chest radiograph indicated that the chest radiography abnormalities were improved within 36 hours. Thirty hours after admission he developed discoloration of left foot which was managed conservatively with heparin and warfarin. His inotropes were gradually tapered and stopped 78 hours after admission. Echocardiography repeated on the sixth day of his admission was normal. He was discharged on pentoxyphylline, warfarin and tramadol since there was no surgical intervention possible due to poor demarcation.

  17. Is scorpion antivenom cost-effective as marketed in the United States?

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    Armstrong, Edward P; Bakall, Maja; Skrepnek, Grant H; Boyer, Leslie V

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of scorpion antivenom compared to no antivenom, in the United States, using a decision analysis framework. A decision analytic model was created to assess patient course with and without antivenom. Costs were determined from the perspective of a health care payer. Cost data used in the model were extracted from Arizona Medicaid. The probability of clinical events occurring with and without antivenom was obtained from the published literature, medical claims obtained from Arizona Medicaid, and results of recent clinical trials. Patients that became so ill that mechanical ventilator support was necessary were considered treatment failures. A Monte Carlo simulation was run 1000 times and sampled simultaneously across all variable distributions in the model. The mean success rate was 99.87% (95% CI 99.64%-99.98%) with scorpion antivenom and 94.31% (95% CI 91.10%-96.61%) without scorpion antivenom. The mean cost using scorpion antivenom was $10,708 (95% CI $10,556 - $11,010) and the mean cost without scorpion antivenom was $3178 (95% CI $1627 - $5184). Since the 95% CIs do not overlap for either the success or cost, use of the scorpion antivenom was significantly more effective and significantly more expensive than no antivenom. Cost-effectiveness analysis found that the scorpion antivenom was not cost-effective at its current price as marketed in the United States. The scorpion antivenom marketed in the United States is extremely effective, but too costly to justify its use in most clinical situations. Formulary committees should restrict the use of this antivenom to only the most severe scorpion envenomations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arachnidism, scorpionism and ophidism in Ouro Preto Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Gabriela Fernanda; Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini de

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study shows the profile of arachnidism, ophidism, and scorpionism in the Ouro Preto Municipality, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013. The data were gathered from forms of the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the town's Health's Municipal Secretary. Of the 412 envenomations, 308 were caused by spiders, 78 by scorpions, and 26 by snakes. The highest number of incidents involved people aged 20-34 years. Females were more affected than males. There were no reports of death. The results show that envenomations caused by spiders, scorpions and snakes have decreased in recent years.

  19. Hemprich's long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) as a predator of scorpions: whispering echolocation, passive gleaning and prey selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderied, Marc; Korine, Carmi; Moritz, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Over 70% of the droppings of the gleaning bat Otonycteris hemprichii can contain scorpion fragments. Yet, some scorpions found in its desert habitat possess venom of the highest known toxicity, rendering them a very dangerous prey. In this study, we describe how O. hemprichii catches and handles scorpions, quantify its flight and echolocation behaviour in the field, investigate what sensory modality it uses to detect scorpions, and test whether it selects scorpions according to their size or toxicity. We confirmed that O. hemprichi is a whispering bat (approx. 80 dB peSPL) with short, multi-harmonic calls. In a flight room we also confirmed that O. hemprichii detects scorpions by their walking noises. Amplitudes of such noises were measured and they reach the flying bat at or below the level of echoes of the loess substrate. Bats dropped straight onto moving scorpions and were stung frequently even straight in their face. Stings did not change the bats' behaviour and caused no signs of poisoning. Scorpions were eaten including poison gland and stinger. Bats showed no preference neither for any of the scorpion species nor their size suggesting they are generalist predators with regard to scorpions.

  20. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae is a species complex

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    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi. Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. Methods We employed Bayesian Inference (BI methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci (COXI, 16S and one nuclear locus (28S. We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements can predict individual’s membership to a putative species. Results Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83–100% in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Discussion Our results indicate

  1. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae) is a species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Miller, Adam D; Rašić, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi . Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. We employed Bayesian Inference (BI) methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci ( COXI , 16 S ) and one nuclear locus (28 S ). We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP) to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements) can predict individual's membership to a putative species. Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83-100%) in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Our results indicate that the taxonomic status of U. yaschenkoi requires

  2. Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Sanliurfa region of Turkey

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    O. Ozkan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Sanliurfa region of Turkey, from May to September 2003, were evaluated in this study. Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus plays a role on 25.8% of the scorpionism cases. This study also showed that intoxications caused by M. eupeus in the southeast of Anatolia region were seen in hot months of the summer, especially on July. Females and people above 15 years old were mostly affected and stung on extremities. Intense pain in the affected area was observed in 98.7% cases, hyperemia in 88.8%, swelling in 54.6%, burning in 19.7%, while numbness and itching were seen less frequently. In our study, the six most frequently observed symptoms were local pain, hyperemia, swelling, burning, dry mouth, thirst, sweating, and hypotension. In this study involving 152 M. eupeus toxicity cases, patients showed local and systemic clinical effects but no death was seen. Autonomic system and local effects characterized by severe pain, hyperemia and edema were dominantly seen in toxicity cases.

  3. Scorpion sting epidemiology in Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela: geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, L; Bonoli, S; Quiroga, M; Parrilla, P

    1996-01-01

    Scorpion stings were surveyed in the Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela, aiming to extend the information on these poisonous accidents by characterizing their geographic distribution. From 1980 to 1990, 184 cases of scorpion stings were recorded with an incidence rate of 38.6 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The locality of San Fernando presented the highest incidence (68.3/1000) of poisonous accidents. The highest percentages of severe cases were recorded in the towns of Arenas (27%), San Lorenzo (21%), and Cocollar (19%), which are located at the foot of the Turimiquire Mountains. This region is a dispersion area of scorpions of the Tityus genus. Our results show that this region of the State of Sucre is endemic for scorpion stings which are an important public health problem.

  4. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves - a curiosity among Arachnida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e75989 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microwhip scorpions * heterotrophic cyanobacteria * Slovak caves Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  5. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  6. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

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    A Zarei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population.Methods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured.Results: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution.Conclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  7. Faunistic study and biodiversity of scorpions in qeshm island (persian gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, A; Rafinejad, J; Shemshad, K; Khaghani, R

    2009-01-01

    Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population. Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured. The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17%) and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86%) belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. leptochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution. Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be responsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  8. Excitatory effects of Buthus C56 toxin on Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction

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    S. P. Gawade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Buthus C56 toxin from venom of the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus was studied for its effects on spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potentials (MEJP on Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions. C56 toxin was isolated on CM-Cellulose with linear gradient of ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.0. Toxin purity was determined on SDS slab gel electrophoresis. Effective concentration of C56 toxin was based on contraction paralysis units (CPU in Drosophila 3rd instar larvae by microinjection (0.1 CPU/ml = 2 x 10-6 g/ml. The toxin-induced excitatory junctional potentials were studied for calcium dependency (0.2 mM to 1.2 mM Ca2+ in Drosophila Ringer. Excitatory junctional potential amplitude was increased with increasing calcium concentration; maximum increase in the frequency at 0.4 mM Ca2+/4 mM Mg2+ Drosophila Ringer. It was suggested that while amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials was increased with concentration, maximum frequency increase at 0.4 mMCa2+/4 mM Mg2+ Drosophila Ringer may be due to augmented Ca2+ influx in 0.4 mM Ca2+, when NMDA receptors were maximally activated in C56 toxin-treated Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction.

  9. Scorpion and spider venom peptides: gene cloning and peptide expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Hernández, V; Ortiz, E; Rendón-Anaya, M; Schwartz, E F; Becerril, B; Corzo, G; Possani, L D

    2011-12-01

    This communication reviews most of the important findings related to venom components isolated from scorpions and spiders, mainly by means of gene cloning and expression. Rather than revising results obtained by classical biochemical studies that report structure and function of venom components, here the emphasis is placed on cloning and identification of genes present in the venomous glands of these arachnids. Aspects related to cDNA library construction, specific or random ESTs cloning, transcriptome analysis, high-throughput screening, heterologous expression and folding are briefly discussed, showing some numbers of species and components already identified, but also shortly mentioning limitations and perspectives of research for the future in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [A new species of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Turimiquire, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Manzanilla, Jesús; Parrilla-Alvarez, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new species of Buthid scorpion, Tityus quirogae, from the Turimiquire mountains, eastern side of the La Costa range, Monagas and Sucre States, Venezuela. It is morphologically similar to T. nematochirus and T. meridanus. It differs from these species in the distribution of the dorsal femoral trichobothria and in the following combination of characters: (1) I caudal segment with two parallel ventral keels. Caudal segments II to IV with ventral keels that are double in the extremes of the segments and single in the middle, (2) noticeable sexual dimorphism, especially in pedipalp shape; the male chelae are markedly thin and long, (3) number of pectineous teeth (male: 18 in each pecten; female: 18 in the right pecten and 19 in the left one), and (4) number of denticle rows in the movable finger of the right chela (16 in both sexes). T. quirogae is the first species of this genus, in the Northeastern region of Venezuela, with thin and elongated pedipalps.

  11. A Re-appraisal of the Rock Scorpions (Scorpionidae: Hadogenes

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    G. Newlands

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphological similarity between species of the rock scorpion genus Hadogenes has given rise to a great deal of controversy amongst taxonomists over the last eighty years. To resolve these difficulties, species of the genus were re-appraised in terms of their chromosome number and an electrophoretic analysis of venom proteins. The relationships arising from these data were integrated with morphological characteristics in order to get a more realistic appreciation of the genus. It emerges that the genus consists of 14 recognised species, some of which represent as yet unnamed species complexes. Taxonomic changes proposed are H. lawrencei sp. res., H. zuluanus stat. nov, H. gracilis fluvianus and H. gracilis namaquensis = H. phyllodes syn. n. A new key to the species is provided.

  12. Effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (scorpiones: buthidae venom on rats: correlation among acetylcholinesterase activities and electrolytes levels

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    O. Ozkan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions can be considered living fossils because they have changed so little during the last 400 million years. They are venomous arthropods of the Arachnida class and regarded as relatives of spiders, ticks and mites. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 venom and its effects on the acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity and on electrolytes levels in rats. Animals were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Test groups received 250µg/kg of venom solution while control group was treated with 200µl of physiological saline solution (PSS. Blood samples were collected from the animals on the 1st, 2nd 4th, 8th, 12th, and 24th hours after subcutaneous injection of venom. Animals were monitored for 24 hours. Androctonus crassicauda venom significantly reduced AchE activity on the 12th hour when compared with control group. A statistically negative correlation between Na+ and K+ (p<0.05 and a positive correlation between Na+ and CL- (p<0.001 ions levels were observed after the administration of A. crassiccauda venom to rats. We can conclude that the differences in the electrolytes levels are due to acute renal failure, since elimination of toxin occurs primarily via the kidney.

  13. Updated catalogue and taxonomic notes on the Old-World scorpion genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Harris, D. James

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Since the publication of the ground-breaking “Catalogue of the scorpions of the world (1758–1998)” (Fet et al. 2000) the number of species in the scorpion genus Buthus Leach, 1815 has increased 10-fold, and this genus is now the fourth largest within the Buthidae, with 52 valid named species. Here we revise and update the available information regarding Buthus. A new combination is proposed: Buthus halius (C. L. Koch, 1839), comb. n. from Portugal and Spain. B. halius is removed from junior synonymy with Buthus occitanus (Amoreux, 1789), and proposed as a senior synonym of B. ibericus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004, syn. n. Moreover, following I.C.Z.N. article 23.9.2 we propose to maintain as valid B. ibericus (nomen protectum) and to consider the disued B. halius as a nomen oblitum. Buthus europaeus tridentatus Franganillo, 1918 is proposed as a junior synonym of B. occitanus (Amoreux, 1789), syn. n. Buthus sabulicola Touloun, 2012 is proposed as a junior synonym of Buthus bonito Lourenço & Geniez, 2005, syn. n. Buthus occitanus tunetanus neeli Gysin, 1969 is proposed as an informal senior synonym of Buthus tassili Lourenço, 2002, informal syn. n. Two taxa are rised to species rank, Buthus nigrovesiculosus Hirst, 1925, stat. n. and Buthus parroti Vachon, 1949, stat. n.. We further confirm the restricted distribution of B. occitanus that is confined to southeastern France and northwestern Iberian Peninsula and does not occur in North Africa. Additionally, Androctonus barbouri (Werner, 1932), comb. n. from the Agadir region of Morocco, is hereby transferred to the genus Androctonus. We summarize and provide a critical appraisal of the diagnostic characters currently in use for the genus. The catalogue section considers the names for species, subspecies and varieties that have been used for Buthus scorpions. Information about types, including collection numbers and localities are included when available. Finally, an annotated listing of synonymies and an

  14. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  15. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J.; Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L.; Lima, M.E. de; Nicoli, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na 125 I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The 125 I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author)

  16. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Microorganismos; Lima, M.E. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Nicoli, J.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia

    1999-11-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na {sup 125} I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The {sup 125} I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: nevesmj at urano.cdtn.br

  17. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%, and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%. The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%, followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  18. Scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema in a child who is stung by Leiurus abdullahbayrami

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    Mehmet Dokur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Venom of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae is an extremely toxic one and it stimulates voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. In case of a stung by this scorpion; excessive catecholamine release occur and it impairs left ventricle contractility and consequently a heart failure occurs (scorpion sting-related cardiomyopathy. In addition to this cardiac-induced acute pulmonary, edema may occur in severe cases too. An 11-year-old male child who was stung by a scorpion (species: Leiurus abdullahbayrami consulted to the Emergency Room. Even after 7 h of scorpion envenomation he was confused and having hallucinations. Besides he was dyspneic, tachycardic, hypotensive and got worse in overall situation due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. These clinical findings are concordant with the Level III scorpion envenomation (major systemic manifestations. Positive inotropic agents, diuretics and antiagregant agents used on supportive therapy in his treatment. After 2 weeks he get recovered and discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit. This research is conducted by thinking emergency physicians should learn that Leiurus abdullahbayrami envenomation can cause scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema especially in children. Keywords: Leiurus, Scorpionism, Cardiomyopathy, Pulmonary edema

  19. Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungo, Florence; Bairoch, Amos

    2005-03-01

    The Tox-Prot program was initiated in order to provide the scientific community a summary of the current knowledge on animal protein toxins. The aim of this program is to systematically annotate all proteins which act as toxins and are produced by venomous and poisonous animals. Venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, insects, cone snails, sea anemones, lizards, some fish, and platypus are equipped with a specialized organ to inject venom in their prey. In contrast, poisonous animals such as some fish or worms, lack such organs. Each toxin is annotated according to the quality standards of Swiss-Prot. This means providing a wealth of information that includes the description of the function, domain structure, subcellular location, tissue specificity, variants, similarities to other proteins, keywords, etc. In the framework of this program, particular care has been made to capture what is known on the function and mode of action, posttranslational modifications and 3D structural data which are all relatively abundant in the field of protein toxins. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to Swiss-Prot concerning toxins at Tox-Prot@isb-sib.ch. More information on Tox-Prot can be found at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/tox-prot.

  20. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  1. Anticoagulant Activity of Low-Molecular Weight Compounds from Heterometrus laoticus Scorpion Venom

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    Thien Vu Tran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms are complex polypeptide mixtures, the ion channel blockers and antimicrobial peptides being the best studied components. The coagulopathic properties of scorpion venoms are poorly studied and the data about substances exhibiting these properties are very limited. During research on the Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom, we have isolated low-molecular compounds with anticoagulant activity. Determination of their structure has shown that one of them is adenosine, and two others are dipeptides LeuTrp and IleTrp. The anticoagulant properties of adenosine, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, are well known, but its presence in scorpion venom is shown for the first time. The dipeptides did not influence the coagulation time in standard plasma coagulation tests. However, similarly to adenosine, both peptides strongly prolonged the bleeding time from mouse tail and in vitro clot formation in whole blood. The dipeptides inhibited the secondary phase in platelet aggregation induced by ADP, and IleTrp decreased an initial rate of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. This suggests that their anticoagulant effects may be realized through the deterioration of platelet function. The ability of short peptides from venom to slow down blood coagulation and their presence in scorpion venom are established for the first time. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanism of dipeptide anticoagulant activity.

  2. Report of 267 Cases of Scorpion Bite Referring to an Emergency Department during One Year

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    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bite is a common health problem in many parts of the world, including the Iran’s tropics. There are thousands of cases and a number of deaths due to scorpion bite every year in the country. The present study aims to provide further data regarding the details, complications and outcomes of scorpion bite cases referring to Razi Hospital, Ahwaz, from March 2011 to April 2012. A total of 267 patients (56.3% females with a mean age of 35.2±15.8 years, were included in the study. The most common genus of scorpion involved was Hemiscorpius (69.3% and the most frequent body part involved was the lower limb (38.9%. The frequency of hemolysis-induced renal insufficiency and death after scorpion bite were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. Of all the factors evaluated in this series only the old age was associated with higher possibility of renal insufficiency (P<0.001. 

  3. Consequences of Androctonus mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus scorpion venoms on electrolyte levels in rabbits

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    Khadija Daoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androctonus mauretanicus (A. mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus (B. occitanus scorpions, which belong to the Buthidae family, are the most venomous scorpions in Morocco. For the first time, we investigated the effects of such scorpion venoms on serum electrolytes in subcutaneously injected rabbits. For this purpose, 3 groups of 6 albinos adult male rabbits (New Zealand were used in this experiment. Two of the groups were given a single subcutaneous injection of either crude Am venom (5 μg/kg or Bo venom (8 μg/kg whereas the third group (control group only received physiological saline solution (NaCl 0.9%. The blood samples were collected from injected rabbits via the marginal vein at time intervals of 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h after venom injection. The concentrations of electrolytes in the serum samples were measured. Our study indicates that scorpion envenomation in vivo, rabbit animal model, caused severe and persistent hypomagnesaemia and hypochloremia, which are accompanied of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia and hypercalcaemia. The intensity of electrolytes imbalance was clearly superior in the case of A. mauretanicus scorpion venom (although a lower quantity of venom was injected. This is coherent with the experimental data which indicate that A. mauretanicus venom is more toxic than B. occitanus venom.

  4. Scorpion sting in children in the Jerusalem area: a review of 54 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, A A; Rambaud-Cousson, A; Thalji, A; Juabeh, I I; Abu-Libdeh, B

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four children from the Jerusalem area were studied prospectively following scorpion envenoming. Their ages ranged from 11 months to 10 years. Severe symptoms (convulsions, brain oedema, shock, respiratory distress and myocarditis) were encountered in 19. Respiratory distress was the main feature in 17 of the children, in two cases owing to pulmonary oedema and in a third because of adult respiratory distress syndrome and myocarditis; mechanical ventilation was required in three cases. The severity of the symptoms and signs was not related to sex, age, weight, interval between scorpion sting and admission or to the type of offending scorpion; it was most likely dependent upon the susceptibility of the individual and/or the dose of venom injected by the scorpion. Intravenous antivenom quickly reversed the symptoms, and no side-effects were seen in the patients studied. The two patients who died had not received the antivenom intravenously. We recommend that specific antivenom should be given intravenously in all children who show significant symptoms. Furthermore, a longer period of observation is necessary following scorpion sting in this age group.

  5. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forecasting and prediction of scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, Algeria, using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model

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    Schehrazad Selmane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. METHODS In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012. RESULTS The epidemiological analysis revealed that scorpion stings were reported continuously throughout the year, with peaks in the summer months. The most affected age group was 15 to 49 years old, with a male predominance. The most prone human body areas were the upper and lower limbs. The majority of cases (95.9% were classified as mild envenomations. The time series analysis showed that a (5,1,0×(0,1,112 SARIMA model offered the best fit to the scorpion sting surveillance data. This model was used to predict scorpion sting cases for the year 2013, and the fitted data showed considerable agreement with the actual data. CONCLUSIONS SARIMA models are useful for monitoring scorpion sting cases, and provide an estimate of the variability to be expected in future scorpion sting cases. This knowledge is helpful in predicting whether an unusual situation is developing or not, and could therefore assist decision-makers in strengthening the province’s prevention and control measures and in initiating rapid response measures.

  7. Nueva especie de Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae del Turimiquire, Venezuela

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    Leonardo De Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de la familia Buthidae, Tityus quirogae, del Macizo del Turimiquire en el tramo oriental de la Cordillera de La Costa en los Estados Monagas y Sucre, Venezuela. Es similar, morfológicamente, a T. nematochirus y T. meridanus. Se distingue de estas especies por la disposición de las tricobotrias dorsales del fémur y por presentar la siguiente combinación de características: (1 I Segmento caudal con dos carenas ventrales paralelas. Segmentos caudales II al IV con carenas ventrales dobles hacia el área proximal que convergen y se hacen únicas, para finalmente ser divergentes hacia la región distal, (2 marcado dimorfismo sexual, especialmente en la forma de los pedipalpos; las quelas en los machos son marcadamente delgadas y largas, (3 número de dientes pectíneos (macho: 18 derechos y 18 izquierdos y hembra: 18 derechos y 19 izquierdos, (4 número de hileras de dentículos del dedo móvil de la mano derecha (macho 16 y hembra 16. T. quirogae es la primera especie del género con pedipalpos delgados y alargados para la región nororiental de Venezuela.A new species of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae from Turimiquire, Venezuela. We describe a new species of Buthid scorpion, Tityus quirogae, from the Turimiquire mountains, eastern side of the La Costa range, Monagas and Sucre States, Venezuela. It is morphologically similar to T. nematochirus and T. meridanus. It differs from these species in the distribution of the dorsal femoral trichobothria and in the following combination of characters: (1 I caudal segment with two parallel ventral keels. Caudal segments II to IV with ventral keels that are double in the extremes of the segments and single in the middle, (2 noticeable sexual dimorphism, especially in pedipalp shape; the male chelae are markedly thin and long, (3 number of pectineous teeth (male: 18 in each pecten; female: 18 in the right pecten and 19 in the left one, and (4 number of denticle rows in the

  8. Successful Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock due to Scorpion Envenomation

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    Amine Tarmiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The occurrence of a cardiogenic shock is a rare presentation after scorpion envenomation. The treatment includes classically the use of inotropes and specific vasodilators. Case Presentation. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema after a scorpion sting. Despite adequate management at the emergency department and intensive care unit, the patient’s hemodynamic status worsened rapidly, justifying his transfer to our department for ventricular mechanical assistance by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The following outcomes were favorable and the boy was discharged home on day 29 without aftereffects. Conclusion. This is the first report of successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of cardiogenic shock after scorpion envenomation.

  9. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

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    A Zarei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population."nMethods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured."nResults: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution."nConclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  10. Amblypygi, Opiliones, Schizomida, Scorpiones and Chilopoda, Tocantins, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kury, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tocantins 2007 Expedition of the Project “Aracnídeos e Miriápodes da Mata Atlântica” (AMMAproduced many new records of arachnids and centipedes, with 61 morphotypes identified. Among the resultsare: OPILIONES: 30 morphotypes with six new records of families and one of subfamily from Tocantinsstate; discovery of two undescribed species of Roquettea Mello-Leitão, 1931; Saramacia alvarengai Kury,1997 is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Saramacia annulata (Mello-Leitão, 1931; BrotasusRoewer, 1928 is transferred to Escadabiidae; the gonyleptid genera Parapachyloides Roewer, 1913 andSchubartesia B. Soares, 1944 are transferred to Gonyleptinae; SCHIZOMIDA: one species, new record of theorder from Tocantins and from the Cerrado biome; SCORPIONES: seven species, one of them new record fromTocantins and two morphotypes; Chilopoda: 19 morphotypes, SCUTIGEROMORPHA: a widespread speciesSphendononema guildingii (Newport, 1845 and another morphotype; GEOPHILOMORPHA: one morphotype;SCOLOPENDROMORPHA: 16 morphotypes, seven of them new records.

  11. In vitro neutralization of the scorpion, Buthus tamulus venom toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Y; Janakiram, B; Reddy, G R

    1988-01-01

    Scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom was subjected to neutralization by treating the venom with various chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, thiourea, formaldehyde, zinc sulphate, acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. The venom was also subjected to heat treatment. The levels of total protein, free amino acids and protease activity in neutralized venom decreased significantly. The decrease in venom protein and free amino acids was in proportion to the duration of the heat treatment and the concentration of chemicals used except zinc sulphate, sodium hydroxide and thiourea. Protease activity of neutralized venom samples also showed a decrease except with zinc sulphate which enhanced the enzyme activity. Intramuscular injection of formaldehyde, trichlcroacetic acid and heat treated venoms into albino rats produced low mortality while thiourea and zinc sulphate were not effective in reducing the mortality. Hydrochloric acid and acetic acid treated venoms reduced the mortality by 50% with a decrease in the symptoms of envenomation. The changes were attributed to the denaturing of venom protein by chemical and heat treatments.

  12. A Late Carboniferous fossil scorpion from the Piesberg, near Osnabrück, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil scorpion – only the second from the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian of western Germany – is described from the Westphalian D of the Piesberg near Osnabrück, Germany. This slender and rather gracile specimen is very closely related to the stratigraphically contemporary Eoscorpius carbonarius Meek & Worthern, 1868 from Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA and is here assigned to E. cf. carbonarius. A precise placement is hindered by the need for revision of the late Carboniferous scorpion fauna. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700010

  13. Differential comparison on protein components of the venoms obtained from two species of the Iranian endemic scorpions, Buthidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farahmandzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two Dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE is the most commonly and useful separation technique in proteomics. Each proteome snapshot becomes a protein profile. By means of this technique, several proteins are studied simultaneously. Methods: In this study, by use of (2DE method, the differences of two profiles of Buthidae endemic scorpions, A.Crassicauda known as "black scorpion" and "O. doriae" yellow scorpion", were investigated. Results: For A.Crassicauda scorpion there were about 20 spots (peptides in 6.2 - 8.2 pH ranges and molecular weight was less than 3 to 14 kDa and O. doriae scorpion 30 peptides, in 6.3 - 8.5 pH ranges, 1 to 45 kDa that fractionated and identified. Conclusion: By this method, the field of bioinformative data bank from Iranian endemic scorpions' venom could be prepared. By making change of any effective factors on scorpion venom, considerable results due to influence of the factor on determining kind of venom can be achieved and studied.

  14. Microalgal toxin(s): characteristics and importance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microalgae produce a wide array of compounds with biological activities. These include antibiotics, algicides, toxins, pharmaceutically active compounds and plant growth regulators. Toxic microalgae, in this sense, are common only among the cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The microalgal ...

  15. Saharo-Sindian buthid scorpions; description of two new genera and species from Occidental Sahara and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lourenco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species of Saharo-Sindian buthid scorpions are described on the basis of single specimens collected respectively in the deserts of Occidental Sahara and the North of Afghanistan. These new scorpion taxa represent further endemic relicts in the Saharo-Sindian faunas. Comments are also included on the evolution of the desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as the possible consequences of these events on the distribution of the extant scorpion fauna.

  16. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlícek, Tomás; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Zehavi, Dan; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in Al-Jouf province, SaudiArabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrar, Bashir M.; Al-Rowaily, Meshref A.

    2008-01-01

    Information on scorpion stings is available for many parts of SaudiArabia, but not for the Al-Jouf Province. We reviewed and analyzed 1449 casesof scorpion stings that presented to the emergency department of thehospitals and medical centers in Al-Jouf Province during a 2-year period(2005-2006). The majority of patients (92.7%) manifested class I envenomationwith local pain at the sting site as the primary complaint. Systemic toxicitywas noticed in 7.3% of cases but no deaths were reported. Scorpion stingswere recorded throughout the year with the highest seasonal incidence in thesummer (64.3%) and the lowest during the winter (10.6%). The highest monthlyincidence was in June (21.5%) and the lowest in December (1.5%). Most of thepatients were male (77.3%) and the age of 44.2% of victims ranged between 15to 30 years. Diurnal stings exceeded the nocturnal ones with a ratio of 3:2and most of the stings were located mainly on the exposed limbs (88.6%),especially the lower limbs (51.7%). Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctouscrassicauda were incriminated in most recorded cases. Our findings indicatethat scorpion stings are common in Al-Jouf Province, especially during thesummer. The overall threat to human health was found to be low. (author)

  18. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  19. Characterization of unique amphipathic antimicrobial peptides from venom of the scorpion Pandinus imperator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, G; Escoubas, P; Villegas, E; Barnham, K J; He, W; Norton, R S; Nakajima, T

    2001-10-01

    Two novel antimicrobial peptides have been identified and characterized from venom of the African scorpion Pandinus imperator. The peptides, designated pandinin 1 and 2, are alpha-helical polycationic peptides, with pandinin 1 belonging to the group of antibacterial peptides previously described from scorpions, frogs and insects, and pandinin 2 to the group of short magainin-type helical peptides from frogs. Both peptides demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria (2.4-5.2 microM), but were less active against Gram-negative bacteria (2.4-38.2 microM), and only pandinin 2 affected the yeast Candida albicans. Pandinin 2 also demonstrated strong haemolytic activity (11.1-44.5 microM) against sheep erythrocytes, in contrast with pandinin 1, which was not haemolytic. CD studies and a high-resolution structure of pandinin 2 determined by NMR, showed that the two peptides are both essentially helical, but differ in their overall structure. Pandinin 2 is composed of a single alpha-helix with a predominantly hydrophobic N-terminal sequence, whereas pandinin 1 consists of two distinct alpha-helices separated by a coil region of higher flexibility. This is the first report of magainin-type polycationic antimicrobial peptides in scorpion venom. Their presence brings new insights into the mode of action of scorpion venom and also opens new avenues for the discovery of novel antibiotic molecules from arthropod venoms.

  20. Epidemiology of Snake, Spider and Scorpion Envenomation in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (2004-2011

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    Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Envenomation is common in Asia including Iran that induces morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of cases with snake, spider and scorpion bites. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, epidemiologic data of admitted cases to the Toxicology Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran were analyzed across a 7-yr period, from 2004 to 2011. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: This study reports 686 admissions due to animal envenomation with an incidence rate of 2.9 per 100000. Mean (SD, min-max age of admitted patients was 30 (19, 1-90 yr, and 471 (69% were male. Snakebite (n, percentage, annual incidence (299, 44%, 1.3 per 100000 and spider bite (188, 27%, 0.8 per 100000 and scorpion sting (126, 18.4%, 0.5 per 100000 were most frequent cases. Overall, case fatality rate was 0.09 per 100000 which were due to scorpion and unknown bite. No cases of snakebites died in this period. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 4.6 per 100000 and related to 10-20 yr of age. Conclusion: Animal envenomation is frequent in this area and a matter of health concern. While deaths related to snake bite are no longer reported-presumably due to using effective anti-venom - managing unknown and scorpion bites need to be addressed. Envenomation was not overtly an age-specific event in this province.

  1. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type.

  2. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought, due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera, beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae, and grasshoppers (Orthoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  3. Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom induces apoptosis in the triple negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny Laura; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Fraga Castro, José A

    2017-01-01

    Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has demonstrated high cytotoxic activity in epithelial cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of scorpion venom on cell viability and apoptosis was evaluated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line. Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The cell death event was examined trough end-point RT-PCR to identify the expression of apoptosis-related genes, fluorescent microscopy and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) alteration. The resul...

  4. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  5. Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; D'Suze, G; Díaz, P; Salazar, V; Hidalgo, C; Azpúrua, H; Bracho, N

    2004-12-01

    Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')(2) extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. We measured pharmacokinetic parameters for T. discrepans venom in rams. Forty, 75 or 100 microg/kg venom were injected subcutaneously in the inner side of the thigh. Plasma venom content (venenemia) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 0 to 300 min after injecting venom. Venenemia was fit to a three-compartment model (inoculation site, plasma and extra vascular extracellular space), it was assumed that the venom may also be irreversibly removed from plasma. Calculated time course of venom content shows that at any time no more that 30% of the venom is present in plasma. Venenemia peaks at 1h and decays afterwards. Fluorescently labelled antivenom [horse anti-TityusF(ab')(2) or fraction antigen binding, immuglobulin without Fc chain covalently bound to fluorescine or fluorescamine] pharmacokinetics was determined. Although F(ab')(2) molecular weight is >/=10 times bigger that toxin's, the rate of outflow of F(ab')(2) from blood to tissues was approximately 4 times faster than the venom's outflow. Venom content in the injection site decays exponentially for >6h, this prediction was confirmed immunohistochemically. Only approximately 5% of the venom is eliminated in 10h; approximately 80% of the venom is in the tissues after 2h and remains there for >10h.

  6. Primeiro registro de Bothriurus asper Pocock (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae no Distrito Federal, Brasil First record of Bothriurus asper Pocock (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae in Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Motta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez indivíduos do escorpião Bothriurus asper Pocock, 1893, conhecido de alguns estados do nordeste brasileiro, foram encontrados em áreas urbanas próximas à Brasília, Distrito Federal. Provavelmente, esta espécie foi introduzida pela atividade humana.Ten individuals of the scorpion Bothriurus asper Pocock, 1893 from states of Northeast Brazil was found in urban areas near Brasília, Federal District. This species was probably introduced by human activity.

  7. Clawing through evolution: toxin diversification and convergence in the ancient lineage Chilopoda (centipedes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Jones, Alun; Clauser, Karl R; Holland, John W; Pineda, Sandy S; King, Glenn F; Fry, Bryan G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the staggering diversity of venomous animals, there seems to be remarkable convergence in regard to the types of proteins used as toxin scaffolds. However, our understanding of this fascinating area of evolution has been hampered by the narrow taxonomical range studied, with entire groups of venomous animals remaining almost completely unstudied. One such group is centipedes, class Chilopoda, which emerged about 440 Ma and may represent the oldest terrestrial venomous lineage next to scorpions. Here, we provide the first comprehensive insight into the chilopod "venome" and its evolution, which has revealed novel and convergent toxin recruitments as well as entirely new toxin families among both high- and low molecular weight venom components. The ancient evolutionary history of centipedes is also apparent from the differences between the Scolopendromorpha and Scutigeromorpha venoms, which diverged over 430 Ma, and appear to employ substantially different venom strategies. The presence of a wide range of novel proteins and peptides in centipede venoms highlights these animals as a rich source of novel bioactive molecules. Understanding the evolutionary processes behind these ancient venom systems will not only broaden our understanding of which traits make proteins and peptides amenable to neofunctionalization but it may also aid in directing bioprospecting efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acute kidney injury in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children: Risk factors and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Valavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is frequently seen in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children. We have previously reported several victims with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 deficiency. Hence, we conducted this study to identify predictive factors and clinical features of AKI in H. lepturus scorpion stung patients. We included all 215 H. lepturus scorpion stung children with no previous renal diseases in two groups (with and without AKI and compared them based on their clinical and laboratory findings. AKI was found in 27.4% of patients, they were significantly younger and with lower body weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.011, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups with and without AKI in findings such as fever (P = 0.003, hypertension (P <0.001, hemolytic anemia (P <0.001, thrombocytopenia (P <0.001, massive proteinuria (P <0.001, hemoglobinuria (P <0.001, pyuria (P <0.001, and hematuria (P = 0.004. HUS was in 5.5% and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14.6% which had a significant association with AKI (P <0.001.There were several independent predictors for AKI in a multivariate regression model including thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002, pyuria (P = 0.01, proteinuria (P =0.01, and fever (P = 0.02. Hemodialysis was performed in four patients but kidney function improved in all patients and there was no findings of renal impairment after three months follow-up. We found several predictors for AKI in children following H. lepturus scorpion sting including younger age, delay in receiving medical care, pigmenturia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, proteinuria, and pyuria.

  9. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and function in victims of scorpion envenomation using gated-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Alexandre Baldini de; Cupo, Palmira; Pintya, Antonio O.; Caligaris, Fabio; Marin-Neto, Jose A; Hering, Sylvia E.; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius, E-mail: simoesmv@yahoo.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2010-04-15

    Background: cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema are the major causes of death of patients with scorpion envenomation, whose pathophysiological mechanism remains controversial. Objective: to investigate the correlation between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and left ventricular contractile function in victims of scorpion envenomation. Methods: fifteen patients underwent ECG-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (gated SPECT) within 72 hours of, and 15 days after scorpion envenomation. Images were analyzed by means of a semi-quantitative visual perfusion score (0 = normal, 4 = absent) and motion score (0 = normal, 4 akinesia), using the 17-segment model. Summed perfusion (SPS) and summed motion (SMS) scores were calculated for each patient. Ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by a commercially available software. Results: at baseline, 12 out of the 15 patients presented abnormal myocardial perfusion and contractility. Mean values of SPS, SMS and LVEF were 12.5 +- 7.3, 17.0 +- 12.8, and 44.6 +- 16.0%, respectively. A positive correlation between SPS and SMS (r = 0.68; p = 0.005) and negative correlation between SPS and LVEF (r -0.75; p = 0.0021) were found. The follow-up studies showed recovery of global contractility (LVEF of 68.9 +- 9.5, p = 0.0002), segmental contractility (SMS of 2.6 +- 3.1, p = 0.0009) and perfusion (SPS of 3.7 +- 3.3, p = 0.0003). Improvement of LVEF correlated positively with improvement of SPS (r = 0.72; p = 0.0035). Conclusions: myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in scorpion envenomation and correlate topographically with the contractile dysfunction. Recovery of contractility correlates with reversibility of perfusion defects. These findings suggest the participation of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the pathophysiology of this form of acute ventricular failure. (author)

  10. Bothriurus pichicuy, nuevo escorpión chileno del grupo vittatus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoni, Camilo I.

    2002-01-01

    Bothriurus pichicuy, a new scorpion species from the center coast of Chile, is described. It belongs to the vittatus species-group, and differs from the others species in the group by the pigmentation patterns of the prosoma, mesosoma and venter of metasoma, by the development and arrangement of the ventral keels of caudal segment V, and for its small size. The species is the only representative of the vittatus species-group that lives in sympatry with another Bothriurus species: B. coriaceus...

  11. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    OpenAIRE

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type. The carbohydrate chains were released from the protein by hydrazinolysis. Determination of the molecular weight and carbohydrate composition, in conjunction with methylation analysis and 500-MHz 1H-...

  12. Botulinum Toxin for Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Ismi, Onur

    2016-08-01

    Rhinitis is a common clinical entity. Besides nasal obstruction, itching, and sneezing, one of the most important symptoms of rhinitis is nasal hypersecretion produced by nasal glands and exudate from the nasal vascular bed. Allergic rhinitis is an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction of nasal mucosa after exposure to environmental allergens. Idiopathic rhinitis describes rhinitis symptoms that occur after non-allergic, noninfectious irritants. Specific allergen avoidance, topical nasal decongestants, nasal corticosteroids, immunotherapy, and sinonasal surgery are the main treatment options. Because the current treatment modalities are not enough for reducing rhinorrhea in some patients, novel treatment options are required to solve this problem. Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin generated by Clostridium botulinum. It disturbs the signal transmission at the neuromuscular and neuroglandular junction by inhibiting the acetylcholine release from the presynaptic nerve terminal. It has been widely used in neuromuscular, hypersecretory, and autonomic nerve system disorders. There have been a lot of published articles concerning the effect of this toxin on rhinitis symptoms. Based on the results of these reports, intranasal botulinum toxin A administration appears to be a safe and effective treatment method for decreasing rhinitis symptoms in rhinitis patients with a long-lasting effect. Botulinum toxin type A will be a good treatment option for the chronic rhinitis patients who are resistant to other treatment methods.

  13. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  14. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  15. Inhibition of Nephrotoxic Activity of Mesobuthus Eupeus Scorpion Venom by Commercial Polyvalent Antivenom in Rabbits

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    Ehsan Zayerzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for scorpion envenomation. In the present study, the protective effects of polyvalent antivenom against histopathological complications in kidneys and marker changes (BUN and creatinine induced by Mesobuthus eupeus (Me scorpion venom was investigated in anesthetized rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits were randomized into four groups: six rabbits in control group were received 1 ml distilled water subcutaneously (group 1. In group 2, sublethal dose of Me venom (4 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously. Simultaneously venom (subcutaneously 1ml of an distilled water solution containing 4 mg/kg of Me venom and antivenom (intravenously 5 ml were administered in six rabbits as group 3 animals. In group 4, rabbits received five ml of antivenom, 60 min after Me venom injection. Results: In group 2, venom injection caused histopathological damages such as glomerular congestion, dilated vessels of interstitium and focal interstitial congestion in the kidney. It also increased creatinine and BUN levels 3 h after envenomation. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented histopathological damage and marker changes. In group four, Immunotherapy decreased histopathological damages and prevented creatinine and BUN elevation at 3 h. Conclusion: Polyvalent antivenom administration can prevent and neutralize nephrotoxic effects of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion envenomation, if used at optimum conditions.

  16. SdPI, the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from scorpion venom.

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    Ruiming Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kunitz-type venom peptides have been isolated from a wide variety of venomous animals. They usually have protease inhibitory activity or potassium channel blocking activity, which by virtue of the effects on predator animals are essential for the survival of venomous animals. However, no Kunitz-type peptides from scorpion venom have been functionally characterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Kunitz-type venom peptide gene precursor, SdPI, was cloned and characterized from a venom gland cDNA library of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus. It codes for a signal peptide of 21 residues and a mature peptide of 59 residues. The mature SdPI peptide possesses a unique cysteine framework reticulated by three disulfide bridges, different from all reported Kunitz-type proteins. The recombinant SdPI peptide was functionally expressed. It showed trypsin inhibitory activity with high potency (K(i = 1.6×10(-7 M and thermostability. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrated that SdPI is a potent and stable serine protease inhibitor. Further mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation revealed that SdPI possesses a serine protease inhibitory active site similar to other Kunitz-type venom peptides. To our knowledge, SdPI is the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor derived from scorpion venom, and it represents a new class of Kunitz-type venom peptides.

  17. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

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    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Biochemical and Histopathological study of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in the experimental rabbits

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    Koohi, M.K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical and subtropical countries, envenomation by scorpions (so-called scorpionism represents a serious public health problem. In the present study, the toxic effects of mice LD50 injections of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me venom on the kidney and liver of anesthetized rabbits were investigated. Six rabbits were selected and ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were measured at 0, 1 and 3 hours after envenomation and histopathological studies were carried out postmortem. All the animals showed signs and symptoms ofenvenomation within 30-40 minutes and died 3 to 3.5 hours after venom injection. Histopathological examinations revealed glumerolar congestion, dilated vessels of interstitium and focal interstitial congestion in the kidney and focal hemorrhage, central vein congestion, congested vessels in portal areas and dilatedsinusoids in the liver at 3 to 3.5 hrs following venom injection. In addition, biochemical analyses indicated significant rise in the levels of ALT and creatinine following Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation in animals at 3 hrs. However no significant changes were observed at 1 hr. In conclusion, scorpion (Mesobuthuseupeus venom leads to damage in vital organs such as liver and kidney.

  19. Neutralizing effects of polyvalent antivenom on severe inflammatory response induced by Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom

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    Zayerzadeh1 E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me scorpion venom on inflammatory response following injection. Additionally, the present study examined whether immunotherapy at specific time intervals would be effective on inflammatory response after Me venom inoculation. Animals were divided randomly into four groups: the first group received LD50 of venom and the second and third groups of animals; immunotherapy was performed in different time intervals and fourth group was considered as control group. Me venom inoculation is caused respiratory perturbations such as respiratory distress, respiration with open mouth, crepitation and finally respiratory arrest. Me inoculation is resulted in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1. Venom injection also induced inflammatory response, characterized by significant increase in serum white blood cells and neutrophils at 30, 60 and 180 min following envenomation. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented entirely clinical sings, cytokines and hematological changes. Delayed immunotherapy gradually ameliorated clinical features, cytokines changes and hematological abnormalities related to the envenomation. In conclusion, our observations indicate injection of M. eupeus scorpion venom induces severe inflammatory response which can be one of the causes of clinical complications. Additionally, immunotherapy beyond 1 h after envenomation with appropriate dose and route in victims with severe inflammatory response related to the M.eupeus scorpion envenomation is beneficial.

  20. A novel class of antimicrobial peptides from the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yao; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Yang, Ye; Luo, Feng; Luo, Xuesong; Wu, Shifen; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    The venom peptides from the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer have been poorly characterized so far. Here, we identified a novel class of antimicrobial peptides from the venom gland of H. spinifer, which were referred to as HsAp, HsAp2, HsAp3 and HsAp4, respectively. Each of the four peptides consists of 29 amino acid residues, and is cationic and weakly amphipathic. They display no significant homology to any other known peptides, and thus represent a new family of venom peptides from scorpions. Antimicrobial assay showed that HsAp is able to inhibit the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with the MIC values of 11.8-51.2 μM. HsAp is also able to inhibit the growth of the tested fungus. Genomic analysis indicated that the genes of all the four peptides are intronless. Our studies expand the families of antimicrobial peptides from scorpions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbohydrate inhibitors of cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vajinder; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by a protein toxin released by Vibrio cholera in the host's intestine. The toxin enters intestinal epithelial cells after binding to specific carbohydrates on the cell surface. Over recent years, considerable effort has been invested in developing inhibitors of toxin adhesion that mimic the carbohydrate ligand, with particular emphasis on exploiting the multivalency of the toxin to enhance activity. In this review we introduce the structural features of the toxin that have guided the design of diverse inhibitors and summarise recent developments in the field.

  2. Development of respiratory structures in embryos and first and second instars of the bark scorpion, Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Roger D

    2008-09-01

    The SEM was used to study the development of respiratory structures in successive stages in relation to the overall changes occurring in the scorpions. Book lung development is a slow process, starting with spiracles and a sac-like atrium in the early embryo and continuing lamellar formation to 150 or more in the adult. In the embryo, the primordial epithelial cells become aligned in a planar pattern as they secrete granules of material that aggregate spontaneously to form the cuticular walls of the lamellae. A blade-like structure is formed consisting of cells sandwiched within the two cuticle walls they secreted. These cells are in the primordial air channel. The adjacent hemolymph channel is nearly devoid of cells, but cross-bridges develop and help stabilize the cuticle walls and maintain the width of the channel. The cells in the primordial air channel undergo cytolysis, leaving it open for air except for cuticular cross-bridges. Development continues in the newborn (first instars); the air channels of some lamellae still contain cells and are not yet functional for gas exchange. The first instars are weak and relatively inactive. They climb up on the mother's dorsum until the first molt (about 8 days). With the cuticular walls of the lamellae in place, cells adhering to the wall in the hemolymph channel produce a thin, new tissue layer (epithelium) on the lamellar wall facing the hemolymph channel. This layer has many discontinuities as though it is slowly developing. Formation of the tissue layer and cytolysis of the cells in the air channels continue through the first molt in which little book lung cuticle is shed as exuvium. The air channels of the second instars (foraging nymphs) are now cell free and open for air passage except for the cross-bridges. The tissue layer is still incomplete and continues to be formed. It may provide the hypodermal primordium for cuticle replacement in later molts, but development was not studied beyond the second instar

  3. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

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    Aimee Shen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.

  4. Scorpion Envenomation Among Children: Clinical Manifestations and Outcome (Analysis of 685 Cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chabchoub, Imen; Chaari, Anis; Chtara, Kamilia; Kallel, Hatem; Dammak, Hassen; Ksibi, Hichem; Chelly, Hedi; Rekik, Noureddine; Hamida, Chokri Ben; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize both epidemiologically and clinically manifestations after severe scorpion envenomation and to define simple factors indicative of poor prognosis in children. We performed a retrospective study over 13 years (1990–2002) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital (Sfax-Tunisia). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was based on a history of scorpion sting. The medical records of 685 children aged less than 16 years who were admitted for a scorpion sting were analyzed. There were 558 patients (81.5%) in the grade III group (with cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological manifestation [coma and/or convulsion]) and 127 patients (18.5%) in the grade II group (with systemic manifestations). In this study, 434 patients (63.4%) had a pulmonary edema, and 80 patients had a cardiogenic shock; neurological manifestations were observed in 580 patients (84.7%), 555 patients (81%) developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and 552 patients (80.6%) developed multi-organ failure. By the end of the stay in the ICU, evolution was marked by the death in 61 patients (8.9%). A multivariate analysis found the following factors to be correlated with a poor outcome: coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3), pulmonary edema (OR = 2.3), and cardiogenic shock (OR = 1.7). In addition, a significant association was found between the development of SIRS and heart failure. Moreover, a temperature > 39°C was associated with the presence of pulmonary edema, with a sensitivity at 20.6%, a specificity at 94.4%, and a positive predictive value at 91.7%. Finally, blood sugar levels above 15 mmol/L were significantly associated with a heart failure. In children admitted for severe scorpion envenomation, coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock were associated with a poor outcome. The presence of SIRS, a temperature > 39°C, and blood sugar levels

  5. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influência da disponibilidade de presas, do contraste visual e do tamanho das larvas de Pantala sp. (Odonata, Insecta sobre a predação de Simocephalus serrulatus (Cladocera, Crustacea Influence of prey availability, visual contrast and size of dragonfly (Pantala sp. larvae (Odonata, Insecta on the predation of Simocephalus serrulatus (Cladocera, Crustacea

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    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da disponibilidade de presas, do contraste visual e do tamanho das larvas de Odonata (Pantala sp. sobre a predação de cladóceros (Simocephalus serrulatus. Para estudar a taxa de predação em função da disponibilidade de cladóceros em contraste visual, foram utilizadas 24 larvas de Odonata (12,57±0,05 mm e 100,01±9,16 mg. Foram utilizados 5, 10, 15 20 cladóceros/litro, em aquários de vidro transparente (1-L, e as mesmas densidades em aquários revestidos por plástico preto. Os cladóceros (1,63±0,21 mm e 0,78 mg foram contados e repostos a cada hora, por cinco horas consecutivas. Para estudar o efeito do tamanho de larvas de Odonata na predação de cladóceros, foram utilizadas 24 larvas de diferentes tamanhos, as quais foram colocadas em recipientes (50-ml. Colocaram-se 20 cladóceros com cada larva, realizando-se contagem e reposição dos indivíduos consumidos, a cada dez minutos, por duas horas consecutivas. Observou-se efeito quadrático (p The influence of prey availability, visual contrast and size of dragonfly (Pantala sp larvae on the predation of cladocerans (Simocephalus serrulatus is provided. Twenty-four dragonfly naiads (12.57±0.05 mm and 100.01±9.16 mg were employed to study the relation between predation rate and availability of cladocerans and visual contrast. 5,10, 15 and 20 cladocerans/L were placed in 1L transparent and black plastic lined aquariums. Cladocerans (1.63±0.21 mm and 0.78 mg were counted and replaced hourly for five consecutive hours. Twenty-four naiads of different sizes were placed in 50mL recipients to study effects of size of dragonfly larvae. Each larvae received 20 cladocerans; counting and reposition of individuals consumed every ten minutes during two consecutive hours were undertaken. Quadratic effect (p < 0.02 in predation rate was reported, with an increase in prey availability: 21.67; 39.00; 42.44 and 49.67% were reported for densities of 5, 10, 15

  7. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

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    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  8. Accident caused by Centruroides testaceus (DeGeer, 1778 (Scorpiones, Buthidae, native to the Caribbean, in Brazilian airport

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    Ricardo Antônio Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Describes the case of a 6-year-old girl who was stung by a Centruroides testaceus, a scorpion native to the Lesser Antilles, in the Guarulhos International Airport, São Paulo, Brazil, as she disembarked from a flight coming from the Caribbean. The patient presented only local symptoms (a small area of erythema and pain at the sting site, which were resolved after a few hours with analgesics, without the need for antivenom. Physicians who treat patients stung by scorpions should be alert to the possibility of such accidents being caused by non native species, especially those cases that occur near airports or ports.

  9. In vitro anticancer effect of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus against a panel of human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-Garc?a, Alexis; Morier-D?az, Luis; Fri?n-Herrera, Yahima; Rodr?guez-S?nchez, Hermis; Caballero-Lorenzo, Yamira; Mendoza-Llanes, Dianeya; Riquenes-Garlobo, Yanelis; Fraga-Castro, Jos? A

    2013-01-01

    In Cuba the endemic species of scorpion Rhopalurus junceus has been used in traditional medicine for cancer treatment. However, there is little scientific evidence about its potential in cancer therapy. The effect of a range of scorpion venom concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml) against a panel of human tumor cell lines from epithelial (Hela, SiHa, Hep-2, NCI-H292, A549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, HT-29), hematopoietic origins (U937, K562, Raji) and normal cells (MRC-5, MDCK, Vero) w...

  10. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Thapsia garganica methanolic extract: Histopathological and biochemical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimeja, Btissam; El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; Ait Laaradia, Mehdi; Ait Dra, Loubna; El Khoudri, Noureddine; Chait, Abderrahman; Boumezzough, Ali

    2018-01-30

    Thapsia garganica, is a herbal medicine traditionally used as diuretic, emetic and purgative. It is also used as anti-scorpion venom in Morocco; however, its protective effects against scorpion venom remain elusive. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-venom activity of T. garganica in vivo through histological and biochemical studies. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica was evaluated for anti-venom activity against buthus. occitanus under in vivo conditions. Histopathological and biochemical changes in envenomed and treated mice were also examined. Phytochemical screening was conducted to estimate the major constituents whereas DPPH, β -Carotene-linoleic acid and reducing power assays were performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of T. garganica extract. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica (2g/kg) increased the survival time (> 18h) of mice injected with lethal doses of B. occitanus venom, with remarkable recovery of histology damage. Furthermore T. garganica induced a significant decreased of biochemical markers of kidney, liver and heart function. Phytochemistry screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and steroids/terpenoids, which might explain the bioactivity of the extract. It was also shown that the extract has an exceptionally high antioxidant activity compared to well-known antioxidants used as standards. The present study provides strong evidence that support the use of T. garganica as anti-scorpion venom in traditional medicine in Morocco. However, additional studies are required to isolate and identify the metabolites responsible for the activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Scorpion Defensin BmKDfsin4 Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication in Vitro

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    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause acute and chronic hepatitis and can significantly increase the risk of liver cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nowadays, clinical therapies of HBV infection still mainly rely on nucleotide analogs and interferons, the usage of which is limited by drug-resistant mutation or side effects. Defensins had been reported to effectively inhibit the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Here, we screened the anti-HBV activity of 25 scorpion-derived peptides most recently characterized by our group. Through evaluating anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity, we found that BmKDfsin4, a scorpion defensin with antibacterial and Kv1.3-blocking activities, has a comparable high inhibitory rate of both HBeAg and HBsAg in HepG2.2.15 culture medium and low cytotoxicity to HepG2.2.15. Then, our experimental results further showed that BmKDfsin4 can dose-dependently decrease the production of HBV DNA and HBV viral proteins in both culture medium and cell lysate. Interestingly, BmKDfsin4 exerted high serum stability. Together, this study indicates that the scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 also has inhibitory activity against HBV replication along with its antibacterial and potassium ion channel Kv1.3-blocking activities, which shows that BmKDfsin4 is a uniquely multifunctional defensin molecule. Our work also provides a good molecule material which will be used to investigate the link or relationship of its antiviral, antibacterial and ion channel–modulating activities in the future.

  12. First divergence time estimate of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum: Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (chelicerates) form one of the most diverse groups of arthropods on land, but their origin and times of diversification are not yet established. We estimated, for the first time, the molecular divergence times for these chelicerates using complete mitochondrial sequences from 25 taxa. All mitochondrial genes were evaluated individually or after concatenation. Sequences belonging to three missing genes (ND3, 6, and tRNA-Asp) from three taxa, as well as the faster-evolving ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S), tRNAs, and the third base of each codon from 11 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (COI-III, CYTB, ATP8, 6, ND1-2, 4L, and 4-5), were identified and removed. The remaining concatenated sequences from 11 PCGs produced a completely resolved phylogenetic tree and confirmed that all chelicerates are monophyletic. Removing the third base from each codon was essential to resolve the phylogeny, which allowed deep divergence times to be calculated using three nodes calibrated with upper and lower priors. Our estimates indicate that the orders and classes of spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks diversified in the late Paleozoic, much earlier than previously reported from fossil date estimates. The divergence time estimated for ticks suggests that their first land hosts could have been amphibians rather than reptiles. Using molecular data, we separated the spider-scorpion clades and estimated their divergence times at 397 +/- 23 million years ago. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals, including insects, were well established on land when these chelicerates diversified. Future analyses, involving mitochondrial sequences from additional chelicerate taxa and the inclusion of nuclear genes (or entire genomes) will provide a more complete picture of the evolution of the Chelicerata, the second most abundant group of animals on earth.

  13. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7.

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    Yaoqing Chen

    Full Text Available For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1. In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC(50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1.

  14. Scorpion Venom Causes Apoptosis by Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species and Cell Cycle Arrest in MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of scorpion venoms on cancer cell progression, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Scorpion venoms are known to possess numerous bioactive compounds that act against cancer progression by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we have taken the venoms from the following 2 species of scorpion- Androctonus crassicauda and Leiurus quinquestriatus-and tested the anticancer properties of the venom against breast and colorectal cancer cell lines. Milking of scorpion venom and culturing the breast and colorectal cancer cell lines were done according to the standard procedure. The venom cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT methods, and the cellular and nuclear changes were studied with phase contrast and propidium iodide staining, respectively. The cell cycle arrest and accumulation of reactive oxygen species were analyzed on a Muse cell analyzer. The venoms exerted cytotoxic effects on breast and colorectal cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Enhanced apoptotic cells, increase in reactive oxygen species, and cell cycle arrest were observed after challenging these cell lines with scorpion venoms. Scorpion venom induces apoptosis in breast and colorectal cell lines as reflected by the changes in the cell morphology and cell cycle studies. Furthermore, a high percentage of total reactive oxygen species as well as apoptotic cells also contribute to cell death as observed after venom treatments. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first scientific evidence demonstrating the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by these species of scorpion venoms.

  15. Morphology and ontogeny of the pectines of Babycurus jacksoni (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Peter; Thybring, Mette

    pectinal teeth with ventral microscopic sensory pegs. Here we studied the ontogeny and morphology of the pectines in the Tanzanian red bark scorpion, Babycurus jacksoni by comparison of size and morphology of their exuvia and pectines from first instar to adult. Light- and scanning electron microscopy...... in average number of sensory pegs on each pectinal tooth from 282 in second instar to 703 in fifth instar; iii) fields of sensory pegs surrounded by microscopic cuticular spikes with a density of 25 pr. 100 square micrometer; and iv) undeveloped pegs in the first instar. The isometric pectine growth...

  16. Bothriurus pichicuy, nuevo escorpión chileno del grupo vittatus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae

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    Mattoni Camilo I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothriurus pichicuy, a new scorpion species from the center coast of Chile, is described. It belongs to the vittatus species-group, and differs from the others species in the group by the pigmentation patterns of the prosoma, mesosoma and venter of metasoma, by the development and arrangement of the ventral keels of caudal segment V, and for its small size. The species is the only representative of the vittatus species-group that lives in sympatry with another Bothriurus species: B. coriaceus Pocock, 1893, from the coastal desert of Chile. Records of B. pichicuy came from the provinces of Petorca and Choapa.

  17. Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Dutra, Alexandre A A; León, Ileana R

    2013-01-01

    Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteome...... and N-glycoproteome was performed to improve our knowledge on the molecular diversity of the proteinaceous toxins. We combined two peptide identification methodologies, i.e., database search and de novo sequencing, to achieve a more comprehensive overview of the molecular diversity of the venoms...... to be a common post-translational modification in the venom since 80% of the identified molecules were, in fact, products of toxins proteolysis....

  18. The Lethal Toxin from Australian Funnel-Web Spiders Is Encoded by an Intronless Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Sandy Steffany; Wilson, David; Mattick, John S.; King, Glenn F.

    2012-01-01

    Australian funnel-web spiders are generally considered the most dangerous spiders in the world, with envenomations from the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus resulting in at least 14 human fatalities prior to the introduction of an effective anti-venom in 1980. The clinical envenomation syndrome resulting from bites by Australian funnel-web spiders is due to a single 42-residue peptide known as δ-hexatoxin. This peptide delays the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which results in spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials, thereby causing massive neurotransmitter release from both somatic and autonomic nerve endings. Here we show that δ-hexatoxin from the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche versuta is produced from an intronless gene that encodes a prepropeptide that is post-translationally processed to yield the mature toxin. A limited sampling of genes encoding unrelated venom peptides from this spider indicated that they are all intronless. Thus, in distinct contrast to cone snails and scorpions, whose toxin genes contain introns, spiders may have developed a quite different genetic strategy for evolving their venom peptidome. PMID:22928020

  19. The lethal toxin from Australian funnel-web spiders is encoded by an intronless gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Steffany Pineda

    Full Text Available Australian funnel-web spiders are generally considered the most dangerous spiders in the world, with envenomations from the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus resulting in at least 14 human fatalities prior to the introduction of an effective anti-venom in 1980. The clinical envenomation syndrome resulting from bites by Australian funnel-web spiders is due to a single 42-residue peptide known as δ-hexatoxin. This peptide delays the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which results in spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials, thereby causing massive neurotransmitter release from both somatic and autonomic nerve endings. Here we show that δ-hexatoxin from the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche versuta is produced from an intronless gene that encodes a prepropeptide that is post-translationally processed to yield the mature toxin. A limited sampling of genes encoding unrelated venom peptides from this spider indicated that they are all intronless. Thus, in distinct contrast to cone snails and scorpions, whose toxin genes contain introns, spiders may have developed a quite different genetic strategy for evolving their venom peptidome.

  20. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  1. A FOSSIL WHIP-SCORPION (ARACHNIDA: THELYPHONIDA FROM THE UPPER CARBONIFEROUS OF THE CARNIC ALPS (FRIULI, NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL A. SELDEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new and well-preserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuli, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid.

  2. Cooperative Exploration of Rough Martian Terrains with the "Scorpion" Legged Robot as an Adjunct to a Rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Kirchner, Frank; Spenneberg, Dirk; Starman, Jared; Hanratty, James; Kovsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    NASA needs autonomous robotic exploration of difficult (rough and/or steep) scientifically interesting Martian terrains. Concepts involving distributed autonomy for cooperative robotic exploration are key to enabling new scientific objectives in robotic missions. We propose to utilize a legged robot as an adjunct scout to a rover for access to difficult - scientifically interesting - terrains (rocky areas, slopes, cliffs). Our final mission scenario involves the Ames rover platform "K9" and Scorpion acting together to explore a steep cliff, with the Scorpion robot rappelling down using the K9 as an anchor as well as mission planner and executive. Cooperation concepts, including wheeled rappelling robots have been proposed before. Now we propose to test the combined advantages of a wheeled vehicle with a legged scout as well as the advantages of merging of high level planning and execution with biologically inspired, behavior based robotics. We propose to use the 8-legged, multifunctional autonomous robot platform Scorpion that is currently capable of: Walking on different terrains (rocks, sand, grass, ...). Perceiving its environment and modifying its behavioral pattern accordingly. These capabilities would be extended to enable the Scorpion to: communicate and cooperate with a partner robot; climb over rocks, rubble piles, and objects with structural features. This will be done in the context of exploration of rough terrains in the neighborhood of the rover, but inaccessible to it, culminating in the added capability of rappelling down a steep cliff for both vertical and horizontal terrain observation.

  3. [Partial purification of peptides present in the Tityus macrochirus (Buthidae) scorpion venom and preliminary assessment of their cytotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cortés, Clara Andrea; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Vega-Castro, Nohora Angélica

    2017-06-01

    Scorpion venom contains peptides with neurotoxic action primarily active on ion channels in the nervous system of insects and mammals. They are also characterized as cytolytic and anticancer, biological characteristics that have not yet been reported for the Tityus macrochirus venom. To assess if the total T. macrochirus venom and the fraction of partially purified peptides decrease the viability of various tumor-derived cell lines. The scorpion venom was collected by electrical stimulation and, subsequently, subjected to chromatography, electrophoresis, and ultrafiltration with Amicon Ultra 0.5® membranes for the partial identification and purification of its peptides. The cytotoxic activity of the venom and the peptides fraction trials on tumor-derived cell lines were carried out by the MTT method. The T. macrochirus scorpion venom has peptides with molecular weights ranging between 3 and 10 kDa. They were partially purified using the ultrafiltration technique, and assessed by the RP-HPLC method. Cytotoxicity trials with the whole T. macrochirus venom showed a higher viability decrease on the PC3 cell line compared to the other cell lines assessed, while the partially purified peptides decreased the HeLa cell line viability. Peptides in the T. macrochirus scorpion venom showed cytotoxic activity on some tumorderived cell lines. We observed some degree of selectivity against other cell lines assessed.

  4. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

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    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  5. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site

  6. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  7. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

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    Jaroslav Smrž

    Full Text Available To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces. We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  8. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  9. Treatment of the scorpion envenoming syndrome: 12-years experience with serotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M

    2003-02-01

    The pathophysiology of the scorpion envenoming syndrome is described with emphasis on the body systems commonly affected. Concepts of the mechanisms underlying venom action, as can be explained by the recently discovered effects on ionic channels, are discussed. A protocol for the treatment of scorpion stings based mainly on antivenom therapy was applied nationwide in Saudi Arabia. A list of drugs with alternatives was specified to be used in adjunctive therapy, when required. Analysis of the outcome from 1,033 cases at Al-Baha region, 791 cases at Al-Qassim region and more than 2,000 cases from 12 central and specialist hospitals in the Central Province, Saudi Arabia gave impressive results. The incidence of severe venom toxicity following antivenom administration was almost negligible. The period of stay in the hospital was reduced. The early reaction to antivenom administration was lower than expected the severity of the reaction consisting mainly of skin rashes, urticaria, wheezing and bronchial hypersensitivity, but no anaphylaxis. About 13.8% of the victims had been previously treated with antivenom but only 1.7% of the patients showed positive skin tests. This might be due to the low protein content of the antivenom and the action of the venom in releasing massive amounts of catecholamines.

  10. New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

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    AK Al-Asmari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02% and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%. The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%, Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%, Androctonus bicolor (64.60%, Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%, Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%, Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%, Buthacusleptochelys (3.24% and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%. The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

  11. Electrocardiographic changes in dog after injection of different doses of the venom of the scorpion Odonthobuthus

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    Sardar Jafari Shoorijeh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available There is scant information about biological effects of the venoms of scorpions on different organs. Sixteen healthy native dogs aged about 2 years with average body weight of 18.5 kg of both sexes were selected for this study. Dogs were divided randomly into four equal groups (4 dogs in each group. Clinical signs are recorded and electrocardiogram was obtained for each dog prior to injection of venom. In the control group 1 ml of saline solution was injected and the amount of equal to 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg of venom powder per kg bwt were dissolved in 1 ml saline solution and injected intradermal in the abdominal region or hind limb of each dog in the second, third, and four groups, respectively. Clinical signs and electorcardiogram of each dog were recorded at different time intervals (5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 360 and 24 hours after injection of venom. The results of ECGs, in group 1 and 2 indicated advanced sinus arrhythmia, sinus arrest, sinoatrial standstill, sever bradycardia and tachycardia, first and second degree heart block, premature ventricular contraction, sinus bradycardia and ventricular fibrillation. In group 3, partial sinus arrhythmia, sinus tachycardia, sinus arrest, advanced sinus arrhythmia and tachycardia were observed. In conclusion, the venom of the scorpion Odonthobuthus produces very changes in electrocardiogram by its effects on autonomic system and adrenal gland.

  12. BmK-YA, an enkephalin-like peptide in scorpion venom.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available By screening extracts of venom from the Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK for their abilities to activate opioid receptors, we have identified BmK-YA, an amidated peptide containing an enkephalin-like sequence. BmK-YA is encoded by a precursor that displays a signal sequence and contains four copies of BmK-YA sequences and four of His(4-BmK-YA, all flanked by single amino acid residues. BmK-YA and His(4-BmK-YA are amidated and thus fulfill the characteristics expected of bioactive peptides. BmK-YA can activate mammalian opioid receptors with selectivity for the δ subtype while His(4-BmK-YA is inactive at opioid receptors. The discovery of BmK-YA suggests that scorpion venom may represent a novel source of bioactive molecules targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and reveal additional insights on the evolution of the opioid precursors.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Medically Important Scorpions in North West of Iran

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    Mulood Mohammadi-Bavani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area.Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015–2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies.Results: Distribution maps were produced using ArcGIS 10.3. Totally, 368 specimens from two families of Buthidae (97.1% and Scorpionidae (2.99% were collected and identified as Mesobuthus eupeus (80.16%, Androctonus crassicauda (10.60%, M. caucasicus (4.89%, Hottentotta saulcyi (1.35% and Scorpio maurus (2.99%.Conclusion: The presence of medically important species, including the deadly black one in northwestern Iran re­quires health educational and control programs for reduction of these public health problems.

  14. Chlorotoxin: A Helpful Natural Scorpion Peptide to Diagnose Glioma and Fight Tumor Invasion

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    Lucie Dardevet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a small 36 amino-acid peptide identified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. Initially, chlorotoxin was used as a pharmacological tool to characterize chloride channels. While studying glioma-specific chloride currents, it was soon discovered that chlorotoxin possesses targeting properties towards cancer cells including glioma, melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. The investigation of the mechanism of action of chlorotoxin has been challenging because its cell surface receptor target remains under questioning since two other receptors have been claimed besides chloride channels. Efforts on chlorotoxin-based applications focused on producing analogues helpful for glioma diagnosis, imaging and treatment. These efforts are welcome since gliomas are very aggressive brain cancers, close to impossible to cure with the current therapeutic arsenal. Among all the chlorotoxin-based strategies, the most promising one to enhance patient mean survival time appears to be the use of chlorotoxin as a targeting agent for the delivery of anti-tumor agents. Finally, the discovery of chlorotoxin has led to the screening of other scorpion venoms to identify chlorotoxin-like peptides. So far several new candidates have been identified. Only detailed research and clinical investigations will tell us if they share the same anti-tumor potential as chlorotoxin.

  15. In vitro anticancer effect of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alexis; Morier-Díaz, Luis; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Caballero-Lorenzo, Yamira; Mendoza-Llanes, Dianeya; Riquenes-Garlobo, Yanelis; Fraga-Castro, José A

    2013-01-01

    In Cuba the endemic species of scorpion Rhopalurus junceus has been used in traditional medicine for cancer treatment. However, there is little scientific evidence about its potential in cancer therapy. The effect of a range of scorpion venom concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml) against a panel of human tumor cell lines from epithelial (Hela, SiHa, Hep-2, NCI-H292, A549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, HT-29), hematopoietic origins (U937, K562, Raji) and normal cells (MRC-5, MDCK, Vero) was determined by the MTT assay. Additionally, the effect of venom on tumor cell death was assayed by Fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and western blot. Only the epithelial cancer cells showed significant cell viability reduction, with medium cytotoxic concentration (IC50) ranging from 0.6-1mg/ml, in a concentration-dependent manner. There was no effect on either normal or hematopoietic tumor cells. Scorpion venom demonstrated to induce apoptosis in less sensitive tumor cells (Hela) as evidenced by chromatin condensation, over expression of p53 and bax mRNA, down expression of bcl-2 mRNA and increase of activated caspases 3, 8, 9. In most sensitive tumor cells (A549), scorpion venom induced necrosis evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent dyes and down-expression of apoptosis-related genes. We concluded the scorpion venom from R. junceus possessed a selective and differential toxicity against epithelial cancer cells. This is the first report related to biological effect of R. junceus venom against a panel of tumor cells lines. All these results make R. junceus venom as a promise natural product for cancer treatment.

  16. Animal Toxins as Therapeutic Tools to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Jessica M. de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death. Venoms are fruitful natural sources of new molecules, which have been relentlessly enhanced by evolution through natural selection. Several studies indicate that venom components can exhibit selectivity and affinity for a wide variety of targets in mammalian systems. For instance, an expressive number of natural peptides identified in venoms from animals, such as snakes, scorpions, bees, and spiders, were shown to lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activation, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuroprotective factors. Thus, these venom components hold potential as therapeutic tools to slow or even halt neurodegeneration. However, there are many technological issues to overcome, as venom peptides are hard to obtain and characterize and the amount obtained from natural sources is insufficient to perform all the necessary experiments and tests. Fortunately, technological improvements regarding heterologous protein expression, as well as peptide chemical synthesis will help to provide enough quantities and allow chemical and pharmacological enhancements of these natural occurring compounds. Thus, the main focus of this review is to highlight the most promising studies evaluating animal toxins as therapeutic tools to treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson

  17. Animal Toxins as Therapeutic Tools to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jessica M.; Goncalves, Bruno D. C.; Gomez, Marcus V.; Vieira, Luciene B.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death. Venoms are fruitful natural sources of new molecules, which have been relentlessly enhanced by evolution through natural selection. Several studies indicate that venom components can exhibit selectivity and affinity for a wide variety of targets in mammalian systems. For instance, an expressive number of natural peptides identified in venoms from animals, such as snakes, scorpions, bees, and spiders, were shown to lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activation, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuroprotective factors. Thus, these venom components hold potential as therapeutic tools to slow or even halt neurodegeneration. However, there are many technological issues to overcome, as venom peptides are hard to obtain and characterize and the amount obtained from natural sources is insufficient to perform all the necessary experiments and tests. Fortunately, technological improvements regarding heterologous protein expression, as well as peptide chemical synthesis will help to provide enough quantities and allow chemical and pharmacological enhancements of these natural occurring compounds. Thus, the main focus of this review is to highlight the most promising studies evaluating animal toxins as therapeutic tools to treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, brain

  18. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

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    Qiang Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  19. Genome-wide SNP data and morphology support the distinction of two new species of Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 endemic to California (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W.; Wood, Dustin A.; Graham, Matthew R.; Soleglad, Michael E.; McCormack, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages. We also estimated a time-calibrated phylogeny of Kovarikia and examined and compared the morphology of preserved specimens from across its distribution. Genetic results strongly support the distinction of two new lineages, which we describe and name here. Morphology among the species of Kovarikia was relatively conserved, despite deep genetic divergences, consistent with recent studies of stenotopic scorpions with limited vagility. Phylogeographic structure discovered in several previously described species also suggests additional cryptic species are probably present in the genus.

  20. Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

  1. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010 in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distribution of all scorpion species present on the studied area. Results: A total of 75313 scorpion sting cases were notified. The incidence of scorpion stings was 244 cases/100000 population/year and was significantly higher at Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz than Souss-Massa-Draa. The general lethality rate was on an average of 0.28% with a higher rate in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz compared to Souss-Massa-Draa. There was a different distribution of cases between genders in the two studied regions. With respect to age groups, adults (more than 15 years were affected most compared to children. When analyzed according to the incidence in each province, the highest envenomation incidence was observed in Chichaoua. Concerning lethality, the highest lethality incidence was observed in the Kelaa. Based on this study, we could distinguish three zones: low scorpion stings occurrence without death, high incidence with low lethality and high scorpion stings rate with high lethality. Conclusions: Our data clearly demonstrate the correlation between scorpion stings incidence and the percentage of rural population in the different provinces. Additionally, the lethality incidence could be linked to the scorpion species of the studied area.

  2. Species-specific diversity of novel bacterial lineages and differential abundance of predicted pathways for toxic compound degradation in scorpion gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Luis M; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Figuier-Huttin, Gilles; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-05-01

    Scorpions are considered 'living fossils' that have conserved ancestral anatomical features and have adapted to numerous habitats. However, their gut microbiota diversity has not been studied. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of two scorpion species, Vaejovis smithi and Centruroides limpidus. Our results indicate that scorpion gut microbiota is species-specific and that food deprivation reduces bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis revealed novel bacterial lineages showing a low level of sequence identity to any known bacteria. Furthermore, these novel bacterial lineages were each restricted to a different scorpion species. Additionally, our results of the predicted metagenomic profiles revealed a core set of pathways that were highly abundant in both species, and mostly related to amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Notably, the food-deprived V. smithi shotgun metagenome matched almost completely the metabolic features of the prediction. Finally, comparisons among predicted metagenomic profiles showed that toxic compound degradation pathways were more abundant in recently captured C. limpidus scorpions. This study gives a first insight into the scorpion gut microbiota and provides a reference for future studies on the gut microbiota from other arachnid species. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Toxins: State of Journal Report, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon L. Tesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the “Message from the Editor-in-Chief” posted on the Toxins website (see www.mdpi.com/journal/toxins/toxins-flyer.pdf, we wrote: “The editorial board and staff of Toxins are dedicated to providing a timely, peer-reviewed outlet for exciting, innovative primary research articles and concise, informative reviews from investigators in the myriad of disciplines contributing to our knowledge on toxins. [...

  4. Bio Warfare and Terrorism: Toxins and Other Mid-Spectrum Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madsen, James M

    2005-01-01

    ... counterparts are still by definition toxins. Related terms include phycotoxins (toxins from algae), mycotoxins (fungal toxins), phytotoxins (plant toxins), and venoms (toxins from animals, especially vertebrates...

  5. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  6. Apoptogenic peptides from Tityus discrepans scorpion venom acting against the SKBR3 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Suze, Gina; Rosales, Arnaldo; Salazar, Víctor; Sevcik, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Two novel peptides named neopladine 1 and neopladine 2 were purified from Tityus discrepans scorpion venom and found to be active on human breast carcinoma SKBR3 cells. Mass spectrometry molecular masses of neopladine 1 and 2 were 29918 and 30388 Da, respectively. Their N-terminal sequences were determined by Edman degradation. The peptides induced apoptosis of SKBR3 cells but had a negligible effect on non-malignant MA104 monkey kidney cells. Neopladine 1 and 2 induced 6.3 and 4.1% of SKBR3 apoptosis, respectively, in 5 h of exposure; the effect was larger with more prolonged exposures. Inmunohistochemistry showed that neopladines bind to SKBR3 cell surface inducing FasL and BcL-2 expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Labeling of scorpion venom with 99mTc and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Labeling of scorpion venom (SV) was successfully achieved with 99m Tc using direct chelating method. Venom was labeled with 99m Tc using stannous chloride as reducing agent. Preliminary studies were done to establish the optimum conditions for obtaining the highest yield of the labeled venom. The labeling technique is effective, as a maximum labeling yield (97 %) was obtained after 30-min reaction time by using 80 μg SV in phosphate buffer of pH 7 and 25 μg Sncl 2 ·2H 2 O at room temperature. Venom was injected into normal mice to determine the excretion pathway. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with SV shows rapid clearance of the venom from blood and tissue except for kidneys. The improvement of the immunotherapeutic treatment of envenomation requires a better knowledge of the biological actions of the SV since tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical purpose. (author)

  8. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  9. Charybdotoxin is a new member of the K sup + channel toxin family that includes dendrotoxin I and mast cell degranulating peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitz, H.; Bidard, J.N.; Lazdunski, M. (Universite de Nice (France)); Maes, P. (Institut Pasteur de Lille (France))

    1989-12-12

    A polypeptide was identified in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus by its potency to inhibit the high affinity binding of the radiolabeled snake venom toxin dendrotoxin I ({sup 125}I-DTX{sub I}) to its receptor site. It has been purified, and its properties investigated by different techniques were found to be similar to those of MCD and DTX{sub I}, two polypeptide toxins active on a voltage-dependent K{sup +} channel. However, its amino acid sequence was determined, and it was shown that this toxin is in fact charybdotoxin (ChTX), a toxin classically used as a specific tool to block one class of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels. ChTX, DTX{sub I}, and MCD are potent convulsants and are highly toxic when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. Their toxicities correlate well with their affinities for their receptors in rat brain. These three structurally different toxins release ({sup 3}H)GABA from preloaded synaptosomes, the efficiency order being DTX{sub I} > ChTX > MCD. Both binding and cross-linking experiments of ChTX to rat brain membranes and to the purified MCD/DTX{sub I} binding protein have shown that the {alpha}-subunit of the MCD/DTX{sub I}-sensitive K{sup +} channel protein also contains the ChTX binding sites. Binding sites for DTX{sub I}, MCD, and ChTX are in negative allosteric interaction. The results show that charybdotoxin belongs to the family of toxins which already includes the dendrotoxins and MCD, which are blockers of voltage-sensitive K{sup +} channels. ChTX is clearly not selective for Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channel.

  10. The treatment of the scorpion envenoming syndrome: the Saudi experience with serotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M

    1994-09-01

    A protocol for treatment of scorpion sting based mainly on antivenom therapy was applied nation-wide in Saudi Arabia. At least 5 x 1 ml ampoules of antivenom diluted in 20-50 ml saline were injected slowly i.v. in all patients confirmed to have scorpion stings or suspected stings with systemic manifestations. A list of drugs was specified to be used in adjunctive therapy, when required. Analysis of 1033 cases at Al-Baha region, 791 cases at Al-Qassim region and more than 600 cases from 12 central and specialist hospitals in the Central Province revealed impressive results. Except for a 12-year-old boy who was inadequately treated with antivenom and died from pulmonary oedema, haematemesis, severe neurotoxicity and circulatory failure, no other fatalities occurred. The incidence of pulmonary oedema, hypertension, hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and neurological symptoms requiring drug therapy following antivenom administration was very slight. The period of stay in the hospital was reduced; most patients were symptom-free within 1-2 days. The early reaction to antivenom administration was lower than expected, amounting to 6.6% and 1.7% among Al-Qassim and Al-Baha victims, respectively. The severity of the reaction in both groups was low, consisting mainly of skin rashes, urticaria, wheezing and bronchial secretion, but no anaphylaxis. About 13.8% of Al-Baha victims were previously treated with antivenom but only 1.7% of the patients showed positive skin tests. This might be due to the low protein content of the antivenom and the action of the venom in releasing massive amounts of catecholamines.

  11. Scorpion Biodiversity and Interslope Divergence at “Evolution Canyon”, Lower Nahal Oren Microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Background Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the “Evolution Canyon” model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the “African savannah-like” south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite “European maquis-like” north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Conclusions/Significance Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the “EC” valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern. PMID:19357787

  12. A Scorpion¡¯s Poison Antivenin R&D+i Project Case from a Mexican Public University.

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Gonz¨¢lez Luis Roberto

    2012-01-01

    All over the world there is a huge complex problem caused by the sting of poisonous animals. In many countries all around the orb there are some animal species hazardous for human beings. A case from a Mexican University R&D institute- Private firm innovation project about scorpion¡¯s antivenins health area is presented. The scientific-technological allied participant organizations performed a long life cycle innovation project, which includes research and development, knowledge transference,...

  13. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF ENTEROGLUCAGON IN ENDOCRINE CELLS IN THE STOMACH OF SCORPION MUD TURTLE Kinosternon scorpioides (REPTILIA, CHELONIA, KINOSTERNIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes Pereira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides is a small chelonian, typical of the floodplains of the Amazon. This species is an important source of food and income and it has being studied because of its vulnerability to indiscriminate hunting, deforestation and burning; for this reason, it has been researched in order to supply data for the preservation of the species. The immunohistochemistry activity of endocrine cells present in the stomach of scorpion mud turtle is not totally known. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify the presence of enteroglucagon hormone and to classify the endocrine cells in the stomach of the scorpion mud turtle. The fragments were submitted to Hematoxylin-Eosin technique and streptavidin peroxidase for staining and detection of antigen, respectively. Immunoreactivity to enteroglucagon in cells was found on the three portions of the stomach (gastric, fundica and pyloric; however, the immunoreactivity was more evident in the first two regions than in the last one. Endocrine cells of stomach were classified as argyrophil and argentaffin and were found among cells that comprise the gastric glands and were classified as “open type” and “closed type”. There is no difference between the biochemistry and immunohistochemistry of enteroglucagon K. scorpioides and other animal species.

  14. Morphological study of epididymides in the scorpion mud turtle in natural habitat (Kinosternon scorpioides – Linnaeus, 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carvalho Viana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p153   Morphological study of the epididymis of jurará in natural habitat (Kinosternon scorpioides – Linnaeus, 1976. In the state of Maranhao, Brazil, one can find the freshwater chelonian Kinosternon scorpioides, known as scorpion mud turtle, which has social, economic, and environmental value. Twenty adult scorpion mud turtles were collected in the months of March, June, September, and December, corresponding to the two periods of the year: the rainy and dry seasons. The epididymides were collected from each animal to check the existence of reproductive seasonality. The organs were evaluated through light, scanning electron, and transmission microscopy and analyzed at the epididymal epithelium height and the tubular and luminal diameters. The epididymides were divided into rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. In the rainy season, they presented stereo ciliated pseudostratified epithelium; in the dry season, they were characterized by simple, cubic, and non-ciliated cells. The morphometry of the tubular and luminal diameters and the epididymal epithelium height showed moments of epithelial alternation over the studied periods, with the highest averages in the rainy season, within the reproductive period. Spermatozoids were observed throughout the year, although their viability couldn’t be evaluated. Taking into account the data obtained, one may claim that the scorpion mud turtle presents reproductive seasonality.

  15. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000590.htm Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins is a lack ...

  16. (AJST) DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF TOXINS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -, hepato- and neuro-toxins ..... risk assessment of cyanobacterial toxins. In: Hester,. R.E. and Harrison, R.M. (Eds.) Agricultural chemicals and the environment. Issues in Environmental. Science and Technology 5. The Royal Society of.

  17. Toxin synergism in snake venoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components, and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway or physiological process. Few...... simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to investigate synergism in snake venoms may help unravel strategies for developing novel...

  18. Inhibition of cholera toxin and other AB toxins by polyphenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    All AB-type protein toxins have intracellular targets despite an initial extracellular location. These toxins use different methods to reach the cytosol and have different effects on the target cell. Broad-spectrum inhibitors against AB toxins are therefore hard to develop because the toxins use dif...

  19. Toxin yet not toxic: Botulinum toxin in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracelsus contrasted poisons from nonpoisons, stating that “All things are poisons, and there is nothing that is harmless; the dose alone decides that something is a poison”. Living organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, constitute a huge source of pharmaceutically useful medicines and toxins. Depending on their source, toxins can be categorized as phytotoxins, mycotoxins, or zootoxins, which include venoms and bacterial toxins. Any toxin can be harmful or beneficial. Within the last 100 years, the perception of botulinum neurotoxin (BTX has evolved from that of a poison to a versatile clinical agent with various uses. BTX plays a key role in the management of many orofacial and dental disorders. Its indications are rapidly expanding, with ongoing trials for further applications. However, despite its clinical use, what BTX specifically does in each condition is still not clear. The main aim of this review is to describe some of the unclear aspects of this potentially useful agent, with a focus on the current research in dentistry.

  20. Shigella Sonnei and Shiga Toxin

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-28

    Katherine Lamba, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the California Department of Public Health, discusses Shiga Toxin producing Shigella sonnei.  Created: 7/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/28/2016.

  1. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  2. Karyotype diversity and chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA in Tityus obscurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Bruno Rafael Ribeiro de; Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues da; Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Coelho, Johne Souza; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2017-04-17

    Holocentric chromosomes occur in approximately 750 species of eukaryotes. Among them, the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) has a labile karyotype that shows complex multivalent associations during male meiosis. Thus, taking advantage of the excellent model provided by the Buthidae scorpions, here we analyzed the chromosomal distribution of several repetitive DNA classes on the holocentric chromosomes of different populations of the species Tityus obscurus Gervais, 1843, highlighting their involvement in the karyotypic differences found among them. This species shows inter- and intrapopulational karyotype variation, with seven distinct cytotypes: A (2n = 16), B (2n = 14), C (2n = 13), D (2n = 13), E (2n = 12), F (2n = 12) and G (2n = 11). Furthermore, exhibits achiasmatic male meiosis and lacks heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Trivalent and quadrivalent meiotic associations were found in some cytotypes. In them, 45S rDNAs were found in the terminal portions of two pairs, while TTAGG repeats were found only at the end of the chromosomes. In the cytotype A (2n = 16), the U2 snRNA gene mapped to pair 1, while the H3 histone cluster and C 0 t-1 DNA fraction was terminally distributed on all pairs. Mariner transposons were found throughout the chromosomes, with the exception of one individual of cytotype A (2n = 16), in which it was concentrated in heterochromatic regions. Chromosomal variability found in T. obscurus are due to rearrangements of the type fusion/fission and reciprocal translocations in heterozygous. These karyotype differences follow a geographical pattern and may be contributing to reproductive isolation between populations analyzed. Our results also demonstrate high mobility of histone H3 genes. In contrast, other multigene families (45S rDNA and U2 snRNA) have conserved distribution among individuals. The accumulation of repetitive sequences in distal regions of T. obscurus chromosomes, suggests that end of

  3. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanism of Shiga Toxin Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Gao, Haifei; Arumugam, Senthil

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial Shiga toxin interacts with its cellular receptor, the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 or CD77), as a first step to entering target cells. Previous studies have shown that toxin molecules cluster on the plasma membrane, despite the apparent lack of direct interactions...... toxin molecules. By contrast, in coarse-grained computer simulations, a correlation was found between clustering and toxin nanoparticle-driven suppression of membrane fluctuations, and experimentally we observed that clustering required the toxin molecules to be tightly bound to the membrane surface....... The most likely interpretation of these findings is that a membrane fluctuation-induced force generates an effective attraction between toxin molecules. Such force would be of similar strength to the electrostatic force at separations around 1 nm, remain strong at distances up to the size of toxin...

  5. Data mining using multivariate The circadian rhythm and visual elements in scorpions: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Warburg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the state of research in this field and to outline future ways how to proceed. The term: "Zeitgeber", implies 'time giver' meaning: synchronizer when an external entrainment factor synchronizes the endogenous rhythm. Is this 'time giver', the chronological date in the sense that it is related to the time of day as reflected in the natural light-dark cycles? Or does it mean cyclic phases of activity as demonstrated in the laboratory? Moreover, is it totally independent of the animal's physiological condition? This subject was studied largely in buthid species (15 of a total of only 30 scorpion species. Moreover, many (over 25% of the studies (19 were done on a single buthid species: Androctonus australis. Species diversity was observed only by one author's work who studied eye structure in seven species. Since he found variability in eye structure it would not be advisable to generalize. The fact that experimenting was carried out irrespective of species diversity, gender, ecological or physiological conditions, and was usually done on animals kept in captivity for some time before the experimenting had started, is a major drawback to this kind of study. The diurnal rhythms is triggered either directly through spontaneous arrhythmic activity in the central nervous system, or by neurosecretory material. It is possible that these differences arise from either different technical treatments or due to basic problems, and these need to be clarified.

  6. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of a scorpion venom peptide derivative in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Cao

    Full Text Available BmKn2 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch by our group. In this study, Kn2-7 was derived from BmKn2 to improve the antibacterial activity and decrease hemolytic activity. Kn2-7 showed increased inhibitory activity against both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, Kn2-7 exhibited higher antibacterial activity against clinical antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, the topical use of Kn2-7 effectively protected the skin of mice from infection in an S. aureus mouse skin infection model. Kn2-7 exerted its antibacterial activity via a bactericidal mechanism. Kn2-7 killed S. aureus and E. coli rapidly by binding to the lipoteichoic acid (LTA in the S. aureus cell wall and the lipopolysaccharides (LPS in the E. coli cell wall, respectively. Finally, the hemolytic activity of Kn2-7 was significantly decreased, compared to the wild-type peptide BmKn2. Taken together, the Kn2-7 peptide can be developed as a topical therapeutic agent for treating bacterial infections.

  7. Effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (Scorpiones: Buthidae venom on rat metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions are venomous arthropods of the Arachnida class and are considered relatives of spiders, ticks and mites. There is not any study about the biochemical effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 venom. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed at evaluating the toxicity of the venom from A. crassicauda, which is responsible for a number of deaths of infants, children and adults in tropical and subtropical countries. For this purpose, rats (n=35 were divided into seven groups of five animals each; venom solutions (250µg/kg were subcutaneously injected into rats; blood samples were taken from each animal at various times; and serum biochemical parameters were measured (levels of total proteins, total bilirubin, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, sodium, chlorine, potassium and calcium, and the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and uric acid increased in envenomed animals, compared to controls. There was a statistically positive correlation between Na+ and Cl- ions.

  8. Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500µg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423 and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.

  9. Venom from Cuban Blue Scorpion has tumor activating effect in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Catia; Baglioni, Michele; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Cescon, Matteo; Bolondi, Luigi; Gramantieri, Laura

    2017-03-21

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term used to describe many kinds of products, practices, and systems that are not part of conventional medicine. Cancer patients usually do everything they can to combat the disease, manage its symptoms, and cope with the side effects of treatment. Unfortunately, patients who use CAM underestimate the risk of interaction with cancer therapy or worse they omit conventional therapy thus reducing the possibility of cancer remission. Herein we analyzed the effects of Vidatox 30 CH (venom extracted from the Junceus Rhopalurus scorpion) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. We found out that Vidatox increases HCC proliferation and invasion whereas it does not seem to interact with sorafenib, the orally active multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results suggest that the concentration of Vidatox used in the present study has not anti-neoplastic effects and care must be taken in hiring Vidatox in patients with HCC.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of male and female venoms from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Batista, Cesar V F; Coronas, Fredy I V; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Hernández-Orihuela, Lorena; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Ruiz-Urquiola, Ariel; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-12-01

    A complete mass spectrometry analysis of venom components from male and female scorpions of the species Rhophalurus junceus of Cuba is reported. In the order of 200 individual molecular masses were identified in both venoms, from which 63 are identical in male and females genders. It means that a significant difference of venom components exists between individuals of different sexes, but the most abundant components are present in both sexes. The relative abundance of identical components is different among the genders. Three well defined groups of different peptides were separated and identified. The first group corresponds to peptides with molecular masses of 1000-2000 Da; the second to peptides with 3500-4500 Da molecular weight, and the third with 6500-8000 Da molecular weights. A total of 86 peptides rich in disulfide bridges were found in the venoms, 27 with three disulfide bridges and 59 with four disulfide bridges. LC-MS/MS analysis allowed the identification and amino acid sequence determination of 31 novel peptides in male venom. Two new putative K(+)-channel peptides were sequences by Edman degradation. They contain 37 amino acid residues, packed by three disulfide bridges and were assigned the systematic numbers: α-KTx 1.18 and α-KTx 2.15. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoinduced Reactivity of the Soft Hydrotris(6-tert-butyl-3-thiopyridazinyl)borate Scorpionate Ligand in Sodium, Potassium, and Thallium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüchler, Michael; Belaj, Ferdinand; Raber, Georg; Neshchadin, Dmytro; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2015-09-08

    The soft scorpionate ligand hydrotris(6-tert-butyl-3-thiopyridazinyl)borate (Tn) was found to exhibit pronounced photoreactivity. Full elucidation of this process revealed the formation of 6-tert-butylpyridazine-3-thione (PnH) and 4,5-dihydro-6-tert-butylpyridazine-3-thione (H2PnH). Under exclusion of light, no solvolytic reactions occur, allowing the development of high-yield preparation protocols for the sodium, potassium, and thallium salts and improving the yield for their derived copper boratrane complex. The photoreactivity is relevant for all future studies with electron-deficient scorpionate ligands.

  12. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  13. Shiga Toxin Therapeutics: Beyond Neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Hall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribotoxic Shiga toxins are the primary cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC, a pathogen class responsible for epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease around the globe. HUS is a leading cause of pediatric renal failure in otherwise healthy children, resulting in a mortality rate of 10% and a chronic morbidity rate near 25%. There are currently no available therapeutics to prevent or treat HUS in STEC patients despite decades of work elucidating the mechanisms of Shiga toxicity in sensitive cells. The preclinical development of toxin-targeted HUS therapies has been hindered by the sporadic, geographically dispersed nature of STEC outbreaks with HUS cases and the limited financial incentive for the commercial development of therapies for an acute disease with an inconsistent patient population. The following review considers potential therapeutic targeting of the downstream cellular impacts of Shiga toxicity, which include the unfolded protein response (UPR and the ribotoxic stress response (RSR. Outcomes of the UPR and RSR are relevant to other diseases with large global incidence and prevalence rates, thus reducing barriers to the development of commercial drugs that could improve STEC and HUS patient outcomes.

  14. Polyamide-scorpion cyclam lexitropsins selectively bind AT-rich DNA independently of the nature of the coordinated metal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony T S Lo

    Full Text Available Cyclam was attached to 1-, 2- and 3-pyrrole lexitropsins for the first time through a synthetically facile copper-catalyzed "click" reaction. The corresponding copper and zinc complexes were synthesized and characterized. The ligand and its complexes bound AT-rich DNA selectively over GC-rich DNA, and the thermodynamic profile of the binding was evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The metal, encapsulated in a scorpion azamacrocyclic complex, did not affect the binding, which was dominated by the organic tail.

  15. Sound Source Localization through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  16. Sound Source Localization Through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  17. Toxin production in Dinophysis and the fate of these toxins in marine mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a considerable threat to food safety and to the economy of shellfish fishers and farmers in many parts of the world. Thousands of DSP intoxications have been reported, and bivalve harvesting can sometimes be closed down several months in a row. The toxins....... acuta. I grew the two species in laboratory cultures at different irradiances (7-130 μmol photons m-2 s-1) and with different food availability. The results showed that irradiance had no effects on toxin profiles, and only limited effects of the cellular toxin contents. Rather, toxin production rates...... followed growth rates, thus giving stable toxin contents. Food availability also did not change the toxin profiles of either species, but starvation did increase the cellular contents of each of the toxins present. The observation that toxin production continued for several weeks after the ciliate food...

  18. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Paola G. Ojeda; David Ramírez; Jans Alzate-Morales; Julio Caballero; Quentin Kaas; Wendy González

    2017-01-01

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics t...

  19. Caves as microrefugia: Pleistocene phylogeography of the troglophilic North American scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W; Prendini, Lorenzo; Savary, Warren E; Pearman, Peter B

    2014-01-16

    Survival in microrefugia represents an important paradigm in phylogeography for explaining rapid postglacial re-colonization by species in temperate regions. Microrefugia may allow populations to persist in areas where the climatic conditions on the surface have become unfavourable. Caves generally contain stable microclimates and may represent microrefugia for species capable of exploiting both cave and surface habitats (troglophiles). We examine the phylogeography of the troglophilic North American vaejovid scorpion Pseudouroctonus reddelli using 1,993 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data generated from 12 populations. We use (i) descriptive measures of genetic diversity and population genetics statistics, (ii) reconstructions of phylogeographical structure, spatial diffusion during diversification, and population sizes through time, and (iii) species distribution modelling to test predictions of the hypothesis that caves serve as microrefugia. We compare phylogeographical patterns in P. reddelli with other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas. Results revealed high haplotype and nucleotide diversity and substantial phylogeographical structure, probably generated during the Pleistocene. Spatial diffusion occurred along the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau from multiple refugia along the Balcones Escarpment. There was little evidence for population and geographical expansion. Species distribution models predicted substantial reductions in suitable epigean habitat for P. reddelli at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). High genetic diversity, strong phylogeographical structure, diffusion from multiple refugia, and unfavourable climatic conditions at the LGM collectively support the hypothesis that caves served as microrefugia for P. reddelli. Similar patterns of genetic structure in P. reddelli and other troglophilic species across the Edwards Plateau karst region of Texas suggest that caves serving as

  20. Cardiopulmonary complications induced by Iranian Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in anesthetized rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zayerzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is a life-threatening condition, especially in children and elderly individuals affected by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the toxic effects of median lethal dose (LD50 injections of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me venom on the heart and lungs of anesthetized rabbits were investigated. Six rabbits were selected and alterations in their electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure before and after venom injection were recorded. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT, creatinine kinase muscle-brain fraction (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured at 0, 1 and 3 hours after envenomation and pathology studies were carried out postmortem. All the animals showed signs and symptoms of envenomation within 40 minutes and died 3 to 3.5 hours after venom injection. Pathology studies revealed alveolar edema in 100% of the rabbits and myocardial infarction in 16%. The main histopathological changes were myocytolysis, coagulation necrosis, focal hemorrhage, thrombus formation both in myocardium and on endocardial surfaces as well as inflammatory infiltrates in the heart and hemorrhage, vascular thrombus and interstitial inflammation in the lungs. ECG monitoring of rabbits showed ST elevation, ST depression and inverted T and Q waves. In addition, although cTnT levels increased in 16% of the animals and serum LDH was also augmented, none of these changes was statistically significant. The enzyme CK-MB also did not show any change after Me venom injection. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that Me venom killed animals in less than 3.5 hours through severe pulmonary damage and it appears that the deaths could not be attributed to cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, Me venom effects on the lungs are so important that they appear to be independent of heart damage.

  1. Histopathological changes and inflammatory response induced by Tityus discrepans scorpion venom in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Suze, G; Salazar, V; Díaz, P; Sevcik, C; Azpurua, H; Bracho, N

    2004-12-15

    Anesthetized rams envenomed s.c. with 40 microg/kg Tityus discrepans scorpion venom developed fasciculation, hypothermia, polyuria, pulmonary wet rales, tachypnea, respiratory distress and arrhythmia. Rams developed a cascade of inflammation reactions, characterized by activation of macrophages, fibroblasts and neutrophils, neutrophil infiltration and aggregation, vasculitis, arteritis and abundant fibrin deposition. At the inoculation site, venom was detected by immunohistochemistry in the extra cellular matrix, lymphatic vessels' and venules' lumen, inside macrophages and surrounding nerves. Extra cellular matrix was degraded at the inoculation site perhaps by activated neutrophils. Envenoming produced hepatocytes with Mallory body-like vacuoles which may be due to the increased plasmatic levels of TNF-alpha and IL6. Venom produced degranulation and vacuolization of acinary cells as well as interstitial swelling and necrosis. Necrosis of the Langerhan's islets occurred occasionally. Lungs showed the most deleterious effects developing wall collapse and necrosis, diffuse injury of the alveolar capillary barrier, interstitial and alveolar fibrin deposits with strong neutrophil infiltration. Massive infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophage occurred in the intestinal submucose, to the point that it modified villi and intestinal folding morphology. Envenomation developed a marked leukocyte aggregation surrounding nerves at the inoculation site. This study reveals that beyond its neurotoxicity, Tityus venom produces a severe and widespread inflammatory syndrome, expressed as histopathological changes at the site of inoculation, as well as in remote organs such as pancreas, lungs, intestine and liver. Our results suggest that not all remote targets are directly affected by the venom but that, as proposed earlier, are modified by inflammation by products produced elsewhere.

  2. Acute cerebellar dysfunction with neuromuscular manifestations after scorpionism presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Santarém, Pará / Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, Pasesa P Q; Quiroga, Mariana M M; Abati, Paulo A M; Mascheretti, Melissa; Costa, Walter Silva; Campos, Luciana P; França, Francisco O S

    2015-03-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in many tropical countries, especially in North Africa, South India, Latin America and the Middle East. In Brazil, patients with severe scorpion envenoming have mainly cardiovascular events, including acute heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock, death is rare. We described 58 accidents presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Brazilian Amazonia. Patients reported a sensation of "electric shocks" which could last hours. The vast majority of patients presented a clinical picture compatible with acute cerebellar dysfunction, beginning minutes and lasting up to 2 days after the accident. They presented cerebellar ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetry, dysarthria, dyslalia, nausea and vomiting. Besides, some patients presented myoclonus and fasciculation which can also be attributed to cerebellar dysfunction or maybe the result of direct action on skeletal muscle. Two patients had evidence of intense rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. The clinical picture in this scorpion envenoming is mainly characterized by an acute dysfunction of cerebellar activities and abnormal neuromuscular manifestations and in some cases muscle injury which are not described in any other region of the world. This work presents clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory and treatment aspects of this unmatched scorpion envenoming in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine structure of the stinger, histology and histochemistry of the venom gland in the scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi (Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal A. Soliman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom apparatus of the scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi has been identified histologically and histochemically in the present study. The results showed that this apparatus composed of a pair of venom glands and a stinger located in the terminal segment called telson. The stinger of the venom apparatus has been studied by the light microscope and SEM. The stinger, located at the end section of the telson, is sickle-shaped. The venom is ejected through a pair of venom pores on its subterminal portion. Both venom ducts extend along the stinger without contact with each other since they are separated by connective tissue cells. The stinger is covered by cuticle and spines. Each venom gland is covered by a sheath of striated muscle and is lined with extensively folded secretory epithelium that consists of non-secretory and secretory venom-producing cells. The venom-producing cells reacted positively to histochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. The outcomes also revealed that the venom-producing cells of both glands produce neutral mucosubstances. The structure and secretion of scorpion venom glands are discussed within the context of the present results.

  4. More about the geographical pattern of distribution of the genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne; Waeber, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Buthidae) remains among the less speciose Malagasy genera and all the known species are extremely rare. A new species is described from the dry forests in the Tsingy formations of the National Park Bemaraha, extending the distribution of the genus further north. Once again, the single holotype specimen was obtained by extraction with the use of Berlese system. With the description of the new species, the distributional pattern of this genus is confirmed for dry forest formations from the south to the middle of the island; however, for the first time the group's distribution overlaps that of another micro-scorpion genus, Microcharmus Lourenço, 1995. The distribution patterns of the humicolous micro-scorpions endemic to Madagascar are considered to further explore the "Neogrosphus rule" as a possible explanation of global species distribution patterns in changing environments. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  6. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies...

  7. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    ..., cardiotoxins, and antihemorrhagic factors. Presentations on plant and microbial toxins include work done on ricin, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, cone snail peptides, sea anemone toxins, proteinase inhibitors and maitotoxin...

  8. A Quantitative Electrochemiluminescence Assay for Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Gerald A; Rivera, Victor R; Neal, Dwayne D; Young, Charles; Poli, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... Biotinylated antibodies to C. perfringens alpha toxin bound to streptavidin paramagnetic beads specifically immunoadsorbed soluble sample alpha toxin which subsequently selectively immunoadsorbed ruthenium (Ru...

  9. Plant insecticidal toxins in ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Gallet, Christiane; Després, Laurence

    2012-04-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects' vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology.

  10. Plant Insecticidal Toxins in Ecological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ibanez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects’ vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology.

  11. Toxin-Antitoxin Battle in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria

    This PhD thesis consists of three research projects revolving around the common thread of investigation of the properties and biological functions of Toxin-Antitoxin loci. Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) loci are transcriptionally regulated via an auto-inhibition mechanism called conditional cooperativity, ...

  12. Botulinum toxin — therapeutic effect in cosmetology

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison A.V.; Bocharova Y.M.; Morrison V.V.

    2016-01-01

    This review presents the data from published literatures and the research works conducted by the authors about mechanisms of action of botulinum toxin and its use in the practical medicine (particularly in dermatology and cosmetology). Indications and contraindications of botulinum toxin use in cosmetology are also considered in this work.

  13. Stealth and mimicry by deadly bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, S.P.; Jørgensen, Rene; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A are well-characterized members of the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family that serve as virulence factors in the pathogenic bacteria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  New high-resolution structural data of the Michaelis complex...

  14. Botulinum toxin for masseter hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; van Zuuren, Esther J; Schoones, Jan

    2013-09-09

    Benign masseter muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical phenomenon of uncertain aetiology which is characterised by a soft swelling near the angle of the mandible. The swelling may on occasion be associated with facial pain and can be prominent enough to be considered cosmetically disfiguring. Varying degrees of success have been reported for some of the treatment options for masseter hypertrophy, which range from simple pharmacotherapy to more invasive surgical reduction. Injection of botulinum toxin type A into the masseter muscle is generally considered a less invasive modality and has been advocated for cosmetic sculpting of the lower face. Botulinum toxin type A is a powerful neurotoxin which is produced by the anaerobic organism Clostridium botulinum and when injected into a muscle causes interference with the neurotransmitter mechanism producing selective paralysis and subsequent atrophy of the muscle.This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. To assess the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A compared to placebo or no treatment, for the management of benign bilateral masseter hypertrophy. We searched the following databases from inception to April 2013: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (via PubMed); EMBASE (via embase.com); Web of Science; CINAHL; Academic Search Premier (via EBSCOhost); ScienceDirect; LILACS (via BIREME); PubMed Central and Google Scholar (from 1700 to 19 April 2013). We searched two bibliographic databases of regional journals (IndMED and Iranmedex) which were expected to contain relevant trials. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles and contacted investigators to identify additional published and unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing intra-masseteric injections of botulinum toxin versus placebo administered for cosmetic facial sculpting in individuals of any age with bilateral benign

  15. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Toma, Leny; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl Peter von; Nader, Helena B.; Sanches Veiga, Silvio

    2006-01-01

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  16. Interplay between toxin transport and flotillin localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pust, Sascha; Dyve, Anne Berit; Torgersen, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    The flotillin proteins are localized in lipid domains at the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the importance of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 for the uptake and transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin and we...... for flotillin-1 or -2. However, the Golgi-dependent sulfation of both toxins was significantly reduced in flotillin knockdown cells. Interestingly, when the transport of ricin to the ER was investigated, we obtained an increased mannosylation of ricin in flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 knockdown cells. The toxicity...... of both toxins was twofold increased in flotillin-depleted cells. Since BFA (Brefeldin A) inhibits the toxicity even in flotillin knockdown cells, the retrograde toxin transport is apparently still Golgi-dependent. Thus, flotillin proteins regulate and facilitate the retrograde transport of Stx and ricin....

  17. Pore-forming toxins in Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    The ancient phylum of Cnidaria contains many aquatic species with peculiar lifestyle. In order to survive, these organisms have evolved attack and defense mechanisms that are enabled by specialized cells and highly developed venoms. Pore-forming toxins are an important part of their venomous arsenal. Along some other types, the most representative are examples of four protein families that are commonly found in other kingdoms of life: actinoporins, Cry-like proteins, aerolysin-like toxins and MACPF/CDC toxins. Some of the homologues of pore-forming toxins may serve other functions, such as in food digestion, development and response against pathogenic organisms. Due to their interesting physico-chemical properties, the cnidarian pore-forming toxins may also serve as tools in medical research and nanobiotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of muscarinic neurotransmission with antimuscarinic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lincoln T; Flynn, Donna D; Liang, Jing-Sheng; McCollum, Mark H

    2004-01-01

    M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors are the most prevalent receptors for acetylcholine in the brain, and m1-toxin1 and m4-toxin are the most specific ligands yet found for their extracellular faces. Both toxins are antagonists. These toxins and their derivatives with biotin, radioiodine and fluorophores are useful for studying M1- and M4-linked neurotransmission. We have used the rat striatum for many studies because this tissue express exceptionally high concentrations of both receptors, the striatum regulates movement, and movement is altered by antimuscarinic agents, M1-knockout and M4-knockout. These toxins and their derivatives may also be used for studies of M1 and M4 receptors in the hippocampus and cortex.

  19. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA))

    1989-02-07

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

  20. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-angstrom resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits

  1. Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David FitzGerald

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of venom from the scorpion Centruroides tecomanus reveals compounds with antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Velazquéz, L L; Romero-Gutierrez, M T; Delgado-Enciso, I; Dobrovinskaya, O; Melnikov, V; Quintero-Hernández, V; Ceballos-Magaña, S G; Gaitan-Hinojosa, M A; Coronas, F I; Puebla-Perez, A M; Zamudio, F; De la Cruz-García, I; Vázquez-Vuelvas, O F; Soriano-Hernandez, A D; Possani, L D

    2016-08-01

    Centruroides tecomanus is a medically important scorpion of the state of Colima (Mexico). This communication reports the identification of venom components of this scorpion with biological activity over insects/crickets (Acheta domestica), crustaceans/fresh water shrimps (Cambarellus montezumae), and mammalians/mice (Mus musculus, strain CD1). It also describes the pharmacological effects on cell lines in culture (L5178Y cells, HeLa cells, HuTu cells and Jurkat E6-1 cells), as well as on several types of bacteria (see below). The soluble venom of this scorpion was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and collected separately in twelve independent fractions collected over 60 min run (5 min time apart each other). The HPLC components of fraction VII were lethal to all three species used for assay. The IVth fraction had a toxic effect on freshwater shrimps. In this species, fractions VI, VII and VIII were all lethal. For crickets, fractions V and VI were toxic and fraction VII was lethal. In mouse, the lethal components were found in fraction VII, whereas fraction VIII was toxic, but not lethal, at the doses assayed. The molecular weight of peptides from the various group of fractions were identified by mass spectrometry determination. Components lethal to mice showed molecular weights from 7013 to 7487 Da. Two peptides were obtained in homogeneous form and shown to be lethal to the three species of animal used for assay. The soluble venom tested on L5178Y cell line survival was shown to be cytotoxic, at 10-100 μg/mL concentration, when compared to control murine splenocytes (p = 0.007). The soluble venom applied to Hela, Hutu and Jurkat cell lines did not show cytotoxic effects at these concentrations. On the contrary, it seems to have a proliferative effect. However the HPLC fractions I, III, VI and XII do have a cytotoxic effect on Jurkat E06-1 cells in culture at 200 μg/mL concentration. The antimicrobial activity of the venom

  3. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinastepe, Neslihan; Küçük, Burcu Bal; Oral, Koray

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has been shown to be effective for a variety of disorders in several medical conditions, when used both therapeutically and cosmetically. In recent years, there has been a rising trend in the use of this pharmacological agent to control bruxing activity, despite its reported adverse effects. The aim of this review was to provide a brief overview to clarify the underlying essential ideas for the use of botulinum toxin in bruxism based on available scientific papers. An electronic literature search was performed to identify publications related to botulinum toxin and its use for bruxism in PubMed. Hand searching of relevant articles was also made to identify additional studies. Of the eleven identified studies, only two were randomized controlled trials, compared with the effectiveness of botulinum toxins on the reduction in the frequency of bruxism events and myofascial pain after injection. The authors of these studies concluded that botulinum toxin could be used as an effective treatment for reducing nocturnal bruxism and myofascial pain in patients with bruxism. Evidence-based research was limited on this topic. More randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm that botulinum toxin is safe and reliable for routine clinical use in bruxism.

  4. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Paola G; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Caballero, Julio; Kaas, Quentin; González, Wendy

    2017-12-22

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  5. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola G. Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  6. Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-04-01

    'Engineering Toxins for 21st Century Therapies' (9-10 September 2010) was part of the Royal Society International Seminar series held at the Kavli International Centre, UK. Participants were assembled from a range of disciplines (academic, industry, regulatory, public health) to discuss the future potential of toxin-based therapies. The meeting explored how the current structural and mechanistic knowledge of toxins could be used to engineer future toxin-based therapies. To date, significant progress has been made in the design of novel recombinant biologics based on domains of natural toxins, engineered to exhibit advantageous properties. The meeting concluded, firstly that future product development vitally required the appropriate combination of creativity and innovation that can come from the academic, biotechnology and pharma sectors. Second, that continued investigation into understanding the basic science of the toxins and their targets was essential in order to develop new opportunities for the existing products and to create new products with enhanced properties. Finally, it was concluded that the clinical potential for development of novel biologics based on toxin domains was evident. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  7. Antillatoxin is a marine cyanobacterial toxin that potently activates voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W I; Berman, F W; Okino, T; Yokokawa, F; Shioiri, T; Gerwick, W H; Murray, T F

    2001-06-19

    Antillatoxin (ATX) is a lipopeptide derived from the pantropical marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. ATX is neurotoxic in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells, and this neuronal death is prevented by either N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists or tetrodotoxin. To further explore the potential interaction of ATX with voltage-gated sodium channels, we assessed the influence of tetrodotoxin on ATX-induced Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells. The rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ produced by ATX (100 nM) was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin. Additional, more direct, evidence for an interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels was derived from the ATX-induced allosteric enhancement of [3H]batrachotoxin binding to neurotoxin site 2 of the alpha subunit of the sodium channel. ATX, moreover, produced a strong synergistic stimulation of [3H]batrachotoxin binding in combination with brevetoxin, which is a ligand for neurotoxin site 5 on the voltage-gated sodium channel. Positive allosteric interactions were not observed between ATX and either alpha-scorpion toxin or the pyrethroid deltamethrin. That ATX interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels produces a gain of function was demonstrated by the concentration-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive stimulation of 22Na+ influx in cerebellar granule cells exposed to ATX. Together these results demonstrate that the lipopeptide ATX is an activator of voltage-gated sodium channels. The neurotoxic actions of ATX therefore resemble those of brevetoxins that produce neural insult through depolarization-evoked Na+ load, glutamate release, relief of Mg2+ block of NMDA receptors, and Ca2+ influx.

  8. Further Identification of the Effect of Bradykinin Potentiating Factor Isolated From Scorpion Venom on Irradiated White Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion venom of Androctonus amoreuxi contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effect through enhancing its release and acts as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). Both irradiation and stimulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induce oxidative stress. Possible interruption of the RAS with an ACEI induced by BPF isolated from the scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi venom or the presence of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan and/or γ- radiation were evaluated. The examined parameters included blood erythrocytes count (RBC), total leucocytic count (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct) as well as, glutathione content (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) of kidney homogenate besides aldosterone, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels of serum. A group of rats (70 - 80 gm each) were received i.p. injection of BPIF (1μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks, while the other group received i.p. injection of losartan (5μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks. γ-Irradiation was performed at a dose level of 4Gy. All animals were examined after an investigation period of 21 days from γ- irradiation. Either BPF or losartan was performed together with irradiation. The results pointed out that irradiation discerned a significant elevation in the level of MDA, AOPP, aldosterone, sodium, urea and creatinine, and a significant drop in the haematological values (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct), GSH, calcium and uric acid. Repeated injections of BPF or losartan had a beneficial result against the deleterious effect of γ- irradiation. The present investigation clarifies comparable effects for treatment of radiation damage to the kidney through RAS by BPF as (ACEI) and losartan as (ARB). The present work adds further identification to the properties of BPF in controlling of radiation damage. Therapeutic agents from

  9. Botulinum A toxin utilizations in obstetric palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Aydin

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that with the help of botulinum A toxin and physyotherapy, obstetrical palsy patient with cocontractions can significantly improve movements and may have less surgery. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(3.000: 89-94

  10. Bacterial toxins as pathogen weapons against phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana edo Vale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  13. Updates on tetanus toxin: a fundamental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ahaduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that produces second most poisonous protein toxins than any other bacteria. Tetanus in animals is sporadic in nature but difficult to combat even by using antibiotics and antiserum. It is crucial to understand the fundamental mechanisms and signals that control toxin production for advance research and medicinal uses. This review was intended for better understanding the basic patho-physiology of tetanus and neurotoxins (TeNT among the audience of related field.

  14. Toxicological Perspective on Climate Change: Aquatic Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Luis M

    2016-04-18

    In recent years, our group and several others have been describing the presence of new, not previously reported, toxins of high toxicity in vectors that may reach the human food chain. These include tetrodotoxin in gastropods in the South of Europe, ciguatoxin in fish in the South of Spain, palytoxin in mussels in the Mediterranean Sea, pinnatoxin all over Europe, and okadaic acid in the south of the U.S. There seem to be new marine toxins appearing in areas that are heavy producers of seafood, and this is a cause of concern as most of these new toxins are not included in current legislation and monitoring programs. Along with the new toxins, new chemical analogues are being reported. The same phenomenom is being recorded in freshwater toxins, such as the wide appearance of cylindrospermopsin and the large worldwide increase of microcystin. The problem that this phenomenon, which may be linked to climate warming, poses for toxicologists is very important not only because there is a lack of chronic studies and an incomplete comprehension of the mechanism driving the production of these toxins but also because the lack of a legal framework for them allows many of these toxins to reach the market. In some cases, it is very difficult to control these toxins because there are not enough standards available, they are not always certified, and there is an insufficient understanding of the toxic equivalency factors of the different analogues in each group. All of these factors have been revealed and grouped through the massive increase in the use of LC-MS as a monitoring tool, legally demanded, creating more toxicological problems.

  15. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    Virgin Gorda Prorocu’nt~um lirna 885 Little Lameshur Bay, St. John Prorocentrum lima 838 Unknown (cold water form) Prorocontrum lima 62, 105, 142... Prorocentrum concavum, Conference on Natural Toxins from Aquatic and Marine Environments. 4. Tindall, D.R. and Miller, D.M., (1987) Two potent tox-is fiom...NO. NO. N. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (iclude Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA POISONING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  16. Determination of potency and paraspecific effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 antivenom against Mesobuthus gibbosus (Brullé, 1832 venom (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation remains a real health problem in many countries. In scorpionism cases, it is often recommended that patients be treated with species-specific antivenom. Androctonus crassicauda venom has been used as antigen for antivenom production in Turkey, where this antivenom, called Turkish antivenom, has also been effective in the treatment of envenomation caused by species other than A. crassicauda. The present study aimed at determining the paraspecific effects and potency of the Turkish antivenom against Mesobuthus gibbosus (Brullé, 1832 venom. To assess the venom toxicity and the antivenom efficacy, we determined the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD and the Minimum Effective Dose (MED instead of LD50 and ED50, respectively. Androctonus crassicauda antivenom was capable of neutralizing M. gibbosus venom (20 MLD. This was the first study indicating that A. crassicauda antivenom can be used for the treatment of Mesobuthus gibbosus stings, especially in Aegean Region, Turkey.

  17. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Noonan, Carmel P

    2017-03-02

    The use of botulinum toxin as an investigative and treatment modality for strabismus is well reported in the medical literature. However, it is unclear how effective it is in comparison to other treatment options for strabismus. The primary objective was to examine the efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy in the treatment of strabismus compared with alternative conservative or surgical treatment options. This review sought to ascertain those types of strabismus that particularly benefit from the use of botulinum toxin as a treatment option (such as small angle strabismus or strabismus with binocular potential, i.e. the potential to use both eyes together as a pair). The secondary objectives were to investigate the dose effect and complication rates associated with botulinum toxin. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 July 2016. We handsearched the British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, Australian Orthoptic Journal, proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and International Orthoptic Association (IOA) (www.liv.ac.uk/orthoptics/research/search.htm) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meetings (AAPOS). We contacted researchers who are active in this field for information about further

  18. The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gerad A; Cooper, Allen M; Hayes, William K

    2015-01-01

    Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution in interpreting

  19. [Botulinum toxin therapy for spasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) administered as an adjunct to other interventions for spasticity can act as a useful and effective therapeutic tool for treating patients disabled by spasticity. Presence of other non-reflex motor disorders (muscle stiffness, shortness, and contracture) can complicate the clinical course and disturb rehabilitative process of patients with spasticity. Treatment of spasticity using BTX can improve paralysis by correcting muscular imbalance that follows these diseases. In patients with chronic severe spasticity, we also have to address unique and difficult-to-treat clinical conditions such as abnormal posture and movement disorders. The effectiveness of BTX in treating some of these conditions is discussed. Because patients with neurological disabilities can show complex dysfunctions, specific functional limitations, goals, and expected outcomes of treatment should be evaluated and discussed with the patient, family members, and caregivers, prior to initiating BTX therapy. BTX therapy might improve not only care, passive function, but also motor functions in these patients by supplementing intensive rehabilitation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct-current stimulation, peripheral electrical stimulation, muscle stretching, and other rehabilitation strategies.

  20. Insulin administration reverses the metabolic and electrocardiographic changes in acute myocarditis induced by Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom in experimental dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, R R; Vakil, A E; Yeolekar, K E

    1990-01-01

    Acute myocarditis was produced by injection of 4 mg/kg Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom in dogs. Several rhythm changes, conduction defects, infarction-like pattern and many other ECG abnormalities; hyperglycemia, reduced insulin secretion, rise in free fatty acids along with fall in triglycerides; depletion of glycogen content of atria, ventricles, liver and skeletal muscles was noticed within 20-30 minutes after scorpion envenomation. Ten units of crystalline insulin was given i.v. at this time. All the arrhythmias, conduction defects and other ECG abnormalities disappeared after intervention with insulin. The sinus rhythm persisted for a duration of 120 minutes till the animals were sacrificed. Reduction in free fatty acids along with a rise in triglycerides; glycogenesis in liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles was observed at the time when ECG tracing was normal. It is suggested that catecholamines released during autonomic storm in scorpion poisoning suppress insulin secretion. These in turn result in glycogenolysis; lipolysis resulting in increased free fatty acids and produce arrhythmias. Insulin administration results in glycogenesis; lipogenesis and stops arrhythmias.

  1. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermann, E.

    1976-01-01

    125 I-labelled tetanus toxin and 125 I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin. (orig.) [de

  2. Animal Toxins: How is Complexity Represented in Databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungo, Florence; Estreicher, Anne; Bairoch, Amos; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-02-01

    Peptide toxins synthesized by venomous animals have been extensively studied in the last decades. To be useful to the scientific community, this knowledge has been stored, annotated and made easy to retrieve by several databases. The aim of this article is to present what type of information users can access from each database. ArachnoServer and ConoServer focus on spider toxins and cone snail toxins, respectively. UniProtKB, a generalist protein knowledgebase, has an animal toxin-dedicated annotation program that includes toxins from all venomous animals. Finally, the ATDB metadatabase compiles data and annotations from other databases and provides toxin ontology.

  3. Crystal structure of Clostridium difficile toxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumbler, Nicole M.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Zhang, Zhifen; Farrow, Melissa A.; Lisher, John P.; Farquhar, Erik; Giedroc, David P.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Melnyk, Roman A.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2016-01-11

    Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Disease is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause the diarrhoea, as well as inflammation and necrosis within the colon. The toxins are large (308 and 270 kDa, respectively), homologous (47% amino acid identity) glucosyltransferases that target small GTPases within the host. The multidomain toxins enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and, upon exposure to the low pH of the endosome, insert into and deliver two enzymatic domains across the membrane. Eukaryotic inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) binds an autoprocessing domain to activate a proteolysis event that releases the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol. Here, we report the crystal structure of a 1,832-amino-acid fragment of TcdA (TcdA1832), which reveals a requirement for zinc in the mechanism of toxin autoprocessing and an extended delivery domain that serves as a scaffold for the hydrophobic α-helices involved in pH-dependent pore formation. A surface loop of the delivery domain whose sequence is strictly conserved among all large clostridial toxins is shown to be functionally important, and is highlighted for future efforts in the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics.

  4. Array biosensor for detection of toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

    2003-01-01

    The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

  5. Cyanobacterial Toxin Degrading Bacteria: Who Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ar. Kormas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in nature and are both beneficial and detrimental to humans. Benefits include being food supplements and producing bioactive compounds, like antimicrobial and anticancer substances, while their detrimental effects are evident by toxin production, causing major ecological problems at the ecosystem level. To date, there are several ways to degrade or transform these toxins by chemical methods, while the biodegradation of these compounds is understudied. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of the currently available 16S rRNA and mlrA (microcystinase genes diversity of isolates known to degrade cyanobacterial toxins. The available data revealed that these bacteria belong primarily to the Proteobacteria, with several strains from the sphingomonads, and one from each of the Methylobacillus and Paucibacter genera. Other strains belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Lactobacillus. By combining the ecological knowledge on the distribution, abundance, and ecophysiology of the bacteria that cooccur with toxic cyanobacterial blooms and newly developed molecular approaches, it is possible not only to discover more strains with cyanobacterial toxin degradation abilities, but also to reveal the genes associated with the degradation of these toxins.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Mark S.; Beckett, Amber C.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA is a channel-forming toxin unrelated to other known bacterial toxins. Most H. pylori strains contain a vacA gene, but there is marked variation among strains in VacA toxin activity. This variation is attributable to strain-specific variations in VacA amino acid sequences, as well as variations in the levels of VacA transcription and secretion. In this review, we discuss epidemiologic studies showing an association between specific vacA allelic types and gastric cancer, as well as studies that have used animal models to investigate VacA activities relevant to gastric cancer. We also discuss the mechanisms by which VacA-induced cellular alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:29023421

  7. Clostridium perfringens delta toxin is sequence related to beta toxin, NetB, and Staphylococcus pore-forming toxins, but shows functional differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manich

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens produces numerous toxins, which are responsible for severe diseases in man and animals. Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysins released by a number of C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. Delta toxin was characterized to be cytotoxic for cells expressing the ganglioside G(M2 in their membrane. Here we report the genetic characterization of Delta toxin and its pore forming activity in lipid bilayers. Delta toxin consists of 318 amino acids, its 28 N-terminal amino acids corresponding to a signal peptide. The secreted Delta toxin (290 amino acids; 32619 Da is a basic protein (pI 9.1 which shows a significant homology with C. perfringens Beta toxin (43% identity, with C. perfringens NetB (40% identity and, to a lesser extent, with Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin and leukotoxins. Recombinant Delta toxin showed a preference for binding to G(M2, in contrast to Beta toxin, which did not bind to gangliosides. It is hemolytic for sheep red blood cells and cytotoxic for HeLa cells. In artificial diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes, Delta and Beta toxin formed channels. Conductance of the channels formed by Delta toxin, with a value of about 100 pS to more than 1 nS in 1 M KCl and a membrane potential of 20 mV, was higher than those formed by Beta toxin and their distribution was broader. The results of zero-current membrane potential measurements and single channel experiments suggest that Delta toxin forms slightly anion-selective channels, whereas the Beta toxin channels showed a preference for cations under the same conditions. C. perfringens Delta toxin shows a significant sequence homolgy with C. perfringens Beta and NetB toxins, as well as with S. aureus alpha hemolysin and leukotoxins, but exhibits different channel properties in lipid bilayers. In contrast to Beta toxin, Delta toxin recognizes G(M2 as receptor and forms anion-selective channels.

  8. Marine toxins and their toxicological significance: An overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This article presents an overview of various types of marine toxins and their toxicological significance in the context of biotechnological research and development. The characteristics and toxic potentials of different marine toxins highlighted...

  9. Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ohtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, and it produces extracellular enzymes and toxins that are thought to act synergistically and contribute to its pathogenesis. A complicated regulatory network of toxin genes has been reported that includes a two-component system for regulatory RNA and cell-cell communication. It is necessary to clarify the global regulatory system of these genes in order to understand and treat the virulence of C. perfringens. We summarize the existing knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms here.

  10. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takehara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins.

  11. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxin: Purification and demonstration of antigenic diversity among toxins from virulent strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1997-01-01

    The exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus strain 1289D-88 was purified as a single protein of approximately 30 kDa. Extracellular proteins of S. hyicus grown under small scale fermentation conditions were precipitated with ammonium sulfate. Separation of proteins was performed...... of 0.5 mM CuSO4 to the purified toxin resulted in more intense skin alterations comparable to lesions caused by precipitated culture supernatant diluted 1:10. These results indicated that the activity of the exfoliative toxin was dependent on the presence of Cu2+. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies...

  12. Characterisation of cholera toxin by liquid chromatography - Electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Wils, E.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera toxin, one of the toxins that may be generated by various strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, can be considered as a substance possibly used in biological warfare. The possibilities of characterising the toxin by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS) were

  13. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). This new date..., that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121...

  14. EFFECTS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

  15. Regulations for marine microalgal toxins: Towards harmonization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there are disparities in current regulations regarding methods and applied limits for toxin control. Inconsistencies are especially evident for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins. Epidemiological and toxicological data are necessary to assess risk, and to establish safe limits for the different groups of toxins.

  16. Inhibition of spinal MAPKs by scorpion venom peptide BmK AGAP produces a sensory-specific analgesic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jia-Ping; Mao, Qing-Hong; Lu, Wu-Guang; Cai, Xue-Ting; Chen, Jiao; Li, Qing-; Fu, Qun-; Yan, Huai-Jiang; Cao, Jun-Li; Cao, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that scorpion venom peptide BmK AGAP has an analgesic activity. Our previous study also demonstrated that intraplantar injection of BmK AGAP ameliorates formalin-induced spontaneous nociceptive behavior. However, the effect of intrathecal injection of BmK AGAP on nociceptive processing is poorly understood. Methods We investigated the effects of intrathecal injection of BmK AGAP on spinal nociceptive processing induced by chronic constrictive injury or formalin. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured using radiant heat and the von Frey filaments test. Formalin-induced spontaneous nociceptive behavior was also investigated. C-Fos expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) expression was monitored by Western blot assay. Results Intrathecal injection of BmK AGAP reduced chronic constrictive injury-induced neuropathic pain behavior and pain from formalin-induced inflammation, accompanied by decreased expression of spinal p-MAPKs and c-Fos protein. The results of combining low doses of different MAPK inhibitor (U0126, SP600125, or SB203580; 0.1 µg for each inhibitor) with a low dose of BmK AGAP (0.2 µg) suggested that BmK AGAP could potentiate the effects of MAPK inhibitors on inflammation-associated pain. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of BmK AGAP produces a sensory-specific analgesic effect via a p-MAPK-dependent mechanism.

  17. Two new cave-dwelling genera of short-tailed whip-scorpions from Brazil (Arachnida: Schizomida: Hubbardiidae

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    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new genera of short-tailed whip-scorpions are described based on material from Brazilian iron ore and canga caves in the Carajás region, Pará, Brazil. Naderiore gen. nov. with a single species N. carajas sp. nov. and also monotypic Cangazomus gen. nov. (type species C. xikrin sp. nov.. The relationships of the two new genera with previously described genera are discussed. Naderiore most closely resembles Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008 and Calima Moreno-González & Villarreal, 2012, and can be distinguished from them by Dm3 modified as macrosetae in the male flagellum. Cangazomus most closely resembles Naderiore , Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, and Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008. It differs from all of them by the presence of two pairs of ramified spermathecal lobes, each composed of a differentiated stalk and distoterminal ramified bulbs, chitinized arch without anterior branch and notched lateral tip, pedipalps unarmed and not sexually dimorphic, and the male flagellar setae Dm3 as a microsetae.

  18. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jitske; Fedecostante, M.; Wilmer, M.; Peters, J.G.; Kreuser, U.M.; Broek, P.H.; Mensink, R.A.; Boltje, T.J.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wetzels, J.F.; van der Heuvel, L.P.; Hoenderop, J.G.; Masereeuw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed

  19. Botulinum Toxin in Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Methods Thirty four adult patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor overactivity were selected. The patients received 300 units of botulinum toxin type A. The endpoints evaluated with the episodes of urinary incontinence and measured the maximum cystometric capacity, maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure and bladder compliance at the beginning and end of the study (24 weeks and evaluated the quality of life by applying the Qualiveen questionnaire. Results A significant decrease in the episodes of urinary incontinence was observed. All urodynamic parameters presented a significant improvement. The same was observed in the quality of life index and the specific impact of urinary problems scores from the Qualiveen questionnaire. Six patients did not complete the study, two due to incomplete follow-up, and four violated protocol and were excluded from the analyses. No systemic adverse events of botulinum toxin type A were reported. Conclusions A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life.

  20. Surgery and botulinum toxin in congenital esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel F; Alvarez, María T; Sánchez-Garrido, Carmen M; Hernáez, José M; Rodríguez, José M

    2004-10-01

    In a previous study we investigated the advantages and drawbacks of early and delayed injection of botulinum toxin as primary treatment of infantile esotropia with nystagmus in abduction (IENA). We carried out a further study to investigate the role and efficacy of surgery in this condition and to determine the possible effect of previous injection of both medial recti with botulinum toxin in patients requiring a final horizontal surgical correction. Review of the records of 44 patients (24 girls and 20 boys) with IENA seen between 1979 and 1998 who had undergone at least one horizontal surgical procedure. The outcomes in the 16 patients who had previously received botulinum toxin were compared with those in the 28 patients for whom surgery was the primary treatment. There was a negative correlation between the pretreatment esotropic angle and age (Pearson's r = -0.45, p IENA with delayed diagnosis and in cases associated with unsteadiness of binocular vision or with nonhorizontal deviations. Initial treatment with botulinum toxin, injected into both medial recti, is effective, reducing the amount of further horizontal surgery and favouring postoperative stability, except in children under 18 months, in whom injection of 5 units induces unbalanced dissociated vertical deviation.

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Micha; Nielsen, Marc Trunjer Kusk; Möller, Sören

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhoeal disease, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of STEC and the clinical features of STEC patients from a well-defined Danish population in which all fecal...

  2. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects

  3. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  4. Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Méndez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food.

  5. Mutant with diphtheria toxin receptor and acidification function but defective in entry of toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Kenji; Hayes, H.; Mekada, Eisuke; Uchida, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    A mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, GE1, that is highly resistant to diphtheria toxin was isolated. The mutant contains 50% ADP-ribosylatable elongation factor 2, but its protein synthesis was not inhibited by the toxin even at concentrations above 100 μg/ml. 125 I-labeled diphtheria toxin was associated with GE1 cells as well as with the parent cells but did not block protein synthesis of GE1 cells even when the cells were exposed to low pH in the presence or absence of NH 4 Cl. The infections of GE1 cells and the parent cells by vesicular stomatitis virus were similar. GE1 cells were cross-resistant to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and so were about 1,000 times more resistant to this toxin than the parent cells. Hybrids of GE1 cells and the parent cells or mutant cells lacking a functional receptor were more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than GE1 cells. These results suggest that entry of diphtheria toxin into cells requires a cellular factor(s) in addition to those involved in receptor function and acidification of endosomes and that GE1 cells do not express this cellular factor. This character is recessive in GE1 cells

  6. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  7. Activity of scorpion venom-derived antifungal peptides against planktonic cells of Candida spp and Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guilhelmelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms. In this study, we evaluated 11 scorpion-venom derived non-disulfide-bridged peptides against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp, which are important human pathogens. Seven of them, including two novel molecules, showed activity against both genera with MICs values ranging from 3.12 to 200 µM and an analogous activity against C. albicans biofilms. Most of the peptides presented low hemolytic and cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. Modifications in the primary peptide sequence, as revealed by in silico and circular dichroism analyses of the most promising peptides, underscored the importance of cationicity for their antimicrobial activity as well the amphipathicity of these molecules and their tendency to form alpha helices. This is the first report of scorpion-derived AMPs against C. neoformans and our results underline the potential of scorpion venom as a source of antimicrobials. Further characterization of their mechanism of action, followed by molecular optimization to decrease their citotoxicity and increase antimicrobial activity, is needed to fully clarify their real potential as antifungals.

  8. Discovery of novel bacterial toxins by genomics and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Andrew C; Mansfield, Michael J; Montecucco, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. The ongoing and explosive development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have set in motion a revolution in many fields of biology, including microbiology. One consequence is that genes encoding novel bacterial toxins can be identified by bioinformatic and computational methods based on previous knowledge accumulated from studies of the biology and pathology of thousands of known bacterial protein toxins. Starting from the paradigmatic cases of diphtheria toxin, tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins, this review discusses traditional experimental approaches as well as bioinformatics and genomics-driven approaches that facilitate the discovery of novel bacterial toxins. We discuss recent work on the identification of novel botulinum-like toxins from genera such as Weissella, Chryseobacterium, and Enteroccocus, and the implications of these computationally identified toxins in the field. Finally, we discuss the promise of metagenomics in the discovery of novel toxins and their ecological niches, and present data suggesting the existence of uncharacterized, botulinum-like toxin genes in insect gut metagenomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. General synthesis of β-alanine-containing spider polyamine toxins and discovery of nephila polyamine toxins 1 and 8 as highly potent inhibitors of ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Simon; Poulsen, Mette H; Nørager, Niels G

    2012-01-01

    Certain spiders contain large pools of polyamine toxins, which are putative pharmacological tools awaiting further discovery. Here we present a general synthesis strategy for this class of toxins and prepare five structurally varied polyamine toxins. Electrophysiological testing at three ionotrop...

  10. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antitumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone. Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 µg, 35 µg, and 52.5 µg per animal were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. Keywords: Leiurus quinquestriatus, skin cancer, apoptosis, immunosuppression

  11. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera, which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  12. Insecticidal toxins from black widow spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohou, A; Nield, J; Ushkaryov, Y A

    2007-03-15

    The biological effects of Latrodectus spider venom are similar in animals from different phyla, but these symptoms are caused by distinct phylum-specific neurotoxins (collectively called latrotoxins) with molecular masses ranging from 110 to 140 kDa. To date, the venom has been found to contain five insecticidal toxins, termed alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon-latroinsectotoxins (LITs). There is also a vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX), and one toxin affecting crustaceans, alpha-latrocrustatoxin (alpha-LCT). These toxins stimulate massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals and act (1) by binding to specific receptors, some of which mediate an exocytotic signal, and (2) by inserting themselves into the membrane and forming ion-permeable pores. Specific receptors for LITs have yet to be identified, but all three classes of vertebrate receptors known to bind alpha-LTX are also present in insects. All LTXs whose structures have been elucidated (alpha-LIT, delta-LIT, alpha-LTX and alpha-LCT) are highly homologous and have a similar domain architecture, which consists of a unique N-terminal sequence and a large domain composed of 13-22 ankyrin repeats. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis, so far done for alpha-LTX only, has revealed its dimeric nature and an ability to form symmetrical tetramers, a feature probably common to all LTXs. Only tetramers have been observed to insert into membranes and form pores. A preliminary 3D reconstruction of a delta-LIT monomer demonstrates the spatial similarity of this toxin to the monomer of alpha-LTX.

  13. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  14. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria Toxins: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines, but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  15. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; Peters, J G; Kreuser, U M; van den Broek, P H; Mensink, R A; Boltje, T J; Stamatialis, D; Wetzels, J F; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2016-05-31

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs.

  16. The Biology of the Cytolethal Distending Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lina; Cortes-Bratti, Ximena; Guidi, Riccardo; Frisan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), produced by a variety of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, are the first bacterial genotoxins described, since they cause DNA damage in the target cells. CDT is an A-B2 toxin, where the CdtA and CdtC subunits are required to mediate the binding on the surface of the target cells, allowing internalization of the active CdtB subunit, which is functionally homologous to the mammalian deoxyribonuclease I. The nature of the surface receptor is still poorly characterized, however binding of CDT requires intact lipid rafts, and its internalization occurs via dynamin-dependent endocytosis. The toxin is retrograde transported through the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum, and subsequently translocated into the nuclear compartment, where it exerts the toxic activity. Cellular intoxication induces DNA damage and activation of the DNA damage responses, which results in arrest of the target cells in the G1 and/or G2 phases of the cell cycle and activation of DNA repair mechanisms. Cells that fail to repair the damage will senesce or undergo apoptosis. This review will focus on the well-characterized aspects of the CDT biology and discuss the questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:22069704

  17. Asymmetric pulmonary edema after scorpion sting: a case report Edema pulmonar assimétrico após picada de escorpião: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy was referred with acute asymmetric pulmonary edema (APE four-hour after scorpion sting to Emergency department. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were: dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Chest x-ray revealed APE predominantly on the right hemithorax. The patient was treated with oxygen, intravenous frusemide and digoxin and discharged on the sixth hospital day in a good condition. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of asymmetric pulmonary edema after severe scorpion envenomation within few hours immediately after the sting.Menino de 12 anos foi internado no Pronto Socorro, com edema pulmonar assimétrico agudo (APE, quatro horas após picada de escorpião. À admissão, as principais manifestações clínicas foram: dispnéa, taquipnéa e taquicardia. Raio X do pulmão revelou APE predominantemente no hemitórax direito. O paciente foi tratado com oxigênio, frusemida intravenosa e digoxina e teve alta no sexto dia de internação, em boas condições. Este relato de caso enfatiza a ocorrência de edema pulmonar assimétrico algumas horas após a picada.

  18. Development and characterization of a new carrier for vaccine delivery based on calcium-alginate nanoparticles: Safe immunoprotective approach against scorpion envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Mohamed, Faez Amokrane; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-05-23

    To enhance humoral defense against diseases, vaccine formulation is routinely prepared to improve immune response. Studies in nanomaterials as a carrier of vaccine delivery are promising and interesting. In this study, attenuated Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its toxic fraction were encapsulated into different formulations inside calcium-alginate nanoparticles (Ca-Alg Nps), and used as a vaccine delivery system against scorpion envenomation. Ca-Alg Nps were prepared by ionic gelation and characterized. An immunization schedule was undertaken in rabbits in order to study how Aah venom entrapped in Ca-Alg Nps might induce protective immunity. Results showed the influence of different parameters on the suitable nanoparticle formation. They also showed no toxicity of free Ca-Alg Nps and a different inflammatory profile depending on the nanovaccine formulations. More interestingly, evaluation of specific IgG titer and IgG1/IgG2a isotype balance revealed a protective effect with the nanoparticles encapsulating the attenuated antigens. Challenge up to 6 LD 50 of native venom, allowed to an important immunoprotection of all immunized rabbits, with no recorded death. Taken together and with respect to the properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, calcium-alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising adjuvant system and a vaccine delivery against scorpion envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Leonie; Mittler, Ann-Katrin; Sadi, Mirko; Popoff, Michel R; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Mattarei, Andrea; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Montecucco, Cesare; Barth, Holger

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum produce the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins CDT, iota and C2, respectively. These toxins are composed of a transport component (B) and a separate enzyme component (A). When both components assemble on the surface of mammalian target cells, the B components mediate the entry of the A components via endosomes into the cytosol. Here, the A components ADP-ribosylate G-actin, resulting in depolymerization of F-actin, cell-rounding and eventually death. In the present study, we demonstrate that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA), a compound that protects cells from multiple toxins and viruses, also protects different mammalian epithelial cells from all three binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. In contrast, EGA did not inhibit the intoxication of cells with Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, indicating a possible different entry route for this toxin. EGA does not affect either the binding of the C2 toxin to the cells surface or the enzyme activity of the A components of CDT, iota and C2, suggesting that this compound interferes with cellular uptake of the toxins. Moreover, for C2 toxin, we demonstrated that EGA inhibits the pH-dependent transport of the A component across cell membranes. EGA is not cytotoxic, and therefore, we propose it as a lead compound for the development of novel pharmacological inhibitors against clostridial binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins.

  20. [Botulinum toxin: An important complement for facial rejuvenation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, C

    2017-10-01

    The improved understanding of the functional anatomy of the face and of the action of the botulinum toxin A leads us to determine a new injection procedure which consequently decreases the risk of eyebrow and eyelid ptosis and increases the toxin's injection possibilities and efficiencies. With less units of toxin, the technique herein described proposes to be more efficient on more muscles: variable toxin injections concentration adapted to each injected muscle are used. Thanks to a new procedure in the upper face, toxin A injection can be quite close to an endoscopic surgical action. In addition, interesting results are achievable to rejuvenate the lateral canthus with injection on the upper lateral tarsus, to rejuvenate the nose with injection at the alar base, the jawline and the neck region. Lastly, a smoothing effect on the skin (meso botox) is obtained by the anticholinergic action of the toxin A on the dermal receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Differential Requirement for the Translocation of Clostridial Binary Toxins: Iota Toxin Requires a Membrane Potential Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    chlorpromazin (Chp), filipinIII, nigericin (Ni), con- canamycin (Con), ammonium chloride, and nocodazole were from Sig- ma. 2.2. Bacterial strains and toxin...fluid before recording the radioactivity. Results are expressed as a percentage of inhibited protein synthesis rel- ative to control preparations not...5 nM) (D) as measured by inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells. Data are means ± S.D. (n = 5). 10-9 10-7 0 20 40 60 80 100 C2 toxin (log M) F

  2. Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga,Carlos; Díaz,Sergio; Piedimonte,Fabián; Micheli,Federico

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin has been thoroughly studied as a potential tool in the treatment of several pain syndromes. Therefore, we assessed the clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A injections in 12 patients with otherwise unresponsive idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Patients were infiltrated with 20-50 units of botulinum toxin in trigger zones. Those who presented with mandibular involvement were also infiltrated in the masseter muscle. The patients were assessed on a weekly basis using the Vis...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Bryan J.; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host. PMID:23888516

  4. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Berube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host.

  5. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots; it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  6. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  7. Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast: Genetic toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassaux, Georges; Lemoine, Nick R

    2000-01-01

    Gene therapy was initially envisaged as a potential treatment for genetically inherited, monogenic disorders. The applications of gene therapy have now become wider, however, and include cardiovascular diseases, vaccination and cancers in which conventional therapies have failed. With regard to oncology, various gene therapy approaches have been developed. Among them, the use of genetic toxins to kill cancer cells selectively is emerging. Two different types of genetic toxins have been developed so far: the metabolic toxins and the dominant-negative class of toxins. This review describes these two different approaches, and discusses their potential applications in cancer gene therapy

  8. Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Mantzouki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins. Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.

  9. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; Brucella abortus; Brucella melitensis; Brucella suis; Burkholderia mallei; Burkholderia pseudomallei... toxins must be reported within 24 hours by telephone, facsimile, or e-mail: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella...

  10. Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal α-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

  11. Entry of diphtheria toxin into cells: possible existence of cellular factor(s) for entry of diphtheria toxin into cells was studied in somatic cell hybrids and hybrid toxins

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were found to be very insensitive to diphtheria toxin. We formed 37 hybrids from Ehrlich tumor cells and diphtheria toxin-sensitive human fibroblasts. The effects of diphtheria toxin on protein synthesis in those hybrids were examined. The hybrids were divided into three groups on the basis of toxin sensitivity. Group A hybrids were as sensitive to diphtheria toxin as human fibroblasts, Group C were as resistant as Ehrlich tumor cells, and Group B had intermediate ...

  12. Emergence of Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f in human Shiga toxin-producing E-coli (STEC) infections in the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.; van der Zwaluw, K.; Schuurman, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; Franz, E.; van Duynhoven, Y.; van Pelt, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Shiga toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) with several sub-variants. Variant Stx(2f) is one of the latest described, but has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. In the enhanced STEC

  13. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  14. Prevention, control and detection of Fusarial toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past couple of decades have provided considerable details on fungi and the toxins that they produce, as well on the mechanism of toxin action, toxicity and effects on animal and human health. But, since they are natural contaminants, their presence is often inevitable. Fusaria are widespread in all cereal-growing territories of the world, but they are especially common in our geographic area. Therefore, special attention is paid to the prevention and control, and also to the improvement of methods for their detection. Although all collected data were critical for understanding this worldwide problem, managing the impact of these toxins on the feed and food safety is still great practical challenge. There are a number of approaches that can be taken to minimize mycotoxin contamination in this chain: prevention of fungal growth and thus mycotoxin formation, strategies to reduce or eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated feedstuffs or diverting the contaminated products to low risk uses. A control program for mycotoxins from field to table should in­volve the criteria of an HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points approach. It requires an understanding of the important aspects of the interactions of the toxigenic fungi with crop plants, the on-farm production and harvest methods for crops, the production of livestock using grains and processed feeds, including diagnostic capabilities for mycotoxicoses, and all the way to the development of processed foods for human consumption, as well as understanding the marketing and trade channels including storage and delivery of foods to the consumer’s table. A good testing protocol for mycotoxins is necessary to manage all of the control points and in order to be able to ensure a food supply free of toxic levels of mycotoxins for the consumer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  15. Tetanus toxin : primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisel, Ulrich; Jarausch, Wolfgang; Goretzki, Karin; Henschen, Agnes; Engels, Joachim; Weller, Ulrich; Hudel, Martina; Habermann, Ernst; Niemann, Heiner; Rott, R.

    1986-01-01

    A pool of synthetic oligonucleotides was used to identify the gene encoding tetanus toxin on a 75-kbp plasmid from a toxigenic non-sporulating strain of Clostridium tetani. The nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for 1315 amino acids corresponding to a polypeptide with a

  16. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxin: Purification and demonstration of antigenic diversity among toxins from virulent strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1997-01-01

    The exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus strain 1289D-88 was purified as a single protein of approximately 30 kDa. Extracellular proteins of S. hyicus grown under small scale fermentation conditions were precipitated with ammonium sulfate. Separation of proteins was performed...

  17. Binding of diphtheria toxin to phospholipids in liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  18. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  19. Crystal structures of an intrinsically active cholera toxin mutant yield insight into the toxin activation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Claire J; Amaya, Edward I; Jobling, Michael G; Holmes, Randall K; Hol, Wim G J

    2004-04-06

    Cholera toxin (CT) is a heterohexameric bacterial protein toxin belonging to a larger family of A/B ADP-ribosylating toxins. Each of these toxins undergoes limited proteolysis and/or disulfide bond reduction to form the enzymatically active toxic fragment. Nicking and reduction render both CT and the closely related heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT) unstable in solution, thus far preventing a full structural understanding of the conformational changes resulting from toxin activation. We present the first structural glimpse of an active CT in structures from three crystal forms of a single-site A-subunit CT variant, Y30S, which requires no activational modifications for full activity. We also redetermined the structure of the wild-type, proenzyme CT from two crystal forms, both of which exhibit (i) better geometry and (ii) a different A2 "tail" conformation than the previously determined structure [Zhang et al. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 251, 563-573]. Differences between wild-type CT and active CTY30S are observed in A-subunit loop regions that had been previously implicated in activation by analysis of the structure of an LT A-subunit R7K variant [van den Akker et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 10996-11004]. The 25-36 activation loop is disordered in CTY30S, while the 47-56 active site loop displays varying degrees of order in the three CTY30S structures, suggesting that disorder in the activation loop predisposes the active site loop to a greater degree of flexibility than that found in unactivated wild-type CT. On the basis of these six new views of the CT holotoxin, we propose a model for how the activational modifications experienced by wild-type CT are communicated to the active site.

  20. Multiplex detection of protein toxins using MALDI-TOF-TOF tandem mass spectrometry: application in unambiguous toxin detection from bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Bhoj; Kamboj, Dev Vrat

    2012-12-04

    Protein toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), shiga toxin (STX), and plant toxin ricin, are involved in a number of diseases and are considered as potential agents for bioterrorism and warfare. From a bioterrorism and warfare perspective, these agents are likely to cause maximum damage to a civilian or military population through an inhalational route of exposure and aerosol is considered the envisaged mode of delivery. Unambiguous detection of toxin from aerosol is of paramount importance, both for bringing mitigation protocols into operation and for implementation of effective medical countermeasures, in case a "biological cloud" is seen over a population. A multiplex, unambiguous, and qualitative detection of protein toxins is reported here using tandem mass spectrometry with MALDI-TOF-TOF. The methodology involving simple sample processing steps was demonstrated to identify toxins (ETX, Clostridium perfringes phospholipase C, and SEB) from blind spiked samples. The novel directed search approach using a list of unique peptides was used to identify toxins from a complex protein mixture. The bioinformatic analysis of seven protein toxins for elucidation of unique peptides with conservation status across all known sequences provides a high confidence for detecting toxins originating from any geographical location and source organism. Use of tandem MS data with peptide sequence information increases the specificity of the method. A prototype for generation of aerosol using a nebulizer and collection using a cyclone collector was used to provide a proof of concept for unambiguous detection of toxin from aerosol using precursor directed tandem mass spectrometry combined with protein database searching. ETX prototoxin could be detected from aerosol at 0.2 ppb concentration in aerosol.

  1. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alternaria Toxins in Carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solfrizzo, M.; Girolamo, De A.; Vitti, C.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of Alternaria radicina and A. alternata toxins in carrots. Toxins were extracted from carrot with an acidified mixture of water¿methanol¿acetonitrile. The filtered extract was divided in 2 parts that were purified by

  2. Recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, K; Andersen, K; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the recent developments in the field of polyamine toxins, with focus on structure activity relationship investigations, including studies of importance of the polyamine moiety for biological activity, photolabeling studies using polyamine toxins as templates, as well as use ...

  3. EFFECT OF MARINE TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algal toxins are extremely toxic and can represent a major health problem to humans and animals. Temperature regulation is one of many processes to be affected by exposure to these toxins. Mice and rats become markedly hypothermic when subjected to acute exposure to the ma...

  4. Short inventory of EU legislation on plant toxins in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Plant toxins, secondary metabolites that are not essential for the survival of the organism itself but are toxic to human health, are produced by many plants. Plant toxins can be present as inherent metabolites in daily foods such as potatoes, herbs and spices or in herbal preparations. Plant

  5. 76 FR 58157 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... disorders. Shiga toxin is the same toxin as is produced by Shigella, the bacteria that cause dysentery. In... addition, FSIS will conduct a for-cause food safety assessment (FSA) for every positive sample, as it does... conduct sample testing, follow-up testing and for-cause FSAs, the total cost to the Agency is about $454...

  6. Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Z Sun, M Li, J Chen, Y Li. Abstract. A new toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus could cause a series of physiological responses on seedlings of redroot pigweed. The experimental results revealed that respiratory ratio ...

  7. Nutrients and toxin producing phytoplankton control algal blooms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    poral dissipative pattern formation in a deterministic and noisy environment, respectively. The overall carrying capacity for the ... fact that the rate of toxin production by toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP) plays an important role for con- trolling oscillations in the .... Examples of these diverse models of impact were given by ...

  8. Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mitotic indices appeared not to be affected by the toxin. Ultrastructure observation indicated that the thylakoids of chloroplast and cristae of mitochondria swelled, when the leaves were placed in the toxin for 2 h. After treatment with the phototoxin for 3 h, the cell membrane was disrupted, the chloroplasts disintegrated and ...

  9. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  10. Oxidative Stress in Shiga Toxin Production by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Licznerska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains depends on production of Shiga toxins. These toxins are encoded in genomes of lambdoid bacteriophages (Shiga toxin-converting phages, present in EHEC cells as prophages. The genes coding for Shiga toxins are silent in lysogenic bacteria, and prophage induction is necessary for their efficient expression and toxin production. Under laboratory conditions, treatment with UV light or antibiotics interfering with DNA replication are commonly used to induce lambdoid prophages. Since such conditions are unlikely to occur in human intestine, various research groups searched for other factors or agents that might induce Shiga toxin-converting prophages. Among other conditions, it was reported that treatment with H2O2 caused induction of these prophages, though with efficiency significantly lower relative to UV-irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. A molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has been proposed. It appears that the oxidative stress represents natural conditions provoking induction of Shiga toxin-converting prophages as a consequence of H2O2 excretion by either neutrophils in infected humans or protist predators outside human body. Finally, the recently proposed biological role of Shiga toxin production is described in this paper, and the “bacterial altruism” and “Trojan Horse” hypotheses, which are connected to the oxidative stress, are discussed.

  11. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Linial

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  12. Short toxin-like proteins abound in Cnidaria genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-11-16

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  13. Solid-phase synthesis of polyamine toxin analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Hasse; Krikstolaityte, Sonata; Andersen, Anne J

    2002-01-01

    The wasp toxin philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is a nonselective and noncompetitive antagonist of ionotropic receptors, such as ionotropic glutamate receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Polyamine toxins are extensively used for the characterization of subtypes of ionotropic glutamate re...

  14. Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica toxin on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the responses of different chestnut cultivars to Cp-toxin stress, the effect of Cp-toxin from Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr on Castanea mollissima Blume, especially on its cell structure, was examined. Chestnut shoots of both resistant (Beiyu No. 2) and susceptible (Hongguang) cultivars were treated ...

  15. Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica toxin on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... In order to clarify the responses of different chestnut cultivars to Cp-toxin stress, the effect of Cp-toxin from Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr on Castanea mollissima Blume, especially on its cell structure, was examined. Chestnut shoots of both resistant (Beiyu No. 2) and susceptible (Hongguang).

  16. Host defenses against bacterial pore-forming toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, F.C.O.

    2011-01-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs), the most common bacterial toxins, contribute to infection by perforating host cell membranes. Excessive use and lack of new development of antibiotics are causing increasing numbers of drug-resistant bacteria, like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and

  17. Detection of shiga toxins by lateral flow assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) produce Shiga toxins (Stxs) that can cause human disease and death. The contamination of food products with STEC represents a food safety problem that necessitates rapid and effective detection strategies to mitigate risk. In this manuscript we report ...

  18. Retrograde transport of protein toxins through the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Skotland, Tore; van Deurs, Bo

    2013-01-01

    at the cell surface, and they are endocytosed both by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. Sorting to the Golgi and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are common to these toxins, but the exact mechanisms turn out to be toxin and cell-type dependent. In the ER...

  19. Recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, K; Andersen, K; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the recent developments in the field of polyamine toxins, with focus on structure activity relationship investigations, including studies of importance of the polyamine moiety for biological activity, photolabeling studies using polyamine toxins as templates, as well as use...

  20. Lactobacillus bulgaricus mutants decompose uremic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun-Huan; Jiang, Ya-Fen; Jiang, Yun-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    We aim to obtain a probiotic strain from Lactobacillus bulgaricus by testing its capability to decompose uremic toxins to provide new intestinal bacteria for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Original L. bulgaricus was cultured with the serum of uremic patients and then mutated by physical (ultraviolet) and chemical (diethyl sulfate) methods repeatedly. Using creatinine decomposition rate as an observed index, we selected the best strains which decreased the most concentration of the creatinine. We then tested its ability to decompose urea, uric acid, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and homocysteine and its genetic stability. After inductive and mutagenic treatment, DUC3-17 was selected. Its decomposition rate of creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and homocysteine were 17.23%, 36.02%, 9.84%, 15.73%, 78.26%, and 12.69%, respectively. The degrading capacity was sustained over five generations. After directional induction and compound mutation, L. bulgaricus has greater capacity to decompose uremic toxins, with a stable inheritance.

  1. Comparative genomics of Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Darren L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stx bacteriophages are responsible for driving the dissemination of Stx toxin genes (stx across their bacterial host range. Lysogens carrying Stx phages can cause severe, life-threatening disease and Stx toxin is an integral virulence factor. The Stx-bacteriophage vB_EcoP-24B, commonly referred to as Ф24B, is capable of multiply infecting a single bacterial host cell at a high frequency, with secondary infection increasing the rate at which subsequent bacteriophage infections can occur. This is biologically unusual, therefore determining the genomic content and context of Ф24B compared to other lambdoid Stx phages is important to understanding the factors controlling this phenomenon and determining whether they occur in other Stx phages. Results The genome of the Stx2 encoding phage, Ф24B was sequenced and annotated. The genomic organisation and general features are similar to other sequenced Stx bacteriophages induced from Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, however Ф24B possesses significant regions of heterogeneity, with implications for phage biology and behaviour. The Ф24B genome was compared to other sequenced Stx phages and the archetypal lambdoid phage, lambda, using the Circos genome comparison tool and a PCR-based multi-loci comparison system. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that Stx phages are mosaic, and recombination events between the host, phages and their remnants within the same infected bacterial cell will continue to drive the evolution of Stx phage variants and the subsequent dissemination of shigatoxigenic potential.

  2. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  3. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses.

  4. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R.; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M.; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents. PMID:26805882

  5. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  6. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  7. Interaction of Botulinum Toxin with the Epithelial Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Fujinaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT is a protein toxin (~150 kDa, which possesses a metalloprotease activity. Food-borne botulism is manifested when BoNT is absorbed from the digestive tract to the blood stream and enters the peripheral nerves, where the toxin cleaves core proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus and elicits the inhibition of neurotransmitter release. The initial obstacle to orally ingested BoNT entering the body is the epithelial barrier of the digestive tract. Recent cell biology and molecular biology studies are beginning to elucidate the mechanism by which this large protein toxin crosses the epithelial barrier. In this review, we provide an overview of the structural features of botulinum toxins (BoNT and BoNT complex and the interaction of these toxins with the epithelial barrier.

  8. Structural Insights into Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Pore Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Huyet

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysin-like proteins produced by C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. One of the others, NetB, has been shown to be the major cause of Avian Nectrotic Enteritis, which following the reduction in use of antibiotics as growth promoters, has become an emerging disease of industrial poultry. Delta toxin itself is cytotoxic to the wide range of human and animal macrophages and platelets that present GM2 ganglioside on their membranes. It has sequence similarity with Staphylococcus aureus β-pore forming toxins and is expected to heptamerize and form pores in the lipid bilayer of host cell membranes. Nevertheless, its exact mode of action remains undetermined. Here we report the 2.4 Å crystal structure of monomeric Delta toxin. The superposition of this structure with the structure of the phospholipid-bound F component of S. aureus leucocidin (LukF revealed that the glycerol molecules bound to Delta toxin and the phospholipids in LukF are accommodated in the same hydrophobic clefts, corresponding to where the toxin is expected to latch onto the membrane, though the binding sites show significant differences. From structure-based sequence alignment with the known structure of staphylococcal α-hemolysin, a model of the Delta toxin pore form has been built. Using electron microscopy, we have validated our model and characterized the Delta toxin pore on liposomes. These results highlight both similarities and differences in the mechanism of Delta toxin (and by extension NetB cytotoxicity from that of the staphylococcal pore-forming toxins.

  9. Cholera toxin but not pertussis toxin inhibits angiotensin II-enhanced contractions in the rat portal vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; van Meel, J. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-enhanced phasic contractions in the rat portal vein were concentration dependently inhibited by cholera toxin (0.1-10 micrograms/ml) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.1-1 mM), but not by pertussis toxin (1 micrograms/ml), which suggests that Gi is not involved in the Ang II signal

  10. Morfometría geométrica en cinco especies de Buthidae y Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones de Venezuela Geometric morphometrics in five species of Buthidae and Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Y. Bechara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, la escorpiofauna consta de 17 géneros y 202 especies. En algunos grupos la taxonomía no ha sido aclarada; por lo tanto, son necesarias investigaciones adicionales que contribuyan a mejorar el conocimiento sobre la identidad taxonómica y relaciones entre sus componentes. La morfometría geométrica es una herramienta que ha sido utilizada como apoyo a la sistemática en distintos organismos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la conformación y tamaño isométrico en 5 especies de escorpiones. Se fotografiaron 266 individuos de 4 especies de Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus clathratus y T. discrepans, y una de Scorpionidae: Tarsoporosus yustizi. Se registraron configuraciones de coordenadas (x,y en 5 estructuras a partir de puntos anatómicos de referencia (PAR y PAR deslizantes. Los resultados mostraron separación completa de las especies de Buthidae por medio de tricobotrias dorsales en la patela del pedipalpo, y una consistente separación en el nivel familiar en las estructuras restantes. Las placas delgadas permitieron la visualización de compresión horizontal del esternón en las especies de Buthidae y compresión vertical en la de Scorpionidae. Se determinó la similitud de coxas, quela y caparazón entre R. laticauda y C. testaceus. La disposición de tricobotrias y la conformación del esternón permitió la diferenciación entre T. discrepans y T. clathratus.The Venezuelan scorpionfauna comprises 17 genera and 202 species. In some taxa the taxonomy is unclear, and additional studies that contribute to the knowledge about taxonomic identity and relationships are necessary. Geometric morphometrics is a tool that has been used as support to the systematics in different organisms. The goal was to analize the isometric size and conformation in five scorpions species. We photographed 266 individuals of four speceis of Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus

  11. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  12. Foodborne toxins of marine origin: ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranovic, L R; Park, D L

    1991-01-01

    Ciguatera poisoning has long been recognized as a serious problem in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Due to international and interstate commerce and tourist travel the phenomenon is spreading to other parts of the globe. Various species of fish (surgeonfish, snapper, grouper, barracuda, jack, amberjack among others) have been implicated in this type of poisoning. These fish accumulate toxins in their flesh and viscera through the consumption of smaller fish that have been previously contaminated by feeding on toxic dinoflagellates. The most probable source of ciguatera is thought to be the benthic microorganism, Gambierdiscus toxicus, which produces both CTX and MTX, but other species of dinoflagellates such as Prorocentrum lima may also contribute with secondary toxins associated with the disease. Potentially ciguatoxic dinoflagellates have been isolated, cultured under laboratory conditions and dinoflagellate growth requirements as well as some factors affecting toxin production have been determined. Also, data from their ecological environment have been accumulated in an attempt to reveal a relationship with the epidemiology of ciguatera outbreaks. Several bioassays have been employed to determine the ciguatoxicity of fish. Cats have been used due to their sensitivity, but regurgitation has made dosage information difficult to obtain. Mongooses have also been used but they often carry parasitic and other type of diseases which complicate the bioassay. Mice have been used more commonly; they offer a more reliable model, can be easily housed, readily are dosed in several ways, and manifest diverse symptoms similar to human intoxications; but the amount of toxic extract needed, time consumed, complicated extraction techniques, and instrumentation involved limit the use of this assay commercially. Other bioassays have been explored including the brine shrimp, chicken, mosquito, crayfish nerve cord, guinea pig ileum, guinea pig atrium, and other

  13. SVM-based prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins identifies toxin innovation in an Australian tarantula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S W Wong

    Full Text Available Spider neurotoxins are commonly used as pharmacological tools and are a popular source of novel compounds with therapeutic and agrochemical potential. Since venom peptides are inherently toxic, the host spider must employ strategies to avoid adverse effects prior to venom use. It is partly for this reason that most spider toxins encode a protective proregion that upon enzymatic cleavage is excised from the mature peptide. In order to identify the mature toxin sequence directly from toxin transcripts, without resorting to protein sequencing, the propeptide cleavage site in the toxin precursor must be predicted bioinformatically. We evaluated different machine learning strategies (support vector machines, hidden Markov model and decision tree and developed an algorithm (SpiderP for prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins. Our strategy uses a support vector machine (SVM framework that combines both local and global sequence information. Our method is superior or comparable to current tools for prediction of propeptide sequences in spider toxins. Evaluation of the SVM method on an independent test set of known toxin sequences yielded 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, we sequenced five novel peptides (not used to train the final predictor from the venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes to test the accuracy of the predictor and found 80% sensitivity and 99.6% 8-mer specificity. Finally, we used the predictor together with homology information to predict and characterize seven groups of novel toxins from the deeply sequenced venom gland transcriptome of S. plumipes, which revealed structural complexity and innovations in the evolution of the toxins. The precursor prediction tool (SpiderP is freely available on ArachnoServer (http://www.arachnoserver.org/spiderP.html, a web portal to a comprehensive relational database of spider toxins. All training data, test data, and scripts used are available from

  14. ACTIN-DIRECTED TOXIN. ACD toxin-produced actin oligomers poison formin-controlled actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, David B; Kudryashova, Elena; Grinevich, Dmitry O; Suarez, Cristian; Winkelman, Jonathan D; Birukov, Konstantin G; Kotha, Sainath R; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Kovar, David R; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2015-07-31

    The actin cross-linking domain (ACD) is an actin-specific toxin produced by several pathogens, including life-threatening spp. of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Actin cross-linking by ACD is thought to lead to slow cytoskeleton failure owing to a gradual sequestration of actin in the form of nonfunctional oligomers. Here, we found that ACD converted cytoplasmic actin into highly toxic oligomers that potently "poisoned" the ability of major actin assembly proteins, formins, to sustain actin polymerization. Thus, ACD can target the most abundant cellular protein by using actin oligomers as secondary toxins to efficiently subvert cellular functions of actin while functioning at very low doses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. An Emulsion Based Microarray Method to Detect the Toxin Genes of Toxin-Producing Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Bai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxins produced by bacteria and fungi are one of the most important factors which may cause food contamination. The study of detection methods with high sensitivity and throughput is significant for the protection of food safety. In the present study, we coupled microarray with emulsion PCR and developed a high throughput detection method. Thirteen different gene sites which encode the common toxins of several bacteria and fungi were assayed in parallel in positive and maize samples. Conventional PCR assays were carried out for comparison. The results showed that the developed microarray method had high specificity and sensitivity. Two zearalenone-related genes were investigated in one of the ten maize samples obtained with this present method. The results indicated that the emulsion based microarray detection method was developed successfully and suggested its potential application in multiple gene site detection.

  16. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient......'s self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals....... The evaluation included a satisfaction questionnaire and the WHO-QoL BREF and WHO-5 well-being score. Overall, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot study. The patients were generally satisfied with the diary, found that it involved them more in their treatment and made it easier to set personal goals...

  17. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    's self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals......The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient....... The evaluation included a satisfaction questionnaire and the WHO-QoL BREF and WHO-5 well-being score. Overall, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot study. The patients were generally satisfied with the diary, found that it involved them more in their treatment and made it easier to set personal goals...

  18. Botulinum toxin drugs: brief history and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, D

    2016-03-01

    The global botulinum toxin (BT) market is currently undergoing rapid changes: this may be the time to review the history and the future of BT drug development. Since the early 1990s Botox(®) and Dysport(®) dominated the international BT market. Later, Myobloc(®)/NeuroBloc(®), a liquid BT type B drug, came out, but failed. Xeomin(®) is the latest major BT drug. It features removal of complexing proteins and improved neurotoxin purity. Several new BT drugs are coming out of Korea, China and Russia. Scientific challenges for BT drug development include modification of BT's duration of action, its transdermal transport and the design of BT hybrid drugs for specific target tissues. The increased competition will change the global BT market fundamentally and a re-organisation according to large indication groups, such as therapeutic and cosmetic applications, might occur.

  19. [Botulinum toxin and facial palsy. Our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete Alvaro, María Luisa; Junyent, Josefina; Torrent, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic indication of peripheral facial paralysis depends on the degree of nerve injury. Severe facial palsy (electroneuronographic study less than or equal to 10%) leads to healing with sequelae. The sequelae of facial paralysis are contractures, hemifacial spasm and synkinesis.Our purpose was to demonstrate that these patients could benefit from rehabilitation treatment. We present a study of 48 patients with severe peripheral facial paralysis. They were treated from the beginning of reinnervation with botulinum toxin and facial exercises according to the Wisconsin School. The subjective efficacy of rehabilitation is high. Rehabilitation treatment can inform patients about their chances of recovery, give them control over and quality of facial expression and help to achieve greater facial symmetry. These factors provide better functionality and quality of life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2–Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather M; Wigelsworth, Darran J; Marlett, John M; Thomas, Diane; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Lacy, D. Borden; Manchester, Marianne; Collier, R. John; Young, John A. T

    2006-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) have a related integrin-like inserted (I) domain which interacts with a metal cation that is coordinated by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA residue D683 are critical for ANTXR1-PA binding. Since PA can bind to ANTXR2 with reduced affinity in the absence of metal ions, we reasoned that D683 mutant forms of PA might specifically interact with ANTXR2. We show here that this is the case. The differential ability of ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 to bind D683 mutant PA proteins was mapped to nonconserved receptor residues at the binding interface with PA domain 2. Moreover, a D683K mutant form of PA that bound specifically to human and rat ANTXR2 mediated killing of rats by anthrax lethal toxin, providing strong evidence for the physiological importance of ANTXR2 in anthrax disease pathogenesis. PMID:17054395

  1. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Chieng Yeo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  2. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-02-19

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  3. The Snake with the Scorpion’s Sting: Novel Three-Finger Toxin Sodium Channel Activators from the Venom of the Long-Glanded Blue Coral Snake (Calliophis bivirgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl C. Yang

    2016-10-01

    invertebrate venomous species including cone snails, scorpions, spiders, and anemones. Enhanced activation or delayed inactivation of sodium channels by toxins is associated with the extremely rapid onset of tetanic/excitatory paralysis in envenomed prey animals. A strong selection pressure exists for the evolution of such toxins where there is a high chance of prey escape. However, despite their prevalence in other venomous species, toxins causing delay of sodium channel inhibition have never previously been described in vertebrate venoms. Here we show that NaV modulators, convergent with those of invertebrates, have evolved in the venom of the long-glanded coral snake. Calliotoxin represents a functionally novel class of 3FTx and a structurally novel class of NaV toxins that will provide significant insights into the pharmacology and physiology of NaV. The toxin represents a remarkable case of functional convergence between invertebrate and vertebrate venom systems in response to similar selection pressures. These results underscore the dynamic evolution of the Toxicofera reptile system and reinforces the value of using evolution as a roadmap for biodiscovery.

  4. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Zofia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure. Timing of exposure to EDCs is crucial for the intensity of adverse health effects. It is now evident that fetuses, infants, and/or young children are the most susceptible groups, especially in the early development periods. Prenatal exposure to EDCs that mimic endogenous hormones may contribute to the altered fetal programming and in consequence lead to PCOS and other adverse health effects, potentially transgenerationally. Acute or prolonged exposure to EDCs and AGEs through different life cycle stages may result in destabilization of the hormonal homeostasis and lead to disruption of reproductive functions. They may also interfere with metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that can exacerbate the PCOS phenotype and contribute to PCOS consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since wide exposure to environmental toxins and their role in the pathophysiology of PCOS are supported by extensive data derived from diverse scientific models, protective strategies and strong recommendations should be considered to reduce human exposure to protect present and future generations from their adverse health effects. Copyright

  6. Bacterial Toxins: A Hope Towards Angiogenic Ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological process for growth and maintenance of the body. Especially its role becomes indispendable during the embryonic development stage but lacks in adults with some exceptions like while wound repair and menstrual cycle. It is a tightly regulated process and relies on the cascade of several molecular signaling pathways with the involvement of many effectors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) etc. Related literature/ information were retrieved, analyzed and compiled from the online published resources available in Medline, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Science Direct and other scientific databases. Excessive angiogenesis leads to disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, and adiposity. While, reduced angiogenesis also results in several ailments like cardiac ischemia, low capillary density in brain of Alzheimer's patients and delayed wound healing. Therefore, both angio-proliferative and anti-angiogenic approaches may be of use in developing novel therapeutics. Bacterial toxins are known for modulating the process of angiogenesis by mimicking pro-angiogenic factors and/ or competing with them. Furthermore, they inactivate the receptors or keep them in ON status, hence can be used to treat angiogenic disorders. The ease in handling, cultivation and manipulating the toxins structure has enabled the use of bacteria as an ideal choice for novel therapeutic developments. This review intends to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which certain bacteria may alter the level of angiogenesis and consequently can work as therapeutics against angiogenic disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The structures of two scorpionates: thallium tetrakis(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borate and potassium tetrakis(3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantes, Lourdes; Claramunt, Rosa M; Sanz, Dionisia; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of poly(1H-pyrazolyl)borate anions, better known as scorpionates, as negatively charged ligands for a great diversity of metal cations has had a tremendous influence in coordination chemistry. The structures of two salts of tetrakispyrazolylborate, namely [tetrakis(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato]thallium(I), [Tl(C 36 H 28 BN 8 )], and catena-poly[potassium-[μ 2 -tetrakis(3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato

  8. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Reguera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP, even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1. They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins, and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  9. ACTION OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseman, Joel B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.; Gill, D. M.; Harper, Annabel A.

    1970-01-01

    The blood clearance and distribution in the tissues of 125I after intravenous injection of small doses (1.5–5 MLD or 0.08–0.25 µg) of 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin has been followed in guinea pigs and rabbits and compared with the fate of equivalent amounts of injected 125I-labeled toxoid and bovine serum albumin. Toxoid disappeared most rapidly from the blood stream and label accumulated and was retained in liver, spleen, and especially in kidney. Both toxin and BSA behaved differently. Label was found widely distributed among all the organs except the nervous system and its rate of disappearance from the tissues paralleled its disappearance from the circulation. There was no evidence for any particular affinity of toxin for muscle tissue or for a "target" organ. Previous reports by others that toxin causes specific and selective impairment of protein synthesis in muscle tissue were not confirmed. On the contrary, both in guinea pigs and rabbits, a reduced rate of protein synthesis was observed in all tissues that had taken up the toxin label. In tissues removed from intoxicated animals of both species there was an associated reduction in aminoacyl transferase 2 content. It is concluded that the primary action of diphtheria toxin in the living animal is to effect the inactivation of aminoacyl transferase 2. The resulting inhibition in rate of protein synthesis leads to morphologic damage in all tissues reached by the toxin and ultimately to death of the animal. PMID:5511567

  10. Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengchen; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively. PMID:25229189

  11. The role of toxins in Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramyavardhanee; Lacy, D Borden

    2017-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies. The pathogenesis of C. difficile is primarily mediated by the actions of two large clostridial glucosylating toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Some strains produce a third toxin, the binary toxin C. difficile transferase, which can also contribute to C. difficile virulence and disease. These toxins act on the colonic epithelium and immune cells and induce a complex cascade of cellular events that result in fluid secretion, inflammation and tissue damage, which are the hallmark features of the disease. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the structure and mechanism of action of the C. difficile toxins and their role in disease. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017.

  12. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.

  13. Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchen Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively.

  14. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in [ 3 H] leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed

  15. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from [ 32 P]NAD + to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and [ 32 P]NAD + caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins

  16. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Humpage

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms, but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption.

  17. Secondary metabolite toxins and nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Barbara J

    2006-08-01

    Fungal pathogens derive nutrition from the plants they invade. Some fungi can subvert plant defence responses such as programmed cell death to provide nutrition for their growth and colonisation. Secondary metabolite toxins produced by fungi often play a role in triggering these responses. Knowledge of the biosynthesis of these toxins, and the availability of fungal genome sequences and gene disruption techniques, allows the development of tools for experiments aimed at discovering the role of such toxins in triggering plant cell death and plant disease.

  18. From Toxins Targeting Ligand Gated Ion Channels to Therapeutic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Taly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC play a central role in inter-cellular communication. This key function has two consequences: (i these receptor channels are major targets for drug discovery because of their potential involvement in numerous human brain diseases; (ii they are often found to be the target of plant and animal toxins. Together this makes toxin/receptor interactions important to drug discovery projects. Therefore, toxins acting on LGIC are presented and their current/potential therapeutic uses highlighted.

  19. 7 CFR 331.3 - PPQ select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Select agents and toxins listed in paragraph (b) of this section that have been genetically modified. (d... variegated chlorosis strain). (c) Genetic elements, recombinant nucleic acids, and recombinant organisms: (1...

  20. 42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have been genetically modified. (d) HHS select agents or toxins that meet any of the following criteria..., and Recombinant Organisms: (1) Nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any of the select...

  1. Occurrence and sequestration of toxins in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D

    1998-11-01

    Animals may acquire toxicity by absorbing toxic compounds from their food, e.g. from plants or other animals. Sequestration and accumulation of toxins may provide protection from predators, which learn to avoid this prey because of unpleasant experiences such as bitter taste. This is a common phenomenon in marine as well as in terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, toxins may enter food chains where they accumulate reaching high, often lethal concentrations. Palytoxin which had been primarily detected in marine zoanthids (Palythoa sp.), occurs also in a wide range of other animals, e.g. in sponges, corals, shellfish, polychaetes and crustaceans, but also in fish, which feed on crustaceans and zoanthids as well. These animals exhibit a high resistance to the toxin's action. The mechanisms which protect the Na+, K+-ATPase of their cell membranes, the primary target of palytoxin, is unknown. Sequestration of the toxin by other animals may cause health problems due to food poisoning.

  2. Conformational Changes in Small Ligands Upon Tetanus Toxin Binding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Terry J; Gitti, Rossitza K

    2008-01-01

    ... A upon binding to tetanus toxin. C13 T1 measurements suggested that to a first approximation, the conformational behavior of doxorubicin in solution appears to be a composite of a rigid aromatic ring system, ring librations...

  3. Alternaria Toxins: Potential Virulence Factors and Genes Related to Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Meena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is an important fungus to study due to their different life style from saprophytes to endophytes and a very successful fungal pathogen that causes diseases to a number of economically important crops. Alternaria species have been well-characterized for the production of different host-specific toxins (HSTs and non-host specific toxins (nHSTs which depend upon their physiological and morphological stages. The pathogenicity of Alternaria species depends on host susceptibility or resistance as well as quantitative production of HSTs and nHSTs. These toxins are chemically low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs. The effects of toxins are mainly on different parts of cells like mitochondria, chloroplast, plasma membrane, Golgi complex, nucleus, etc. Alternaria species produce several nHSTs such as brefeldin A, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, and zinniol. HSTs that act in very low concentrations affect only certain plant varieties or genotype and play a role in determining the host range of specificity of plant pathogens. The commonly known HSTs are AAL-, AK-, AM-, AF-, ACR-, and ACT-toxins which are named by their host specificity and these toxins are classified into different family groups. The HSTs are differentiated on the basis of bio-statistical and other molecular analyses. All these toxins have different mode of action, biochemical reactions and signaling mechanisms to cause diseases. Different species of Alternaria produced toxins which reveal its biochemical and genetic effects on itself as well as on its host cells tissues. The genes responsible for the production of HSTs are found on the conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs which have been well characterized. Different bio-statistical methods like basic local alignment search tool (BLAST data analysis used for the annotation of gene prediction, pathogenicity-related genes may provide surprising knowledge in present and future.

  4. Alternaria Toxins: Potential Virulence Factors and Genes Related to Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Gupta, Sanjay K.; Swapnil, Prashant; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria is an important fungus to study due to their different life style from saprophytes to endophytes and a very successful fungal pathogen that causes diseases to a number of economically important crops. Alternaria species have been well-characterized for the production of different host-specific toxins (HSTs) and non-host specific toxins (nHSTs) which depend upon their physiological and morphological stages. The pathogenicity of Alternaria species depends on host susceptibility or resistance as well as quantitative production of HSTs and nHSTs. These toxins are chemically low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs). The effects of toxins are mainly on different parts of cells like mitochondria, chloroplast, plasma membrane, Golgi complex, nucleus, etc. Alternaria species produce several nHSTs such as brefeldin A, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, and zinniol. HSTs that act in very low concentrations affect only certain plant varieties or genotype and play a role in determining the host range of specificity of plant pathogens. The commonly known HSTs are AAL-, AK-, AM-, AF-, ACR-, and ACT-toxins which are named by their host specificity and these toxins are classified into different family groups. The HSTs are differentiated on the basis of bio-statistical and other molecular analyses. All these toxins have different mode of action, biochemical reactions and signaling mechanisms to cause diseases. Different species of Alternaria produced toxins which reveal its biochemical and genetic effects on itself as well as on its host cells tissues. The genes responsible for the production of HSTs are found on the conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs) which have been well characterized. Different bio-statistical methods like basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) data analysis used for the annotation of gene prediction, pathogenicity-related genes may provide surprising knowledge in present and future. PMID:28848500

  5. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emph...

  6. Detection of Shiga Toxins by Lateral Flow Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Kathryn H.; He, Xiaohua; Stanker, Larry H.; Lin, Alice V.; McGarvey, Jeffery A.; Hnasko, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) produce shiga toxins (Stxs) that can cause human disease and death. The contamination of food products with STEC represents a food safety problem that necessitates rapid and effective detection strategies to mitigate risk. In this manuscript, we report the development of a colorimetric lateral flow assay (LFA) for the rapid detection of Stxs in <10 min using a pair of monoclonal antibodies that bind epitopes common to Stx1 and six Stx2 variants...

  7. Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T

    2013-08-19

    Plants produce a wide variety of chemical compounds termed secondary metabolites that are not involved in basic metabolism, photosynthesis, or reproduction. These compounds are used as flavors, fragrances, insecticides, dyes, hallucinogens, nutritional supplements, poisons, and pharmaceutical agents. However, in some cases these secondary metabolites found in poisonous plants perturb biological systems. Ingestion of toxins from poisonous plants by grazing livestock often results in large economic losses to the livestock industry. The chemical structures of these compounds are diverse and range from simple, low molecular weight toxins such as oxalate in halogeton to the highly complex norditerpene alkaloids in larkspurs. While the negative effects of plant toxins on people and the impact of plant toxins on livestock producers have been widely publicized, the diversity of these toxins and their potential as new pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diseases in people and animals has also received widespread interest. Scientists are actively screening plants from all regions of the world for bioactivity and potential pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of many diseases. In this review, we focus the discussion to those plant toxins extensively studied at the USDA Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory that affect the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors including species of Delphinium (Larkspurs), Lupinus (Lupines), Conium (poison hemlock), and Nicotiana (tobaccos).

  8. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  9. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  10. Toxin studies using an integrated biophysical and structural biology approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, Julie A.; Schroeder, Anne E.; Slade, Andrea Lynn; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Yip, Christopher M. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins, such as botulinum and tetanus, are generally thought to invade neural cells through a process of high affinity binding mediated by gangliosides, internalization via endosome formation, and subsequent membrane penetration of the catalytic domain activated by a pH drop in the endosome. This surface recognition and internalization process is still not well understood with regard to what specific membrane features the toxins target, the intermolecular interactions between bound toxins, and the molecular conformational changes that occur as a result of pH lowering. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of tetanus toxin binding and permeation through the membrane a simple yet representative model was developed that consisted of the ganglioside G{sub tlb} incorporated in a bilayer of cholesterol and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline). The bilayers were stable over time yet sensitive towards the binding and activity of whole toxin. A liposome leakage study at constant pH as well as with a pH gradient, to mimic the processes of the endosome, was used to elucidate the effect of pH on the toxin's membrane binding and permeation capability. Topographic imaging of the membrane surface, via in situ tapping mode AFM, provided nanoscale characterization of the toxin's binding location and pore formation activity.

  11. Persistence of Upper Blepharoptosis After Cosmetic Botulinum Toxin Type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsapir, Kenneth D; Groth, Michael J; Boxrud, Cynthia A

    2015-07-01

    Upper eyelid ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin is generally considered short-lived and responsive to apraclonidine ophthalmic drops. The authors present a series with persistent ptosis. To report a series of patients with persistent upper eyelid ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin. A retrospective case review series of 7 patients referred for management after developing visually significant upper eyelid ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin type A treatment. Patients in this series experienced persistent visually significant ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin lasting from 6 weeks to 13 months. Six of the 7 patients were treated with apraclonidine ophthalmic solution. Apraclonidine drops appeared to be clinically effective within 4 to 6 weeks of the resolution of ptosis. Upper eyelid ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin can persist for many months after treatment. Based on this series, the authors propose that apraclonidine drops can be used at the time of initial assessment to predict the relative longevity of ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin treatment (Level 4 evidence recommendation). After a 1-week trial, responders can be advised that ptosis is likely to resolve in 4 to 6 weeks. Nonresponders should be counseled that resolution may take longer than 6 weeks.

  12. Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Fan Hsieh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment for overactive bladder starts with patient education and behavior therapies, followed by antimuscarinic agents. For patients with urgency urinary incontinence refractory to antimuscarinic therapy, currently both American Urological Association (AUA and European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines suggested that intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A should be offered. The mechanism of botulinum toxin A includes inhibition of vesicular release of neurotransmitters and the axonal expression of capsaicin and purinergic receptors in the suburothelium, as well as attenuation of central sensitization. Multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that botulinum toxin A to be an effective treatment for patients with refractory idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The urinary incontinence episodes, maximum cystometric capacity, and maximum detrusor pressure were improved greater by botulinum toxin A compared to placebo. The adverse effects of botulinum toxin A, such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection, were primarily localized to the lower urinary tract. Therefore, botulinum toxin A offers an effective treatment option for patients with refractory overactive bladder.

  13. Pufferfish mortality associated with novel polar marine toxins in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Moeller, Perer D. R.; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Rameyer, Robert; Walsh, Willliam A.; Abecassis, Melanie; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James

    2017-01-01

    Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations. Whilst our data are compelling, we did not synthesize the toxin de novo, and we were unable to categorically prove that the polar toxins caused mortality or that they were metabolites of an undefined parent compound. However, our approach does provide a template for marine fish kill investigations associated with marine toxins and inherent limitations of existing methods. Our study also highlights the need for more rapid and cost-effective tools to identify new marine toxins, particularly small, highly polar molecules.

  14. Lipophilic Toxins in WA - Clear and present danger: monitoring and management of lipophilic shellfish toxins in Washington State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lipophilic shellfish toxins comprise an extensive suite of compounds including those associated with the human syndromes known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...

  15. Toxin production in Dinophysis and the fate of these toxins in marine mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    . The ecological roles of OA/DTX and PTX are currently unknown, but our results accentuate the potential for extracellular functions. I also took advantage of the recent insights into Dinophysis culturing to produce the first study on accumulation of DSP toxins from Dinophysis in a bivalve species. Our results...... in relation to harmful algal blooms, the two species are also of great evolutionary interest due to their ability to sequester and utilize the plastids from their ingested prey. The phenomenon is especially interesting in Dinophysis spp., since the chloroplasts undergo remarkable changes in ultrastructure...

  16. Botulinum toxin treatment of lower extremity spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khat’kova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the current concept of lower extremity spasticity, which is a frequent disabling consequence of stroke. Gait biomechanics, step cycle and main pathologic patterns of lower extremity are described (hip adduction, knee flexion, knee extension, foot plantar flexion, equinovarus foot position, toes flexion, hallux extension, including muscles involved in the pathological process. Additionally the article contains detailed information on pathologic principles of lower extremity spasticity development. Special focus is given to sarcomeregenesis as an essential element of the development of potential conditions for muscle tissue adaptation to a new state and restoration of muscle length and strength. At present Botulinum toxin A (BTA is used in a complex spasticity management programs. The results of clinical studies performed in the last decade supporting the efficacy of Botox® (Onabotulinumtoxin A in the treatment of spasticity are reviewed. Effective BTA doses are proposed. Authors came to the conclusion that BTA as a part of complex rehabilitation in patients with poststroke spasticity of lower extremity promotes treatment efficacy due to a decrease of muscle tone and increase of range of movements in the joints. BTA should be regarded as an essential part of standard rehabilitation programs. Further studies to define optimal muscles for intervention, BTA doses and rehabilitation schemes are still needed. 

  17. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Konno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs, in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized.

  18. Why do females use botulinum toxin injections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botulinum toxin (BT use for enhancing the facial features has become a commonly accepted form of aesthetic intervention. This study conducted a self-report survey of female BT users in order to explore the motivating factors in its use (cost-benefit analysis. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Materials and Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 41 consecutive clients attending an independent medical practice for BT injections for cosmetic purposes. All the participants were females and represented a range of age groups from the 20s to above 60s. Items in the nonstandardized questionnaire elicited questions relating to the reasons for and against BT use. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was used rather than inferential statistics, and involved ranking the responses according to the most likely reasons for using BT and disadvantages of its use. Results: In general, the primary motivating factor for BT use was to improve self-esteem, and the greatest disadvantage involved financial costs associated with the procedure. Conclusions: The main findings of this study suggest that females who use BT for aesthetic purposes are motivated by personal psychological gains (intrapersonal attributes rather than social gains (interpersonal factors. In other words, they do not believe that having BT will equate to being treated any better by other people but would rather provide them with confidence and satisfaction regarding their self-image.

  19. SHELL DISEASES AND TOXINS REGULATED BY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Topić Popović

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of cultivating shells in Croatia, and the shell industry has a good perspective of further development. Since shells are delicate organisms that require special breeding conditions and climate, they are also subject to many diseases. Bonamiosis, haplospioridiosis, marteiliosis, microcytosis and perkinsosis are stated by the International Bureau for Epizootics as shell diseases that, in keeping with law, must be reported, and iridovirosis as a disease of a potential international importance. The same diseases are regulated by the Veterinary Law from 1997 as infectious diseases prevention of which is of an interest for the Republic of Croatia. Although, according to the law, it does not have to be prevented, in this article the disease Mytilicola is also described. According to the Health Department Statute from 1994, eatable part of shells are being tested for toxins of some marine dinoflagelates that can damage human health, and these are PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poison, DSP (Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poison and NSP (Neuroparalytic Shellfish Poison.

  20. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.