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Sample records for serp sin slac

  1. Sketching web services backends with SERPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the face of current strong commercial interest in services that, from an implementation point of view, consist of databases provided with a web API and/or a front end, there is a scarcity of tools that allow quickly sketching the service backend in order to deliver an interactive prototype. SERPE

  2. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  3. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  4. SLAC site design aesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-10-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a single mission laboratory dedicated to basic research in high energy particle physics. SLAC site also houses Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) which is a multi-mission laboratory for research using beams of ultraviolet light and low energy photons as emitted tangentially from SLAC colliding beam facilities. This paper discusses various aspects of SLAC site design aesthetics under the following headings: (1) imposed footprint of SLAC, (2) description of selected site, (3) use of earth cover for radiation and sight screens, (4) use of landscaping for cosmetic purposes, (5) use of exterior paint colors to soften SLAC impact on neighbors, (6) relocation of SLAC main entrance, (7) relocation of SLAC collider arcs and experimental hall, (8) parking lots and storage yards, and (9) land use zoning at SLAC

  5. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  6. SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  7. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  8. The SLAC lasertron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1986-10-01

    SLAC has a program underway to develop an efficient high power microwave source for accelerator applications employing a photoemission cathode, the so-called lasertron. After a brief discussion of the lasertron idea, the various elements of the current program are reviewed. A proof-of-principle experiment to build a 35 MW, 70% efficiency, S-band microwave source is nearing completion. Actual RF power testing is expected to begin in late 1986 or early 1987

  9. Sleepless at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dement, William (Stanford Sleep Disorders Center)

    2006-01-23

    Feeling tired? More than 30 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders. Nevertheless, as a society we remain largely ignorant of the significance of sleep in determining the quality of our waking lives. Dr. William Dement, Stanford Professor and one of the world's foremost experts on sleep and sleep deprivation, joins SLAC's Colloquium Series to present exciting new findings in the field of sleep research. You'll never sleep the same again!

  10. SLAC B Factory computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics

  11. Luminosity enhancements at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward, D.H.

    1984-04-01

    Several ideas are discussed that have been proposed to improve the luminosity at the SPEAR and PEP electron-positron storage rings and to insure good luminosity at the SLAC Linear Collider. There have been two proposals studied recently for SPEAR: a Microbeta insertion using Samarium Cobalt permanent magnets, and a Minibeta insertion using conventional quadrupole magnets. The notations Microbeta and minibeta used here are somewhat arbitrary since the front faces of the first quadrupole magnets for both insertions are at nearly the same distance from the interaction point

  12. SLAC synchronous condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, C.

    1995-06-01

    A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90 degrees in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC's utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser's 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ''scrubbing'' the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations

  13. Environment, Safety & Health at SLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    and safety of our staff, the community, and the environment as we carry out our scientific mission. We integral to each job. As stewards of our land, SLAC also seeks to minimize pollution to our environment and to protect our resources and biota. See the SLAC Environment, Safety and Health Policy for more

  14. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  15. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  16. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Sin Nombre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    steder, de aldrig har stiftet bekendtskab med. Og når man besøger stederne i virkeligheden, vil filmenes typer og stereotyper påvirke mødet og kontakten. I denne artikel vil jeg vise, hvordan en film, Sin nombre (spansk: Uden navn), behandler to af den globaliserede verdens grundlæggende spørgsmål: a...... kun vedkommende, fordi den tager vigtige samfundsmæssige og eksistentielle spørgsmål op, men også fordi den, som kritikerne har påpeget, rent æstetisk er af høj kvalitet. Farver, lyd og de intense scener støtter en god fortælling....

  18. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.; Kotseroglou, T.; Mulhollan, G.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1997-08-01

    Since 1992, the SLAC 3-km linac has operated exclusively with polarized electrons. The polarized electron source is highly reliable, remotely operated and monitored, and able to produce a variety of electron bunch profiles for high-energy physics experiments. The source and its operating characteristics are described. Some implications drawn from the operating experience are discussed

  19. Association between SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration: Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the association between SERPING1 rs2511989 (G>A polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. METHODS: A number of electronic databases (up to July 15, 2014 were searched independently by two investigators. A Meta-analysis was performed on the association between SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD. Pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated. RESULTS: Eight studies with 16 cohorts consisting of 9163 cases and 6813 controls were included in this Meta-analysis. There was no significant association between rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD under all genetic models in overall estimates (A vs G: OR= 0.938, 95%CI =0.858-1.025; AA vs GG:OR =0.871, 95%CI =0.719-1.056; AG vs GG: OR =0.944, 95%CI =0.845-1.054; AA+AG vs GG: OR =0.927, 95% CI =0.823-1.044; AA vs AG+GG: OR =0.890, 95%CI =0.780-1.034. Cumulative Meta-analyses also showed a trend of no association between rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD as information accumulated by year. Subgroup analysis and Meta-regression analysis indicated that age-matching status was the main source of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis found the results in overall comparisons and subgroup comparisons of white subjects under the allele model were found to have significantly statistical differences after studies deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE were excluded (overall: OR=0.918, 95%CI = 0.844-0.999, P =0.049; whites: OR =0.901, 95%CI = 0.817-0.994, P =0.038. However, the results were not sufficiently robust for further sensitivity analysis and statistical differences disappeared on applying Bonferroni correction (with a significance level set at 0.05/25. CONCLUSION: This Meta-analysis indicates that SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD tend to have no association with each other. Age matching status is a big confounding factor, and more studies with subtle designs are warranted in future.

  20. The SLAC NLC source program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caryotakis, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SLAC approach to a future e + e - 1-TeV linear collider, which will probably be an internationally sponsored project at the turn of the century, is a conventional 14-kilometer accelerator operating at 11.4 GHz. SLAC is on the 6th year of a program to develop 50--100 MW klystron sources for the ''Next Linear Collider'' or ''NLC''. The paper traces the development of these tubes and presents experimental results for solenoid-focused klystrons with output circuits of both the standing-wave and traveling-wave variety. In addition, the design of a periodically-focused permanent magnet klystron is discussed and a tape is shown with time-sequenced simulations of the interaction process for such a tube

  1. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  2. GLAST beam test at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engovatov, D.; Anthony, P.; Atwood, W.

    1996-10-01

    In May and June, a beam test for GLAST calorimeter technologies was conducted. A parasitic low intensity electron/tagged photon beam line into the End Station A at SLAC was commissioned and used. The preliminary stage of the test was devoted to measuring the performance of the parasitic beam. In the main test we studied the response of GLAST prototype CsI and scintillating fiber calorimeters to the electrons and photons. Results of this work are discussed

  3. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.

    1995-06-01

    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of ≥80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed

  4. Wakefields in SLAC linac collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Novokhatski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. We also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  5. No conflict between SLAC and Japan's KEK

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Letter from Helen Quinn from SLAC arguing that an article in Nature distorted her comments on the relationship between KEK and SLAC over their separate projects looking at CP violation. The author of the original article replies (1/2 page).

  6. SLAC accelerator operations report: 1995--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Allen, C.W.; Anderson, S.; Linebarger, W.; Stanek, M.

    1997-05-01

    Operational statistics for the linear accelerator programs at SLAC are presented, including run-time records for SLC and the fixed-target programs. Also included are summaries of reliability and maintenance-related statistics

  7. New generation control system at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1981-03-01

    The proposed SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project will require an Instrumentation and Control system that provides integrated automatic monitoring and control functions. The present SLAC LINAC Instrumentation and Control system will be totally revamped and it will be expanded to include the support of all of the additional accelerator components that will be required for the whole SLC project. This paper describes the functional operation of the new system

  8. SLC Energy Upgrade Program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-03-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  9. SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  10. The SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebaaqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  11. Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Wilson, P.

    1980-01-01

    In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)

  12. SIMS: The SLAC Industrial Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.

    1990-01-01

    Kern was the first survey company to market an Industrial Measurement System when it released ECDS (Electronic Coordinate Determination System) in the mid-1980s. Originally written for the PDP-11, a version was later released for the PC (ECDS-PC). SLAC purchased this system in 1986 and immediately began to use it for the alignment of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider). Although ECDS enabled SLAC to perform tasks with a speed never before achieved, they experienced limitations in the software. Since Kern proved unresponsive and SLAC was unable to purchase the source code for any amount of money, they set about writing their own portions of code. They first wrote a system of menus tailored for their specific alignment tasks, and disabled much of the ECDS menu structure. Due to dissatisfaction with the ECDS bundle adjustment program, they wrote their own bundle adjustment in 1988. A further step towarad having their own complete IMS was to develop a data capture program, a task which has been underway since the beginning of this year. They do not yet have data analysis features that are fully integrated, but they do have stand-alone packages that have been written at SLAC. When they first started tinkering with ECDS there was no intention of developing a complete system, but they now have all the elements of such a system - SIMS, the SLAC Industrial Measurement System

  13. Search for exotic mesons at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, P.; Baggett, N.; Fieguth, T.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical justification and results from recent experimental searches for backward-produced exotic mesons including two experiments carried out by the collaboration at SLAC are reviewed. The first experiment put upper limits of about 1 to 2 μb for X ++ → (2π, 4π, 6π) ++ and anti ppπ + π + in the reaction π + + p → X ++ + n/sub forward/ at 8.4 GeV/c studied with the SLAC 14 inch rapid cycling bubble chamber triggered by a downstream neutron detector. Also the important features of the recently completed second experiment with the SLAC streamer chamber to study the reaction π - + p → X -- + p/sub forward/ at 14 GeV/c are discussed

  14. Physics results with polarized electrons at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1996-03-01

    Polarized electron beams can play an important role in the dynamics of interactions at high energies. Polarized electron beams at SLAC have been an important part of the physics program since 1970, when they were first proposed for use in testing the spin structure of the proton. Since 1992, the SLAC linear accelerator and the SLC have operated solely with polarized electrons, providing data for tests of QCD in studies of the spin structure of the nucleon and tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. In the following sections, the performance of the source is summarized, and some of the recent results using the polarized beams are discussed

  15. Operational experience with SLAC's beam containment electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, T.N.; Crook, K.; Heggie, D.

    1977-03-01

    Considerable operating experience was accumulated at SLAC with an extensive electronic system for the containment of high power accelerated beams. Average beam power at SLAC can approach 900 kilowatts with the potential for burning through beam stoppers, protection collimators, and other power absorbers within a few seconds. Fast, reliable, and redundant electronic monitoring circuits have been employed to provide some of the safeguards necessary for minimizing the risk to personnel. The electronic systems are described, and the design philosophy and operating experience are discussed

  16. Computer control of rf at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.

    1985-03-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator is presently upgraded for the SLAC Linear Collider project. The energy is to be increased from approximately 31 GeV to 50 GeV. Two electron beams and one positron beam are to be accelerated with high demands on the quality of the beams. The beam specifications are shown. To meet these specifications, all parameters influencing the beams have to be under tight control and continuous surveillance. This task is accomplished by a new computer system implemented at SLAC which has, among many other functions, control over rf accelerating fields. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. SLAC physicists develop test for string theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Yajnik, Juhi

    2006-01-01

    "Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)

  18. SLAC accelerator operations report: 1992-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Allen, C.W.; Inman, T.K.; Linebarger, W.; Stanek, M.

    1995-05-01

    Operational statistics for the linear accelerator programs at SLAC are presented, including run-time records for the SLC, FFTB, and fixed target programs. Also included are summaries of reliability and maintenance-related statistics and a discussion of the analysis tools used to study error messages generated by the control system

  19. Progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-06-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider project (SLC) is reported as being near completion. The performance specifications are tabulated both for the initial form and for eventual goals. Various parts of the SLC are described and the status of their construction is reported, including the front end electron gun and booster, the linac, damping ring, positron source, SLC arcs, and conventional facilities. 5 refs., 12 figs

  20. An overview of the SLAC results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The history of nucleon spin-structure measurements goes back to the early days of inelastic electron scattering at SLAC, when Vernon Hughes came with a proposal to accelerate polarized electrons to high energy and to study inelastic scattering from a polarized proton target. The quark model of the proton was new at the time, and the spin-dependent structure functions were an excellent testing ground for that model. The proposal developed into an experiment which became SLAC experiment E80. Subsequent experiments followed those early studies, leading to E130 at SLAC, then EMC at CERN, and a host of later experiments. In 1988 the EMC Collaboration published the first data to reach low x. The asymmetries EMC observed fell below quark model expectations, and the experimentally measured proton sum rule indicated that the spin of the quarks contributed little to the proton spin. The subject of nucleon spin-dependent structure functions was stimulated by this surprising result from EMC. The continuation of the spin-structure studies at SLAC, which have been very active in recent years, was stimulated by the successful development of high-intensity beams of polarized electrons. Table 1 lists the past, present, and planned programs and experiments that grew out of the early work. The rest of the report is divided into the following topics: polarized electrons; polarimetry; the SLAC spectrometers; radiative corrections; the proton measurements; neutron targets; the deuterium and 3 He data; the g 2 structure function; and the 50 GeV upgrade of the SLC

  1. Vigilar sin castigar (Medios).

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Agila, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Los imaginarios de las ciudades fronterizas se levantan sobre el mito de ciudades violentas sin historia. Los protagonistas no son otros que bandidos y extranjeros de paso. Siempre son ‘los foráneos’ los culpables. Y el conveniente juego de ‘vigilar sin castigar’ el contrabando y el tráfico de drogas que se repite cotidiano en vibrantes puntos de control como Rumichaca o Huaquillas.

  2. Measurement of the Left-Right Asymmetry in Z0 Events at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, A

    2004-01-05

    Recent results from the 1992 and 1993 left-right asymmetry cross section measurements at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are presented. Measurements made with SLAC running with a center-of-mass energy at the Z{sup 0}-pole (91.2 GeV) by the SLD detector and an average electron beam polarization of 22.4 {+-} 0.7% for 1992 and 62.6 {+-} 1.2% for 1993. The asymmetry measured was A{sub LR} = 0.100 {+-} 0.044 and A{sub LR} = 0.1656 {+-} 0.0073 for the 1992 and 1993 runs, respectively. This in turn allows them to calculate the weak mixing angle value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2378 {+-} 0.0056 and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2288 {+-} 0.0009 for the two data sets.

  3. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-03-15

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles.

  4. Two microcomputer-controller applications at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struven, W.C.; Mallory, K.B.

    1977-03-01

    The SLAC Accelerator Control and Monitoring System, as originally implemented, was a manual (non-computer) control system with provisions to add computers at a later date. Since operation began in 1966, a PDP9 with a PDP8/e ''front end'' was added in the accelerator control room, and most recently, eight PDP8/f's were added in the two mile Klystron Gallery which are linked to the 8/e front end. A data link was added between the PDP9 and an SDS 925 in the Main Control Room. Tough panel interfaces were provided so that the Accelerator and Beam Switchyard could be controlled and monitored from one console

  5. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles

  6. ''ARBOLA'' SLAC branch driver for PDP-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.

    1976-08-01

    The wide use of CAMAC systems in the Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer facility led to the design of several dedicated CAMAC interfaces. The one described here features the implementation of bidirectional data transfers, and is used exclusively with the SLAC crate controller, 135-279. Efforts were made to ensure maximum versatility for acquisition of high-energy physics data. Specifications are set forth, and hardware and software (memory address register, word count register, data buffer register, and high-byte register) are described. 4 figures

  7. SLAC-Linac-Collider (SLC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-02-01

    The proposed SLAC Linear Collider Project (SLC) and its features are described in this paper. In times of ever increasing costs for energy the electron storage ring principle is about to reach its practical limit. A new class of colliding beam beam facilities, the Linear Colliders, are getting more and more attractive and affordable at very high center-of-mass energies. The SLC is designed to be a poineer of this new class of colliding beam facilities and at the same time will serve as a valuable tool to explore the high energy physics at the level of 100 GeV in the center-of-mass system

  8. When deviance becomes sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Senekal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a brief exposition is given o f what sin and deviance entail. This perspective is approached in terms of what is called the logovision premise. This premise essentially maintains that human perception of reality is primarily mediated through words and that only God's words allow us to see reality as it truly is. Thus we are enabled to respond appropriately to reality - especially evaluative reality. By then applying God’s words to the issues involved in the study of deviance, more clarity is hopefully achieved. This is done by discussing the respective characteristics of sin and deviance and by briefly exploring the relationship between these two phenomena. Finally some of the implications for the study o f social deviance are discussed.

  9. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  10. 10 years of SIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-11-15

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world.

  11. 10 years of SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world

  12. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here

  13. Status of the SLAC Linear Collider Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.

    1983-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider Project has two principal goals. The first is to serve as a prototype for a future very high energy linear electron-positron collider. The second is to quickly, at low cost, achieve sufficient luminosity at 100 GeV center-of-mass energy to explore the physics of the Z 0 . The first goal is important to the future of electron-positron physics because the rapid increase of synchrotron radiation with energy causes the cost of circular storage ring colliders to whereas the cost of linear colliders increases only in proportion to the center-of-mass energy. The second is important because the existance at SLAC of a linear accelerator which can be converted at low cost to collider operation makes possible a unique opportunity to quickly achieve 100 GeV center-of-mass collisions. At the design luminosity of 6.0 x 10 30 many thousands of Z 0 decays should be observed in each day of operation

  14. Physics at the SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) was constructed in the years 1983--1987 for two principal reasons: to develop the accelerator physics and technology that are necessary for the construction of future linear electron-positron colliders; and to produce electron-positron collisions at the Z 0 pole and to study the physics of the weak neutral current. To date, the SLC program has been quite successful at achieving the first goal. The machine has produced and collided high energy electron and positron beams of three-micron transverse size. The problems of operating an open geometry detector in an environment that is more akin to those found in fixed-target experiments than in storage rings have largely been solved. As a physics producing venture, the SLC has been less successful than was originally hoped but more successful than is commonly believed. Some of the results that have been produced by the Mark II experiment with a very modest data sample are competitive with those that have been produced with much larger samples by the four LEP collaborations. At the current, time, SLAC is engaged in an ambitious program to upgrade the SLC luminosity and to exploit one of its unique features, a spin polarized electron beam. These lectures are therefore organized into three sections: a brief description of the SLC; a review of the physics results that have been achieved with the Mark II detector; a description of the SLC's future: the realization and use of a polarized electron beam

  15. Pulse modulator developments in support of klystron testing at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Cassel, R.; Lamare, J. de; Ficklin, D.; Gold, S.; Harris, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several families of high power klystrons in S- and X-Band are being developed in the Klystron Laboratory at SLAC. To support these developments, a number of new pulse modulators are being designed from scratch, or upgraded from existing laboratory test modulators. This paper outlines the modulator parameters available in the SLAC Klystron Laboratory, and discuss two new modulators that are under construction

  16. SLAC workshop on high energy electroproduction and spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These Proceedings contain copies of the transparencies presented at the Workshop on High Energy Electroproduction and Spin Physics held at SLAC on February 5--8, 1992. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring people together to discuss the possibilities for new experiments using the SLAC high intensity electron and photon beams and the facilities of End Station A

  17. Polarized Light Sources for photocathode electron guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.; Frisch, J.; Witte, K.; Zolotorev, M.

    1992-12-01

    We describe current and future Polarized Light Sources at SLAC for use with photocathode electron guns to produce polarized electron beams. The SLAC experiments SLD and E142 are considered, and are used to define the required parameters for the Polarized Light Sources

  18. SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.

    1985-10-01

    We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  19. Un conocer sin cegamientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferrante

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reseña el libro La construcción de marcas de reconocimiento en sociedades ocularcentristas: el caso de mujeres ciegas del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey de Brenda Araceli Bustos García. Se describe el problema de investigación en el cual se inserta la tesis que nutre el libro y se recorre la trama argumental. Finalmente, se realiza una valoración positiva del modo de construcción del objeto de estudio, el cual promueve un conocer sin cegamientos. 

  20. Pulsed rf superconductivity program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-08-01

    Recent tests performed at SLAC on superconducting TM 010 caavities using short rf pulses (less than or equal to 2.5 μs) have established that at the cavity surface magnetic fields can be reached in the vicinity of the theoretical critical fields without an appreciable increase in average losses. Tests on niobium and lead cavities are reported. The pulse method seems to be best suited to study peak field properties of superconductors in the microwave band, without the limitations imposed by defects. The short pulses also seem to be more effective in decreasing the causes of field emission by rf processing. Applications of the pulsed rf superconductivity to high-gradient linear accelerators are also possible

  1. Performance of the SLAC Linear Collider klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Fowkes, W.R.; Koontz, R.F.; Schwarz, H.D.; Seeman, J.T.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    There are now 200 new, high power 5045 klystrons installed on the two-mile Stanford Linear Accelerator. Peak power per klystron averages over 63 MW. Average energy contribution is above 240 MeV per station. Electron beam energy has been measured as high as 53 GeV. Energy instability due to kylstron malfunction is less than 0.2%. The installed klystrons have logged over one million operating hours with close to 20,00 klystron hours cumulative operating time between failures. Data is being accumulated on klystron operation and failure modes with failure signatures starting to become apparent. To date, no wholesale failure modes have surfaced that would impair the SLAC linear Collider (SLC) program

  2. Parameters of the SLAC Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.; Adolphsen, C.; Burke, D.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the parameters and layout of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The NLC is the SLAC design of a future linear collider using X-band RF technology in the main linacs. The collider would have an initial center-of-mass energy of 0.5 TeV which would be upgraded to 1 TeV and then 1.5 TeV in two stages. The design luminosity is > 5 x 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 at 0.5 TeV and > 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 at 1.0 and 1.5 TeV. They briefly describe the components of the collider and the proposed energy upgrade scenario

  3. SLAC divertor channel entrance thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Stein, W.; Lu, S.C.; Riddle, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) impinge on the entrance to tangential divertor channels causing highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. These parts are cooled with water flowing axially over them at 30 0 C. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the new divertor channel operating at a peak temperature of 123 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 91% of yield. Any micro-cracks that form due to thermally-induced stresses should not propagate to the coolant wall nor form a path for the coolant to leak into the storage ring vacuum. 34 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Cerenkov ring imaging detector development at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.H.

    1984-06-01

    The imaging of Cerenkov light on to photosensitive detectors promises to be a powerful technique for identifying particles in colliding beam spectrometers. Toward this end two and three dimensional imaging photon detectors are being developed at SLAC. The present techniques involve photon conversion using easily ionized exotic chemicals like tetrakisdimethyl-amino-ethylene (TMAE) in a drift and amplifying gas mixture of methane and isobutane. Single photoelectrons from Cerenkov light are currently being drifted 20 cm and a new device under study will be used to study drifting up to 80 cm along a magnetic field. A short description of a large device currently being designed for the SLD spectrometer at the Stanford Linear Collider will be given

  5. Accelerator structure bead pull measurement at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, J R; Miller, R H; Wang, J W

    2004-01-01

    Microwave measurement and tuning of accelerator structures are important issues for the current and next generation of high energy physics machines. Application of these measurements both before and after high power processing can reveal information about the structure but may be misinterpreted if measurement conditions are not carefully controlled. For this reason extensive studies to characterize the microwave measurements at have been made at SLAC. For the beadpull a reproducible measurement of less than 1 degree of phase accuracy in total phase drift is needed in order to resolve issues such as phase changes due to structure damage during high power testing. Factors contributing to measurement errors include temperature drift, mechanical vibration, and limitations of measurement equipment such as the network analyzer. Results of this continuing effort will be presented.

  6. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed online. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans. (orig.)

  7. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans

  8. SLC status and SLAC future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, I shall discuss the linear collider program at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as it is now, and as we hope to see it evolve over the next few years. Of greatest interest to the high-energy accelerator physics community gathered here is the development of the linear collider concept, and so I shall concentrate most of this paper on a discussion of the present status and future evolution of the SLC. I will also briefly discuss the research and development program that we are carrying out aimed at the realization of the next generation of higher-energy linear colliders. SLAC has a major colliding-beam storage-ring program as well, including present rings and design studies on future high luminosity projects, but time constraints preclude a discussion of them. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. SLAC pulsed X-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, N. E.; McCall, R. C.; Baker, E. D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the RF power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed X-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The X-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminum 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 ms. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the X-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility.

  10. SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C.; Baker, E.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 μs. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  12. The creation of SLAC leading to 30 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1996-01-01

    The different phases of operation of SLAC which provided the basis of its longevity are outlined. SLAC has been an unusually productive laboratory both in terms of genuinely new revelations and the accumulation of archival data. Current operation of SLAC is divided between fixed target experiments, whose energy has now been extended to 50 GeV, and continued use of the SLC with the SLAC large detector. Because of the availability of polarization, results obtained in the SLC-SLD combination have been competitive with the experiments using LEP at CERN, notwithstanding the significantly larger available luminosities at the much larger LEP machine. In addition the SLC, together with specialized test facilities, constitute a basic laboratory to determine the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC)

  13. A 100 GeV SLAC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2002-01-01

    The SLAC beam energy can be increased from the current 50 GeV to 100 GeV, if we change the operating frequency from the present 2856 MHz to 11424 MHz, using technology developed for the NLC. We replace the power distribution system with a proposed NLC distribution system as shown in Fig. 1. The four 3 meter s-band 820 nS fill time accelerator sections are replaced by six 2 meter x-band 120 nS fill time sections. Thus the accelerator length per klystron retains the same length, 12 meters. The 4050 65MW-3.5(micro)S klystrons are replaced by 75MW-1.5(micro)S permanent magnet klystrons developed here and in Japan. The present input to the klystrons would be multiplied by a factor of 4 and possibly amplified. The SLED [1] cavities have to be replaced. The increase in beam voltage is due to the higher elastance to group velocity ratio, higher compression ratio and higher unloaded to external Q ratio of the new SLED cavities. The average power input is reduced because of the narrower klystron pulse width and because the klystron electro-magnets are replaced by permanent magnets

  14. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. Parton distributions from SMC and SLAC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have extracted spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton from recent data at CERN and SLAC. The valence, sea quark and Antiquark spin-weighted distributions are determined separately. The data are all consistent with a small to moderate polarized gluon distribution, so that the anomaly term is not significant in the determination of the constituent contributions to the spin of the proton. We have analyzed the consistency of the results obtained from various sets of data and the Biorken sum rule. Although all data are consistent with the sum rule, the polarized distributions from different experiments vary, even with higher order QCD corrections taken into account. Results split into two models, one set implying a large polarized strange sea which violates the positivity bound, and the other set yielding a smaller polarized strange sea. Only further experiments which extract information about the polarized sea will reconcile these differences. We suggest specific experiments which can be performed to determine the size of the polarized sea and gluons

  16. Wide-band cable systems at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struven, W.

    1983-01-01

    SLAC's first cable TV system was installed in 1979 to remotely monitor a narrow pulse which was generated in the west end of the klystron gallery. When Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) experimental work started at the west end of the accelerator, the original 1979 cable was upgraded to a bidirectional system so that 2 MBaud point-to-point data and several video and 9600 baud channels could be transmitted. The implementation of the SLC requires a complete upgrading of the accelerator control system. The system is based on a distributed processing configuration using a PDP11/780 VAX in the Main Control Center (MCC) and Intel single-board computers in a multibus configuration along the accelerator. The high-speed data linking is supplied by a 1 MBaud Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Network. The same cable is used to provide video, low-speed data, voice and high-speed point-to-point data services. The transmission system will utilize a wideband midsplit cable facility to collect and distribute signals to all parts of the network

  17. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  18. Progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1987-11-01

    In this paper we report on the status of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), the prototype of a new generation of colliding beam accelerators. This novel type of machine holds the potential of extending electron-positron colliding beam studies to center-of-mass (c.m.) energies far in excess of what is economically achievable with colliding beam storage rings. If the technical challenges posed by linear colliders are solvable at a reasonable cost, this new approach would provide an attractive alternative to electron-positron rings, where, because of rapidly rising synchrotron radiation losses, the cost and size of the ring increases with the square of the c.m. energy. In addition to its role as a test vehicle for the linear collider principle, the SLC aims at providing an abundant source of Z 0 decays to high energy physics experiments. Accordingly, two major detectors, the upgraded Mark II, now installed on the SLC beam line, and the state-of-the-art SLD, currently under construction, are preparing to probe the Standard Model at the Z 0 pole. The SLC project was originally funded in 1983. Since the completion of construction, we have been commissioning the machine to bring it up to a performance level adequate for starting the high energy physics program. In the remainder of this paper, we will discuss the status, problems and performance of the major subsystems of the SLC. We will conclude with a brief outline of the physics program, and of the planned enhancements to the capabilities of the machine. 26 refs., 7 figs

  19. Personas sin hogar y discapacidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Panadero Herrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los principales resultados del primer trabajo de investigación específico sobre personas sin hogar y discapacidad llevado a cabo en España.  Dicho estudio se llevó a cabo en dos fases secuenciales. La Fase 1 perseguía cuantificar la existencia de discapacidad entre el colectivo de personas sin hogar para, en la Fase 2, profundizar en la situación de estas personas. Los resultados de la Fase 1, en la que se recogió información sobre 695 personas, mostraron una importante presencia de discapacidad entre las personas sin hogar.  Un 12 % de las personas sin hogar tenía certificado de discapacidad, aunque el porcentaje de discapacidad podría ser muy superior si se considera la percepción de profesionales y usuarios (al menos el 23 %. Los resultados de la Fase 2, en la que se comparaba la situación y características de las personas sin hogar con (81 participantes y sin ella (48 participantes, apuntaron importantes implicaciones de la existencia de la discapacidad entre las personas sin hogar, como una mayor cronificación de la propia situación, mayores dificultades de acceso al empleo, mayor vulnerabilidad a accidentes y agresiones y otros delitos.

  20. Status report on the alignment activities at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cocq, Catherine; Fuss, Brian; Ruland, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This report mainly focuses on the Alignment Engineering Group, which deals with all aspects of activities involving surveying and alignment at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center). These activities are field work, ongoing studies and mapping effort. The majority of fieldwork at SLAC is initiated by the various current physics experiments. As PEP-II switched into operational mode, another major project was fully ramping up: SPEAR. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) had been preparing the upgrade SPEAR3 (3 GeV, 200 mA). Currently the effort has been to remap the entire SPEAR2 ring including existing magnets but also to map and tie in the connected booster ring. Laser trackers, total stations, and digital levels were used and substantial post processing was necessary to tie everything together. In parallel with field works, several instrumentation studies are in progress on laser tracker and total station, leveling instrumentation and gyro theodolites. Further enhancements have been included in the core network analysis package used at SLAC (LEGO). To keep up with the new installation, SLAC is undergoing an update of its site map. Overall this is a very interesting and dynamic time at SLAC, which celebrated its 40th anniversary on October 2nd 2002. (Y. Tanaka)

  1. Study of the doubly-charmed decays of B mesons with the experiment BABAR in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, P.

    2002-04-01

    The BABAR experiment at SLAC (Stanford linear acceleration center) has been studying since 1999 B meson decays from e + e - collisions at the γ(4S) resonance. The first goal of the collaboration was to measure the sin (2β) CP-violation parameter within the standard model. This measurement requires to know with precision the absolute length scale of the detector. A method to test this scale was developed using nuclear interactions in the beam-pipe material. The longitudinal length scale was then determined at the 1 % level precision. The systematic error associated with length measurement in the detector concerning B meson lifetime and B meson oscillation frequency is then negligible with respect to the other errors. The K meson content of B decays is a key ingredient of the sin (2β) measurement and is used to tag the flavour of the other B in events containing a B decaying to a CP eigenstate. The K charge is correlated to the B flavour. Wrong sign kaons, which can dilute B tagging, can come from wrong sign D decays (B→ DX). Doubly charmed decays (B→ D (*) D-bar (*) K are one possibility to produce wrong sign D decays. The twenty-two decay modes are reconstructed exclusively. The total branching fraction is measured with enough precision to establish that B→ D (*) D-bar (*) K decays are not the only source of wrong sign D mesons in B decays. (author)

  2. Review of the SLAC and Les Houches workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Polarized Electron Source workshops have been held at varying intervals, beginning in 1983 when Charles Sinclair convened the first at SLAC. Since that time, three workshops were held in conjunction with the International Spin Symposia and two at other occasions. The increasing importance of polarized electron beams at accelerators has stimulated interest in these workshops. Two workshops have been held since the last International Spin Symposium in Nagoya. In 1993, a workshop was held at SLAC, and in 1994 at Les Houches, a polarized electron beam session was held as part of a polarized beam and targets workshop. This report summarizes highlights from the latter two workshops

  3. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), the authors are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test - the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) - which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy

  4. SLAC Scanner Processor: a FASTBUS module for data collection and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brafman, H.; Glanzman, T.; Lankford, A.J.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.

    1984-10-01

    A new, general purpose, programmable FASTBUS module, the SLAC Scanner Processor (SSP), is introduced. Both hardware and software elements of SSP operation are discussed. The role of the SSP within the upgraded Mark II Detector at SLAC is described

  5. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e + e - physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e + e - annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e + e - context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  6. Development of the Virtual Visitor Center at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, Ruth

    1999-11-17

    The Virtual Visitor Center (VVC) web site (www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc) is a ''virtual'' version of the Visitor Center, a mini science museum that opened at SLAC in 1996. The VVC was made public in December 1998. Both centers contribute to SLAC mission regarding education of the next generation and increasing scientific awareness of the public. The site is designed to mimic the real visitor center and allow a larger audience to the information. The intent was to reach the 8th-12th grade audience. Considerable effort was made to organize the content, including color-coding graphical elements for each main topic area. Tables of contents, a search tool, several photo tours, as well as graphical and non-graphical menu bars allow users many methods of navigating the site. The site was developed over almost two years using an estimated .95 FTE, split between a program manager, graphic designer, content provider (theoretical physicist), and a summer intern (high school teacher). As of November 1999, the site consists of 1,147 files, 935 images, 3,080 internal hyperlinks, and 190 external hyperlinks. The site has had over 1 million hits between January and mid-October 1999 and averages about 600 page views each day. Future plans include bringing the web site into compliance with the W3Cs Web Content Accessibility guidelines, thoroughly integrating the glossary terms, continued incorporation of current research at SLAC, and adding more interactivity.

  7. SLAC Users Bulletin No. 102, November 1985-April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.; Edminster, D.

    1986-01-01

    The status experimental activities at SLAC is reported, including the long-range schedule and a list of approved high-energy experiments. Work on PEP, SPEAR, and the SLC is included, as well as computing. Such operational data as operating hours and experimental hours are given.

  8. SLAC linear collider: the machine, the physics, and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1981-11-01

    The SLAC linear collider, in which beams of electrons and positrons are accelerated simultaneously, is described. Specifications of the proposed system are given, with calculated preditions of performance. New areas of research made possible by energies in the TeV range are discussed

  9. Shower Counters for SLAC experiments E142/E143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, H; Grenier, P; Le Meur, J; Lombard, R; Lugol, J C; Marroncle, J; Morgenstern, J; Mouly, J P; Paul, B; Staley, F; Terrien, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee; Breton, V; Comptour, C; Crouau, M; Fonvieille, H; Roblin, Y; Savinel, G [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France); Gearhart, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The two electromagnetic calorimeters each made of 200 lead glass blocks used at SLAC to discriminate between electrons and pions and to measure electron energies are described. Procedures to reconstruct electron showers and to calibrate calorimeters are treated as well as the calorimeter performance. (author). 6 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Development of the Virtual Visitor Center at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDunn, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    The Virtual Visitor Center (VVC) web site (www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc) is a ''virtual'' version of the Visitor Center, a mini science museum that opened at SLAC in 1996. The VVC was made public in December 1998. Both centers contribute to SLAC mission regarding education of the next generation and increasing scientific awareness of the public. The site is designed to mimic the real visitor center and allow a larger audience to the information. The intent was to reach the 8th-12th grade audience. Considerable effort was made to organize the content, including color-coding graphical elements for each main topic area. Tables of contents, a search tool, several photo tours, as well as graphical and non-graphical menu bars allow users many methods of navigating the site. The site was developed over almost two years using an estimated .95 FTE, split between a program manager, graphic designer, content provider (theoretical physicist), and a summer intern (high school teacher). As of November 1999, the site consists of 1,147 files, 935 images, 3,080 internal hyperlinks, and 190 external hyperlinks. The site has had over 1 million hits between January and mid-October 1999 and averages about 600 page views each day. Future plans include bringing the web site into compliance with the W3Cs Web Content Accessibility guidelines, thoroughly integrating the glossary terms, continued incorporation of current research at SLAC, and adding more interactivity

  11. Laser Safety for the Experimental Halls at SLAC_s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; Anthony, Perry; /SLAC; Barat, Ken; /LBL, Berkeley; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Greg; White, William E.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    The LCLS at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will be the world's first source of an intense hard x-ray laser beam, generating x-rays with wavelengths of 1nm and pulse durations less than 100fs. The ultrafast x-ray pulses will be used in pump-probe experiments to take stop-motion pictures of atoms and molecules in motion, with pulses powerful enough to take diffraction images of single molecules, enabling scientists to elucidate fundamental processes of chemistry and biology. Ultrafast conventional lasers will be used as the pump. In 2009, LCLS will deliver beam to the Atomic Molecular and Optical (AMO) Experiment, located in one of 3 x-ray Hutches in the Near Experimental Hall (NEH). The NEH includes a centralized Laser Hall, containing up to three Class 4 laser systems, three x-ray Hutches for experiments and vacuum transport tubes for delivering laser beams to the Hutches. The main components of the NEH laser systems are a Ti:sapphire oscillator, a regen amplifier, green pump lasers for the oscillator and regen, a pulse compressor and a harmonics conversion unit. Laser safety considerations and controls for the ultrafast laser beams, multiple laser controlled areas, and user facility issues are discussed.

  12. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2015 (ASER) for the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabba, Dellilah [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, prepared by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), SLAC Site Office (SSO), provides a comprehensive summary of the environmental program activities at SLAC for calendar year 2015. Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) are prepared for all DOE sites with significant environmental activities, and distributed to relevant external regulatory agencies and other interested organizations or individuals. To the best of my knowledge, this report accurately summarizes the results of the 2015 environmental monitoring, compliance, and restoration programs at SLAC. This assurance can be made based on SSO and SLAC review of the ASER, and quality assurance protocols applied to monitoring and data analyses at SLAC.

  13. The ethics of sin taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pleiotropic roles of Clostridium difficile sin locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junjun; Dupuy, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression. The C. difficile genome carries two sinR homologs in the operon that we named sinR and sinR’, coding for SinR (112 aa) and SinR’ (105 aa), respectively. In this study, we constructed and characterized sin locus mutants in two different C. difficile strains R20291 and JIR8094, to decipher the locus’s role in C. difficile physiology. Transcriptome analysis of the sinRR’ mutants revealed their pleiotropic roles in controlling several pathways including sporulation, toxin production, and motility in C. difficile. Through various genetic and biochemical experiments, we have shown that SinR can regulate transcription of key regulators in these pathways, which includes sigD, spo0A, and codY. We have found that SinR’ acts as an antagonist to SinR by blocking its repressor activity. Using a hamster model, we have also demonstrated that the sin locus is needed for successful C. difficile infection. This study reveals the sin locus as a central link that connects the gene regulatory networks of sporulation, toxin production, and motility; three key pathways that are important for C. difficile pathogenesis. PMID:29529083

  15. Multi-Device Knob Utility for LCLS at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) has developed a new Multi-Device Knob Utility (MKB) based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for controlling one or more Process Variables (PVs) in unison, or simultaneously, from a physical knob located in the control room, or from various software tools such as the EPICS Extensible Display Manager (EDM) or a Swing slider in Java. A group of devices are hooked up to a knob, and then the value written to the devices is a simple function of the value of the knob. This is used, most commonly, to create a bump in the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Control system variables typically controlled are magnetic fields, phases, and timing offsets. This paper describes the technologies used to implement this utility.

  16. Linac design for the LCLS project at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.K.; Bane, K.; Clendenin, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC is being designed to produce intense, coherent 0.15-nm x-rays. These x-rays will be produced by a single pass of a 15 GeV bunched electron beam through a long undulator. Nominally, the bunches have a charge of 1 nC, normalized transverse emittances of less than 1.5π mm-mr and an rms bunch length of 20 μm. The electron beam will be produced using the last third of the SLAC 3-km linac in a manner compatible with simultaneous operation of the remainder of the linac for PEP-II. The linac design necessary to produce an electron beam with the required brightness for LCLS is discussed, and the specific linac modifications are described

  17. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test---the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA)---which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Proceedings of the SLAC/KEK ATF lattice workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji

    1993-04-01

    The SLAC/KEK ATF Lattice Workshop was held on December 8-11, 1992 at KEK, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The purpose of this workshop is to critically review the ATF lattice design for any possible improvements, and also to bring SLAC colleagues up to date on recent progress at KEK. At KEK studies on intense multi-bunch beam acceleration and emittance reduction have been actively pursued, evolving into the ATF project since 1990. In 1991 we have launched a large scale reconstruction of the experimental hall. This is to build the shielded housing for the 1.54 GeV injector linac and the test damping ring. Our plan is to begin construction of the linac in March 1993. Some results from the discussions during the Workshop have been already incorporated in the revised ATF lattice design. (J.P.N.)

  19. PEP radiation shielding tests in SLAC A Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Harris, J.; Jenkins, T.; Murray, J.

    1977-09-01

    Radiation shielding tests designed to simulate possible conditions in and around the PEP experimental halls were conducted. The SLAC A Beam was targeted in the block tunnel at a point about midway between End Station A and Beam Dump East. At that site it was relatively easy to rearrange the concrete block structure to simulate the various shielding configurations under consideration for PEP. Extensive surveys of neutron and ionizing radiation were made. Complete results of the shielding tests are given

  20. Operating experience with the polarized electron gun at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguard, M.J.; Baum, G.; Clendenin, J.E.; Hughes, V.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Miller, R.H.; Raith, W.; Schuler, K.P.; Sodja, J.

    1977-03-01

    During the two years of operation of the SLAC Polarized Electron Gun (PEGGY), the electron intensity delivered to the target has increased from 7 x 10 7 e - /pulse to 1 x 10 9 e - /pulse. The polarization is 0.85 with no measurable degradation caused by acceleration through the linear accelerator. The predominant cause of downtime is replenishment of lithium, which now averages 43 hours. The lifetime of a lithium load is about 175 hours

  1. Nanosecond electron beam generation and instrumentation at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The present SLAC injector system, including the latest beam chopping equipment, is discussed, and an updated diagram is given. The present equipment can produce almost any mix of chopped and single bunch beams for experimenters with a high degree of multiple beam compatibility. Topics covered include the grid pulsers, the pulse isolation transformers, the resonant choppers, the nonresonant chopper, the synchronization system, and the fast beam monitors. (PMA)

  2. Plasma lenses for SLAC Final Focus Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, D.; Cline, D.; Joshi, C.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Su, J.J.; Williams, R.; Chen, P.; Gundersen, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Norem, J.

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative group of accelerator and plasma physicists and engineers has formed with an interest in exploring the use of plasma lenses to meet the needs of future colliders. Analytic and computational models of plasma lenses are briefly reviewed and several design examples for the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam are presented. The examples include discrete, thick, and adiabatic lenses. A potential plasma source with desirable lens characteristics is presented

  3. Status of the SLAC SNOOP diagnostic module for FASTBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Gustavson, D.B.

    1983-03-01

    A SNOOP Diagnostic Module for FASTBUS is under development at SLAC. The SNOOP Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. It consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step segment operations, a simple master interface, and a control processor with two serial communication ports. Module features and specifications are summrized, and prototype hardware is shown

  4. Latest Results in SLAC 75-MW PPM Klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Laurent, L.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    2006-01-01

    75 MW X-band klystrons utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing have been undergoing design, fabrication and testing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for almost nine years. The klystron development has been geared toward realizing the necessary components for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The PPM devices built to date which fit this class of operation consist of a variety of 50 MW and 75 MW devices constructed by SLAC, KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and industry. All these tubes follow from the successful SLAC design of a 50 MW PPM klystron in 1996. In 2004 the latest two klystrons were constructed and tested with preliminary results reported at EPAC2004. The first of these two devices was tested to the full NLC specifications of 75 MW, 1.6 microseconds pulse length, and 120 Hz. This 14.4 kW average power operation came with a tube efficiency >50%. The most recent testing of these last two devices will be presented here. Design and manufacturing issues of the latest klystron, due to be tested by the Fall of 2005, are also discussed

  5. Recent Upgrade of the Klystron Modulator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.P.; Lam, B.K.; Morris, B.

    2011-01-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory employs 244 klystron modulators on its two-mile-long linear accelerator that has been operational since the early days of the SLAC establishment in the sixties. Each of these original modulators was designed to provide 250 kV, 262 A and 3.5 μS at up to 360 pps using an inductance-capacitance resonant charging system, a modified type-E pulse-forming network (PFN), and a pulse transformer. The modulator internal control comprised of large step-start resistor-contactors, vacuum-tube amplifiers, and 120 Vac relays for logical signals. A major, power-component-only upgrade, which began in 1983 to accommodate the required beam energy of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project, raised the modulator peak output capacity to 360 kV, 420 A and 5.0 μS at a reduced pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. In an effort to improve safety, performance, reliability and maintainability of the modulator, this recent upgrade focuses on the remaining three-phase AC power input and modulator controls. The upgrade includes the utilization of primary SCR phase control rectifiers, integrated fault protection and voltage regulation circuitries, and programmable logic controllers (PLC) -- with an emphasis on component physical layouts for safety and maintainability concerns. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of each upgraded component in the modulator control system. We will also report the testing and present status of the modified modulators.

  6. Beam parameter measurements for the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Blocker, C.; Breidenbach, M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable, closely-controlled, high-intensity, single-bunch beam will be required for the SLAC Linear Collider. The characteristics of short-pulse, low-intensity beams in the SLAC linac have been studied. A new, high-intensity thermionic gun, subharmonic buncher and S-band buncher/accelerator section were installed recently at SLAC. With these components, up to 10 11 electrons in a single S-band bunch are available for injection into the linac. the first 100-m accelerator sector has been modified to allow control of short-pulse beams by a model-driven computer program. Additional instrumentation, including a computerized energy analyzer and emittance monitor have been added at the end of the 100-m sector. The beam intensity, energy spectrum, emittance, charge distribution and the effect of wake fields in the first accelerator sector have been measured. The new source and beam control system will be described and the most recent results of the beam parameter measurements will be discussed

  7. Linear collider research and development at SLAC, LBL and LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, T.S.

    1988-10-01

    The study of electron-positron (e + e/sup /minus//) annihilation in storage ring colliders has been very fruitful. It is by now well understood that the optimized cost and size of e + e/sup /minus// storage rings scales as E(sub cm//sup 2/ due to the need to replace energy lost to synchrotron radiation in the ring bending magnets. Linear colliders, using the beams from linear accelerators, evade this scaling law. The study of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collisions at TeV energy will require linear colliders. The luminosity requirements for a TeV linear collider are set by the physics. Advanced accelerator research and development at SLAC is focused toward a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) of 0.5--1 TeV in the center of mass, with a luminosity of 10/sup 33/--10/sup 34/. The goal is a design for two linacs of less than 3 km each, and requiring less than 100 MW of power each. With a 1 km final focus, the TLC could be fit on Stanford University land (although not entirely within the present SLAC site). The emphasis is on technologies feasible for a proposal to be framed in 1992. Linear collider development work is progressing on three fronts: delivering electrical energy to a beam, delivering a focused high quality beam, and system optimization. Sources of high peak microwave radio frequency (RF) power to drive the high gradient linacs are being developed in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Beam generation, beam dynamics and final focus work has been done at SLAC and in collaboration with KEK. Both the accelerator physics and the utilization of TeV linear colliders were topics at the 1988 Snowmass Summer Study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Neutron dosimetry at SLAC: Neutron sources and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; McCall, R.C.; Ipe, N.E.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes in detail the dosimetric characteristics of the five radioisotopic type neutron sources ( 238 PuBe, 252 Cf, 238 PuB, 238 PuF 4 , and 238 PuLi) and the neutron instrumentation (moderated BF 3 detector, Anderson-Braun (AB) detector, AB remmeter, Victoreen 488 Neutron Survey Meter, Beam Shut-Off Ionization Chamber, 12 C plastic scintillator detector, moderated indium foil detector, and moderated and bare TLDs) that are commonly used for neutron dosimetry at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). 36 refs,. 19 figs

  9. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Iverson, R.; Leyer, G.K.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

  10. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.; Leger, G.K.; Iverson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the start-up operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operation!

  11. SLAC RF Source Research at X-Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprehn, D.

    2003-01-01

    X-band klystrons capable of 75 MW and utilizing either solenoidal or Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing are undergoing design, fabrication and testing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The klystron development is part of an effort to realize components necessary for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). SLAC has developed a solenoidal-focused X-band klystron which is currently the workhorse of high power component testing for the NLC. A state-of-the-art modulator will drive eight of these tubes which, in turn, will power an rf distribution system referred to as the ''8-pack'' in order to test these modulators and waveguide components. Eventually, in an interest to save millions of dollars per year in the operational cost of the NLC, these tubes will be replaced by PPM klystrons. The PPM devices built to date which fit this class of operation consist of a variety of 50 MW and 75 MW devices constructed by SLAC, KEK (Tsukuba, Japan ), and industry. These tubes follow from the successful 50 MW PPM design of 1996. Recent testing of this particular tube at wider pulsewidths has reached 50 MW at 55 % efficiency, 2.4 μs and 60 Hz. Two 50 MW PPM klystrons produced by industry have been delivered to SLAC. One of these devices arrived with a vacuum suitable for test. Testing during 2001 revealed a serious, but curious, vacuum response which limited the operation to an rf output of ∼40 MW. A 75 MW PPM klystron prototype was first constructed in 1997 and later modified in 1999 to eliminate oscillations. This tube has reached the NLC design target of 75 MW at 1.5 μs though at a significantly reduced rep rate. Two new 75 MW PPM klystrons were constructed and tested in 2002 after a diode was successfully tested in 2001. The new design was aimed at reducing the cost and increasing the reliability of such high-energy devices. The rf circuit and beam focusing for one of these devices was built by industry and incorporated into one of the tubes

  12. Using the SLAC VHF and UHF radio systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struven, W.

    1987-02-01

    The use of the SLAC VHF and UHF Radio Systems and the Tunnel Antenna Systems as they are presently configured is described. The original radio system was built in 1966 and has grown in scope over the years. The Tunnel Antenna Systems were developed for, and first installed in, the PEP ring, and later added to other tunnels and redesigned to cover the UHF range, as well as VHF. The UHF radio system was designed and built for SLC use, and was first used in the SLC Arcs. The three radio systems will be described and the capabilities of each system will be defined

  13. Neutron dosimetry at SLAC: Neutron sources and instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; McCall, R.C.; Ipe, N.E.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes in detail the dosimetric characteristics of the five radioisotopic type neutron sources ({sup 238}PuBe, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 238}PuB, {sup 238}PuF{sub 4}, and {sup 238}PuLi) and the neutron instrumentation (moderated BF{sub 3} detector, Anderson-Braun (AB) detector, AB remmeter, Victoreen 488 Neutron Survey Meter, Beam Shut-Off Ionization Chamber, {sup 12}C plastic scintillator detector, moderated indium foil detector, and moderated and bare TLDs) that are commonly used for neutron dosimetry at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). 36 refs,. 19 figs.

  14. Searching for light dark matter with the SLAC millicharge experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, M; Schuster, P

    2013-11-27

    New sub-GeV gauge forces ("dark photons") that kinetically mix with the photon provide a promising scenario for MeV-GeV dark matter and are the subject of a program of searches at fixed-target and collider facilities around the world. In such models, dark photons produced in collisions may decay invisibly into dark-matter states, thereby evading current searches. We reexamine results of the SLAC mQ electron beam dump experiment designed to search for millicharged particles and find that it was strongly sensitive to any secondary beam of dark matter produced by electron-nucleus collisions in the target. The constraints are competitive for dark photon masses in the ~1-30 MeV range, covering part of the parameter space that can reconcile the apparent (g-2)(μ) anomaly. Simple adjustments to the original SLAC search for millicharges may extend sensitivity to cover a sizable portion of the remaining (g-2)(μ) anomaly-motivated region. The mQ sensitivity is therefore complementary to ongoing searches for visible decays of dark photons. Compared to existing direct-detection searches, mQ sensitivity to electron-dark-matter scattering cross sections is more than an order of magnitude better for a significant range of masses and couplings in simple models.

  15. An Automated 476 MHz RF Cavity Processing Facility at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, P; Schwarz, H

    2003-01-01

    The 476 MHz accelerating cavities currently used at SLAC are those installed on the PEP-II B-Factory collider accelerator. They are designed to operate at a maximum accelerating voltage of 1 MV and are routinely utilized on PEP-II at voltages up to 750 kV. During the summer of 2003, SPEAR3 will undergo a substantial upgrade, part of which will be to replace the existing 358.54 MHz RF system with essentially a PEP-II high energy ring (HER) RF station operating at 476.3 MHz and 3.2 MV (or 800 kV/cavity). Prior to installation, cavity RF processing is required to prepare them for use. A dedicated high power test facility is employed at SLAC to provide the capability of conditioning each cavity up to the required accelerating voltage. An automated LabVIEW based interface controls and monitors various cavity and test stand parameters, increasing the RF fields accordingly such that stable operation is finally achieved. This paper describes the high power RF cavity processing facility, highlighting the features of t...

  16. Development of X-band klystron technology at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caryotakis, G.

    1997-05-01

    The SLAC design for a 1-TeV collider (NLC) requires klystrons with a performance which is well beyond the state-of-the-art for microwave tubes in the United States or abroad. The electrical specifications for the NLC klystrons are not fully established, but they are approximately as follows: Frequency, 11.4 GHz; Peak Power, 75 MW; Pulse Length, 1.5 μs; Repetition Rate, 180 Hz; Gain, 50 dB; Efficiency, (including beam focusing) 50%. SLAC is in the seventh year of a program to develop these klystrons. The choice of X-band as the operating frequency, along with the sheer size of the NLC, have resulted in some new, most demanding standards for the klystrons which may power this future machine. These are related to the overall efficiency required, to the high rf gradients that must be supported at the output circuit without vacuum breakdown, and to the manufacturing cost of the 5,000-10,000 klystrons needed for the collider

  17. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated

  18. SLACINPT - a FORTRAN program that generates boundary data for the SLAC gun code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, W.L.; Hepburn, J.D.

    1982-03-01

    The FORTRAN program SLACINPT was written to simplify the preparation of boundary data for the SLAC gun code. In SLACINPT, the boundary is described by a sequence of straight line or arc segments. From these, the program generates the individual boundary mesh point data, required as input by the SLAC gun code

  19. The development of the Next Linear Collider at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1992-02-01

    At SLAC, we are pursuing the design of a Next Linear Collider (NLC) which would begin with a center-of-mass energy of 0.5 TeV and be upgradable to at least 1.0 TeV, and possibly 1.5 TeV. The luminosity is designed to be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at the lower energy and 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at the top energy. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics issues which are important in our approach, and also the present state of the technology development. We also review the impact that the SLC has had in the evolution of our basic approach

  20. SLC status and SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1989-08-01

    In this presentation, I shall discuss the linear collider program at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as it is now, and as we hope to see it evolve over the next few years. Of greatest interest to the high energy accelerator physics community gathered here is the development of the linear collider concept, and so I shall concentrate most of this paper on a discussion of the present status and future evolution of the SLC. I will also briefly discuss the research and development program that we are carrying out aimed at the realization of the next generation of high-energy linear colliders. SLAC had a major colliding-beam storage-ring program as well, including present rings and design studies on future high-luminosity projects, but time constraints preclude a discussion of them. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Computing and data handling recent experiences at Fermilab and SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Computing has become evermore central to the doing of high energy physics. There are now major second and third generation experiments for which the largest single cost is computing. At the same time the availability of ''cheap'' computing has made possible experiments which were previously considered infeasible. The result of this trend has been an explosion of computing and computing needs. I will review here the magnitude of the problem, as seen at Fermilab and SLAC, and the present methods for dealing with it. I will then undertake the dangerous assignment of projecting the needs and solutions forthcoming in the next few years at both laboratories. I will concentrate on the ''offline'' problem; the process of turning terabytes of data tapes into pages of physics journals. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. High gradient tests of SLAC Linear Collider Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Deruyter, H.; Eichner, J.; Fant, K.H.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.; Loew, G.A.; Loewen, R.; Menegat, L.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the current SLAC R ampersand D program to develop room temperature accelerator structures for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The structures are designed to operate at 11.4 GHz at an accelerating gradient in the range of 50 to 100 MV/m. In the past year a 26 cm constant-impedance traveling-wave section, a 75 cm constant-impedance traveling-wave section, and a 1.8 m traveling-wave section with detuned deflecting modes have been high-power tested. The paper presents a brief description of the RF test setup, the design and manufacturing details of the structures, and a discussion of test results including field emission, RF processing, dark current spectrum and RF breakdown

  3. Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.

    2007-01-01

    At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab(trademark) using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab(trademark) and Matlab(trademark) (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort

  4. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  5. SLAC modulator operation and reliability in the SLC Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Ashton, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    A discussion of the operation and reliability of the 244 modulators in the SLAC linac with an emphasis on the past three years of operation. The linac modulators were designed and built in the 60's, upgraded for the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) in the mid 80s, and despite their age are still reliable accelerator components. The 60s modulator operated at 65 MW peak and 83 kW average power. The upgrade resulted in 150 MW peak output at an average power of 87 kW, a modest increase since the repetition rate was dropped from 360 to 120 Hz. In the present accelerator configuration, the Linac operates as a source of electrons and positrons to a single pass coillider. The classic collider is a storage ring filled with oppositely charged, counter-rotating particles which are allowed to collide until an accelerator fault occurs and the stored beams are aborted. A reasonable storage ring can store and collide particles for as long as eight hours with a 10 or 20 minute filling time. A single pass collider, + on the other hand, can only produce e - and e + collisions at whatever rate the source operates. To be effective the SLC must operate at 120 Hz with a very high degree of reliability and on a continuous basis. Fortunately, the linac has a modest excess of modulator/klystron systems which allows some measure of redundancy and hence some freedom from the constraint that all 244 modulator/klystrons operate simultaneously. Nonetheless, high importance is placed on modulator MTBF and MTRR or, in the parlance of reliability experts and accelerator physicists, availability. This is especially true of the modulators associated with the fundamental requirements of a collider such as injection, compression and positron production

  6. Estudio del álbum sin palabras

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Andreu, Emma

    2015-01-01

    [spa] Estudio del Álbum Sin Palabras tiene como objetivo principal definir, analizar y categorizar los álbumes sin palabras destinados principalmente al público infantil y juvenil dando a conocer sus características, peculiariades y diversidad tipológica, para facilitar las tareas de análisis y de mediación de investigadores, educadores, bibliotecarios y cualquier persona interesada en los libros con imágenes. En el capítulo titulado «Un nuevo mapa para los Libros Sin Palabras» situamos e...

  7. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  8. SLAC to host symposium celebrating 10th anniversary of first website in America

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Many of the programmers, web designers and scientists who collaborated to create the world wide web will be in SLAC for a two-day symposium to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the first website in America.

  9. Support and utilization of the LSI-11 processor family at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Logg, C.A.; Farwell, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Microcomputer systems based on the DEC LSI-11 processor family have been in use at SLAC for five years. They are used for a wide variety of applications. The support of these systems is divided into three general areas: engineering, maintenance, and software. Engineering specifies the system to match user requirements. SLAC has been able to design one general purpose system which can be tailored to fit many specific requirements. Maintenance provides system and component diagnostic services and repair. Software support includes software consulting services, assistance in systems design, and the development and support of special purpose operating systems and programs. These support functions are handled as subtasks by three teams in the SLAC Electronics Instrumentation Group. Each of these teams utilizes several LSI-11 systems in the performance of its primary tasks. They work closely together to jointly provide overall support for the larger SLAC community

  10. Transport of LCLS-II 1.3 Ghz cryomodule to SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M. W.; Arkan, T.; Peterson, T.; Tang, Z.; Boo, S.; Carrasco, M.; Daly, E.; Huque, N.

    2016-06-30

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These include a prototype built and delivered by each Lab. Another two 3.9 GHz cryomodules will be built, tested and transported by Fermilab to SLAC. Each assembly will be transported over-the-road from Fermilab or Jefferson Lab using specific routes to SLAC. The transport system consists of a base frame, isolation fixture and upper protective truss. The strongback cryomodule lifting fixture is described along with other supporting equipment used for both over-the-road transport and local (on-site) transport at Fermilab. Initially, analysis of fragile components and stability studies will be performed in order to assess the risk associated with over-the-road transport of a fully assembled cryomodule.

  11. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  12. Unscented Kalman filter for SINS alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhanxin; Gao Yanan; Chen Jiabin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the filter accuracy for the nonlinear error model of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) alignment, Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented for simulation with stationary base and moving base of SINS alignment.Simulation results show the superior performance of this approach when compared with classical suboptimal techniques such as extended Kalman filter in cases of large initial misalignment.The UKF has good performance in case of small initial misalignment.

  13. The design of a semi-custom intergrated circuit for the SLAC SLC timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-01-01

    A semi-custom (gate array) integrated circuit has been designed for use in the SLAC Linear Collider timing and control system. The design process and SLAC's experiences during the phases of the design cycle are described. Issues concerning the partitioning of the design into semi-custom and standard components are discussed. Functional descriptions of the semi-custom integrated circuit and the timing module in which it is used are given

  14. Acceleration of high charge density electron beams in the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Lueth, V.G.; Millich, A.; Ross, M.C.; Seeman, J.T.; Stiening, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) will require both electron and positron beams of very high charge density and low emittance to be accelerated to about 50 GeV in the SLAC 3-km linac. The linac is in the process of being improved to meet this requirement. The program to accelerate an electron beam of high charge density through the first third of the SLC linac is described and the experimental results are discussed. 7 references, 5 figures

  15. Design of a semi-custom integrated circuit for the SLAC SLC timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1984-10-01

    A semi-custom (gate array) integrated circuit has been designed for use in the SLAC Linear Collider timing and control system. The design process and SLAC's experiences during the phases of the design cycle are described. Issues concerning the partitioning of the design into semi-custom and standard components are discussed. Functional descriptions of the semi-custom integrated circuit and the timing module in which it is used are given

  16. Study of the doubly-charmed decays of B mesons with the experiment BABAR in SLAC; Etude des desintegrations doublement charmees des mesons B avec l'experience BABAR a SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, P

    2002-04-01

    The BABAR experiment at SLAC (Stanford linear acceleration center) has been studying since 1999 B meson decays from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. The first goal of the collaboration was to measure the sin (2{beta}) CP-violation parameter within the standard model. This measurement requires to know with precision the absolute length scale of the detector. A method to test this scale was developed using nuclear interactions in the beam-pipe material. The longitudinal length scale was then determined at the 1 % level precision. The systematic error associated with length measurement in the detector concerning B meson lifetime and B meson oscillation frequency is then negligible with respect to the other errors. The K meson content of B decays is a key ingredient of the sin (2{beta}) measurement and is used to tag the flavour of the other B in events containing a B decaying to a CP eigenstate. The K charge is correlated to the B flavour. Wrong sign kaons, which can dilute B tagging, can come from wrong sign D decays (B{yields} DX). Doubly charmed decays (B{yields} D{sup (*)}D-bar{sup (*)}) K are one possibility to produce wrong sign D decays. The twenty-two decay modes are reconstructed exclusively. The total branching fraction is measured with enough precision to establish that B{yields} D{sup (*)}D-bar{sup (*)} K decays are not the only source of wrong sign D mesons in B decays. (author)

  17. The 50 GeV program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    SLAC has undertaken a modes programs to upgrade the beam energy for fixed target experiments to 50 GeV. This upgrade is possible due to the previous extensive development work on the linac accelerating gradient for the SLC, which has been operational for over five years. The SLC can deliver a beam of energy up to 60 GeV using a pulse compression technique in the rf system which trades pulse length for a higher pulse amplitude. This mode of operation has been reliable and routine for the SLC. However the beam line transport which takes electrons or positrons from the end of the linac to the target in End Station A has not been upgraded from the original design energy of 25 GeV. The 50 GeV upgrade for the fixed target experiments consists in modifying and increasing the number of beam line dipole magnets to reach 50 GeV, plus modernization of the beam line instrumentation and controls. The plans for spin structure experiments using electron beams at energies up to 50 GeV are described

  18. PEP-II Large Power Supplies Rebuild Program at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    de Lira, Antonio C; Lipari, James J; da Silva Rafael, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    At PEP-II, seven large power supplies (LGPS) are used to power quad magnets in the electron-positron collider region. The LGPS ratings range from 72kW to 270kW, and were installed in 1997. They are unipolar off-line switch mode supplies, with a 6 pulse bridge rectifying 480VAC, 3-phase input power to yield 650VDC unregulated. This unregulated 650VDC is then input into one (or two) IGBT H-bridges, which convert the DC into PWM 16 kHz square wave AC. This high frequency AC drives the primary side of a step-down transformer followed by rectifiers and low pass filters. Over the years, these LGPS have presented many problems mainly in their control circuits, making it difficult to troubleshoot and affecting the overall accelerator availability. A redesign/rebuilding program for these power supplies was established under the coordination of the Power Conversion Department at SLAC. During the 2004 accelerator summer shutdown all the control circuits in these supplies were redesigned and replaced. A new PWM control b...

  19. Present and future colliding beam facilities at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1977-07-01

    In April 1972, the 3-GeV electron positron storage ring, SPEAR, was put into operation at the end of the linear accelerator at Stanford. By the recent discoveries in high energy physics the value of electron-positron storage rings for high energy physics has been clearly demonstrated. This development certainly encouraged the relatively early funding of the new electron-positron storage ring, PEP, at SLAC. In addition to its role as a particle physics research tool, SPEAR has been and remains a priceless model or prototype for larger storage rings like PEP. A few of the recent observations in SPEAR which have important implications to the design of PEP are described. Although the PEP design follows closely the SPEAR concept in many respects, it has its own distinctive and important features which are discussed in detail. Topics discussed include synchrotron-betatron resonances, beam losses, beam bunching, PEP design luminosity and energy, chromaticity correction in PEP, and the high energy cabability of PEP

  20. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A LR ) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A LR experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4±1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617±0.0071(stat.)±0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A LR is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model

  1. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A{sub LR}) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A{sub LR} experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4{+-}1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A{sub LR} is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model.

  2. Sin Stocks in Self Managed Superannuation Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Phillips

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical or responsible investing has attracted much attention over the last decade. Financial planners can nowadvise clients on a broad range of ethical investment products and some financial planning firms have this astheir sole activity. Interestingly, the alter ego of ethical investing, sin or vice investing, has attracted far lessattention. Recent research shows that ‘sinful’ investments can generate very strong returns and shouldcertainly not be avoided by investors without a full evaluation of the consequences of excluding theseinvestments from the portfolio. This paper extends these findings into the field of self managedsuperannuation funds operating within an Australian context. The prevalence of sinful investments within asample of SMSFs and the returns that may be generated by a portfolio consisting of sinful Australian equitiesis examined. Analysis reveals that the SMSF investors within the sample do not include very many sin stocksin their portfolios. However, it does not appear as though SMSF trustees are missing an important investmentopportunity because the analysis reveals that an equally-weighted portfolio of all vice or sin shares is unlikelyto generate superior returns.

  3. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  4. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  5. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  6. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SLAC R and D toward a TeV Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1988-10-01

    At CERN, KEK, Novosibirsk and SLAC, serious thought is being given to the design of linear colliders in the 0.5--2.0 TeV center-of-mass energy range. This paper reviews current progress at SLAC toward the design of such a collider. No attempt is made here to summarize ongoing work at the other laboratories. However, research on linear colliders is clearly an international effort, and success at SLAC will be greatly expedited by communication and cooperation with other laboratories in the US and abroad. In addition to major programs at the laboratories mentioned above, contributions relevant to linear collider design are being made at DESY, LAL (Orsay), LBL, LLNL and elsewhere. 49 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Essay: Bob Siemann-SLC Days at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O.

    2008-01-01

    Bob Siemann was a great experimentalist and an excellent teacher.We will greatly miss him. Bob came to SLAC in early 1991 to work on the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC was a challenging accelerator which began operating in the late 1980's but still had numerous obstacles to be overcome years into operation. One of the compounding difficulties was making reproducible measurements, since the stability of the collider was poor and the diagnostics were insufficient. Bob dove into this challenge and helped design experiments and diagnostics that provided further clarity. I first got to know Bob while I was still a graduate student, trying to finish my thesis and performing some experimental studies on the SLC, which, at the time, was proving to be very difficult. Most of my expertise had been in beam theory and simulation. Dealing with the real issues of the accelerator was challenging. Bob helped me understand the difference between systematic and statistical errors, and separate operational issues from the fundamental physics. His way of teaching was not to provide an explanation but to ask enough questions so that I could find the answer on my own - this was the best way to learn. I later asked Bob to be a reader on my thesis. As in all things, he took this role extremely seriously. He read through the draft and marked every page to the point where I was regretting my decision. However, his questions again helped me understand my own work better and greatly improved my thesis. Bob was also the de facto leader of an effort focused on the damping rings and the bunch compressors. He was great to work with. He made people think for themselves and refused to simply provide answers. He also worked hard himself, expressing real interest and curiosity. After the studies of the SLC damping rings identified a sawtooth instability due to the vacuum chamber impedance as a source of many downstream fluctuations, Bob took charge of upgrading the rings. As part of this

  9. Development of operator requested control system applications: Experience with the SLC control system at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, M.

    1995-01-01

    The SLC Control system at SLAC has evolved into a powerful tool for operation of the accelerator and for troubleshooting the unique problems encountered in extracting maximum performance from the SLC. The evolution has included the development of many custom applications and user interface features generated from accelerator operator and accelerator physicist requests. These applications are written and maintained primarily by the Controls Software Engineering group, and not by the users themselves. The process of developing and supporting user requested control systems applications at SLAC is described, including the effects of organizational structure, formal and informal procedures, and control system architecture

  10. Proceedings of the SLAC/KEK linear collider workshop on damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, J.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-07-01

    Since the SLAC/KEK joint meeting was first held at SLAC in March 1987, we have had such a meeting annually with the present one the 6th. This meeting is planned to discuss the damping ring issue in particular. We have ever stressed the importance of study of damping rings and considered construction of a test damping ring as key issue for the ATF project, since we started construction of the ATF in 1987. In 1991 we had large-scale reconstruction of a building to make a shielded area where a 1.54 GeV injector linac for the ring is to be installed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Measurement of the longitudinal wakefield and the bunch shape in the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Decker, F.J.; Seeman, J.T.; Zimmermann, F.

    1997-05-01

    The authors report on measurements of the bunch energy spectrum at the end of the SLAC linac. Using the spectra obtained for two different linac rf phases they obtain both the bunch induced voltage and the longitudinal distribution of the bunch. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions. In particular, the induced voltage is in good agreement with that obtained using the calculated wake function for the SLAC linac. This measurement technique may be useful for monitoring changes of the linac bunch shape in the SLC

  12. SLAC High Gradient Testing of a KEK X-Band Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The high accelerating gradients required for future linear colliders demands a better study of field emission and RF breakdown in accelerator structures. Changes in structure geometry, vacuum pumping, fabrication methods, and surface finish can all potentially impact the conditioning process, dark current emission, and peak RF power handling capability. Recent tests at SLAC of KEK's ''M2'' travelling wave x-band accelerator section provides an opportunity to investigate some of these effects by comparing its performance to previously high power tested structures at SLAC. In addition to studying ultimate power limitations, this test also demonstrates the use of computer automated conditioning to reach practical, achievable gradients

  13. Advertising and the Seven Sins of Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....

  14. BABAR - the detector for the PEP II B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1994-09-01

    BABAR refers to the detector that is being designed for the PEP II B-Factory at SLAC to perform a comprehensive study of CP violation in B meson decays. The design requirements and the principal detector components are briefly described. A summary of the expected physics performance is presented

  15. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  16. dE/dx electronics for MARK II experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.; Boyarski, A.; Coupal, D.; Feldman, G.; Paffrath, L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a 100 MHz pulse digitizer for dE/dx measurements on the MARK II drift chamber at SLAC. The electronics provides the read-out of the detector's 5832 sense based on a 16-channel FASTBUS module. The basic element of the module is the TRW 6-bit Flash-ADC

  17. Beam-beam studies for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of beam-beam dynamics studies that have been carried out to date for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory. Most of the material presented here is contained in the proposal's Conceptual Design Report, although post-CDR studies are also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Molecular Evolution of Slow and Quick Anion Channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Ingo; Gomez-Porras, Judith Lucia; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant) SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant) ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  19. Molecular evolution of slow and quick anion channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eDreyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  20. Monarcas y súbditos ''sin cualidades''

    OpenAIRE

    Raminelli, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    En Brasil, no siempre los primeros colonizadores disponían del honor necesario para recibir los beneficios concedidos por el Rey. En general, cuando no se trataba de mestizos y mulatos, las elites locales se originaban en las antiguas cepas judías. Mismo siendo súbditos sin cualidad, los reyes les concedieron perdón y algunos privilegios. Los títulos de caballero concedidos a los mestizos e hijos ilegítimos permiten de alguna forma vislumbrar la debilidad de las fuerzas que unían a las partes...

  1. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  2. Identification and biochemical analysis of Slac2-c/MyRIP as a Rab27A-, myosin Va/VIIa-, and actin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Taruho S; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    Slac2-c/MyRIP is a specific Rab27A-binding protein that contains an N-terminal synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp) homology domain (SHD, a newly identified GTP-Rab27A-binding motif), but in contrast to the Slp family proteins, it lacks C-terminal tandem C2 domains. In vitro Slac2-c simultaneously directly interacts with both Rab27A and an actin-based motor protein, myosin Va, via its N-terminal SHD and middle region, respectively, consistent with the fact that the overall structure of Slac2-c is similar to that of Slac2-a/melanophilin, a linker protein between Rab27A and myosin Va in the melanosome transport in melanocytes. Unlike Slac2-a, however, the middle region of Slac2-c interacts with two types of myosins, myosin Va and myosin VIIa. In addition, the most C-terminal part of both Slac2-a and Slac2-c functions as an actin-binding domain: it directly interacts with globular and fibrous actin in vitro, and the actin-binding domain of Slac2-a and Slac2-c colocalizes with actin filaments when it is expressed in living cells (i.e., PC12 cells and mouse melanocytes). In this chapter we describe the methods that have been used to analyze the protein-protein interactions of Slac2-c, specifically with Rab27A, myosin Va/VIIa, and actin.

  3. En Caracas: una radio sin antena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Angola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuenta la experiencia única de la radio comunitaria Parque Central de Caracas (1994 donde al decir de su director y concesionario de la estación se necesitó compromiso, esfuerzo, romanticismo y comunidad. Creada como un sistema de seguridad y publicidad surgió por iniciativa de la Asociación de vecinos de la Etapa 1 donde viven más de 12 mil personas Funciona sin estar dentro de los patrones transmisor-Antena-Receptor, no se encuentra regulada por ninguna ley, son a decir de Marañón el medio de comunicación más libre del país donde la comunidad se expresa por sobre la economía, la técnica y la ley.

  4. Un mundo sin límites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba, Joaquín Mª

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XVI, las nuevas ediciones del Atlas de Ptolomeo publicadas en Roma o Venecia solían incluir un mapamundi modificado sin cesara a medida que descubridores y navegantes alcanzaban nuevos y antes desconocidos horizontes. La temprana circunnavegación de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522 confirmaba con su esferidad, que el mundo no tenía límites. Durante aquel siglo magnífico, la literatura española de viajes al Oriente Próximo islámico tenía que ser menos señalada. La casi perenne guerra contra el Imperio Otomano, señor de una buena parte de las costas mediterráneas, y sobre todo la empresa de América y los viajes de exploración y conquista que aquella demandaba, …

  5. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  6. Gallium arsenide digital integrated circuits for controlling SLAC CW-RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Lee, K.L.; Corredoura, P.; Judkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to fill the PEP and SPEAR storage rings with beams from the SLC linac and damping rings, precise control of the linac subharmonic buncher and the damping ring RF is required. Recently several companies have developed resettable GaAs master/slave D-type flip-flops which are capable of operating at frequencies of 3 GHz and higher. Using these digital devices as frequency dividers, one can phase shift the SLAC CW-RF systems to optimize the timing for filling the storage rings. The authors have evaluated the performance of integrated circuits from two vendors for our particular application. Using microstrip circuit techniques, they have built and operated in the accelerator several chassis to synchronize a reset signal from the storage rings to the SLAC 2.856 GHz RF and to phase shift divide-by-four and divide-by-sixteen frequency dividers to the nearest 350 psec bucket required for filling

  7. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K., E-mail: lrk@slac.stanford.edu; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  8. Compliance of SLAC's Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    2009-01-01

    SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance

  9. Proceedings of the SLC workshop on experimental use of the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    In March 1981, the SLAC management, together with the SLAC users organization, invited interested physicists to a three day meeting to discuss the laboratory's plans and progress on the new colliding e + e - machine - the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Those attending were encouraged to join together to study the challenges and opportunities presented by the SLC. The study of the parameters for experiments on 100 GeV e + e - collisions, and the reviews of the state-of-the-art in the four areas of detector technology - Tracking, Calorimetry, Particle Identification and Electronics and Computing - were undertaken from a general standpoint, and not from the particular perspective of a specific experimental proposal. Nine sections were prepared separately for the data base

  10. A 2--4 nm Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-05-01

    We describe the use of the SLAC linac to drive a unique, powerful. short wavelength Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Operating as an FEL, lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a high peak current electron beam through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The main components are a high-brightness rf photocathode electron gun; pulse compressors; about 1/5 of the SLAC linac; and a long undulator with a FODO quadrupole focussing system. Using electrons below 8 GeV, the system would operate at wavelengths down to about 3 nm, producing ≥10 GW peak power in sub-ps pulses. At a 120 Hz rate the average power is ∼ 1 W

  11. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Taiee [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  12. Final Report: BaBar Detector and Experimental at SLAC, September 30, 1998 - September 29, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    The Prairie View AandM University High Energy Physics Group with its contingent of three undergraduates physics majors, joined the BaBar Collaboration at SLAC in September 1994. BaBar is the experiment and detector running in the PEP-II ring at SLAC as part of the Asymmetric B Factory project there to study CP violation and heavy flavor physics. The focus of our effort before this year was with the Muon/Neutral Hadron Detector/Instrumented Flux Return (IFD) subgroup within the BaBar collaboration, and particularly with the GEANT simulation of the IFR-. With the GEANT3 simulation essentially FR-ozen, and the GEANT4 full simulation of the IFR- done, we have decided to redirect our efforts toward other areas

  13. Present and future developments on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1977-07-01

    A review is given of the innovations which have recently been made or are being planned on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator. A brief review of overall performance statistics is given, the beam is followed from its origin to the experimental areas. The injector with its new polarized guns, some highlights of klystron research, the SLED or SLAC Energy Development Program, which will boost the electron energy into the 30 to 40 GeV range, and some associated beam loading and beam breakup implications are described. Following these, a brief survey of other microwave developments is given. Some of the innovations being implanted in computer control are summarized, and the changes being planned for the generation and delivery of e +- beams to the PEP ring are discussed

  14. Final Report BaBar Detector and Experimental at SLAC, September 30, 1998 - September 29, 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, D J

    2000-01-01

    The Prairie View AandM University High Energy Physics Group with its contingent of three undergraduates physics majors, joined the BaBar Collaboration at SLAC in September 1994. BaBar is the experiment and detector running in the PEP-II ring at SLAC as part of the Asymmetric B Factory project there to study CP violation and heavy flavor physics. The focus of our effort before this year was with the Muon/Neutral Hadron Detector/Instrumented Flux Return (IFD) subgroup within the BaBar collaboration, and particularly with the GEANT simulation of the IFR-. With the GEANT3 simulation essentially FR-ozen, and the GEANT4 full simulation of the IFR- done, we have decided to redirect our efforts toward other areas.

  15. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit

  16. SLAC linear collider and a few ideas on future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1984-04-01

    This paper comes in two parts. The first part is a progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with emphasis on those systems which are of special interest to linear accelerator designers; it sets the stage for a number of contributed papers on specific topics which are also presented at this conference. The second part presents some ideas which are of interest to the design of future linear colliders of higher energies

  17. Status of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-factory and the BABAR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1994-10-01

    After a brief introduction on the physics reach of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL Asymmetric B-Factory, the author describes the status of the accelerator and the detector as of the end of 1994. At this time, essentially all major decisions have been made, including the choice of particle identification for the detector. The author concludes this report with the description of the schedule for the construction of both accelerator and detector

  18. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  19. Gas system Upgrade for the BaBar IFR Detector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulkes, S

    2004-01-01

    A new gas distribution and monitoring system was installed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detection system (IFR) of the BaBar detector at SLAC. Over 300 gas circuits are controlled and monitored. The return gas flow is monitored by digital bubblers which use photo-gate electronics to count the bubbling rate. The rates are monitored in real time and recorded in a history database allowing studies of flow rate versus chamber performance

  20. SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.; Glanzman, T.; Lankford, A.J.; Riles, K.

    1985-09-01

    The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. The status of the SLAC Linear Collider and of the Mark II detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1987-10-01

    At SLAC we are currently involved in the exciting challenge of commissioning the first example of a new type of colliding beam accelerator, the SLAC Linear Collider, or SLC. The goals of the SLC are two-fold. It will explore the concept of linear colliders, and it will allow the study of physics on the Z 0 resonance. It accomplishes these goals by exploiting the existing SLAC linac and the large visible cross-section of approximately thirty nanobarns of the Z 0 . The MARK II detector will have the opportunity to be first to explore the physics in this regime. This paper briefly reports the status of the SLC and of the MARK II as of early October 1987, at which time commissioning efforts were interrupted in order to place the MARK II detector at the collision point and to incorporate some improvements to the SLC. The first portion of this report highlights some of the milestones achieved in the SLC commissioning and some of the problems encountered. The last portion outlines improvements made to the MARK II for physics at the SLC. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  2. Integrated management tool for controls software problems, requests and project tasking at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogind, D.; Allen, W.; Colocho, W.; DeContreras, G.; Gordon, J.; Pandey, P.; Shoaee, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Directorate (AD) Instrumentation and Controls (ICD) Software (SW) Department at SLAC, with its service center model, continuously receives engineering requests to design, build and support controls for accelerator systems lab-wide. Each customer request can vary in complexity from a small software engineering change to a major enhancement. SLAC's Accelerator Improvement Projects (AIPs), along with DOE Construction projects, also contribute heavily to the work load. The various customer requests and projects, paired with the ongoing operational maintenance and problem reports, place a demand on the department that consistently exceeds the capacity of available resources. A centralized repository - comprised of all requests, project tasks, and problems - available to physicists, operators, managers, and engineers alike, is essential to capture, communicate, prioritize, assign, schedule, track, and finally, commission all work components. The Software Department has recently integrated request / project tasking into SLAC's custom online problem tracking 'Comprehensive Accelerator Tool for Enhancing Reliability' (CATER) tool. This paper discusses the newly implemented software request management tool - the workload it helps to track, its structure, features, reports, work-flow and its many usages. (authors)

  3. 6D Phase Space Measurements at the SLAC Gun Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerge, J

    2003-01-01

    Proposed fourth generation light sources using SASE FELs to generate short pulse, coherent X-rays require demonstration of high brightness electron sources. The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC was built to test high brightness sources for the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC. The GTF is composed of an Sband photocathode rf gun with a Cu cathode, emittance compensating solenoid, single 3 m SLAC linac section and e-beam diagnostic section with a UV drive laser system. The longitudinal emittance exiting the gun has been determined by measuring the energy spectrum downstream of the linac as a function of the linac phase. The e-beam pulse width, correlated and uncorrelated energy spread at the linac entrance have been fit to the measured energy spectra using a least square error fitting routine. The fit yields a pulse width of 2.9 ps FWHM for a 4.3 ps FWHM laser pulse width and 2% rms correlated energy spread with 0.07% rms uncorrelated energy spread. The correlated energy spread is enhanced in the lin...

  4. JUAN SIN MIEDO VA A LA ESCUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez-Anchía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base la lectura del cuento "Juan Sin Miedo" realizada por tres sujetos adolescentes, pretendo responder a la pregunta sobre los principales temores que enfrenta la población costarricense adolescente en la actualidad. Las respuestas giran en torno a tres núcleos significativos: el miedo a la exclusión económica y social, materializada en el trato discriminatorio hacia quienes no se adecuan a los criterios impuestos por la sociedad de consumo; el miedo a la escuela, en tanto excluye a quienes no se ajustan a la norma esperada de desempeño académico; y el miedo al otro, en particular a la calle y la escuela como espacios de violencia. Concluyo señalando que, detrás de dichos temores, es posible leer un anhelo de pertenencia; de aprecio sincero y gratuito, en que no medie el rendimiento académico de la persona; así como un anhelo de seguridad en el entorno cercano.

  5. The seven sins of memory: implications for self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Chiao, Joan Y; Mitchell, Jason P

    2003-10-01

    We examine the relation between memory and self by considering errors of memory. We draw on the idea that memory's imperfections can be classified into seven basic categories or "sins." Three of the sins concern different types of forgetting (transience, absent-mindedness, and blocking), three concern different types of distortion (misattribution, suggestibility, and bias), and one concerns intrusive memories (persistence). We focus in particular on two of the distortion-related sins, misattribution and bias. By describing cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies that illuminate these memory sins, we consider how they might bear on the relation between memory and self.

  6. First Measurement of the Left-Right Charge Asymmetry in Hadronic Z Boson Decays and a New Determination of sin2θeffW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Benvenuti, A.; Coller, J.; Hedges, S.; Johnson, A.; Shank, J.; Whitaker, J.; Allen, N.; Cotton, R.; Dervan, P.; Hasan, A.; McKemey, A.; Watts, S.; Caldwell, D.; Lu, A.; Yellin, S.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Liu, X.; Reinertsen, P.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B.; Williams, D.; DOliveira, A.; Johnson, R.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Dima, M.; Harton, J.; Smy, M.; Wilson, R.; Baranko, G.; Fahey, S.; Fan, C.; Krishna, N.; Lauber, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Wagner, D.; Bazarko, A.; Bolton, T.; Rowson, P.; Shaevitz, M.; Camanzi, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Abt, I.; Eisenstein, B.; Gladding, G.; Karliner, I.; Shapiro, G.; Steiner, H.; Bardon, O.; Burrows, P.; Busza, W.; Cowan, R.; Dong, D.; Fero, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Kendall, H.; Lath, A.; Lia, V.; Osborne, L.; Quigley, J.; Taylor, F.; Torrence, E.; Verdier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the left-right charge asymmetry A obs Q in hadronic Z boson decays. This was performed at E c.m. =91.27 GeV with the SLD at the SLAC Linear Collider with a polarized electron beam. Using 89838 events we obtain A obs Q =0.225±0.056±0.019, which leads to a measurement of the electron left-right asymmetry parameter, A e =0.162±0.041±0.014, and sin 2 θ eff W =0.2297±0.0052±0.0018. Also, the A obs Q measurement combined with the left-right cross section asymmetry determines A e independent of the value of the electron-beam polarization. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  8. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  9. THE HEIDELBERG CATECHISM ON HUMAN SIN AND MISERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Produced by SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein .... invites us to look at sin in terms of our fundamental alienation from God. And if sin-talk is therefore ..... the social structures created by the human race, but that we nevertheless have a measure of free ...

  10. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  11. Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.

    1983-03-01

    The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe

  12. The optical design of the spin manipulation system for the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.H.

    1989-03-01

    The optical design of the beam transport lines between the SLAC Linac and the electron damping ring and the design of part of the Linac lattice itself will be modified to accommodate three superconducting solenoids for the purpose of manipulating the polarization of the electron beam. In order to allow arbitrary orientation of the polarization vector, this design will be capable of compensating the fields of two independent solenoids for arbitrary strengths ranging to 7.0 T-m. The method of dealing with the coupling of the betatron functions and the method of handling both the electron and positron beams in the common region are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. The proposed alignment system for the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.; Fischer, G.E.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the current state of work in progress with respect to the geometry, alignment requirements, scenarios, and hardware for meeting the tolerances of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. The methods and systems proposed acknowledge that component motion at the micron level, from whatever cause (ground motion, thermal effects, etc.) must be measured on-line and compensated for on relatively short time scales. To provide an integrated alignment/positioning package, some unique designs for reference systems, calibration of effect electric and magnetic centers, and component movers are introduced. 24 refs., 28 figs

  14. TOSCA calculations and measurements for the SLAC SLC damping ring dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, R.A.; Cobb, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC damping ring dipole magnet was originally designed with removable nose pieces at the ends. Recently, a set of magnetic measurements was taken of the vertical component of induction along the center of the magnet for four different pole-end configurations and several current settings. The three dimensional computer code TOSCA, which is currently installed on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center's Cray X-MP, was used to computer field values for the four configurations at current settings near saturation. Comparisons were made for magnetic induction as well as effective magnetic lengths for the different configurations

  15. Z0 physics from the Mark II at the SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.S.

    1989-06-01

    The MARK II detector has started to take data at the new SLAC Linear Collider. The novel aspects of the accelerator and of the MARK II are briefly described. Displays of event pictures from some of the early-on data are presented to illustrate the quality of the data. A first presentation of the results of an energy scan near the Z 0 mass that is currently in progress shows the expected resonant enhancement near 91 GeV. 2 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab

  16. Fast track-finding trigger processor for the SLAC/LBL Mark II Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brafman, H.; Breidenbach, M.; Hettel, R.; Himel, T.; Horelick, D.

    1977-10-01

    The SLAC/LBL Mark II Magnetic Detector consists of various particle detectors arranged in cylindrical symmetry located in and around an axial magnetic field. A versatile, programmable secondary trigger processor was designed and built to find curved tracks in the detector. The system operates at a 10 MHz clock rate with a total processing time of 34 μsec and is used to ''trigger'' the data processing computer, thereby rejecting background and greatly improving the data acquisition aspects of the detector-computer combination

  17. Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearwater, S.

    1983-03-01

    The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe.

  18. Status of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory and the BaBar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1994-08-01

    The primary motivation of the Asymmetric B-Factory is the study of CP violation. The decay of B mesons and, in particular, the decay of neutral B mesons, offers the possibility of determining conclusively whether CP violation is part and parcel of the Standard Model with three generations of quarks and leptons. Alternatively, the authors may discover that CP violation lies outside the present framework. In this paper the authors briefly describe the physics reach of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL Asymmetric B-Factory, the progress on the machine design and construction, the progress on the detector design, and the schedule to complete both projects

  19. Dipole magnets for the SLAC 50 GeV A-Line upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; DeBarger, S.; Spencer, C.M.; Wolf, Z.

    1995-05-01

    The SLAC A-Line is a transport system originally designed to deliver electron beams of up to 25 GeV to fixed target experiments in End Station A. To raise the beam energy capability of the A-Line to 52 GeV, the eight original bending magnets, plus four more of the same type, have been modified by reducing their gaps and adding trim windings to compensate for energy loss due to synchrotron radiation. In this paper the authors describe the modifications that have been completed, and they compare test and measurement results with predicted performance

  20. Upgrade of the SLAC SLED II Pulse Compression System Based on Recent High Power Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.; Fowkes, W.R.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the Next Linear Collider (NLC) it is expected that the high power rf components be able to handle peak power levels in excess of 400 MW. We present recent results of high power tests designed to investigate the RF breakdown limits of the X-band pulse compression system used at SLAC. (SLED-II). Results of these tests show that both the TE 01 -TE 10 mode converter and the 4-port hybrid have a maximum useful power limit of 220-250 MW. Based on these tests, modifications of these components have been undertaken to improve their peak field handling capability. Results of these modifications will be presented. As part of an international effort to develop a new 0.5-1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider for the 21st century, SLAC has been working towards a design, referred to as 'The Next Linear Collider' (NLC), which will operate at 11.424 GHz and utilize 50-75 MW klystrons as rf power sources. One of the major challenges in this design, or any other design, is how to generate and efficiently transport extremely high rf power from a source to an accelerator structure. SLAC has been investigating various methods of 'pulse compressing' a relatively wide rf pulse ((ge) 1 μs) from a klystron into a narrower, but more intense, pulse. Currently a SLED-II pulse compression scheme is being used at SLAC in the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and in the Accelerator Structures Test Area (ASTA) to provide high rf power for accelerator and component testing. In ASTA, a 1.05 μs pulse from a 50 MW klystron was successfully pulse compressed to 205 MW with a pulse width of 150 ns. Since operation in NLC will require generating and transporting rf power in excess of 400 MW it was decided to test the breakdown limits of the SLED-II rf components in ASTA with rf power up to the maximum available of 400 MW. This required the combining of power from two 50 MW klystrons and feeding the summed power into the SLED-II pulse compressor. Results from this experiment demonstrated that two of

  1. Requirements for use of nonmedical x-ray generators at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busick, D.D.

    1984-09-01

    The risks associated with use of x-ray equipment have long been recognized. While the relative frequency of x-ray damage is small, machine produced x-rays and large radiography sources continue to account for a large percentage of preventable radiation injuries reported worldwide. The intent of this report is to formalize SLAC's radiation safety program as it applies to radiation producing equipment (diffraction, fluorescence analysis and nondestructive testing). It does not apply to the two-mile linac, experimental areas or other x-ray producing equipment directly related to the high energy physics program. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  3. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  4. FEL research and development at the SLAC sub-picosecond photon source, SPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentson, L.; Bolton, P.; Bong, E.; Emma, P.; Galayda, J.; Hastings, J.; Krejcik, P.; Rago, C.; Rifkin, J.; Spencer, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    An upgrade project to the SLAC linac allows ultra-short electron bunches to be interleaved with the routine high-energy physics program operation, for use with an undulator to produce short-pulse, high-brightness X-rays. The linac upgrade comprises of the installation in the summer of 2002 of a bunch compressor chicane of similar design to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) project. A final compression stage in the high-energy Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) line compresses the 28 GeV, 3.4 nC electron bunch to 80 fs FWHM, where a 5 m section of undulator (K=4.45) will produce 1.5 A X-rays with 3x10 7 photons per pulse and a peak brightness of 4x10 24 photons mm -2 mrad -2 s -1 (0.1% BW). The facility will allow us to test the dynamics and associated technology of bunch compression and gain valuable experience for the LCLS using the SLAC linac. New ultra-short electron bunch diagnostic techniques will be developed hand in hand with the same ultra-fast laser technology to be used for LCLS. Issues of high peak power (27 GW) X-ray transport and optics can be addressed at this facility as well as pump-probe and ultra-fast laser timing and stability issues

  5. Gallium arsenide digital integrated circuits for controlling SLAC CW-RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Lee, K.L.; Corredoura, P.; Judkins, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    In order to fill the PEP and SPEAR storage rings with beams from the SLC linac and damping rings, precise control of the linac subharmonic buncher and the damping ring RF is required. Recently several companies have developed resettable GaAs master/slave D-type flip-flops which are capable of operating at frequencies of 3 GHz and higher. Using these digital devices as frequency dividers, one can phase shift the SLAC CW-RF systems to optimize the timing for filling the storage rings. We have evaluated the performance of integrated circuits from two vendors for our particular application. Using microstrip circuit techniques, we have built and operated in the accelerator several chassis to synchronize a reset signal from the storage rings to the SLAC 2.856 GHz RF and to phase shift divide-by-four and divide-by-sixteen frequency dividers to the nearest 350 psec bucket required for filling. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.

    1977-03-01

    Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements were made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented, and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  7. Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements have been made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  8. Technical Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-26

    Electrons can “surf” on waves of plasma – a hot gas of charged particles – gaining very high energies in very short distances. This approach, called plasma wakefield acceleration, has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider has been the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. FACET used part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and their antimatter counterparts, positrons. Research into plasma wakefield acceleration was the primary motivation for constructing FACET. In April 2016, FACET operations came to an end to make way for the second phase of SLAC’s x-ray laser, the LCLS-II, which will use part of the tunnel occupied by FACET. FACET-II is a new test facility to provide the unique capability to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. FACET-II represents a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique.

  9. Results of the SLAC LCLS Gun High-Power RF Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.H.; Jongewaard, E.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Schmerge, J.F.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; Wang, J.; Lewandowski, J.; Vlieks, A.

    2007-01-01

    The beam quality and operational requirements for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) currently being constructed at SLAC are exceptional, requiring the design of a new RF photocathode gun for the electron source. Based on operational experience at SLAC's GTF and SDL and ATF at BNL as well as other laboratories, the 1.6cell s-band (2856MHz) gun was chosen to be the best electron source for the LCLS, however a significant redesign was necessary to achieve the challenging parameters. Detailed 3-D analysis and design was used to produce near-perfect rotationally symmetric rf fields to achieve the emittance requirement. In addition, the thermo-mechanical design allows the gun to operate at 120Hz and a 140MV/m cathode field, or to an average power dissipation of 4kW. Both average and pulsed heating issues are addressed in the LCLS gun design. The first LCLS gun is now fabricated and has been operated with high-power RF. The results of these high-power tests are presented and discussed

  10. Advocacy for the Archives and History Office of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: Stages and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deken, J.

    2009-01-01

    Advocating for the good of the SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) has not been a one-time affair, nor has it been a one-method procedure. It has required taking time to ascertain the current and perhaps predict the future climate of the Laboratory, and it has required developing and implementing a portfolio of approaches to the goal of building a stronger archive program by strengthening and appropriately expanding its resources. Among the successful tools in the AHO advocacy portfolio, the Archives Program Review Committee has been the most visible. The Committee and the role it serves as well as other formal and informal advocacy efforts are the focus of this case study My remarks today will begin with a brief introduction to advocacy and outreach as I understand them, and with a description of the Archives and History Office's efforts to understand and work within the corporate culture of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. I will then share with you some of the tools we have employed to advocate for the Archives and History Office programs and activities; and finally, I will talk about how well - or badly - those tools have served us over the past decade.

  11. Personnel dose equivalent monitoring at SLAC using lithium-fluoride TLD's [thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Busick, D.D.

    1987-03-01

    TLD's replaced film badges in the early 1970's for all dose equivalent monitoring, both neutron and photon, and for all locations at SLAC. The photon TLD's, composed of Li-7 loaded teflon discs, are calibrated using conventional gamma-ray sources; i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, etc. For these TLD's a nominal value of 1 nC/mrem is used, and is independent of source energy for 100 keV to 3 MeV. Since measured dose equivalents at SLAC are only a small fraction of the allowable levels, it was not deemed necessary to develop neutron dosimeters which would measure dose equivalent accurately for all possible neutron spectra. Today, wallet TLD's, composed of pairs of Li-7 and Li-6 discs, are used, with the Li-6 measuring only thermal neutrons; i.e., they aren't moderated in any way to make them sensitive to neutrons with energies greater than thermal. The assumption is made that there is a correlation between thermal neutron fluences and fast neutron fluences around the research area where almost all neutron doses (exclusive of sealed sources) are received. The calibration factor for these Li-6 TLD's is 1 nC/mrem of fast neutrons. The method of determining the validity of this calibration is the subject of this note. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement by the Mark II experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider of the parameters of the Z boson resonance. The results are updated from those presented at the SLAC Summer Institute to include all data presented in the most recent Mark II publication, consisting of 19 nb -1 of data at ten different center-of-mass energies between 89.2 and 93.0 GeV. The resonance parameters are extracted by measuring the Z production cross section at a series of center-of-mass energies (scan points) near the Z peak, then fitting these data with the theoretical cross section. The four major aspects of the analysis are the determination at each scan point of the center-of-mass energy (E), the integrated luminosity, the number of Z decays and the expected cross section as a function of the resonance parameters, such as mass and width. I will discuss each of these steps in turn, after a brief description of the Mark II detector, then conclude with the results of the analysis. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Majer, E.I.; More, V.D.; O'Connell, D.R.; Shilling, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different

  14. Measurements of ultimate accelerating gradients in the SLAC disk-loaded structure. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here describes measurements made to study the maximum attainable accelerating gradients in a conventional SLAC disk-loaded accelerator section of the constant-gradient type running at 2856 MHz. The objective was to reach an accelerating gradient of at least 100 MV/m. The accelerating gradient at which the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide runs routinely is approx. 9 MV/m (36 MW tubes without SLED) and approx. 12 MV/m with SLED I (2.5 μsec pulse). To reach 100 MV/m in a conventional 3 m constant-gradient section, one would need a klystron with a peak power output of 900 MW. since such a tube is not available, we decided to use a short standing-wave section in which the resonant fields would be allowed to build up. The design criteria for this section, the fabrication, matching and tuning, the experimental set-up and the results are described below

  15. The UCLA/SLAC Ultra-High Gradient Cerenkov Wakefield Accelerator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Matthew C; Hogan, Mark; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Muggli, Patric; Rosenzweig, James E; Scott, A; Siemann, Robert; Travish, Gil; Walz, Dieter; Yoder, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is planned to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range. This new UCLA/SLAC collaboration will take advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its demonstrated ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., sz = 20 μm at Q = 3 nC). The electron beam will be focused down and sent through varying lengths of fused silica capillary tubing with two different sizes: ID = 200 μm / OD = 325 μm and ID = 100 μm / OD = 325 μm. The pulse length of the electron beam will be varied in order to alter the accelerating gradient and probe the breakdown threshold of the dielectric structures. In addition to breakdown studies, we plan to collect and measure coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube to gain information about the strength of the accelerating fields. Status and progress on the experiment are reported.

  16. Production of high intensity electron bunches for the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    This thesis describes the design and performance of a high intensity electron injecfor for the SLAC Linear Collider. Motivation for the collider and the specifications for the injector are discussed. An analytic theory of the bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields is discussed in the limit of low space charge and small signal. The design and performance of SLAC's main injector are described to illustrate a successful application of this theory. The bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields are then discussed in the limit of high space charge and large signal, and a description of the design of the collider injector follows. In the limit of high space charge forces and large rf signals, the beam dynamics are considerably more complex and numerical simulations are required to predict particle motion. A computer code which models the longitudinal dynamics of electrons in the presence of space charge and rf fields is described. The results of the simulations, the resulting collider injector design and the various components which make up the collider injector are described. These include the gun, subharmonic bunchers, traveling-wave buncher and velocity-of-light accelerator section. Finally, the performance of the injector is described including the beam intensity, bunch length, transverse emittance and energy spectrum. While the final operating conditions differ somewaht from the design, the performance of the collider injector is in good agreement with the numerical simulations and meets all of the collider specifications. 28 refs

  17. SIN3A mutations are rare in men with azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Koh, E; Tsujimura, A; Miyagawa, Y; Minase, G; Ueda, Y; Namiki, M; Sengoku, K

    2015-11-01

    A loss of function of the murine Sin3A gene resulted in male infertility with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) phenotype in mice. Here, we investigated the relevance of this gene to human male infertility with azoospermia caused by SCOS. Mutation analysis of SIN3A in the coding region was performed on 80 Japanese patients. However, no variants could be detected. This study suggests a lack of association of SIN3A gene sequence variants with azoospermia caused by SCOS in humans. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Operability of glioblastomas: "sins of action" versus "sins of non-action".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Schiariti, Marco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Salmaggi, Andrea; Castiglione, Melina; Acerbi, Francesco; Tringali, Giovanni; Farinotti, Mariangela; Broggi, Morgan; Roberto, Cordella; Maccagnano, Elio; Broggi, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Despite prognosis of glioblastomas is still poor, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resections are associated with longer life expectancy. However, the surgical indications, at present, are far from uniform and the concept of operability is extremely surgeon-dependant. The results of glioblastoma resection in 104 patients operated on between March 2005 and April 2011 were reviewed with the aim to shed some light on the limits between 'sins of action' (operating upon complex tumors causing a permanent severe deficit) and 'sins of non-action' (considering inoperable tumors that can be resected with good results). Fifty-five patients (54.4 %) (Group 1) presented with a 'disputable' surgical indication because of one or more of the following clinico-radiological aspects: involvement of motor and language areas (39.4 %), deep location (7.7 %), corpus callosum infiltration (13.4 %), or major vessels encasement (8.6 %). Forty-six (42.5 %) patients (Group 2) presented with an 'indisputable' surgical indication (readily accessible tumors in non-eloquent areas). Overall mortality was 2.9 %. The mean overall survival was 19.8 months and not significantly different in the two Groups (20.4 Group 2 and 19.5 months for Group 1; p = 0.7). Patients with GTR and <72 years had a longer survival (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Seventy patients (69.3 %) showed an uneventful post-operative course, without statistical significance difference between Group 1 and 2. The gross total removal of glioblastoma with many complexities (Group 1) was found to be feasible with acceptable mortality, morbidity and long-term survival rates.

  19. Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine translation output over four years. ... Journal Home > Vol 46 (2016) > ... We believe users should be made aware of the risks they unknowingly take when using online MT.

  20. SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.

  1. THE POSTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF sin(i) VALUES FOR EXOPLANETS WITH MT sin(i) DETERMINED FROM RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; Turner, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) observations of an exoplanet system giving a value of M T sin(i) condition (i.e., give information about) not only the planet's true mass M T but also the value of sin(i) for that system (where i is the orbital inclination angle). Thus, the value of sin(i) for a system with any particular observed value of M T sin(i) cannot be assumed to be drawn randomly from a distribution corresponding to an isotropic i distribution, i.e., the presumptive prior distribution. Rather, the posterior distribution from which it is drawn depends on the intrinsic distribution of M T for the exoplanet population being studied. We give a simple Bayesian derivation of this relationship and apply it to several 'toy models' for the intrinsic distribution of M T , on which we have significant information from available RV data in some mass ranges but little or none in others. The results show that the effect can be an important one. For example, even for simple power-law distributions of M T , the median value of sin(i) in an observed RV sample can vary between 0.860 and 0.023 (as compared to the 0.866 value for an isotropic i distribution) for indices of the power law in the range between -2 and +1, respectively. Over the same range of indices, the 95% confidence interval on M T varies from 1.0001-2.405 (α = -2) to 1.13-94.34 (α = +2) times larger than M T sin(i) due to sin(i) uncertainty alone. More complex, but still simple and plausible, distributions of M T yield more complicated and somewhat unintuitive posterior sin(i) distributions. In particular, if the M T distribution contains any characteristic mass scale M c , the posterior sin(i) distribution will depend on the ratio of M T sin(i) to M c , often in a non-trivial way. Our qualitative conclusion is that RV studies of exoplanets, both individual objects and statistical samples, should regard the sin(i) factor as more than a 'numerical constant of order unity' with simple and well-understood statistical

  2. The seven sins in academic behavior in the natural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-01-02

    "Seven deadly sins" in modern academic research and publishing can be condensed into a list ranging from poorly described experimental or computational setups to falsification of data. This Essay describes these sins and their ramifications, and serves as a code of best practice for researchers in their quest for scientific truth. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. SLAC collider injector, RF-drive synchronization and trigger electronics, and 15-AMP thermionic-gun development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.; Miller, R.; McKinney, T.; Wilmunder, A.

    1981-02-01

    The rf drive system for the Collider Injector Development (EL CID) including laser timing, subharmonic buncher drive and phasing, and accelerator rf drive is described. The rf synchronized master trigger generation scheme for the collider is outlined. Also, a 15 amp peak, 200 kV short pulse gun being developed at SLAC as a backup to the Sinclair laser gun is described

  4. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A.; Lambertson, G.

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Production and decay of Z bosons at the SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1989-12-01

    My lectures at Cargese covered the very first physics results from the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). At the time of this writing (December 1989), it seems most sensible to present a review of the results that were presented at the school in an updated form. The organization of this report will be to give a brief introduction to linear colliders and the SLC, then to describe the MARK II detector, and finally to review the current status of the three major physics topics discussed at Cargese: the Z line shape, from which we deduce the Z mass and width, and the number of neutrino species, the partonic structure of hadronic decays and a measurement of α s , and searches for new quarks and leptons. 39 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Emittance studies of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, X.J.

    1997-01-01

    The symmetrized 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A novel emittance compensation solenoid magnet has also been designed, built and is in operation at the ATF. These two subsystems form an emittance compensated photoinjector used for beam dynamics, advanced acceleration and free electron laser experiments at the ATF. The highest acceleration field achieved on the copper cathode is 150 MV/m, and the guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The maximum rf pulse length is 3 micros. The transverse emittance of the photoelectron beam were measured for various injection parameters. The 1 nC emittance results are presented along with electron bunch length measurements that indicated that at above the 400 pC, space charge bunch lengthening is occurring. The thermal emittance, ε o , of the copper cathode has been measured

  7. 600 kV modulator design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.; de Lamare, J.; Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1992-07-01

    Preliminary design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) requires a pulse power source to produce a 600 kV, 600 A, 1.4 μs, 0.1% flat top pulse with rise and fall times of approximately 100 ns to power an X-Band klystron with a microperveance of 1.25 at ∼ 100 MW peak RF power. The design goals for the modulator, including those previously listed, are peak modulator pulse power of 340 MW operating at 120 Hz. A three-stage darlington pulse-forming network, which produces a >100 kV, 1.4 μs pulse, is coupled to the klystron load through a 6:1 pulse transformer. Careful consideration of the transformer leakage inductance, klystron capacitance, system layout, and component choice is necessary to produce the very fast rise and fall times at 600 kV operating continuously at 120 Hz

  8. The Spin Structure Function of the Proton from SLAC Experiment E155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, P

    2004-02-17

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the longitudinal and transverse deep inelastic structure functions of the proton and deuteron using a polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam and solid polarized targets of ammonia ({sup 15}NH{sub 3}) for proton measurements and lithium deuteride ({sup 6}Li{sup 2}H) for deuteron measurements. Three electromagnetic spectrometers at angles of 2.75{sup o}, 5.5{sup o}, and 10.5{sup o} measured the scattered electrons. This work presents an analysis of the longitudinal structure function of the proton, g{sub 1}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}). Included is a re-analysis of the proton target polarization data that for the first time corrects a problem encountered which altered those measurements.

  9. Recent SLAC measurements of the spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapalac, G.

    1995-09-01

    The authors present results from SLAC experiments E142 and E143 for the spin dependent structure functions of the proton g 1 p (x, Q 2 ) and neutron g 1 n (x,Q 2 ) measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized target. Experiment E142 measures ∫ 0 1 g 1 n (x)dx = -0.022 ± 0.011 at 2 > = 2 (GeV/c) 2 using a polarized 3 He target. Experiment E143 measures ∫ 0 1 g 1 p (x)dx = 0.129 ± 0.011 at 2 > = 3 (GeV/c) 2 using a polarized NH 3 target. These results are combined at Q 2 = 3 (GeV/c) 2 to yield ∫ 0 1 [g 1 p (x) - g 1 n (x)]dx = 0.151 ± 0.015. The Bjorken sum rule predicts 0.171 ± 0.008

  10. Single-bunch beam loading on the SLAC two-mile accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1976-05-01

    The experiments described were initially prompted by interest in the radiation loss of relativistic electron rings passing through periodic structures. Later the same experiments became relevant to the theory of energy loss of electrons in large storage rings. In both of these cases energy loss to the higher order modes of the respective structures could seriously limit their effective operation. In these experiments, single bunches of electrons with intensities up to 7 x 10 8 electrons per bunch are accelerated through the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator, and their energy spectra are analyzed. Early experiments over a wide energy range (900 MeV to 19 GeV) demonstrated that the energy loss was proportional to the total charge in the bunch but was independent of beam energy. The average energy loss of a single bunch normalized to 10 9 electrons was initially measured to be 38 MeV

  11. Highlights of the SLD Physics Program at the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willocq, Stephane

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1989, and continuing through the 1990s, high-energy physics witnessed a flowering of precision measurements in general and tests of the standard model in particular, led by e + e - collider experiments operating at the Z 0 resonance. Key contributions to this work came from the SLD collaboration at the SLAC Linear Collider. By exploiting the unique capabilities of this pioneering accelerator and the SLD detector, including a polarized electron beam, exceptionally small beam dimensions, and a CCD pixel vertex detector, SLD produced a broad array of electroweak, heavy-flavor, and QCD measurements. Many of these results are one of a kind or represent the world's standard in precision. This article reviews the highlights of the SLD physics program, with an eye toward associated advances in experimental technique, and the contribution of these measurements to our dramatically improved present understanding of the standard model and its possible extensions

  12. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed

  13. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed.

  14. Highlights of the SLD Physics Program at the SLAC Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willocq, Stephane

    2001-09-07

    Starting in 1989, and continuing through the 1990s, high-energy physics witnessed a flowering of precision measurements in general and tests of the standard model in particular, led by e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments operating at the Z{sup 0} resonance. Key contributions to this work came from the SLD collaboration at the SLAC Linear Collider. By exploiting the unique capabilities of this pioneering accelerator and the SLD detector, including a polarized electron beam, exceptionally small beam dimensions, and a CCD pixel vertex detector, SLD produced a broad array of electroweak, heavy-flavor, and QCD measurements. Many of these results are one of a kind or represent the world's standard in precision. This article reviews the highlights of the SLD physics program, with an eye toward associated advances in experimental technique, and the contribution of these measurements to our dramatically improved present understanding of the standard model and its possible extensions.

  15. Study of the spin structure functions of the nucleon: the E143 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the results of the E143 experiment of deep inelastic scattering of 29 GeV polarized electrons from polarized NH 3 and ND 3 targets, at SLAC. The goal of the experiment is the measurement of the spin structure functions g 1 and g 2 of the nucleon which provide information on its internal spin structure. Experimentally, the structure functions are extracted from the measurement of cross section asymmetries. Our measured values of the first moment of g 1 are two and three standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule predictions, for the proton and for the deuteron, respectively. The Bjoerken sum rule, a QCD fundamental prediction, has been confirmed. We find the quark contribution to the nucleon spin to be around 30 pc. Our results on g 2 are well described by the Wandzura-Wilczek expression. (author) [fr

  16. Committee Report of the BEPC-II Project Design Review May 13-15, 2002, SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Traci M.

    2002-08-26

    As part of the US-China Cooperative Program in High Energy Physics for the year 2002, a BEPC-II Upgrade Review meeting was held at SLAC, May 13-15, 2002. The upgrade is aimed at improving the luminosity and performance of the BEPC facility at IHEP in Beijing, China with major upgrades to the injector linac, storage ring, and detector. This review addresses mainly the accelerator related issues. Prior to the review, an updated Draft Design Report was made available to the review team. Most important technical change since April 2001 has been a change from a single-ring configuration to a doublering. The goal of the review is to determine whether BEPC-II, if built as described, will meet the operations and physics goals. The charge to the review team is attached as Appendix A.

  17. SLAC/SPIRES Announces the Top-Cited Papers of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Heath B

    2002-01-01

    Physicists who search the literature on elementary particles know that the SLAC library's SPIRES-HEP database provides an essential tool. The database lists virtually every paper published or even preprinted in high energy physics over the past thirty years. The database connects preprint or eprint versions to articles published in journals or conference proceedings, providing access to all phases of the publication history. In addition, most papers have backward links to the papers they cite and forward links to the papers citing them. These citation linkages provide a very effective means of searching the literature on any topic of interest. In the past few years, SPIRES-HEP has been automatically harvesting reference citations from eprints, creating a web of links which indexes the literature in a quite thorough manner. As a byproduct of this citation linkage, SPIRES-HEP can easily search out the papers most highly cited by publications in high-energy physics. The list of papers with the most citations in a given year provides a snapshot of the hottest topics that have engaged the attention of theorists and experimenters. For the past several years, SPIRES-HEP has posted a scientific review of the year's top-cited papers. The whole collection of these reviews can be found on the Web at: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/topcites/. We have recently posted the topcite lists for the year 2000. These materials include a list of the papers with more than 100 citations in the past year, and a list of the paper with more than 1000 citations over the history of the SPIRES-HEP database

  18. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  19. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  20. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  1. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  2. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  3. The original risk: overtheologizing ethics and undertheologizing sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The project of articulating a theological ethics on the basis of liturgical anthropology is bound to fail if the necessary consequence is that one has to quit the forum of critical modern rationality. The risk of Engelhardt's approach is to limit rationality to a narrow vision of reason. Sin is not to be understood as the negation of human holiness, but as the negation of divine holiness. The only way to renew theological ethics is to understand sin as the anthropological and ethical expression of the biblical message of the justification by faith only. Sin is therefore a secondary category, which can only by interpreted in light of the positive manifestation of liberation, justification, and grace. The central issue of Christian ethics is not ritual purity or morality, but experience, confession and recognition of our own injustice in our dealing with God and men.

  4. Setup and Calibration of SLAC's Peripheral Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.

    2004-09-03

    The goals of this project were to troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and establish documentation regarding SLAC's (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's) PMS (Peripheral Monitoring Station) system. The PMS system consists of seven PMSs that continuously monitor skyshine (neutron and photon) radiation levels in SLAC's environment. Each PMS consists of a boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) neutron detector (model RS-P1-0802-104 or NW-G-20-12) and a Geiger Moeller (GM) gamma ray detector (model TGM N107 or LND 719) together with their respective electronics. Electronics for each detector are housed in Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) and are plugged into a NIM bin in the station. All communication lines from the stations to the Main Control Center (MCC) were tested prior to troubleshooting. To test communication with MCC, a pulse generator (Systron Donner model 100C) was connected to each channel in the PMS and data at MCC was checked for consistency. If MCC displayed no data, the communication cables to MCC or the CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) crates were in need of repair. If MCC did display data, then it was known that the communication lines were intact. All electronics from each station were brought into the lab for troubleshooting. Troubleshooting usually consisted of connecting an oscilloscope or scaler (Ortec model 871 or 775) at different points in the circuit of each detector to record simulated pulses produced by a pulse generator; the input and output pulses were compared to establish the location of any problems in the circuit. Once any problems were isolated, repairs were done accordingly. The detectors and electronics were then calibrated in the field using radioactive sources. Calibration is a process that determines the response of the detector. Detector response is defined as the ratio of the number of counts per minute interpreted by the detector to the amount of dose equivalent rate (in mrem per hour, either calculated

  5. Prediction of the electron redundant SinNn fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihui; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-05-01

    The stabilities and electronic structures of SimAln-mNn and SinNn (n = 16, 20, m = 12 and n = 24, m = 16) fullerene-like cages have been investigated using density functional method B3LYP and the second-order perturbation theory MP2. The results show that the SimAln-mNn and SinNn fullerenes are more stable than the AlN counterparts. Comparing with the corresponding AlnNn cages, one silicon atom in each Si2N2 square protrudes and the excess electrons reside as lone pair electrons at the outside of the protrudent Si atoms. Analyses on the electronic structures suggest that the Sisbnd N bonds are covalent bonding with strong polarity. The ELF (electron localization function) shows large electron pair probability between Si and N atoms. The orbital interactions between Si and N are stronger than that between Al and N atoms; the overlap integral is 0.40 per Sisbnd N bond in SinNn and 0.34 per Alsbnd N bond in AlnNn. The AIM (atoms in molecule) charges on the Al atoms in AlnNn and SimAln-mNn are 2.37 and 2.40. The charges on the in-plane and protrudent Si atoms are about 2.88 and 1.50 respectively. Considering the large local dipole moments around the protrudent Si atoms, the electrostatic interactions are also favorable to the SiN cages.

  6. The deadly sins of high technology: Superphenix, Eurotunnel, Ariane 5.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.; Jeanmougin, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of civil or military high technology projects (Superphenix reactor, English Channel tunnel, Ariane 5 launcher, etc..), mainly of European origin, this book reveals seven systematic sins in the realization of these projects: an abolishment of controls, a premature construction, a manumission of suppliers, a no-share of risks attitude, political manipulations, fraudulence and secrecy. (J.S.)

  7. Resisting the therapeutic reduction: on the significance of sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Sin-talk, though politically incorrect, is indispensable. Placing human life under the "hermeneutic of sin" means acknowledging that one ought to aim flawlessly at God, and that one can fail in this endeavor. None of this can be appreciated within the contemporary post-Christian, mindset, which has attempted to reduce religion to morality and culture. In such a secular context, the guilt-feelings connected with the recognition of sin are considered to be harmful; the eternal benefit of a repentance is disregarded. Nevertheless, spirituality appears to have therapeutic benefits. Therefore attempts are made to re-locate within healthcare a religion shorn of its transcendent claims, so as then to harvest the benefits of a spirituality "saved from sin". This reduction of religiosity to its therapeutic function is nourished by a post-modern constructivist construal of religion. This article critically examines the dis-ingenuity marring such recasting, as well as the incoherence of related attempts to reduce transcendence to solidarity, and to re-shape the significance of religious rituals.

  8. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Mark [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  9. Single-bunch beam loading on the SLAC two-mile accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments described were initially prompted by interest in the radiation loss of relativistic electron rings passing through periodic structures. Later, the same experiments became relevant to the theory of energy loss of electrons in large storage rings. In both of these cases, energy loss to the higher order modes of the respective structures could seriously limit their effective operation as acceleration devices. In these experiments, single bunches of electrons with intensities up to 7 x 10 8 electrons per bunch are accelerated through the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator, and their energy spectra are analyzed. Early experiments over a wide energy range (900 MeV to 19 GeV) demonstrated that the energy loss was proportional to the total charge in the bunch but was independent of beam energy. The average energy loss of a single bunch normalized to 10 9 electrons was initially measured to be 38 MeV. The experiments, including much of the equipment development, are described and are compared with theoretical predictions made to date

  10. Passive performance monitoring and traffic characteristics on the SLAC internet border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.; Cottrell, L.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding how the Internet is used by HEP is critical to optimizing the performance of the inter-lab computing environment. Typically use requirements have been defined by discussions between collaborators. However, later analysis of the actual traffic has show this is often misunderstood and actual use is significantly different to that predicted. Passive monitoring of the real traffic provides insight into the true communications requirements and the performance of a large number of inter-communicating nodes. It may be useful in identifying performance problems that are due to factors other than Internet congestion, especially when compared to other methods such as active monitoring where traffic is generated specifically to measure its performance. Controlled active monitoring between dedicated servers often gives an indication of what can be achieved on a network. Passive monitoring of the real traffic gives a picture of the true performance. The authors will discuss the method and results of collecting and analyzing flows of data obtained from the SLAC Internet border. The insights this has brought to understanding the network will be reviewed and the benefit it can bring to engineering networks will be discussed

  11. An Exploration of Analysis Software at SLAC through the Study of X(3872)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X(3872), a particle discovered by Belle Labs, has not yet been described in a sufficient enough way by any group to draw definitive conclusions about it. In order to verify the claims of Belle Labs and learn more about X(3872), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (henceforth SLAC) has undertaken a project to analyze the particle, a subgroup of the BaBar project. The computing systems involved are complex; the tutorials for the software and new software releases both need constant testing and revision. Using a new software release, I tested tutorials for various software used by the BaBar group, including UNIX, Root, and CM2, in an effort to eventually analyze X(3872) data. The offline workbook for the BaBar software needs to be better maintained, and the CM2 tutorials need to be modified and updated. While none of my results contributed directly to the project (i.e. I have no results that add to information about X(3872)), improvement of the tutorials will streamline integration of new scientists into the BaBar group

  12. Application of the code Slac to the study of Ion Extraction Systems in Neutral Injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Liniers, M.; Guasp, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study different extraction geometries for intense ion beams have been analyzed with the code SLAC, in view of its possible application to the neutral injectors of TJ-II. With this aim, we have introduced several modifications in the code in order to correctly simulate the transition between the ion source plasma and the extraction region, which has great impact on the beam optics. These modifications include the introduction of a population of Boltzmann electrons in the transition region, and the implementation of an option to simulate the thermal velocity of the ions in the source. We have found a better agreement between the results obtained with the new version of the code and the experimental data in two well known systems. With this new version of the code two different studies have been carried out: in the first place an optimization of the ATF injectors extraction system for its use on TJ-II, leading to an optimum value of the gap in the energy range 30-40 KeV, and in the second place a systematic study of extraction geometries at 40 KeV. As a result of this second study we have found the combinations of parameters that can be used under different working conditions (e.g. different pulse lengths), leading to acceptable values of the beam divergence. (Author)

  13. STATUS OF X-BAND STANDING WAVE STRUCTURE STUDIES AT SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, Valery A.

    2003-01-01

    The linacs proposed for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and Japanese Linear Collider (JLC) would contain several thousand X-Band accelerator structures that would operate at a loaded gradient of 50 MV/m. An extensive experimental and theoretical program is underway at SLAC, FNAL and KEK to develop structures that reliably operate at this gradient. The development of standing wave structures is a part of this program. The properties of standing wave structures allow them to operate at the loaded gradient in contrast to traveling wave structures that need conditioning to the unloaded gradient (65 MV/m for NLC/JLC). The gradients in the standing structures tested thus far have been limited by input coupler breakdowns. The behavior of these breakdowns is consistent with a model of pulsed heating due to high magnetic fields. New input couplers have been designed to reduce maximum magnetic fields. This paper discusses design considerations related to high power performance, wakefield suppression and results of high power tests of prototype standing wave structures

  14. High-power rf pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50--100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-los resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, we have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circular TE 01 mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator)

  15. Improvements in emittance wake field optimization for the SLAC Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Franz Josef

    2003-01-01

    The transverse emittances in the SLAC Linear Collider can be severely diluted by collective wakefield effects and dispersion. For the 1997/98 SLC/SLD run important changes were implemented in the way the emittance is optimized. Early in the linac, where the energy spread is large due to BNS damping, the emittance growth is dominated by dispersion. In this regime emittance tuning bumps may introduce additional wakefield tails and their use is now avoided. At the end of the linac the energy spread is minimal and the emittance measurement is most sensitive to wakefield emittance dilution. In previous years, the emittances were tuned on wire scanners located near but not at the end of the linac (after about 90% of its length). Simulations show that emittance growth of up to 100% can occur in the remaining 10%. In this run wire scanners at the entrance of the Final Focus, the last place where the emittances can be measured, were used for the optimization. Screens at the end of the linac allow additional real time ...

  16. The physics program of a high-luminosity asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    A high-luminosity asymmetric energy B Factory, proposed as an upgrade to the PEP storage ring at SLAC, provides the best opportunity to study CP violation as a means of testing the consistency of the Standard Model. If the phenomenon of CP violation is explained by the Standard Model simply through the non-zero angles and phase of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, then there are precise relations between the K-M parameters and the various measurable CP-violating asymmetries in B meson decay. Should these consistency relations fail, the origin of CP violation must lie outside the Standard Model framework. Our measurements would then lead to the first experiment-driven extensions of the Standard Model. The B Factory will also carry out a varied, high-quality program of studies of other aspects of the physics of b quarks, as well as high-precision measurements in τ and charm physics. We describe a detailed series of measurements to be carried out in the first few years at a peak luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 , the initial luminosity goal of the B Factory, as well as the program accessible to a larger data sample

  17. Performance of the PEP-II B-Factory Collider at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.A.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Li, N.; Novokhatski, A.; Ross, M.C.; Schuh, P.; Smith, T.J.; Sonnad, K.G.; Stanek, M.; Sullivan, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    PEP-II is an e + e - asymmetric B-Factory Collider located at SLAC operating at the Upsilon 4S resonance (3.1 GeV x 9 GeV). It has reached a luminosity of 9.21 x 10 33 /cm 2 /s and has delivered an integrated luminosity of 710 pb -1 in one day. PEP-II has delivered, over the past six years, an integrated luminosity to the BaBar detector of over 262 fb -1 . PEP-II operates in continuous injection mode for both beams boosting the integrated luminosity. The peak positron current has reached 2.45 A in 1588 bunches. Steady progress is being made in reaching higher luminosity. The goal over the next several years is to reach a luminosity of 2.1 x 10 34 /cm 2 /s. The accelerator physics issues being addressed in PEP-II to reach this goal include the electron cloud instability, beam-beam effects, parasitic beam-beam effects, high RF beam loading, shorter bunches, lower β* y interaction region operation, and coupling control. Figure 1 shows the PEP-II tunnel

  18. Study of the nucleon spin structure functions: the E154 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatie, Franck

    1998-01-01

    In experiment E154 at SLAC, the spin dependent structure function g 1 n was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 50 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized helium 3 target. We report the integral over the measured x range to be ∫ 0.014 0.7 g 1 n (x,5 GeV 2 )dx = -0.0348 ± 0.0033 ± 0.0043 ± 0.0014. We observe relatively large values of g 1 n at low x, calling into question the reliability of the data extrapolation down to x equal 0. Such a divergent behavior seems to disagree with the prediction of the Regge theory but can be quantitatively explained by perturbative QCD. Moreover, we have performed a NLO perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on g 1 , paying careful attention to both the theoretical hypothesis and the calculation of errors. Using a parametrization of the polarized parton distribution at a low scale, we can access the fraction of spin carried by quarks: ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 pc in the MS-bar scheme, and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7 pc in the AB scheme. The gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is not well enough constrained by the current data, but seems to lie between 0 and 2. This study allows us to extract the first moment of the g 1 structure function and we find agreement with the Bjorken sum rule expectations. (author) [fr

  19. The E142 SLAC experiment: measurement of the neutron gn1(x) spin structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the E142 experiment which has been carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), USA, from October to December 1992. This experiment of polarized inelastic scattering of a 22.6 GeV electron beam on a polarized helium 3 target has allowed the first measurement of the neutron g n 1 (x) spin structure function. The knowledge of this structure function gives informations on the nucleon spin structure. On the other hand, the g n 1 (x) structure function integral value on the 0 2 mean value of 2 GeV 2 after some extrapolations. This value is at about two standard deviations away from the theoretical predictions of the Ellis-Jaffe rule. Thanks to the existing experimental results for the proton (E143 experiment), the Bjorken sum rule has been precisely tested and is perfectly compatible with the theoretical value. The results have allowed to estimate the nucleon spin fraction carried by the quarks. (J.S.). 86 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Ja kun sinä helluni (2/4, 3/4 F)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Ja kun sinä helluni, meillen tuut, älä ketäkään tervehtele, aja vain hevoses tallin eteen äläkä ujostele! Ja kun sinä, helluni, meillen tuut, niin tule sinä illalla hiljaa! Tule sinä naapurin pellon poikki ja älä sinä polje viljaa!

  1. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ∼3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  2. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in El-Sin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Rayyes, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides levels have been determined in El-Sin water for the period of 1995 and 1996. water samples were collected from four sites, which are the main drinking water sources of the area. Radon concentration was found to vary between 0.88 Bq/1 in Lattakia main water supply site and 8.4 Bq/1 in El-Sin springs.The highest values found for other radionuclides were 51.6 mBq/1, 18.6 mB/1 and 24.8 mBq/1 for sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and total uranium (sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) respectively. These levels are much lower than the maximum permissible levels in drinking water set by international organization.(author)

  3. Notes on "bioethics and sin" by Jean-Francois Collange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozby, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Placing the notion of sin in the context of a meontic account of evil, and emphasizing the effect of sin on the sinner himself, this commentary exposes the insufficiency of restricting oneself to human efforts at atonement, and of thus underemphasizing the role of Christ. Collange's claim that the teaching of "predestination" is rooted in Paul and that the doctrine of merits and indulgences is rooted in Augustine is criticized, and Luther's "forensic" understanding is linked with Augustine, rather than with Paul. Collange's reduction of the concern for holiness to respect and trust is contrasted with holiness's essential context of loving unification with God. The commentary closes by exposing the unsatisfactory scantiness of Collange's treatment of cloning, health-care economy, and of the evils of life.

  4. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhui; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuelong; Wu, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN) membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ˜3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  5. ¿Cirugía coronaria sin bomba para todos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Melero Tejedor

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En la pasada década importantes desarrollos técnicos han hecho posible que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea se convierta en un procedimiento rutinario y reproducible. Se presenta la evolución de esta técnica en nuestro hospital durante estos 10 años, el protocolo quirúrgico utilizado, los resultados obtenidos y las motivaciones para extender su uso a todos los pacientes. A pesar de las controversias suscitadas, se espera que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea continúe expandiéndose y los futuros cirujanos cardíacos deben estar preparados para ello.

  6. Adaptive Federal Kalman Filtering for SINS/GPS Integrated System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 缪玲娟

    2003-01-01

    A new adaptive federal Kalman filter for a strapdown integrated navigation system/global positioning system (SINS/GPS) is given. The developed federal Kalman filter is based on the trace operation of parameters estimation's error covariance matrix and the spectral radius of update measurement noise variance-covariance matrix for the proper choice of the filter weight and hence the filter gain factors. Theoretical analysis and results from simulation in which the SINS/GPS was compared to conventional Kalman filter are presented. Results show that the algorithm of this adaptive federal Kalman filter is simpler than that of the conventional one. Furthermore, it outperforms the conventional Kalman filter when the system is undertaken measurement malfunctions because of its possession of adaptive ability. This filter can be used in the vehicle integrated navigation system.

  7. The black Arab as a substitution for sin and guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Radmilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the Black Arab as a form of guilt and sin is a well-established memorial pattern throughout the Mediterranean world, having already existed for more than 3000 years. This text is focused on two different types of interpretation of the Black Stone and its semantic relation with the symbolized figure of Black Arab in the oral traditions of Mediterranean peoples - Jewish religion and Islamic eschatology. The transformation of the signification of the Black Stone was transferred to the Islamic religion in the act of pilgrimage. The Jewish practice of transferring sin and guilt is related with the Iranian-Manichean Ahura Mazda-Ahriman, and the ancient Greek goddess Hecate. All manifestations of the Black Arab left a deep trace on Slavic spiritual life through the Slavic gods Chernobog, Triglav and Toyan and consequently on the deeply rooted conception of all Slavic peoples that the Black Arab was a black demon of death and the underworld.

  8. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  9. The NE11 experiment at SLAC and the neutron form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, L.M.; Lung, A.; Bosted, P.E.

    1993-05-01

    The neutron electromagnetic form factors G En and G Mn , which reflect the charge and magnetization distributions within the neutron, are of fundamental importance for understanding nucleon structure, and are necessary for calculations of processes involving the electromagnetic interaction with complex nuclei. These quantities are functions of Q 2 , the four-momentum transfer squared. SLAC experiment NE11 has measured these form factors out to a Q 2 of 4.0 (GeV/c) 2 with high precision, and the results have been recently published. This paper provides some additional details on the extraction of G Mn and G En from the NE11 measurements. Several formalisms have been developed over the years which attempt to understand the nucleon form factors using basic physical principles. Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) models are based on superpositions of photon couplings to various vector mesons. These models generally involve free parameters which are fit to form factor data at low Q 2 , and are not expected to be valid at high Q 2 . For asymptotically large Q 2 , dimensional scaling methods and perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) predict form factor behavior at large Q 2 , but they do not make absolute magnitude predictions. To describe the form factor behavior at intermediate values of Q 2 , a hybrid model by Gari and Kruempelmann (GK) uses VMD constraints at low Q 2 and pQCD constraints at high Q 2 . Free parameters in the model are adjusted to fit existing form factor data. Other approaches include the use of QCD sum rules to make absolute predictions, diquark models, and relativistic constituent quark models

  10. Design of the SLAC RCE Platform: A General Purpose ATCA Based Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.; Claus, R.; Freytag, M.; Haller, G.; Huffer, M.; Maldonado, S.; Nishimura, K.; O'Grady, C.; Panetta, J.; Perazzo, A.; Reese, B.; Ruckman, L.; Thayer, J.G.; Weaver, M.

    2015-01-01

    The SLAC RCE platform is a general purpose clustered data acquisition system implemented on a custom ATCA compliant blade, called the Cluster On Board (COB). The core of the system is the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE), which is a system-on-chip design based upon the Xilinx Zynq family of FPGAs, mounted on custom COB daughter-boards. The Zynq architecture couples a dual core ARM Cortex A9 based processor with a high performance 28nm FPGA. The RCE has 12 external general purpose bi-directional high speed links, each supporting serial rates of up to 12Gbps. 8 RCE nodes are included on a COB, each with a 10Gbps connection to an on-board 24-port Ethernet switch integrated circuit. The COB is designed to be used with a standard full-mesh ATCA backplane allowing multiple RCE nodes to be tightly interconnected with minimal interconnect latency. Multiple shelves can be clustered using the front panel 10-gbps connections. The COB also supports local and inter-blade timing and trigger distribution. An experiment specific Rear Transition Module adapts the 96 high speed serial links to specific experiments and allows an experiment-specific timing and busy feedback connection. This coupling of processors with a high performance FPGA fabric in a low latency, multiple node cluster allows high speed data processing that can be easily adapted to any physics experiment. RTEMS and Linux are both ported to the module. The RCE has been used or is the baseline for several current and proposed experiments (LCLS, HPS, LSST, ATLAS-CSC, LBNE, DarkSide, ILC-SiD, etc).

  11. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Dark respiration causes an increase in leaf CO2 concentration (Ci), and the continuing increases in atmospheric [CO2] further increases Ci. Elevated leaf CO2 concentration causes stomatal pores to close. Here, we demonstrate that high intracellular CO2/HCO3− enhances currents mediated by the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell S-type anion channel SLAC1 upon coexpression of any one of the Arabidopsis protein kinases OST1, CPK6, or CPK23 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Split-ubiquitin screening identified the PIP2;1 aquaporin as an interactor of the βCA4 carbonic anhydrase, which was confirmed in split luciferase, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. PIP2;1 exhibited CO2 permeability. Mutation of PIP2;1 in planta alone was insufficient to impair CO2- and abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing, likely due to redundancy. Interestingly, coexpression of βCA4 and PIP2;1 with OST1-SLAC1 or CPK6/23-SLAC1 in oocytes enabled extracellular CO2 enhancement of SLAC1 anion channel activity. An inactive PIP2;1 point mutation was identified that abrogated water and CO2 permeability and extracellular CO2 regulation of SLAC1 activity. These findings identify the CO2-permeable PIP2;1 as key interactor of βCA4 and demonstrate functional reconstitution of extracellular CO2 signaling to ion channel regulation upon coexpression of PIP2;1, βCA4, SLAC1, and protein kinases. These data further implicate SLAC1 as a bicarbonate-responsive protein contributing to CO2 regulation of S-type anion channels. PMID:26764375

  12. An S-type anion channel SLAC1 is involved in cryptogein-induced ion fluxes and modulates hypersensitive responses in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Saito, Katsunori; Horikoshi, Sonoko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Negi, Juntaro; Yagi, Chikako; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Iba, Koh; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological evidence suggests that anion channel-mediated plasma membrane anion effluxes are crucial in early defense signaling to induce immune responses and hypersensitive cell death in plants. However, their molecular bases and regulation remain largely unknown. We overexpressed Arabidopsis SLAC1, an S-type anion channel involved in stomatal closure, in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and analyzed the effect on cryptogein-induced defense responses including fluxes of Cl(-) and other ions, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expression and hypersensitive responses. The SLAC1-GFP fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane in BY-2 cells. Overexpression of SLAC1 enhanced cryptogein-induced Cl(-) efflux and extracellular alkalinization as well as rapid/transient and slow/prolonged phases of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production, which was suppressed by an anion channel inhibitor, DIDS. The overexpressor also showed enhanced sensitivity to cryptogein to induce downstream immune responses, including the induction of defense marker genes and the hypersensitive cell death. These results suggest that SLAC1 expressed in BY-2 cells mediates cryptogein-induced plasma membrane Cl(-) efflux to positively modulate the elicitor-triggered activation of other ion fluxes, ROS as well as a wide range of defense signaling pathways. These findings shed light on the possible involvement of the SLAC/SLAH family anion channels in cryptogein signaling to trigger the plasma membrane ion channel cascade in the plant defense signal transduction network.

  13. Is n sin θ conserved along the light path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Sepehrinia, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Snell’s law states that the quantity n{sin}θ is unchanged in refraction of light passing from one medium to another. We inquire whether this is true in the general case where the speed of light varies continuously within a medium. It turns out to be an instructive exercise in application of Snell’s law and Fermat’s principle. It also provides good pedagogical problems in calculus of variations to deal with the subtleties of a variable domain of integration and inclusion of constraints. The final result of these exercises is that, contrary to an initial expectation, the answer to the question in the title is negative.

  14. Spectral function calculation of angle wakes, wake moments, and misalignment wakes for the SLAC Damped Detuned Structures (DDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    Transverse wake functions so far reported for the SLAC DDS have been limited to those caused by uniform offset of the drive beam in a straight perfectly aligned structure. The complete description of the betatron oscillations of wake coupled bunches requires an array of wake functions, referred to as moments. Modifications of these arrays induced by structure misalignments are also of interest. In this paper we express the array elements in terms of a spectral function array. Examples are given based upon DDS1

  15. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2 beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Kelley

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of (anti B) d 0 versus B d 0 decays to J/ψK s 0 . In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198±17 B d 0 /(anti B) d 0 decays were observed in p(anti p) collisions at √s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B 0 or (anti B) 0 ) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2β)=1.8±1.1(stat.)±0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B 0 -(anti B) 0 system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model

  16. The Doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin: Separating Good From Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Arnold S; Malosh, Ryan E; Petrie, Joshua G; Martin, Emily T

    2017-06-15

    The term "original antigenic sin" was coined approximately 60 years ago to describe the imprinting by the initial first influenza A virus infection on the antibody response to subsequent vaccination. These studies did not suggest a reduction in the response to current antigens but instead suggested anamnestic recall of antibody to earlier influenza virus strains. Then, approximately 40 years ago, it was observed that sequential influenza vaccination might lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). This conclusion was largely dismissed after an experimental study involving sequential administration of then-standard influenza vaccines. Recent observations have provided convincing evidence that reduced VE after sequential influenza vaccination is a real phenomenon. We propose that such reduction in VE be termed "negative antigenic interaction," given that there is no age cohort effect. In contrast, the potentially positive protective effect of early influenza virus infection later in life continues to be observed. It is essential that we understand better the immunologic factors underlying both original antigenic sin and negative antigenic interaction, to support development of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. SLAC's Polarized Electron Source LaserSystem and Minimization of Helicity Correlations for the E-158 Parity Violation Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Humensky, T

    2002-01-01

    SLAC E-158 is an experiment designed to make the first measurement of parity violation in Moeller scattering. E-158 will measure the right-left cross-section asymmetry, A sub L sub R sup M sup o sup e sup l sup l sup e sup r , in the elastic scattering of a 45-GeV polarized electron beam off unpolarized electrons in a liquid hydrogen target. E-158 plans to measure the expected Standard Model asymmetry of approx 10 sup - sup 7 to an accuracy of better than 10 sup - sup 8. To make this measurement, the polarized electron source requires for operation an intense circularly polarized laser beam and the ability to quickly switch between right- and left-helicity polarization states with minimal right-left helicity-correlated asymmetries in the resulting beam parameters (intensity, position, angle, spot size, and energy), sup b sup e sup a sup m A sub L sub R 's. This laser beam is produced by a unique SLAC-designed flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser and is propagated through a carefully designed set of polarization...

  18. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, ε[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition ε = λ / 4π, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas

  19. At finde sin stemme på dansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete

    2013-01-01

    At finde sin stemme på dansk/ Finding your voice in Danish It is a general experience of foreigners in Denmark that Danes and other speakers of Danish tend to switch into English when the foreigners try to use and practice their Danish. In this article, I focus on foreign knowledge workers working...... at Danish universities and their experiences with finding their voice in Danish in an environment where English is frequently used. At CIP, Centre for Internationalisation and Parallel Language Use, we are developing a format for Danish courses aimed at foreign knowledge workers. Central to the development...... of the course is how to make it possible for the participants to practice their Danish and have a voice in Danish outside the classroom. In this article, I discuss different reasons why people switch into English when speaking with learners of Danish and the implications it may have, both for the learners...

  20. Loss of the SIN3 transcriptional corepressor results in aberrant mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüttemann Maik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SIN3 is a transcriptional repressor protein known to regulate many genes, including a number of those that encode mitochondrial components. Results By monitoring RNA levels, we find that loss of SIN3 in Drosophila cultured cells results in up-regulation of not only nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, but also those encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The up-regulation of gene expression is accompanied by a perturbation in ATP levels in SIN3-deficient cells, suggesting that the changes in mitochondrial gene expression result in altered mitochondrial activity. In support of the hypothesis that SIN3 is necessary for normal mitochondrial function, yeast sin3 null mutants exhibit very poor growth on non-fermentable carbon sources and show lower levels of ATP and reduced respiration rates. Conclusions The findings that both yeast and Drosophila SIN3 affect mitochondrial activity suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for SIN3 in the control of cellular energy production.

  1. A Precision Measurement of the Spin Structure of the Proton at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robin D

    1999-09-22

    E143 at SLAC Endstation A performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements of polarized electrons from polarized protons and deuterons within cryogenic {sup 15}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}ND{sub 3}, respectively. Data were taken at incident energies of 29.1, 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, and covered the kinematical range x > 0:03 and 0:3 < Q{sup 2} < 12 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The scattered electrons were detected by two spectrometers at angles of 4.5{sup o} and 7.0{sup o}. From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p}(x; Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 1}{sup d}(x; Q{sup 2}) were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment, with emphasis on the results on the proton spin structure. The integral of g{sub 1} over the range 0 < x < 1 was found to be {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} = 0.130 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.008 for the proton and {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = 0.044 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.004 for the deuteron. Both values are in agreement with world data, and violate the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule by more than 3 standard deviations. The neutron structure function was obtained by combining proton and deuteron results, giving {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} = [0.035 {+-} 0.007 {+-} 0.010]. From this the integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p}-{Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} followed, yielding 0.165 {+-} 0.009 {+-} 0.016 at Q{sup 2} = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2}, in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule to within one standard deviation. The Q{sup 2}-dependence of the ratio g{sub 1}/F{sub 1} was determined to be small for Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, validating the assumption of no Q{sup 2}-dependence used in obtaining the integrals. A small rise with increasing Q{sup 2} was seen in the ratio for Q{sup 2} < 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, however. The total quark contribution to the spin was found to be {Delta}q = 0.28 {+-} 0.09 for the proton, and {Delta}q = 0.32 {+-} 0.05 for the deuteron. Furthermore, a large negative spin contribution from the strange sea quarks was measured for both nucleons, giving {Delta}s = 0.10 {+-} 0.03 and {Delta}s = -0

  2. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  3. Simulations of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell emittance compensated photocathode RF gun low energy beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Winick, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated low energy (2 to 10 MeV) experimental beam line is now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratories Accelerator Test Facility (BNL/ATF) for photocathode RF gun testing and photoemission experiments. The design of the experimental line, using the 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA RF gun collaboration is presented. Detailed beam dynamics simulations were performed for the 1.6 cell RF gun injector using a solenoidal emittance compensation technique. An experimental program for testing the 1.6 cell RF gun is presented. This program includes beam loading caused by dark current, higher order mode field measurements, integrated and slice emittance measurements using a pepper-pot and RF kicker cavity

  4. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  5. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  6. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.

    2011-01-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  7. Analytic Electron Trajectories in an Extremely Relativistic Helical Wiggler an Application to the Proposed SLAC E166 Experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    ThomasDonohue, John

    2004-01-01

    The proposed experiment SLAC E166 intends to generate circularly polarized gamma rays of energy 10 MeV by passing a 15 GeV electron beam through a meter long wiggler with approximately 400 periods. Using an analytic model formulated by Rullier and me, I present calculations of electron trajectories. At this extremely high energy the trajectories are described quite well by the model, and an extremely simple picture emerges, even for trajectories that that fail to encircle the axis of the wiggler. Our calculations are successfully compared with standard numerical integration of the Lorentz force equations of motion. In addition, the calculation of the spectrum and angular distribution of the radiated photons is easily carried out.

  8. Research and development toward a 4.5-1.5{angstrom} linac coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the theoretical and technical feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 {Angstrom}) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation include: (1) a peak current in the 3-7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, ad (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}{le}{lambda}/4{pi}, where {lambda}[m] is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.1-0.2% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 4-8 m for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to {approximately}20 {angstrom}, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 {angstrom} LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas. These include the construction and operation of a linac test stand for developing laser-driven photocathode rf guns with normalized emittances approaching 1 mm-mr; development of advanced beam compression, stability, an emittance control techniques at multi-GeV energies; the construction and operation of a FEL Amplifier Test Experiment (FATE) for theoretical and experimental studies of SASE at IR wavelengths; an undulator development program to investigate superconducting, hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM), and pulsed-Cu technologies; theoretical and computational studies of high-gain FEL physics and LCLS component designs.

  9. Electronic properties of a new structured Sin/O superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is a material which dominants the semiconductor industry and has a well-established processing technology based on it. However, silicon has an indirect-bandgap and is not efficient in light emitting. This limits its applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we proposed a new structural model for the silicon-based superlattice, i.e., the Sin/O one. The model consists of alternating films of n-layers of Si and a monolayer of oxygen along z-direction, together with a surface cell of Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction in the x-y plane. The importance of employing such a Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction is that all the electrons at interface can be strongly bonded. Our results showed interesting electronic properties, e.g., the band folding and large band gap of bulk Si, when the thickness of the silicon layers was increased (but still thin. Our structure might also offer other interesting properties.

  10. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological.

  11. Early Christian spiritualties of sin and forgiveness according to 1 John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G. van der Merwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to investigate the possible lived experiences created by this text. The text revolves around the experience of fellowship with God (1:6, 7 who is characterised as ‘light’. For the author of 1 John, sin disrupts this fellowship. He creates an awareness and a ‘spirituality of sin and guilt’ in the lives of his readers through the use of the experiential metaphor of darkness in a dialectic combination with light and the two false negations ‘do not have sin’ (sin as a noun and ‘do not sin’ (sin as a verb. This fellowship is re-established through living in the light: the confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin. The author creates a spirituality of confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin through descriptive cultic (blood of Jesus and expiation, forensic (paraclete, atypical (cleans, expiation, paraclete and all-inclusive (all [twice], whole, anyone language. Thus, in his rhetoric, the author uses metaphor, dialectic, sacrificial, forensic, atypical and all-inclusive language to facilitate a variety of ‘lived experiences’ within his readers. Firstly, he wants them to feel guilty about their sins and consequently, after they have confessed their sins, to strengthen their faith. Secondly, he wants to encourage them to believe that they can experience the forgiveness of their sins and, by doing so, know that they have eternal life (5:13 and can experience fellowship with God and, mutually, with one another.

  12. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  13. Diseño, sin ambigüedades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Flórez Polo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compila y amplía algunos textos de artículos, ensayos y conferencias de los autores como una reflexión sobre la dimensión disciplinaria del Diseño ante la importancia de desarrollar o precisar sus alcances, limitaciones y características como modo de pensar y facilitar su inserción como factor de desarrollo social y productivo. A partir de un depurado o más preciso uso del vocabulario relacionado, y para reducir los riesgos de distorsión en su interpretación se explícita el sentido de la terminología utilizada y los conceptos propuestos. El trabajo se presenta en dos partes. En la primera, acotada en este artículo (sin pretender definir el Diseño se intenta clarificar su naturaleza como recurso del pensamiento creativo, analizando los principales aspectos que caracterizan o definen su esencia como actividad distintiva de la especie, en su relación social y con el medio. En la segunda, en un artículo consecutivo, se propone un conjunto de descriptores —categorías, variables o factores— que al establecer y precisar las particularidades de lo que es o puede ser el Diseño como disciplina permiten: a.- en lo general, diferenciarla frente a otras disciplinas, profesiones, ejercicios, oficios, ciencias y saberes reconocidos tradicionalmente como tales; y, b.- en lo específico, tomar conciencia sobre su singularidad, y entenderla como un recurso innovador para modificar nuestra relación individual y social con el entorno como seres pensantes, autónomos, responsables de nuestras necesidades y posibilidades y por los efectos que de su satisfacción y ejercicio se derivan.

  14. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Michel, A; Rutten, V

    2017-05-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals. It also takes an in-depth view into assessing the genetic similarities and relationships between atypical mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and how they might explain the immunological imprint of environmental mycobacteria in directing the hosts' immune response upon subsequent exposure to other classes of mycobacteria. The outcome of this review suggests that genetic closeness between particular atypical mycobacteria and MTBC usually indicate a higher level of homology for certain shared protective antigens. This ultimately results in a higher level of cross reactive immune responses as compared with other atypical mycobacteria that are further away genetically. This would explain the different effects of environmental mycobacteria on MTBC that have been reported in the different studies. In other words the direction of the host immune system in response to exposure to MTBC would depend on the type of environmental mycobacteria that was encountered in the initial exposure. We also explain these mycobacterial interactions in the context of the phenomenon of "Original Mycobacterial Sin". The effects of these inevitable mycobacterial interactions on field diagnosis and control by vaccination and how to circumvent them are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Calvin’s modification of Augustine’s doctrine of original sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine was Calvin’s main source of reference in the “Insti- tutes”. However, his treatment of Augustine’s views was not uncritical. This article discusses the way in which Calvin modi- fied Augustine’s doctrine of original sin. The main differences can be attributed to different theological aims. Augustine deve- loped his doctrine of original sin against the teachings of the Manicheans and Pelagians, whereas Calvin shifted the focus to knowledge of God and the self. Calvin understood original sin noetically as religious and moral blindness – whereas Augus- tine viewed sexual concupiscence as the main principle of original sin. Augustine made a considerable effort to explain that sin does not find its origin in God. God foresaw the fall, but did not compel it. Calvin located sin in God’s eternal decree and permission. Augustine, furthermore, understood the transmis- sion of original sin biologically, whereas Calvin ascribed it to God’s eternal permissive will. These differences culminated in a different understanding of the meaning of Jesus’ virgin birth. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of Calvin’s noetic approach to original sin.

  16. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  17. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  18. Measurement of sin2θw and ϱ in deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutens, P. G.; Merritt, F. S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Messner, R. L.; Novikoff, D. B.; Purohit, M. V.; Blair, R. E.; Sciulli, F. J.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Fisk, H. E.; Fukushima, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Kondo, T.; Rapidis, P. A.; Yovanovitch, D. D.; Bodek, A.; Coleman, R. N.; Marsh, W. L.; Fackler, O. D.; Jenkins, K. A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe a high statistics measurement from deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering of the electroweak parameters ϱ and sin2θw, performed in the Fermilab narrow-band neutrino beam. Our measurement uses a radius-dependent cut in y = EH/Ev which reduces the systematic error in sin2θw, and incorporates electromagnetic and electroweak radiative corrections. In a renormalization scheme where sin2θw ≡ 1-m2W/m2Z, a value of sin2θw = 0.242+/-0.011+/-0.005 is obtained fixing ϱ = 1. If both sin2θw and ϱ are allowed to vary in a fit to our data, we measure ϱ = 0.991 +/- 0.025 +/- 0.009. Present address: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

  19. The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L

    1999-03-01

    Though often reliable, human memory is also fallible. This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic "sins": transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. The first three sins involve different types of forgetting, the next three refer to different types of distortions, and the final sin concerns intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget. Evidence is reviewed concerning each of the 7 sins from relevant sectors of psychology (cognitive, social, and clinical) and from cognitive neuroscience studies that include patients with focal brain damage or make use of recently developed neuroimaging techniques. Although the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, it is argued instead that they are by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.

  20. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  1. Dma1-dependent degradation of SIN proteins during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs

    2014-07-15

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe septation initiation network (SIN) is required for cytokinesis during vegetative growth and for spore formation during meiosis. Regulation of the SIN during mitosis has been studied extensively, but less is known about its meiotic regulation. Here, we show that several aspects of SIN regulation differ between mitosis and meiosis. First, the presence of GTP-bound Spg1p is not the main determinant of the timing of Cdc7p and Sid1p association with the spindle pole body (SPB) during meiosis. Second, the localisation dependencies of SIN proteins differ from those in mitotic cells, suggesting a modified functional organisation of the SIN during meiosis. Third, there is stage-specific degradation of SIN components in meiosis; Byr4p is degraded after meiosis I, whereas the degradation of Cdc7p, Cdc11p and Sid4p occurs after the second meiotic division and depends upon the ubiquitin ligase Dma1p. Finally, Dma1p-dependent degradation is not restricted to the SIN, as we show that Dma1p is needed for the degradation of Mcp6p (also known as Hrs1p) during meiosis I. Taken together, these data suggest that stage-specific targeted proteolysis plays an important role in regulating meiotic progression. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Design optimization and transverse coherence analysis for an x-ray free electron laser driven by SLAC LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, M.

    1995-01-01

    I present a design study for an X-ray Free Electron Laser driven by the SLAC linac, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The study assumes the LCLS is based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). Following a brief review of the fundamentals of SASE, I will provide without derivation a collection of formulas relating SASE performance to the system parameters. These formulas allow quick evaluation of FEL designs and provide powerful tools for optimization in multi-dimensional parameter space. Optimization is carried out for the LCLS over all independent system parameters modeled, subjected to a number of practical constraints. In addition to the optimizations concerning gain and power, another important consideration for a single pass FEL starting from noise is the transverse coherence property of the amplified radiation, especially at short wavelength. A widely used emittance criteria for FELs requires that the emittance is smaller than the radiation wavelength divided by 4π. For the LCLS the criteria is violated by a factor of 5, at a normalized emittance of 1.5 mm-mrad, wavelength of 1.5 angstrom, and beam energy of 15 GeV. Thus it is important to check quantitatively the emittance effect on the transverse coherence. I will examine the emittance effect on transverse coherence by analyzing different transverse modes and show that full transverse coherence can be obtained even at the LCLS parameter regime

  3. Final report for the 1996 DOE grant supporting research at the SLAC/LBNL/LLNL B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, D.; Wright, D.

    1997-01-01

    This final report discusses Department of Energy-supported research funded through Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which was performed as part of a collaboration between LLNL and Prairie View A and M University to develop part of the BaBar detector at the SLAC B Factory. This work focuses on the Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) subsystem of BaBar and involves a full range of detector development activities: computer simulations of detector performance, creation of reconstruction algorithms, and detector hardware R and D. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a leading role in the IFR subsystem and has established on-site computing and detector facilities to conduct this research. By establishing ties with the existing LLNL Research Collaboration Program and leveraging LLNL resources, the experienced Prairie View group was able to quickly achieve a more prominent role within the BaBar collaboration and make significant contributions to the detector design. In addition, this work provided the first entry point for Historically Black Colleges and Universities into the B Factory collaboration, and created an opportunity to train a new generation of minority students at the premier electron-positron high energy physics facility in the US

  4. A Precision Measurement of sin$^{2}\\theta$$_{w}$ from Semileptonic Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wotschack, Jorg

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring the electroweak mixing parameter sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory $^{1}$ as precisely as possible: first, its value may be predicted by models of Grand Unification;$^{2}$ second, precise measurements of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ from different processes would test the validity of electroweak radiative corrections. $^{3,$}$. Different methods have been used to determine sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, over a large range of $Q^{2}$ values. FIGURE 1 gives a compilation of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ with remarkable agreement between the results. At present, it is most precisely determined in semileptonic neutrino-nucleon scattering from the ratio of neutral current (NC) to charged current (CC) cross and in proton-antiproton collisions from the W boson mass. $^{10,11}$.

  5. Nuclear effects and the NuTeV sin2 θW measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, K.S.; Zeller, G.P.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Barbaro, L. de; Barbaro, P. de; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R.B.; Fleming, B.T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.A.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D.A.; Johnson, R.A.; Kim, J.H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McDonald, J.; McNulty, C.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Radescu, V.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tzanov, M.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Yang, U.K.; Yu, J.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    NuTeV measures sin 2 θ W by comparing neutral and charged current cross-sections on a heavy nuclear target, and finds a value of sin 2 θ W (on-shell) = 0.2277 ± 0.0013(stat) ± 0.0009(syst), approximately 3σ from the predicted value. We discuss the possibility that nuclear effects on parton distribution functions or cross-sections may be responsible for the discrepancy

  6. Interaction between NBS1 and the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex through specific domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS is a chromosomal-instability syndrome. The NBS gene product, NBS1 (p95 or nibrin, is a part of the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex. SIN1 is a component of the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex mediating the activation of Akt. Here we show that NBS1 interacted with mTOR, Rictor, and SIN1. The specific domains of mTOR, Rictor, or SIN1 interacted with the internal domain (a.a. 221-402 of NBS1. Sucrose density gradient showed that NBS1 was located in the same fractions as the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex. Knockdown of NBS1 decreased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and its downstream targets. Ionizing radiation (IR increased the NBS1 levels and activated Akt activity. These results demonstrate that NBS1 interacts with the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex through the a.a. 221-402 domain and contributes to the activation of Akt activity.

  7. A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Death and Sin in the Works of St. Augustine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem kakaie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Death has been an everlasting human question. It has been regarded as one of the existential and human epistemic concerns both in religions and various philosophical and theological schools. The question of death in the works of Saint Augustine has been largely dismissed by scholars. Scrutinizing his oeuvre indicates that compared to his predecessors and based on his approach to Christianity, specifically to St. Paul’s doctrines, Augustine is more attentive to the relation between death and sin. In his works, he justifies death based on the original sin as well as those everyday sins that committed by human being throughout her life, identifying sin as the cause of death. Accordingly, he prefers moral causes rather than natural causes resulting in death. Augustine contends that there are three types of death, i.e. corporeal death (the separation of soul and body, spiritual death (separation of human being and God due to sin, and the eternal death (in which soul remains in body, bearing the burden of eternal corporeal punishment away from God. He believes that God created a human being in a way according to which she would have benefited from eternal life if she had not sinned. However, now not only corporeal death but also the eternal death of soul are the consequences of sins. He opines that all human race, Except Jesus and his mother are the heirs of the original sin committed by Adam and Eve. In this way, every human being is born sinful, contaminated by the original. According to this viewpoint, the human race cannot be perceived as naturally innocent or away from intellectual mistake and deviation. Rather, human being and her thoughts and deeds can be understood only based on the doctrine of fall. In addition, the Adam’s original sin in not merely an event but it is a complicated circumstance imposed by God as a punishment of Adam and Eve due to their disobedience which is followed by different types of death as well as such

  8. SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Rays with Matter, Stanford, CA, January 23-24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    1998-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 1997 SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter. The workshop theme evolved out of design and R and D studies, undertaken at SLAC, DESY, and elsewhere [1,2], of the new class of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating with photocathode-based, low-emittance electron beams in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime [3]. It can be noted that, following the conclusion of the workshop, funded design study reports on R and D facilities based on these novel sources have been completed and published by both laboratories [4,5]. Topical significance was imparted to the workshop agenda by a series of prior workshops organized to explore scientific and technological applications of linac driven XRFELs [6,7,8,9]. These served to highlight underlying concerns regarding the potential loading effects of the highly intense radiation pulses from this new class of light source on the instrumentation, samples, and experimental phenomena being considered. The primary objectives of the workshop were: (a) to provide tutorial overviews of existing theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques in the study of interactions of intense, ultra-short radiation pulses with matter, and of their applicability to the parameter regimes of the SLAC and DESY XRFELs; (b) to discuss practical optics and instrumentation issues related to peak and average power density loading; (c) to identify and explore novel concepts and design approaches, with an emphasis on optical instrumentation and experimental physics; (d) to formulate independent or collaborative R and D programs and activities in the areas of theory, numerical simulation, and experimental physics relevant to the linac-driven XRFEL parameter regime

  9. A test facility for the international linear collider at SLAC end station a for prototypes of beam delivery and IR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildreth, M.D.; Erickson, R.; Frisch, J.

    2006-01-01

    The SLAC Linac can deliver damped bunches with ILC parameters for bunch charge and bunch length to End Station A. A 10Hz beam at 28.5 GeV energy can be delivered there, parasitic with PEP-II operation. We plan to use this facility to test prototype components of the Beam Delivery System and Interaction Region. We discuss our plans for this ILC Test Facility and preparations for carrying out experiments related to collimator wakefields and energy spectrometers. We also plan an interaction region mockup to investigate effects from backgrounds and beam-induced electromagnetic interference. (author)

  10. Design Studies for Flux and Polarization Measurements of Photons and Positrons for SLAC Proposal E166: An experiment to test polarized positron production in the FFTB (LCC-0107)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M

    2003-10-02

    We present results from design studies carried out to investigate measurements of the flux, spectrum and polarization of undulator photons for SLAC Proposal E166. A transmission Compton polarimeter is considered for measuring the photon circular polarization. We also present results for measuring the flux and spectrum of positrons produced by the undulator photons in an 0.5X{sub 0} Titanium target. And we present some considerations for use of a transmission Compton polarimeter to measure the circular polarization of bremsstrahlung photons emitted by the polarized positrons in a thin radiator.

  11. Epigenetic activation of SIN1 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis by affecting the epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhongwu; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Yuemei; Zang, Bao; Hui, Hongxia; You, Zhenbing; Wang, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) interacting protein 1 (SIN1) is an essential component of mTORC2. Previous studies have shown that SIN1 is a key regulator of Akt pathway which plays an important role in various pathological conditions including cancer. While its effects and mechanisms on the progression of NSCLC remain unknown. In this study, we report that SIN1 is able to promote the growth and migration of NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of SIN1 promoted A549 and H1299 cells proliferation by both MTT and colony formation assays. Consistently, knockdown of SIN1 inhibited the proliferation of these cells. In transwell assay, overexpression of SIN1 increased the migration of A549 and H1299 cells, while SIN1 knockdown reduced their migration. In a tumor xenograft model, overexpression of SIN1 promoted tumor growth of A549 cells in vivo, while SIN1 knockdown suppresses the tumor growth. We also found a mechanistic link between SIN1 and H3K4me3, H3K4me3 is involved in SIN1 upregulation. Moreover, SIN1 can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via induction epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which subsequently leads to transcriptional downregulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Together, our results reveal that SIN1 plays an important role in NSCLC and SIN1 is a potential biomarker and a promising target in the treatment of NSCLC.

  12. Transformation of a metaphor: semantic shift in a Cantonese term 'Chi Sin' denoting insanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J Y W; Chen, E Y H

    2015-03-01

    The historical evolution of the existing terms used to describe insanity may be able to shed light on the formation of stigma towards psychosis patients. In Hong Kong, a widely used Cantonese term for insanity 'Chi Sin' provides a unique example because of its neutral original sense, as it literally means misconnection in a network circuit. We attempt to trace the origin and subsequent evolution of the term 'Chi Sin' from its early use to the present day to understand how local Hong Kong people have attached increasingly negative connotations to this scientific term since the mid-20th century. We sampled as many newspapers and magazines published in Hong Kong from 1939 to June 2014 as possible, and sampled 7 popular local movies from the 1950s and 1960s. We also searched all the newspapers published in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and Mainland China from January 1998 to June 2014, and searched several other local historical resources. In one early use of 'Chi Sin' in 1939, the term was only used in a technical sense to describe 'short circuiting'. We found that the development of the telephone system, the Strowger system, in Hong Kong is closely related to the evolution of the semantics of the term 'Chi Sin'. The original meaning of short circuitry of the term 'Chi Sin' is no longer used, and it has become a dead metaphor through repeated use with negative emotional connotations. This illustrates some of the factors facilitating the emergence of a metaphor with subsequent semantic drift.

  13. Fuzzy adaptive integration scheme for low-cost SINS/GPS navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Hossein; Keighobadi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Due to weak stand-alone accuracy as well as poor run-to-run stability of micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors, special approaches are required to integrate low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with global positioning system (GPS), particularly in long-term applications. This paper aims to enhance long-term performance of conventional SINS/GPS navigation systems using a fuzzy adaptive integration scheme. The main concept behind the proposed adaptive integration is the good performance of attitude-heading reference system (AHRS) in low-accelerated motions and its degradation in maneuvered or accelerated motions. Depending on vehicle maneuvers, gravity-based attitude angles can be intelligently utilized to improve orientation estimation in the SINS. Knowledge-based fuzzy inference system is developed for decision-making between the AHRS and the SINS according to vehicle maneuvering conditions. Inertial measurements are the main input data of the fuzzy system to determine the maneuvering level during the vehicle motions. Accordingly, appropriate weighting coefficients are produced to combine the SINS/GPS and the AHRS, efficiently. The assessment of the proposed integrated navigation system is conducted via real data in airborne tests.

  14. Síndrome urémico hemolítico asociado a diarrea sin trombocitopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Balestracci

    2017-09-01

    Conclusiones: La prevalencia de SUH D+ sin trombocitopenia fue del 5,6% y la mayoría de los casos fueron leves; sin embargo, el requerimiento de diálisis en uno de ellos señala que la normalización del recuento de plaquetas no siempre es un marcador preciso de resolución de la enfermedad. Nuestros resultados también confirman que el momento de presentación de los pacientes con SUH D+ sin trombocitopenia está usualmente alejado de los primeros síntomas intestinales, por lo que es necesario un alto índice de sospecha diagnóstica.

  15. Production and characterization of Si-N films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.; Cavaleiro, A.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Si-N films were deposited by sputtering from an Si 3 N 4 target with different deposition pressures and negative substrate bias. The films were amorphous and showed a ''featureless'' morphology. A high oxygen content was detected in unbiased films. For these films the Si/N ratio was very high compared with the target composition, whereas for biased films the opposite was observed. Si-N films presented cohesive failures for loads as high as 21 N and adhesive failure at 45 N when they were analysed by scratch test. Very high hardness (45 GPa) was obtained, particularly for biased films. Unbiased films were softer, which is attributed to the formation of silicon oxide and/or to a lower compressive stress level. (orig.)

  16. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  17. Second generation SLAC modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cron, J.C.; Hanselman, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken the construction of a single pass electron-positron collider. In order to reach required beam energy 235 new klystrons needed upgraded modulator systems. The collider will use 50 GeV electrons and positrons. The increase in accelerator energy from the present 30 GeV necessitates the replacement of existing 35 MW klystrons with new 67 MW units. The doubling of klystron output power required a redesign of the modulator system. The 67 MW klystron needs a 350 kV beam voltage pulse with a 3.7 μs pulse width. A new pulse transformer was designed to deliver the increased voltage and pulse width. Pulse cable design was evaluated to obtain increased reliability of that critical element. The modulator, with the exception of its power supply, was rebuilt to produce the required power increase while enhancing reliability and improving maintainability. An investigation of present thyratron switch tube performance under the new operating conditions resulted in agitation and some warranted panic but these conditions were mitigated after several successful experiments and some evolutionary narrowing of the klystron pulse width. The discussion will cover the upgraded modulator system specifications and some details of the new pulse transformer tank, pulse cable, modulator, and modulator switch tube

  18. Sucesos vitales estresantes en mujeres en situación sin hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cabrera, José Juan; Rodríguez Moreno, Sara Isabel; Roca Morales, Pablo; Panadero Herrero, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Las Personas Sin Hogar (PSH) forman parte de un colectivo especialmente vulnerable al padecimiento de Sucesos Vitales Estresantes (SVE) a lo largo de la vida. Además, los escasos datos indican que las Mujeres Sin Hogar (MSH) presentan una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir dichos sucesos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la prevalencia de SVE en un grupo de 138 MSH de la ciudad de Madrid. Los resultados apuntan que las MSH experimentan un número muy elevado de SVE tanto en la infancia/adole...

  19. Moving State Marine SINS Initial Alignment Based on High Degree CKF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new moving state marine initial alignment method of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is proposed based on high-degree cubature Kalman filter (CKF, which can capture higher order Taylor expansion terms of nonlinear alignment model than the existing third-degree CKF, unscented Kalman filter and central difference Kalman filter, and improve the accuracy of initial alignment under large heading misalignment angle condition. Simulation results show the efficiency and advantage of the proposed initial alignment method as compared with existing initial alignment methods for the moving state SINS initial alignment with large heading misalignment angle.

  20. Cambios microestructurales y reológicos de masas y panes sin gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Flores, José Octavio

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de la microestructura de las masas y panes sin gluten nos permite predecir el comportamiento de estos durante los procesos de elaboración y por ende la maquinabilidad de los mismos. Se hizo un análisis reológico de masas sin gluten y un análisis de perfil de textura (TPA) a los panes elaborados a partir de estas, también se tomaron imágenes por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido, tanto de las masas como de los panes. Para hacer el perfil reológico se hicieron ensayos osci...

  1. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the ci......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  2. El Palacio sin máscara: La lectura de quien no estuvo allí.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Abad Faciolince

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un análisis de la obra "El Palacio sin máscara" referido a la toma del Palacio de Justicia por parte de guerrilleros y la masacre ocurrida por parte de los militares. En la obra se retrata la realidad, se poda la información de todo ruido para dejar ver la verdad.

  3. Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

  4. High precision measurement of sin2theta/sub W/ in semi-leptonic neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, C.

    1985-01-01

    The experiment has provided what is presently the most accurate measurement of sin 2 theta/sub W/. The errors are still too large for a significant test of the standard model and the measured value is in agreement with the measured values of M/sub W/ and M/sub Z/. On the other hand, this result can constrain the Grand Unified models. The standard SU(5) model predicts sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.214 +/- 0.004 (the error comes from the uncertainty on Lambda/sub MS/), in very good agreement with the measured value. While this model has big problems with the proton lifetime, it could be saved by its supersymmetric extension. In the minimal SU(5) SUSY model (with 2 Higgs supermultiplets) sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.233 +/- 0.004, [12] in bad agreement with the measured value. The addition of other Higgs supermultiplets increases the value of sin 2 theta/sub W/. Unless some unexpected large contribution from higher-twist terms occurs, the present measurement can already bring a significant constraint on Grand Unified models

  5. Sin$\\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in semi-inclusive electroproduction on longitudinally polarized nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, K.A.; Bianchi, N.; Kotzinian, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the $sin \\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering off longitudinally polarized nucleon target arising from the time reversal odd structures. The order 1/Q contributions of the leading twist and twist-three distribution and fragmentation functions to that asymmetry for the certain kinematical conditions are numerically estimated.

  6. Decrease in Accuracy of a Rotational SINS Caused by its Rotary Table's Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We call a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS that uses the rotation auto-compensation technique (which is a common method to reduce the effect of the bias errors of inertial components a ‘rotational SINS’. In a rotational SINS, the rotary table is an important component, rotating the inertial sensor assembly back and forth in azimuth to accomplish error modulation. As a consequence of the manufacturing process, errors may exist in rotary tables which decrease the navigation accuracy of rotational SINSs. In this study, the errors of rotary tables are considered in terms of installation error, wobble error and angular error, and the models of these errors are established for the rotational SINS. Next, the propagation characteristics of these errors in the rotational SINS are analysed and their effects on navigation results are discussed. Finally, the theoretical conclusions are tested by numerical simulation. This paper supplies a good reference for the development of low-cost rotational SINSs, which usually have low accuracy rotary tables and which may be used in robots, intelligent vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  7. Do Schacter's Seven Sins of Memory Apply to Ratings of Children's Emotional and Behavioral Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; Donnelly, Reesa; McKinney, Cliff; Baksh, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Schacter (2001) proposes that there are seven memory malfunctions that occur in everyday life and that affect individuals' ability to recall occurrences in their lives. Given that these sins affect other areas of memory, it is likely that they may affect the ratings that informants provide when they are recalling characteristics of the emotional…

  8. Absolute Absolution: The Forgiveness of Original Sin by Ministers of Government Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Traces the evolution of public schooling as an attempt by progressives and others to absolve citizens of Original Sin and unweave the world view of traditional Christianity. Argues that the removal from schools of Christian beliefs about morality, labor, self-control, and death signals a wish to collectivize the American masses and restore a…

  9. SINs and SOMs: Neural microcircuits for size tuning in the zebrafish and mouse visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Barker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many animals, a fast and reliable circuit for discriminating between predator-sized objects and edible (prey-sized objects is necessary for survival. How are receptive fields in visual brain areas organized to extract information about size? Recent studies from the zebrafish optic tectum and the mouse visual cortex suggest de novo shaping of receptive fields by subtypes of inhibitory neurons. Del Bene et al. (2010 describe a population of GABAergic neurons in the zebrafish optic tectum (Superficial Interneurons, SINs that are necessary for size filtering during prey capture. Adesnik et al. (2012 describe a somatostatin-expressing interneuron population (SOMs that confers surround suppression on layer II/III pyramidal cells in mouse V1. Strikingly both the SINs and the SOMs, display size-dependent response properties. Increasing visual stimulus size increases excitatory input to these neurons. Dampening SIN or SOM activity alters tuning of neighboring circuits such that they lose preference for small objects. Both results provide exciting evidence for mechanisms of size filtering in visual circuits. Here we review the roles of the SINs and the SOMs and speculate on the similarity of such spatial filters across species.

  10. Construction of Δm2--sin2 2θ plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the two-flavor approximation, the probability for a neutrino to oscillate from one flavor to the other is given by Ρ νa → νb = sin 2 2θ sin 2 (1.27 Δm 2 L/E ν ) where θ is the mixing angle, Δm 2 = |m νa 2 - m νb 2 | is measured in (eV/c 2 ) 2 , L, the distance from the source, is measured in km, and E, the beam energy, is measured in GeV. If either Δm 2 or sin 2 2Θ is zero, there is no oscillation. They might also have small, non-zero values, causing the oscillations to be so small as to be unobservable in a particular experiment. They may also have values which allow us to determine the probability of oscillation, but so far no compelling evidence for oscillation exists. The universal method of portraying what region of parameter space is explored by a neutrino oscillation experiment is to mark off an area on a Δm 2 vs. sin 2 2θ plot. Typically, a line is graphed, with the claim that if the experiment finds not evidence of oscillation, one can, for example, be 90% certain that Δm 2 and sin 2 2θ lie within the region below and to the left of the line. Since these plots are so widely used, it is useful to understand the process by which they are created

  11. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as 'single exon genes' (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs.Database URL: www.sinex.cl. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Development of an integrated circuit VLSI used for time measurement and selective read out in the front end electronics of the DIRC for the Babar experience at SLAC; Developpement d'un circuit integre VLSI assurant mesure de temps et lecture selective dans l'electronique frontale du compteur DIRC de l'experience babar a slac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B

    1999-07-01

    This thesis deals with the design the development and the tests of an integrated circuit VLSI, supplying selective read and time measure for 16 channels. This circuit has been developed for a experiment of particles physics, BABAR, that will take place at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center). A first part describes the physical stakes of the experiment, the electronic architecture and the place of the developed circuit in the research program. The second part presents the technical drawings of the circuit, the prototypes leading to the final design and the validity tests. (A.L.B.)

  13. Bicarbonate Plays a Critical Role in the Generation of Cytotoxicity during SIN-1 Decomposition in Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Shirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1 is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO− in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s in the medium, rather than ONOO−, exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that significant cytotoxicity persists after SIN-1 decomposes in bicarbonate, a component of the culture medium, but not in NaOH. Cytotoxic SIN-1-decomposed bicarbonate, which lacks both oxidizing and nitrosating activities, degrades to innocuous state over time. The extent of SIN-1 cytotoxicity, irrespective of its fresh or decomposed state, appears to depend on the total number of initial SIN-1 molecules per cell, rather than its concentration, and involves oxidative/nitrosative stress-related cell damage. These results suggest that, despite its low abundance, the bicarbonate-dependent cytotoxic substance that accumulates in the medium during SIN-1 breakdown is the cytotoxic entity of SIN-1.

  14. A Precise Measurement of the Spin Structure Functions G**P(2) G**D(2) from SLAC Experiment E155X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNulty, D

    2003-12-18

    A precision measurement of the deep inelastic polarized structure functions g{sub 2}{sup p} (x, Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 2}{sup d} (x, Q{sup 2}) and the virtual photon asymmetries A{sub 2}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}) and A{sub 2}{sup d}(x, Q{sup 2}) has been made by the E155x collaboration in the ranges 0.02 < x < 0.8 and 0.7 (GeV/c){sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 20 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The transverse asymmetry (A{sub {perpendicular}}) was measured at SLAC using 29.1 and 32.3 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on transversely polarized target protons and deuterons; the scattered electrons were detected by three fixed angle spectrometers at 2.75{sup o}, 5.5{sup o}, and 10.5{sup o} from the beam line. g{sub 2} was extracted using the measured A{sub {perpendicular}}, an E155 phenomenological fit to g{sub 1}/F{sub 1}, and the SLAC fit to R(x, Q{sup 2}); the function F{sub 1} was obtained from the most recent NMC fit to F{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}). The errors on g{sub 2} for both proton and deuteron are more than three times smaller than those of the previously existing world data set, thus enabling the data to resolve clearly between g{sub 2}{sup ww} and zero as well as make distinctions between various models. In addition, the Burkhardt-Cottingham and Efremov-Leader-Teryaev sum rules were evaluated over the measured kinematic region, as well as the d{sub 2} twist-3 matrix element for the proton and neutron.

  15. Proceedings of the 25th SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics: Physics of Leptons (SSI97) , Stanford, CA, August 4-15, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deporcel, Lilian

    1998-01-01

    One hundred ninety-eight physicists from 16 countries gathered at SLAC from August 4 to 15, 1997 to attend the XXV SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics. The theme of the school was ''The Physics of Leptons'', commemorating a century since the electron, the first lepton, was discovered. We heard about the electron's role as a probe of the structure of matter, as well as the beautifully precise tests of charged-lepton universality in Z 0 decays. The focus of the school then shifted from the charged leptons to their weak partners, the neutrinos. Summer Institute attendees were not surprised in early 1998 by Super-Kamiokande's announcement of evidence for neutrino mass. After all, they had already seen the mounting evidence, both solar and atmospheric, the preceding August, in a comprehensive review of all nonaccelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, as well as a topical conference report from Super-Kamiokande. We also heard about the past, present, and future of reactor- and accelerator-based oscillation experiments, including the prospects for terrestrial tests of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. Leptons in cosmology and as harbingers of physics beyond the Standard Model were the subject of two more lecture series. The three-day topical conference concluding the Institute was highlighted by the Super-Kamiokande neutrino results, and Beppo-Sax's report on the cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursters. As for terrestrial accelerators, SLC, LEP, and the Tevatron put increasing pressure on the electroweak sector through precision measurements, but all direct searches for new phenomena still came up empty

  16. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  17. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  18. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  19. "... As we forgive those who trespass against us...": theological reflections on sin and guilt in the hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kurt W

    2005-08-01

    In general parlance the term sin has lost its existential meaning. Originally a Jewish-Christian term within a purely religious context, referring to a wrongdoing with regard to God, sin has slowly become reduced to guilt in the course of the secularization process. Guilt refers to a wrongdoing, especially with regard to fellow human beings. It also refers to errors of judgement with what can be tragic consequences. These errors can occur whenever human beings are called upon to act, including the hospital environment. A Christian hospital has to address the issue of how to deal not only with guilt-ridden misdemeanors, but also with wrongdoing unto God, which overshadows every instance of guilt-ridden human behavior. Here, as in every parish, the Church Service is the place to acknowledge sin, confess sin, and forgive sin, beyond the boundaries of the parish itself.

  20. Quantum solitons and their relation with fermion fields for the (sin phi)sub(2)-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebkov, A.K.; Sushko, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Schema of canonical quantization of the/sin phi/sub(2)-self-interaction is developed systematically, which takes into account from the very beginning the existence of solitons in corresponding classical dynamical system. Correct definition of quantum soliton is given. The connection between the descriptions of quantum solitons on the basis of the proposed quantization schema and in terms of fermion fields is demonstrated

  1. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  2. Escrituras de Oseira (AHN sin relación con este monasterio (S. XI-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaní Martínez, Miguel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The edition of nine monastic documents never published previously in any form, belonging to the Osera fund, but without any apparent relation to this monastery, increases the knowledge about the referred monasteries.

    La edición de nueve documentos monásticos inéditos pertenecientes al fondo de Oseira, pero sin relación aparente con este monasterio, complementará el conocimiento de los monasterios referidos.

  3. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.

  4. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.

  5. Recordando a Erlang : un breve paseo (sin esperas) por la Teoría de Colas

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado de la Torre, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo tiene un doble objetivo : por una parte, dar cuenta de la celebración del centenario de la Teoría de Colas ; por otra, presentar una breve introducción a lo más clásico de dicha teoría, que pueda resultar de utilidad para aquellos que teniendo unos conocimientos elementales de probabilidad desean introducirse en ella de manera rápida y sin demasiadas complicaciones.

  6. A Fuzzy Adaptive Tightly-Coupled Integration Method for Mobile Target Localization Using SINS/WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile target localization for enclosed environments has been a growing interest. In this paper, we have proposed a fuzzy adaptive tightly-coupled integration (FATCI method for positioning and tracking applications using strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and wireless sensor network (WSN. The wireless signal outage and severe multipath propagation of WSN often influence the accuracy of measured distance and lead to difficulties with the WSN positioning. Note also that the SINS are known for their drifted error over time. Using as a base the well-known loosely-coupled integration method, we have built a tightly-coupled integrated positioning system for SINS/WSN based on the measured distances between anchor nodes and mobile node. The measured distance value of WSN is corrected with a least squares regression (LSR algorithm, with the aim of decreasing the systematic error for measured distance. Additionally, the statistical covariance of measured distance value is used to adjust the observation covariance matrix of a Kalman filter using a fuzzy inference system (FIS, based on the statistical characteristics. Then the tightly-coupled integration model can adaptively adjust the confidence level for measurement according to the different measured accuracies of distance measurements. Hence the FATCI system is achieved using SINS/WSN. This innovative approach is verified in real scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed positioning system has better accuracy and stability compared with the loosely-coupled and traditional tightly-coupled integration model for WSN short-term failure or normal conditions.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE CARAMELOS DE UCHUVA SIN SACAROSA ADICIONADOS CON CALCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIA ELENA VALENCIA G

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de la adición de calcio sobre los atributos de calidad de un caramelo blando a base de fruto de uchuva sin sacarosa, comparándolo con uno similar sin calcio. Se emplea calcio lácteo como ingrediente funcional, el cual se incorpora a granel, con el objetivo de alcanzar un valor diario de referencia mayor del 20% en una porción de 15 g de producto, según la normativa colombiana. El calcio afecta principalmente la acidez del producto (, la elasticidad (>, la cohesividad (. El caramelo adicionado presentó contenidos de 292,5 ± 9 mg Ca/porción, correspondiente a un 20 % del valor diario de referencia, lo cual permite identificar al producto con el descriptor 'Excelente fuente de calcio'. Los caramelos blandos de uchuva sin azúcar adicionados con calcio, representan una alternativa económica para cubrir necesidades de calcio en la dieta de la población

  8. A Novel Scheme for DVL-Aided SINS In-Motion Alignment Using UKF Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV. This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF. Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment.

  9. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  10. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  11. Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: La demencia tipo Alzheimer es una de las causas más frecuentes de dependencia en población mayor, a lo que se une, la considerable demanda de cuidados. Además, cuando el cuidador es un familiar o una persona sin formación especializada, el cuidado tiene un impacto sobre su salud. Para conocer las necesidades de estos cuidadores y evaluar el nivel de sobrecarga o malestar del cuidador, se realiza la propuesta del Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer (IPSO-CA24. Método: En base a las respuestas de 255 cuidadores, se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mediante análisis de fiabilidad, análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Resultados: Los análisis factoriales informan de una estructura de seis factores relacionados (Reacción ante el diagnóstico, Salud física, Sintomatología psicológica (cuidador, Sintomatología conductual (enfermo, Conocimientos de la enfermedad y Nivel de dependencia, con una fiabilidad entre 0,75 y 0,93, que explican el 66,52% de la varianza total. También se obtiene apoyo para su validez convergente. Conclusiones: El IPSO-CA24 viene a dar respuesta a la necesidad de un instrumento que permita una valoración multidimensional de la sobrecarga del cuidador familiar sin formación especializada. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  12. Calcium isotopic composition of high-latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin., becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.

  13. Test of 10 GHz sin-cosin microwave reflectometer on CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, F.; Kletecka, P.

    1994-09-01

    The first microwave reflectometric device is described used at the CASTOR tokamak to measure fast density fluctuations. The device operates at the frequency of 10.26 GHz which makes it possible to detect fluctuations near the plasma periphery. The device was proved to work properly during the whole tokamak discharge despite the fact that the reflected signal level varied strongly. The construction of the reflectometric device is described as is its use of the so-called sin-cosin detection system, and the results obtained are discussed. (Z.S.) 8 figs., 3 refs

  14. A precision measurement of sin2θw in neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Barbaro, P. de; Sakumoto, W.K.; Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle is reported from the ratio of the neutral current to charged current inclusive cross-sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using the on-shell definition, the value obtained is currently the most accurate determination of sin 2 θ w in a single experiment. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet wide-band neutrino beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  15. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estud...

  16. Measurement of sin2β in Tree Dominated B0 Decays and Ambiguity Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The most recent results from the B-factories on the time-dependent CP asymmetries measured in B 0 -decays mediated by b→cc-bar s quark-transitions are reviewed. The Standard Model interpretation of the results in terms of the parameter sin2β leads to a four-fold ambiguity on the unitarity triangle β which can be reduced to a two-fold ambiguity by measuring the sign of the parameter cos2β. The results on cos2β obtained so far are reviewed

  17. Del fin de la guerra fria al comienzo de la guerra sin fin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Jean Pierre

    2006-01-01

    El Profesor Ferrier nos describe los acontecimientos de la sociedad internacional en los ultimos 15 años y señala la profunda diferencia entre "la estabilidad" durante la guerra fría y la "revolucion" que se ha producido en el escenario internacional a partir de la caida del muro de Berlin. Hace especial referencia al comportamiento de la superpotencia (Estados Unidos) y su guerra sin fin contra los "nuevos enemigos" en los diferentes teatros internacionales en su lucha por imponer el "Bien" ...

  18. Superconducting ring magnets of the PIOTRON Pi-meson therapy facility at SIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maix, R K; Meyer, G; Roman, T; Horvath, I; Vecsey, G; Zellweger, J

    1982-01-01

    Negative Pi-mesons seem to be very promising for cancer therapy, because of their well defined penetration depth and their enhanced energy deposition in the absorption region. A prototype Pi-meson therapy facility, called PIOTRON, has been constructed at SIN, where also pion beams of sufficient intensity are available. The central part of this system are two ring magnets, consisting each of 60 superconducting flat coils, with the aid of which 60 pion beams can be guided around a heavy iron shield and focused on the patient. In this paper the fabrication and the initial operation of these magnets is discussed.

  19. Sarcoidosis aguda: Variante de Síndrome de Löfgren sin eritema nodoso

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Gerardo; Facal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    El síndrome de Löfgren, es una variante aguda de la sarcoidosis, que se caracteriza por fiebre, eritema nodoso, adenomegalias hiliares pulmonares y artritis. En general, tiene un curso benigno y autolimitado, que contrasta con las formas crónicas que requieren uso de corticoides y tienen tendencia a la recidiva. Se describe aquí el caso clínico de un paciente joven, de sexo masculino, con artritis pero sin eritema nodoso, lo que dificultó el planteo diagnóstico de síndrome de Löfgren. Se real...

  20. Diversidad de sistemas planetarios sin gigantes gaseosos en discos de baja masa

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, María Paula

    2013-01-01

    Como indica el título de esta tesis, el objetivo general de nuestro trabajo es poder analizar la diversidad de sistemas planetarios que podrían formarse alrededor de estrellas de tipo solar y sin gigantes gaseosos. Nuestro interés particular es estudiar estos sistemas en discos de baja masa, pues podemos asegurar que en ellos no hay posibilidad de formar planetas gigantes gaseosos. Para poder lograr este análisis desarrollamos simulaciones de N-cuerpos orientadas a estudiar el proceso de form...

  1. [Successful treatment of surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) with systemic immunosuppresive agents and amniotic membrane grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, M; Franco-Benito, M; García-Ruiz-de-Morales, J M; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Del Barrio-Manso, I

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old female who developed a necrotizing sclerokeratitis affecting her left eye after uncomplicated cataract surgery. She had no previous history of systemic autoimmune disease. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotic granulomatosis with an increased number of plasma cells. Surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) is a serious entity which requires prompt and aggressive therapy to prevent its potential devastating ocular consequences. Conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane grafting may be necessary to temporarily interrupt local immunologic events in severe cases. However, associated systemic immunomodulatory therapy seems to be mandatory (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2009; 84: 577-580).

  2. Clima organizacional y disposici?n al cambio en una entidad sin ?nimo de lucro

    OpenAIRE

    G?nzalez-Rubio, Daniella; Quintanilla, Karen

    2017-01-01

    El prop?sito de la investigaci?n fue describir el clima organizacional y la actitud hacia el cambio de los colaboradores de la Fundaci?n Compasi?n y Amor, entidad sin ?nimo de lucro, con el fin de generar una propuesta que contribuya al desarrollo organizacional. Se realiz? una investigaci?n cuantitativa y descriptiva con 15 colaboradores de la Fundaci?n, los que tienen contrato directo y est?n en cargo administrativo y los voluntarios que no tienen contrato. Se dise?? y aplic? una bater?a c...

  3. «El castigo sin venganza», a la conquista del repertorio

    OpenAIRE

    Mancebo Salvador, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    El artículo da cuenta de todos los montajes de El castigo sin venganza de Lope de Vega, desde su estreno en 1632 hasta 2014, tanto en España como en el extranjero. Se recogen las representaciones de la pieza en el ámbito profesional y en el escolar, con especial atención a los espectáculos de las escuelas de arte escénico (ESAD) y de las universidades. Se analizan los signos que intervinieron en las más destacadas puestas en escena desde el reparto a la escenografía, vestuario, música, versió...

  4. Alteraciones emocionales en la enfermedad de Parkinson idiopático sin demencia

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado González, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Actualmente la enfermedad de Parkinson ha comenzado a ser considerada como una patología de carácter neuroconductual cognitivo que se encuentra relacionada con alteraciones emocionales como la depresión, ansiedad y apatía que contribuyen a desmejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes que padecen esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar y analizar las alteraciones emocionales (depresión, ansiedad y apatía) en pacientes con EP sin demencia en est...

  5. Pájaros enjaulados: homosexualidad y prisión en Hombres sin mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Saborido, Emilio José

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en la interacción entre homosexualidad y prisión en la novela del cubano Carlos Montenegro titulada “Hombres sin mujer” (1938). A partir de una aproximación sociológica al hecho literario, se analizan estructuralmente las nociones y prácticas homosexuales carcelarias, teniendo en cuenta especialmente sus componentes y la creación de categorías auto-explicativas o etnocategorías, el orden en el que se constituyen estos elementos y los conflictos que los a...

  6. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González; Ivonne Vizcarra-Bordi

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un est...

  7. Los Estados Unidos de Obama: entre el idealismo y el regreso al containment sin enemigo global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García Duarte

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El ascenso de Obama al poder representaba, sin duda, un cambio radical en relación con la política internacional desplegada por el presidente George W. Bush y su doctrina sobre la guerra preventiva. En una perspectiva de más largo plazo podría, además, significar un giro hacia el idealismo después de un largo período de predominio del realismo, muy intensamente desarrollado durante la guerra fría, mediante la doctrina del containment. La prevalencia de la diplomacia y la restitución del

  8. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  9. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  12. A structured workflow for mapping human Sin3 histone deacetylase complex interactions using Halo-MudPIT AP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Thornton, Janet L; Eubanks, Cassandra G; Adams, Mark K; Miah, Sayem; Boanca, Gina; Liu, Xingyu; Katt, Maria; Parmely, Tari; Florens, Laurence A; Washburn, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Although a variety of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) strategies have been used to investigate complex interactions, many of these are susceptible to artifacts due to substantial overexpression of the exogenously expressed bait protein. Here we present a logical and systematic workflow that uses the multifunctional Halo tag to assess the correct localization and behavior of tagged subunits of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex prior to further AP-MS analysis. Using this workflow, we modified our tagging/expression strategy with 21.7% of the tagged bait proteins that we constructed, allowing us to quickly develop validated reagents. Specifically, we apply the workflow to map interactions between stably expressed versions of the Sin3 subunits SUDS3, SAP30 or SAP30L and other cellular proteins.  Here we show that the SAP30 and SAP30L paralogues strongly associate with the core Sin3 complex, but SAP30L has unique associations with the proteasome and the myelin sheath.  Next, we demonstrate an advancement of the complex NSAF (cNSAF) approach, in which normalization to the scaffold protein SIN3A accounts for variations in the proportion of each bait capturing Sin3 complexes and allows a comparison between different baits capturing the same protein complex. This analysis reveals that although the Sin3 subunit SUDS3 appears to be used in both SIN3A and SIN3B based complexes, the SAP30 subunit is not used in SIN3B based complexes. Intriguingly, we do not detect the Sin3 subunits SAP18 and SAP25 among the 128 high-confidence interactions identified, suggesting that these subunits may not be common to all versions of the Sin3 complex in human cells. This workflow provides the framework for building validated reagents to assemble quantitative interaction networks for chromatin remodeling complexes and provides novel insights into focused protein interaction networks. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Demo 94. Campana de vacío : hinchar un globo sin soplar y cocer un huevo en el Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Martínez, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: a) Hinchar un globo sin soplar: Experimentar la relación entre el volumen y la presión de los gases. Demostrar que es posible hinchar un globo sin insuflar aire en su interior, reduciendo la presión (atmosférica). b) Cocer un huevo en el Everest: Comprobar la disminución del punto de ebullición del agua al reducir la presión (atmosférica)

  14. A Study of Large sin2φBs with High Mass Fourth Generation t'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chien Yi

    2009-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts the CP violation phase φ SM Bs -M 12 ≅ (V * ts V tb ) in B s (bar) B s mixing is very small, of O(λ 2 η) ∼ -0.02, any finite value of φ Bs measured at the Tevatron would mean New Physics. Recent hints for finite sin2φ Bs have appeared from CDF and D 0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II. We consider the possibility to account for it with the 4 th generation t' quark. Considering recent direct search bounds, we set the mass to be near the unitarity bound of 600 GeV. Combining the measurement values of Δm Bs with B(B d → X s l + l - , together with typical f Bs values, we find a sizable sin2φ SM4 B s ∼ -0.3. Using a typical value of m b' = 580 GeV, we get a narrow range of values, 0.089 t'b | + → π + ν(bar)ν) and Δm D 0. Finally, we use the ZFITTER code to check the global fit deviation. (author)

  15. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  16. SinCHet: a MATLAB toolbox for single cell heterogeneity analysis in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiannong; Smalley, Inna; Schell, Michael J; Smalley, Keiran S M; Chen, Y Ann

    2017-09-15

    Single-cell technologies allow characterization of transcriptomes and epigenomes for individual cells under different conditions and provide unprecedented resolution for researchers to investigate cellular heterogeneity in cancer. The SinCHet ( gle ell erogeneity) toolbox is developed in MATLAB and has a graphical user interface (GUI) for visualization and user interaction. It analyzes both continuous (e.g. mRNA expression) and binary omics data (e.g. discretized methylation data). The toolbox does not only quantify cellular heterogeneity using S hannon P rofile (SP) at different clonal resolutions but also detects heterogeneity differences using a D statistic between two populations. It is defined as the area under the P rofile of S hannon D ifference (PSD). This flexible tool provides a default clonal resolution using the change point of PSD detected by multivariate adaptive regression splines model; it also allows user-defined clonal resolutions for further investigation. This tool provides insights into emerging or disappearing clones between conditions, and enables the prioritization of biomarkers for follow-up experiments based on heterogeneity or marker differences between and/or within cell populations. The SinCHet software is freely available for non-profit academic use. The source code, example datasets, and the compiled package are available at http://labpages2.moffitt.org/chen/software/ . ann.chen@moffitt.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  18. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Drzik, Milan [International Laser Center, Ilkovicova 3, 841-04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  19. Sin práctica no hay discurso, sin cuerpo no hay saber: Sobre legitimidades en las teorías de la descolonización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ximena Postigo

    2016-03-01

    En todo proceso de descolonización del saber, tan importante como la afirmación de una autonomía epistemológica y práctica es el reconocimiento del lugar de enunciación desde el que esta se produce. Una teoría de la descolonización elaborada desde la observación de los movimientos sociales no es semejante a una producida desde el propio movimiento social. En el primer caso, la teoría de lo de-colonial no deriva ni nace de una práctica. Walter Mignolo, por ejemplo, quien define su propuesta teórica como “la intervención de un pensador de-colonial”, escribe desde este lugar. En el segundo caso, la teoría se piensa desde y para el movimiento de los cuerpos. Así, Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui –para quien postulados como los de Mignolo dan cuenta de otra forma de colonialismo­– sostiene que un pensamiento de la descolonización es inimaginable sin una práctica descoloniozadora. En este contexto interno-externo, una mirada al Estado Plurinacional desde intervenciones como las de Mignolo tiende a una idealización binaria que no contribuye al proceso descolonizador sino, más bien, a una rearticulación del pensamiento occidental. A su vez, esta idealización es desmentida por discursos internos que ven en el gobierno de Evo Morales una incoherencia entre el discurso y la práctica. Este artículo explora todas estas instancias, reconociendo en las teorías producidas desde la lucha los pilares del Estado Plurinacional, y en las tensiones entre poderosos aquello que más bien, oscurece el valor del movimiento social.

  20. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  1. The Role of Research Universities in Helping Solve our Energy Challenges: A Case Study at Stanford and SLAC (2011 EFRC Summit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessey, John

    2011-01-01

    The first speaker in the 2011 EFRC Summit session titled 'Leading Perspectives in Energy Research' was John Hennessey, President of Stanford University. He discussed the important role that the academic world plays as a partner in innovative energy research by presenting a case study involving Stanford and SLAC. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  2. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen; Henderson, Sam W; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J; Gilliham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  3. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen

    2016-06-23

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  4. Measurement of the positron polarization at an helical undulator based positron source for the international linear collider ILC. The E-166 experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Laihem

    2008-06-05

    A helical undulator based polarized positron source is forseen at a future International Linear Collider (ILC). The E-166 experiment has tested this scheme using a one meter long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator installed in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam passing through this undulator generated circularly polarized photons with energies up to about 8 MeV. The generated photons of several MeV with circular polarization are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at 5 different energies of the positrons. In addition electron polarization has been determined for one energy point. For a comparison of the measured asymmetries with the expectations detailed simulations were necessary. This required upgrading GEANT4 to include the dominant polarization dependent interactions of electrons, positrons and photons in matter. The measured polarization of the positrons agrees with the expectations and is for the energy point with the highest polarization at 6MeV about 80%. (orig.)

  5. El problema del crecimiento sostenible ¿cómo crecer sin destruirse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Saravia Rios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available De una u otra forma las organizaciones perciben el crecer como una meta necesaria en la planeación estratégica y cuando se logra el crecimiento buscado se supone una gestión exitosa. Sin embargo, en ocasiones no hay claridad sobre lo que significa crecer, cuáles son sus efectos y no se comprende con profundidad el significado de una buena gestión. Es común ver a las organizaciones formular preguntas como:¿Crecer significa vender más?, ¿Hasta dónde puedo crecer? ¿Crecer es tener mayor infraestructura y personal? ¿Qué tan rentable seré creciendo? o presentando afirmaciones como: “la meta del plan estratégico para este año es crecer un 20%, eso nos posicionará como el número uno en el sector”. La meta de una organización debe ser: ser sostenible y el crecer, puede ser una estrategia para lograrla, sin embargo, el crecer por sí mismo no necesariamente genera sostenibilidad, por esto, si una organización lo entiende como su meta puede comprometer su viabilidad. El problema del crecimiento tiene varias dimensiones de análisis que involucran todas las instancias de una organización, por ejemplo, se necesita tener acceso a la información del mercado y el entorno, se necesita tener la inteligencia para comprender esta información, se necesita una estructura organizacional dinámica, flexible e innovadora, es necesario comprender cómo los diferentes procesos interactúan y qué recursos necesitan. Para entender el crecer como una estrategia, se hace necesaria su formalización, y el uso de herramientas que permitan su manejo, estas herramientas deberán incluir las diferentes dimensiones de análisis. Mediante el uso de estos modelos, una organización puede diseñar una estrategia de crecimiento coherente con sus metas, y sin el riesgo de comprometer su estabilidad.

  6. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaro; Ogura, Mitsuo; Nii, Satomi; Hirooka, Kazutake

    2017-01-01

    It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt). Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (P kinB ) region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt) or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A) relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C) in an inverted orientation (SinR-1) between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of P kinB . Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8) consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the '-35' and '-10' regions of P kinB . Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T) in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of P kinB , suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  7. Research on the Strategy of Motion Constraint-Aided ZUPT for the SINS Positioning System of a Shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of position and orientation for shearers is a key technology in realizing an automated, fully-mechanized, coal mining face. Since Global Positioning System (GPS signal cannot arrive at the coal mine underground, wireless sensor network positioning system cannot operate stably in the coal mine; thus a strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is used to measure the position and orientation of the shearer. Aiming at the problem of the SINS accumulative error, this paper proposes a positioning error correction method based on the motion constraint-aided SINS zero velocity updated (ZUPT model. First of all, a stationary state detection model of the shearer is built with median filter based on the acceleration and angular rate measured by the SINS. Secondly, the motion of the shearer is analyzed using coal mining technology, then the motion constraint model of the shearer is established. In addition, the alternate action between the motion constraint model and the ZUPT model is analyzed at the process of movement and cessation of the shearer, respectively; hence, the motion constraint-aided SINS ZUPT model is built. Finally, by means of the experimental platform of the SINS for the shearer, the experimental results show that the maximum position error with the positioning model proposed in this paper is 1.6 m in 180 s, and increases by 92.0% and 88.1% compared with the single motion constraint model and single ZUPT model, respectively. It can then restrain the accumulative error of the SINS effectively.

  8. Threshold stoichiometry for beam induced nitrogen depletion of SiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.; Weijers, T.D.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Uribasterra, J.; Whitlow, H.J.; Sarwe, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films as a function of the number of incident ions using heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) show that beam-induced nitrogen depletion depends on the projectile species, the beam energy, and the initial stoichiometry. A threshold stoichiometry exists in the range 1.3>N/Si≥1, below which the films are stable against nitrogen depletion. Above this threshold, depletion is essentially linear with incident fluence. The depletion rate correlates non-linearly with the electronic energy loss of the projectile ion in the film. Sufficiently long exposure of nitrogen-rich films renders the mechanism, which prevents depletion of nitrogen-poor films, ineffective. Compromising depth-resolution, nitrogen depletion from SiN films during ERD analysis can be reduced significantly by using projectile beams with low atomic numbers

  9. Cost of global warming may be 'sin' taxes on CO 2 use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, Cliff.

    1995-01-01

    One suggested solution for curbing carbon dioxide emissions and thus stopping the so-called greenhouse effect is taxing the emissions. A meeting in Maastrict, The Netherlands, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that greenhouse emissions are putting the worlds climate at serious risk. The panel called on both industry and governments to act 'urgently' to deal with the threat. For some who have been watching world temperature closely, all of this concern may seem a bit strange. Worldwide temperatures had cooled by approximately 0.08 degrees Fahrenheit in the five years between 1987 and 1992, perhaps the strongest arguments for global warming come from surface temperature measurement, taken primarily at weather stations, show a steady march toward warmer temperatures since 1980 or so. Despite the satellite record and other evidence that nothing of global warming are yet appearing CO 2 sin taxes seem a likely possibility in at least some European countries and perhaps in Canada. (author)

  10. LA ESFERA AFECTIVA EN LA EDUCACIÓN DE LOS MENORES SIN AMPARO FAMILIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alybé Moreno-Aurioles Matamoros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan los principios y categorías que sustentan el tratamiento educativo en la atención a las necesidades educativas especiales originadas por el fenómeno desamparo familiar, desde la concepción de familia, teniendo en cuenta que en los centros de asistencia social donde son atendidos los menores sin amparo familiar se debe cumplir con las funciones establecidas para la familia en nuestra sociedad. Se reflejan elementos que obligatoriamente deben tenerse en cuenta para favorecer el desarrollo de la esfera afectiva como las vivencias, actividad, educación, enfatizando en las características de esta esfera, base de la personalidad, unida a la cognitiva.

  11. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-10-15

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 {mu}m thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 deg. C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  12. Recent results of μCF experiments at SIN [Swiss Institute For Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Bistirlich, J.

    1986-09-01

    Important topics concerning Muon Catalyzed Fusion were investigated in experiments at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN), including transient and steady state rates for the main dμt cycle as well as detailed information about the competing dμd and tμt fusion branches. The basic kinetic parameters were determined and striking features of the resonant dμt formation process were revealed (density effect, epithermal behavior). DT sticking was measured with independent techniques, i.e., detection of fusion neutrons as well as μHe x-rays after fusion. Fusion yields per muon of 113 +- 10 were observed at liquid conditions, yields exceeding 200 are anticipated for optimal conditions from our results. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membranea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamüller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 μm thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 °C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  14. residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zamorano Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordarán los itinerarios y las prácticas residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez, ese punto de convergencia de inmigrantes nacionales y capitales internacionales y ahora, una de las más importantes ciudades maquiladoras del país. A partir de 51 historias de vida con trabajadoras de esta industria, se comparan los itinerarios residenciales de familias monoparentales con los de familias biparentales. Esta comparación permite ver las desventajas de las primeras para ingresar al mercado de la vivienda, que no se explican únicamente por factores de orden económico, sino también moral y práctico.

  15. Lithography-based fabrication of nanopore arrays in freestanding SiN and graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Yang, Wayne; Dekker, Cees

    2018-04-01

    We report a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of nanopore arrays on freestanding SiN and graphene membranes based on electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By controlling the dose of the single-shot electron-beam exposure, circular nanopores of any size down to 16 nm in diameter can be fabricated in both materials at high accuracy and precision. We demonstrate the sensing capabilities of these nanopores by translocating dsDNA through pores fabricated using this method, and find signal-to-noise characteristics on par with transmission-electron-microscope-drilled nanopores. This versatile lithography-based approach allows for the high-throughput manufacturing of nanopores and can in principle be used on any substrate, in particular membranes made out of transferable two-dimensional materials.

  16. COMUNICACIÓN, CONOCIMIENTO Y PODER SIN AGENDA SOBRE LA SEGURIDAD CIUDADANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Picón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reflexiona analíticamente sobre la comunicación, el poder y el conocimiento sin agenda sobre la seguridad ciudadana. En la comunicación está surgiendo el “Paradigma de comunicación de seguridad”, con fuertes bases éticas, moral y ciudadana, como mecanismo de colaboración mutua y prioridad en las relaciones de comunicación. Las relaciones de poder se basan en el “Paradigma de la dialógica” promoviendo espacios de diálogo y discusión. En el conocimiento se crearían condiciones y estrategias apropiadas para promoverse, articulando programas tanto a nivel local, sectorial, institucional y universitario, para brindar un esarrollo de la seguridad ciudadana con una fuerte base científica.

  17. Adolfo Bioy casares y Mario Bellatin: sobre cartas sin cuerpo y acantilados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fernandes Cipreste

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una lectura de dos escritores hispanoamericanos – Adolfo Bioy Casares y Mario Bellatin – con el propósito de reflexionar sobre discursos de poder, incluido el ámbito de la Crítica Latinoamericana. Se entienden las experiencias de los personajes de sus obras, y también el ethos de ambos los autores, como una existência ética y estética que resiste a los intentos de categorizaciones. La propuesta se hace a la luz del concepto de Comunidad, del filósofo italiano Roberto Esposito, y de la discusión de Hugo Achugar sobre lo local y lo global en América Latina. Dos imágenes inspiran ese análisis: la carta sin cuerpo en Dormir al sol, de Casares; y el acantilado de Bellatin en Los fantasmas del masajista.

  18. Autoprotección del aluminio anodizado sin sellar expuesto a la atmósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, E.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed anodised specimens with three different film thicknesses were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Iberoamérica with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m sup>-2 day-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coatings during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. Keywords

    Para confirmar o rebatir la idea, muy difundida, de que la operación de sellado es imprescindible para garantizar una buena resistencia del aluminio anodizado a la corrosión atmosférica, se expusieron muestras de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, en 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 684 mg m-2 d-1 de cloruros. Por las más variadas técnicas, desde la microscopía electrónica de barrido o transmisión a la medida directa por gravimetría, pasando por los ensayos normalizados de control de calidad del sellado y la medida indirecta por técnicas electroquímicas, se demuestra la capacidad de autosellado, durante la exposición a la atmósfera, de los recubrimientos anódicos sin sellar. Sorprendentemente, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en recubrimientos protectores de otra naturaleza, la calidad de los anodizados mejora con el envejecimiento.

  19. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G.J.; Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiN x films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effect of N 2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N 2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi 3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N 2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24 o to 49.6 o . To some extent, the SiN x films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiN x films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap E opt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiN x films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiN x films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiN x films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiN x films experienced only fatigue wear

  20. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  1. [Control levels of Sin3 histone deacetylase for spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovka, I Iu; Kozhina, T N; Fedorova, I V; Peshekhonov, V T; Evstiukhina, T A; Chernenkov, A Iu; Korolev, V G

    2014-01-01

    SIN3 gene product operates as a repressor for a huge amount of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sin3 protein with a mass of about 175 kDa is a member of the RPD3 protein complex with an assessed mass of greater than 2 million Da. It was previously shownthat RPD3 gene mutations influence recombination and repair processes in S. cerevisiae yeasts. We studied the impacts of the sin3 mutation on UV-light sensitivity and UV-induced mutagenesis in budding yeast cells. The deletion ofthe SIN3 gene causes weak UV-sensitivity of mutant budding cells as compared to the wild-type strain. These results show that the sin3 mutation decreases both spontaneous and UV-induced levels of levels. This fact is hypothetically related to themalfunction of ribonucleotide reductase activity regulation, which leads to a decrease in the dNTP pool and the inaccurate error-prone damage bypass postreplication repair pathway, which in turn provokes a reduction in the incidence of mutations.

  2. Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montes -y-Gómez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Web es sin lugar a dudas el repositorio de información más grande jamás construido por el ser humano. Con más de cuatro mil millones de páginas indexadas por los motores de búsqueda públicos, la Web representa el mayor y más amplio corpus textual disponible en la actualidad. Por su valor lingüístico, dado que contiene información en más de 1 500 lenguajes, este corpus está siendo usado con gran éxito en muchas tareas de procesamientodel lenguaje natural. En particular, varios métodos de minería de datos se han aplicado para extraer de la Web algunos tipos de patrones lingüísticos útiles para tareas como la traducción automática y búsqueda de respuestas. En este artículo presentamos un método que permite encontrar combinaciones de palabras significativas a los diferentes sentidos atribuibles a una palabra polisémica. Los experimentos realizados, aunque preliminares, muestran el gran potencial del método propuesto para encontrar estas colocaciones por sentido usando la Web como corpus, así como la viabilidad de la incorporación de dichas colocaciones en sistemas de desambiguación del sentido de las palabras, que pueden a su vez ser usados en sistemas de traducción automática y recuperación de información.There is no doubt that the Web is the biggest information repository ever before constructed by human beings. With more than four billion pages index-linked by the public search engines, the Web represents the biggest and the widest textual corpus available in our days. Because his high linguistic value, because contains information in more than 1500 different languages, this corpus is being used with great success in many tasks related to the natural language process. In particular, several methods of data mining have been applied to extract from the Web some types of linguistic patterns which are useful for a diversity of tasks, such as automatic translations and answer search systems. In this work we presenta

  3. Study of B0 → $\\bar{D}$*0 Decay and Measurement of sin(2β)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, Marco [Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    2007-09-18

    This thesis describes a measurement of a CP violating asymmetry in neutral B meson decays, 0 → $\\bar{D}$*0, where D*0 is a charmed meson and h0 is a light meson, performed on data collected by the BABAR experiment at the SLAC asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider PEP-II.

  4. $\\sin(2\\beta)$ with $B^0 \\rightarrow\\!J/\\!\\psi K_\\text{S}$ at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Niet, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The poster presents the recent measurement of $\\sin(2\\beta)$ using $B^0$ decays to the $J/\\!\\psi K_\\text{S}$ final state. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0$\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. To control penguin pollutions in the determination of $\\sin(2\\beta)$, $B_s^0$ decays to the same final state can be analysed. The results of the corresponding analysis are presented as well.

  5. Cele șapte păcate ale greenwashing-ului [The seven sins of greenwashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgoi M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This editorial tackles a problem the Romanian forestry journals have never dealt with: the greenwashing phenomenon. After a brief excursion into the communication clichés consciously or unconsciously delivered by the media to the public, we have scrutinized the seven sins of greenwashing, found into the forestry sector or promoted by the public authority responsible for environmental protection. The first sin we have found refers to the hidden trade-offs and the best example in this respect is the stumpage price. Being too high, neither the forest administrator/owner nor the contractor pays attention to the quality of the harvesting process, compromising the natural regeneration, destroying the upper soil and triggering erosion processes. Lack of evidence about the misbehavior of forest inspectors or unsubstantiated allegation when it comes to the ones responsible with forest regime supervision is the second sin, followed by the sin of vagueness. The best example of vague statement is the concept of favorable conservation status, barely defined for species but hard to define for large habitats. The sin of worship false labels goes along with the forest management planning system still stuck to the sustained yield principle even for very small forest ownerships, unable to produce steady annual yields simply because a regular age structure cannot be ever reached. The sin of irrelevance was exemplified by the paper waste that follows each public awareness campaign based on colorful flyers, personalized plastic ballpoint pens, folders and so on. Compared to the environmental cost of having this paper recycled the social benefit of having used this paper-based material fades out. The sin of lesser of two evils pops up whenever the public authority fails to enforce the best available technology, which sometime comes about with a higher social cost or less fringe benefits for all people working in forestry. After the collapse of the communist regime

  6. Una contribución al análisis de problemas de flujo compresible sin utilizacion de viscocidad artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, F.

    1994-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan unas técnicas desarrolladas con el objeto de obtener un algoritmo para la solución de problemas de flujo compresible sin la aplicación de términos de viscosidad artificial. Esto es motivado por el hecho de que si bien la calidad de la solución obtenida mediante procedimientos conocidos es muy buena -en particular los choques y las capas límite son capturados de manera muy precisa y sin oscilaciones-, en muchas ocasiones es preciso recurrir a la pericia del usuario...

  7. Diferencias comportamentales en gallinas ponedoras con y sin el "Método Llovera" durante el período primaveral.

    OpenAIRE

    Mentzel, Rubén

    2009-01-01

    Recibido: Dic.2008 | Aceptado: Abr.2009 En trabajos anteriores se demostraron las ventajas del control de moscas en galpones de gallinas ponedoras, aplicando el “Método Llovera”. El mismo consiste en colocar gallinas de descarte en el piso, sin alimentación propia, en una cantidad correspondiente al 10% de los animales del galpón.1 De esta forma se logra disminuir la cantidad de moscas, y aumentar la producción de huevos mejorando la calidad y la rentabilidad. Un ambiente sin moscas es mu...

  8. Influencia de los trastornos mentales y de la personalidad en el abandono de procesos en personas sin hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Salavera, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Las personas sin hogar protagonizan un alto índice de abandonos en los procesos terapéuticos que establecen. El motivo de abandono no siempre es conocido, en esta investigación se aborda si viene mediado por los trastornos mentales o son los trastornos de personalidad los que llevan un mayor peso. Los resultados muestran a las personas sin hogar con deterioro cognitivo leve y trastornos de personalidad del grupo de problemas interpersonales y ambivalentes como los principales candidatos al ab...

  9. Degradación térmica del γ‐orizanol en pastas sin gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Jover, Sonia; Boluda Aguilar, María; López Gómez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    La harina de arroz es el cereal más adecuado para elaborar productos sin gluten, debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes, y a su alto contenido en γ–orizanol. Además también posee propiedades hipoalergénicas y un color y aroma suave. Dado el gran interés del γ–orizanol desde el punto de vista nutraceútico, y a que existen pocos estudios sobre el efecto de la cocción de alimentos sin gluten (elaborados con harina de arroz) sobre el contenido de γ‐orizanol, en este trabajo se est...

  10. Sistemas de control de gestion, analisis para organizaciones sin fines de lucro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Saldías Cerda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se revisarán distintos modelos de control de gestión y como estos han evolucionado desde los basados exclusivamente en la contabilidad, hasta hoy en día, en que la incorporación de conceptos como capital humano y Stakeholder son considerados como elementos claves. Modelos que también han sido considerado por las instituciones sin fines de lucro, como son las organizaciones  públicas en su implantación de la estrategia. Junto a la revisión de los antecedentes bibliográficos, se procedió a realizar algunas comparaciones de modelos encontrados, en  particular se utilizó el Cuadro de Mando Integral (CMI como referencia, en sus distintos estados evolutivos, el cual ha incorporado cada vez con mayor énfasis el concepto de capital humano en su enfoque. Además, se consideró el concepto de Stakeholder, planteado por algunos autores como una variable imprescindible en el planteamiento estratégico y posterior desarrollo del modelo de gestión. Lo anterior permitió definir el marco referencial, para plantear un modelo que pudiese ser aplicado en organizaciones sin fines de lucro, como lo es un hospital público. En donde se deben tener presente las diferentes restricciones estructurales y culturales que afectan o interfieren en la aplicación de cualquier modelo o estrategia, representados y descritos en los Satkeholder. Next to the revision of the bibliographical antecedents, proceeded to carry out some comparisons of models found, particularly the Balance Scorecard was utilized (BSC as reference, in its different evolutionary states, which has incorporated each time with greater emphasis the concept of human capital in its focus. Besides, the concept was considered of Stakeholder, presented by some authors as an indispensable variable in the approach strategic and subsequent development of the model of management. The previous thing permitted to define the framework referential, to present a model that could

  11. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  12. HISTOPATOLOGIA DE LA INFECCIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE OVEJAS SIN LANA Ovis aries POR Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Oviedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovejas sin lana en diferentes estados reproductivos fueron inoculadas por vía intravenosa con taquizoítos deN. caninum muestra «NC-beef» con el fin de estudiar la patofisiología de la enfermedad en estos animales yverificar la posibilidad de ser usados como modelo experimental de neosporosis bovina. Se utilizaron cincoovejas gestantes (una con 15 días, dos con 30 días, dos con 90 días, tres no gestantes y dos con 10 díasposparto. Los animales eran serologicamente negativos para N.caninum y T. gondii. Dos ovejas gestantes, noinoculadas, fueron utilizadas como control negativo. Los corderos necropsiados, nacidos de ovejas inoculadasantes o durante la gestación presentaron alteraciones histopatológicas en diferentes tejidos, siendo las masseveras observadas en el sistema nervioso central, caracterizadas por la presencia de formas quísticas delparásito asociadas con infiltrado inflamatorio predominantemente mononuclear, áreas de necrosis y en algunoscasos presencia de calcificación. Los corderos nacidos de ovejas inoculadas 10 días después del parto nopresentaron signos clínicos de la enfermedad ni anticuerpos contra o parásito y a la necropsia no presentaronlesiones en ninguno de los tejidos analizados. Un cordero nacido de oveja no inoculada no presentó alteracionesmicroscópicas en ninguno de los tejidos analizados

  13. Smokers’ Strategic Responses to Sin Taxes: Evidence from Panel Data in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S.; Ross, Hana

    2014-01-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, socio-demographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of RYO tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to over-estimates of a sin tax’s health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. PMID:24677731

  14. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Coarse Alignment Technology on Moving base for SINS Based on the Improved Quaternion Filter Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Yongyun; Zhou, Feng; Yan, Yaxiong; Tong, Jinwu

    2017-06-17

    Initial alignment of the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) is intended to determine the initial attitude matrix in a short time with certain accuracy. The alignment accuracy of the quaternion filter algorithm is remarkable, but the convergence rate is slow. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an improved quaternion filter algorithm for faster initial alignment based on the error model of the quaternion filter algorithm. The improved quaternion filter algorithm constructs the K matrix based on the principle of optimal quaternion algorithm, and rebuilds the measurement model by containing acceleration and velocity errors to make the convergence rate faster. A doppler velocity log (DVL) provides the reference velocity for the improved quaternion filter alignment algorithm. In order to demonstrate the performance of the improved quaternion filter algorithm in the field, a turntable experiment and a vehicle test are carried out. The results of the experiments show that the convergence rate of the proposed improved quaternion filter is faster than that of the tradition quaternion filter algorithm. In addition, the improved quaternion filter algorithm also demonstrates advantages in terms of correctness, effectiveness, and practicability.

  16. Interacciones sin nombre. Un caso emblemático: Ne me quitte pas (Cirque du Soleil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Quezada-Macchiavello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza una teoría tensiva, figural, de la interacción, que se opone y complementa con la teoría narrativa y fi gurativa propuesta por Eric Landowski. Esta última propone una taxonomía de las interacciones dispuesta en el cuadrado semiótico; aquella, mientras tanto, respetando dicha taxonomía, la dispone en intervalo(s sobre los que se deslizan cursos vectoriales. Estos últimos dan cuenta de cuatro zonas de tensión: desprogramación, reprogramación, desajuste, reajuste. Esa irrupción de la gradualidad permite imaginar una gama de «interacciones sin nombre». La mencionada propuesta teórica se pone a prueba en el análisis de las cómicas peripecias de una parodia de la célebre canción de Jacques Brel, Ne me quitt e pas, puesta en escena por el Cirque du Soleil’s Varekai.

  17. Heavy metals in Sinú river, department of Córdoba, Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Feria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las concentraciones de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, Pb y Cd en sedimentos superficiales del río Sinú. Las muestras se recolectaron en 10 sitios de muestreo aguas abajo del embalse de Urrá I, considerándose dos períodos de muestreo, uno en época de lluvia y otro en época seca. Las concentraciones de los metales se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica o por voltametría y se normalizaron con respecto a las concentraciones del aluminio, por ser un metal conservativo. Se observó una fuerte correlación entre las concentraciones de Cu, Ni, Cr y Zn para ambos períodos muestreados, sugiriendo un origen común. Adicionalmente, el factor de enriquecimiento indicó para todos los elementos evaluados, a excepción del Fe, concentraciones enriquecidas de metales pesados en los sedimentos. En los sitios que reciben el impacto de los suelos inundados, existe una mayor concentración de metales en los sedimentos, comparada con otras zonas de la cuenca, lo cual se asocia con la reducción de sulfatos y la formación de sulfuros y la subsecuente liberación y disponibilidad de metales pesados.

  18. Optimization Algorithm for Kalman Filter Exploiting the Numerical Characteristics of SINS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xu, Shike; Wang, Duhu; Zhang, Aiwu

    2015-11-11

    Aiming at addressing the problem of high computational cost of the traditional Kalman filter in SINS/GPS, a practical optimization algorithm with offline-derivation and parallel processing methods based on the numerical characteristics of the system is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the sparseness and/or symmetry of matrices to simplify the computational procedure. Thus plenty of invalid operations can be avoided by offline derivation using a block matrix technique. For enhanced efficiency, a new parallel computational mechanism is established by subdividing and restructuring calculation processes after analyzing the extracted "useful" data. As a result, the algorithm saves about 90% of the CPU processing time and 66% of the memory usage needed in a classical Kalman filter. Meanwhile, the method as a numerical approach needs no precise-loss transformation/approximation of system modules and the accuracy suffers little in comparison with the filter before computational optimization. Furthermore, since no complicated matrix theories are needed, the algorithm can be easily transplanted into other modified filters as a secondary optimization method to achieve further efficiency.

  19. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny

  20. Existir sin ser visto. Aproximaciones a una teoría del sujeto espectador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis PUELLES ROMERO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la constatación de un sorprendente desequilibrio entre la evidente participación del espectador en el hecho artístico y la escasa dedicación que sin embargo ha recibido por parte de la Estética y la Historia del arte, estas páginas indagan en las razones de esta insuficiencia de la teoría, además de aportar algunos puntos de vista de utilidad para la elaboración de una estética de los espectadores que concrete y complete la Estética de la Recepción de la Escuela de Constanza.ABSTRACT: This article stems from the obvious lack of balance between the active participation of the spectator in the artistic event, and the lack of attention he has received in Aesthetics and Art History. It explores the reasons for this insufficiency in art theory, as it puts forward an outline for an aesthetics of the spectator that can be added to the reception theory of the Constance School.

  1. El dilema de los recursos naturales comunes "sin doliente(s"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Parra Leidy Marcela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad, personas como Aristóteles y Tucídides plantearon una teoría básica que evidenció el comportamiento que las personas tienen con respecto al uso continuo de algún recurso natural común. Dejaron entrever el conflicto, normalmente económico, que se genera por la intervención de intereses individuales sobre los bienes públicos. La tragedia de los comunes (término popularizado por Garrett Hardin en 1968 explica cómo el acceso sin restricciones a un recurso "comunal" finito conduce a la sobreexplotación y al agotamiento de dicho recurso por el aumento desmedido en su demanda. Esto ocurre porque el grupo o los individuos que aprovechan los recursos no cargan directamente con los costos de su explotación. Entonces frente a la premisa de que el recurso es de todos y para todos, pero en última instancia, no pertenece a nadie, cabe preguntarse qué prima: ¿Un interés individual sobre un colectivo? O tal vez, ¿es una cuestión de enfoque etológico?

  2. Determination of sin2 θ {w/eff} using jet charge measurements in hadronic Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J. P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M. N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palla, F.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J. F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J. M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Ten Have, I.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H. G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H. G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J. F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A. M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M. H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J. J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J. F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J. P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Aleppo, M.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-03-01

    The electroweak mixing angle is determined with high precision from measurements of the mean difference between forward and backward hemisphere charges in hadronic decays of the Z. A data sample of 2.5 million hadronic Z decays recorded over the period 1990 to 1994 in the ALEPH detector at LEP is used. The mean charge separation between event hemispheres containing the original quark and antiquark is measured forbbar b andcbar c events in subsamples selected by their long lifetimes or using fast D*’s. The corresponding average charge separation for light quarks is measured in an inclusive sample from the anticorrelation between charges of opposite hemispheres and agrees with predictions of hadronisation models with a precision of 2%. It is shown that differences between light quark charge separations and the measured average can be determined using hadronisation models, with systematic uncertainties constrained by measurements of inclusive production of kaons, protons and Λ’s. The separations are used to measure the electroweak mixing angle precisely as sin2 ϑ {w/eff}=0.2322±0.0008(exp.stat.) ±0.0007(exp.syst.)±0.0008(sep.). The first two errors are due to purely experimental sources whereas the third stems from uncertainties in the quark charge separations.

  3. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Panter-Brick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.

  4. Equilibrium and kinetics of Sin Nombre hantavirus binding at DAF/CD55 functionalized bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-03-10

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.

  5. La comunicación expresiva en niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra GRAZONA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo centrada en niños con multidiscapacidad que se comunican a través de canales no visuales y no verbales. A partir de la pregunta central respecto a: ¿Cómo dan a conocer el contenido de sus mensajes los niños con multidiscapacidad que no poseen lenguaje verbal?, implementamos un estudio con dos fases complementarias y de convergencia metodológica. La primera, amparada en el paradigma positivista, en la que realizamos un acercamiento objetivo a la realidad y por medio de la operacionalización de los conceptos teóricos. en la segunda fase, profundizamos a través de la Metodología de estudio de Caso (9 en total y con un anclaje en el paradigma fenomenológico-interpretativo. El objetivo perseguido fue: Conocer las formas comunicativas de niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal, por ello privilegiamos el análisis en profundidad a partir de la utilización de diferentes técnicas que permitieron el acercamiento a los niños en ambientes naturales y triangular la información para proporcionar fiabilidad y validez. Las mencionadas etapas permitieron obtener un conocimiento holístico de las formas comunicativas idiosincráticas utilizadas por los niños con multidiscapacidad, que, a modo de bisagra, constituyen su fenotipo comunicativo.

  6. An in-depth analysis of original antigenic sin in dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Claire M; Bajwa-Joseph, Martha; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Limpitikul, Wannee; Wills, Bridget; Flanagan, Aleksandra; Waiyaiya, Emily; Tran, Hai Bac; Cowper, Alison E; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Chotiyarnwon, Pojchong; Grimes, Jonathan M; Yoksan, Sutee; Malasit, Prida; Simmons, Cameron P; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of dengue viruses has resulted in four antigenically similar yet distinct serotypes. Infection with one serotype likely elicits lifelong immunity to that serotype, but generally not against the other three. Secondary or sequential infections are common, as multiple viral serotypes frequently cocirculate. Dengue infection, although frequently mild, can lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which can be life threatening. DHF is more common in secondary dengue infections, implying a role for the adaptive immune response in the disease. There is currently much effort toward the design and implementation of a dengue vaccine but these efforts are made more difficult by the challenge of inducing durable neutralizing immunity to all four viruses. Domain 3 of the dengue virus envelope protein (ED3) has been suggested as one such candidate because it contains neutralizing epitopes and it was originally thought that relatively few cross-reactive antibodies are directed to this domain. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the anti-ED3 response in a cohort of patients suffering either primary or secondary dengue infections. The results show dramatic evidence of original antigenic sin in secondary infections both in terms of binding and enhancement activity. This has important implications for dengue vaccine design because heterologous boosting is likely to maintain the immunological footprint of the first vaccination. On the basis of these findings, we propose a simple in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to diagnose the original dengue infection in secondary dengue cases.

  7. Estudios sobre postmodernidad y estudios culturales: ¿sinónimos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Roberto A. Follari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La postmodernidad exige para ser comprendida una dimensión sociohistórica y otra filosófica que le resulta irrenunciables. También hay una serie de fenómenos propiamente culturales, que son los que los denominados "estudios culturales" (G. Canclini. M. Barbero, etc. han asumido en Latinoamérica. Tales estudios han aportado una descripción de fenómenos nuevos, que no son analizados por ningún otro discurso teórico (tribus urbanas, identidades lábiles, influencia de los medios en los nuevos estilos de consumo, etc.. Con ello se da cuenta de parte de la cuestión postmodernidad, pero sin dudase deja fuera otras: lo filosófico y aún lo social y lo político quedan fuera de esa especie de antropología del presente. Por lo tanto, un enfoque integral de lo postmoderno incluye los estudios culturales, pero está lejos de limitarse a ellos.

  8. Corrosión de armaduras galvanizadas y sin proteger embebidas en cemento aluminoso estabilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño, F.

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El cemento aluminoso, cuya obtención se basa en la fusión de bauxita y caliza, ha demostrado desde que fue patentado en Francia, en 1908 por Cementos Lafarge, unas propiedades excepcionales que lo hacen idóneo para ciertas aplicaciones. Tales propiedades son fundamentalmente el desarrollo de elevadas resistencias mecánicas en las primeras edades de hidratación, posibilidad de hormigonar en tiempo frío, una gran resistencia química al agua de mar y a los sulfatos, propiedades refractarias, etc. Todo ello hizo que el cemento aluminoso del tipo fundido, con un 40 % de Al2O3, se utilizara ampliamente en la construcción. Sin embargo, a partir de un determinado momento empezaron a observarse alteraciones en algunas obras construidas con hormigón de este tipo, manifestándose importantes pérdidas de sus resistencias mecánicas (1. Las causas de tales deterioros han sido ampliamente estudiadas (2-(13, atribuyéndose la principal a la "conversión" de los aluminatos cálcicos hidratados hexagonales en hidratos cúbicos, según reacción [1].

  9. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bondu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients.

  10. ROTATION–ACTIVITY CORRELATIONS IN K AND M DWARFS. I. STELLAR PARAMETERS AND COMPILATIONS OF v sin i AND P /sin i FOR A LARGE SAMPLE OF LATE-K AND M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-01-01

    The reliable determination of rotation–activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff , parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin i . In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the ( R – I ) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon and Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters ( T eff , log( g ), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis–based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius–[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin i in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin i measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P /sin i measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P /sin i , and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level.

  11. Rotation-Activity Correlations in K and M Dwarfs. I. Stellar Parameters and Compilations of v sin I and P/sin I for a Large Sample of Late-K and M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-05-01

    The reliable determination of rotation-activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin I. In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the (R-I) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon & Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters (T eff, log(g), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis-based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius-[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin I in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin I measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P/sin I measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P/sin I, and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level. Based on observations available at Observatoire de Haute Provence and the European Southern Observatory databases and on Hipparcos parallax measurements.

  12. ROTATION–ACTIVITY CORRELATIONS IN K AND M DWARFS. I. STELLAR PARAMETERS AND COMPILATIONS OF v sin i AND P /sin i FOR A LARGE SAMPLE OF LATE-K AND M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdebine, E. R. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mullan, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Paletou, F. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Gebran, M., E-mail: eric_houdebine@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box 72, Zouk Mikael (Lebanon)

    2016-05-10

    The reliable determination of rotation–activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T {sub eff}, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin i . In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the ( R – I ){sub C} color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon and Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters ( T {sub eff}, log( g ), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis–based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius–[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin i in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin i measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P /sin i measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P /sin i , and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level.

  13. Cirugía del tronco común con y sin circulación extracorpórea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ríos Barrera

    2006-01-01

    Conclusiones: Los resultados en ambos grupos han sido similares, por lo que, en la actualidad, la existencia de estenosis del TC no condiciona la técnica de revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica con o sin CEC, quedando su elección a criterio del cirujano.

  14. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  15. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  16. Evidence of surface loss as ubiquitous limiting damping mechanism in SiN micro- and nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN) micro- and nanomechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention in various research fields due to their exceptionally high quality factors (Qs). Despite their popularity, the origin of the limiting loss mechanisms in these structures has remained controversial. In thi...

  17. The E142 SLAC experiment: measurement of the neutron g{sup n}{sub 1}(x) spin structure function; Experience E142 au SLAC: mesure de la fonction de structure en spin g{sup n}{sub 1}(x) du neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roblin, Y

    1995-04-21

    This thesis describes the E142 experiment which has been carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), USA, from October to December 1992. This experiment of polarized inelastic scattering of a 22.6 GeV electron beam on a polarized helium 3 target has allowed the first measurement of the neutron g{sup n}{sub 1}(x) spin structure function. The knowledge of this structure function gives informations on the nucleon spin structure. On the other hand, the g{sup n}{sub 1}(x) structure function integral value on the 0

  18. Faustina Sáez de Melgar: liberación sin rupturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on periodicals as the principal documental source, this article aims to demonstrate how the copious literary production and biography of Faustina Sáez de Melgar (1833? was closely linked to journalism. The creator of several magazines aimed at women, she seems to regard fashion magazines as a way of encouraging reading habits in the home. She asserts that education is the key to delivering women from their social marginalisation, which she denounced as a form of slavery. Although an active supporter of abolitionism -author of the drama La cadena rota- she did not consider women’s liberation to require any break in social norms, as it can be found within marriage, the maintaining of patriarchal structures and the practising of Christian virtues. Her thought sometimes appears opportunistic and contradictory. This is possibly a result of a cautious strategy, in which she sought to achieve only what was possible in her epoch.Con documentación hemerográfica como fuente principal, el artículo pretende poner de manifiesto la estrecha relación que con la prensa tuvo la extensa obra y la biografía de Faustina Sáez de Melgar (1833?. Creadora de varias revistas dirigidas a la mujer, vio en ellas un medio de fomentar la lectura en los hogares. Afirma que la educación es el medio por el que la mujer puede liberarse de la marginación social que padece y que ella denuncia como esclavitud. Autora del drama La cadena rota, comprometida con el abolicionismo, considera sin embargo innecesario romper ninguna: esa liberación llega además por el matrimonio y la práctica de las virtudes en una sociedad patriarcal cristiana. Sus opiniones parecen en ocasiones contradictorias y oportunistas. Posiblemente subyace una cautelosa estrategia en aplicación del “posibilismo”.

  19. Tecnologías emergentes para la conservación de alimentos sin calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Molina, Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se han investigado los principios básicos de tres tecnologías emergentes para pasteurizar y esterilizar alimentos sin empleo del calor Mediante numerosos estudios se ha comprobado la efectividad de los campos eléctricos pulsantes de alta intensidad (CEPAI, los pulsos de luz (PL y los campos magnéticos oscilantes (CMO en la destrucción de microorganismos y enzimas de sistemas alimentarios. En la inactivación microbiana por CEPA!, el blanco principal es la membrana celular que, al ser sometida a campos eléctricos de alta intensidad, se hace permeable formando huecos o poros cuyo tamaño se incrementa a medida que aumenta la intensidad del campo eléctrico o el tiempo de tratamiento o se reduce la resistencia iónica del medio de pulsación. Por otra parte, los PL inducen reacciones fotoquímicas y fototérmicas en los alimentos, causando la muerte de gran cantidad de microorganismos, especialmente en productos alimenticios envasados. Los CMO producen simulación o inhibición en el crecimiento y reproducción de los microorganismos, un simple pulso de intensidad de 5-10 teslas y frecuencias de 5-500 kHz es suficiente para reducir el número de microorganismos en un mínimo de 2 ciclos logarítmicos. Se ha comprobado que estas tecnologías alargan la vida de anaquel de diversos productos alimenticios y pueden ser consideradas como sustitutos parciales de los procesos convencionales de pasteurización y esterilización de alimentos por tratamientos térmicos.

  20. ¿Al final, TLC con o sin biopiratería?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Gómez Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema está en que en Colombia los temas de acceso a los recursos genéticos, los derechos de propiedad intelectual (DPI y la protección del conocimiento tradicional (CT no han recibido la importancia que se merecen. No ha habido un debate abierto acerca del papel que juegan estos temas en el desarrollo de un país megadiverso y una nación multiétnica y pluricultural, como es Colombia. Sin embargo, el gobierno colombiano decidió negociar un TLC indefinido que define la política comercial al respecto para Colombia. En febrero de 2006, se cerraron las negociaciones del TLC en términos similares a Perú. Ese país aceptó las patentes de genes aislados y de plantas conforme a los intereses de Estados Unidos. Colombia tiene cuatro grupos étnicos: 84 pueblos indígenas que hablan 64 lenguas, los afrocolombianos, los raizales del Archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia y los rom. La constitución de 1991 garantiza y protege los recursos genéticos, la diversidad étnica y cultural y los derechos humanos. Las posiciones y propuestas oficiales sobre acceso a recursos genéticos, biodiversidad y protección del CT que presentó el gobierno colombiano en el TLC, no fueron concertadas previamente con los grupos étnicos colombianos. El Estado tiene que consultarlos, para determinar su posición respecto al acceso a los recursos genéticos, la protección al CT y los DPI

  1. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY of z {approx} 2 GALAXY KINEMATICS: OUTFLOW PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Bouche, Nicolas [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Berlin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-12-10

    Using SINFONI H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] AO data of 27 z {approx} 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, we explore the dependence of outflow strength (via the broad flux fraction) on various galaxy parameters. For galaxies that have evidence for strong outflows, we find that the broad emission is spatially extended to at least the half-light radius ({approx}a few kpc). Decomposition of the [S II] doublet into broad and narrow components suggests that this outflowing gas probably has a density of {approx}10-100 cm{sup -3}, less than that of the star-forming gas (600 cm{sup -3}). There is a strong correlation of the H{alpha} broad flux fraction with the star formation surface density of the galaxy, with an apparent threshold for strong outflows occurring at 1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Above this threshold, we find that SFGs with log m{sub *} > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors ({eta} = M-dot{sub out}/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass SFGs, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z {approx} 2 may derive from high-mass SFGs. The mass-loading factor is also correlated with the star formation rate (SFR), galaxy size, and inclination, such that smaller, more star-forming, and face-on galaxies launch more powerful outflows. We propose that the observed threshold for strong outflows and the observed mass loading of these winds can be explained by a simple model wherein break-out of winds is governed by pressure balance in the disk.

  2. STANFORD (SLAC): Precision electroweak result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Precision testing of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model has intensified with the recent publication* of results from the SLD collaboration's 1993 run on the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC. Using a highly polarized electron beam colliding with an unpolarized positron beam, SLD physicists measured the left-right asymmetry at the Z boson resonance with dramatically improved accuracy over 1992

  3. Centering Panama in Global Modernity: The Search for National Identity and the Imagining of the Orient in Rogelio Sinán’s “Sin novedad en Shanghai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Verónica Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence from Colombia in 1903 backed by the United States government, which resulted in a treaty that granted the US free rein to build, administer and control what would be known as the Panama Canal, Panama’s quest for modern nationhood has been severely called into question. More often than not it is posited as an artificial state with little organic unity and limited sovereignty: a state that is literally made in the USA. Panamanian intellectuals, such as Rogelio Sinán, responded to these discourses on the Panamanian nation-state by actively constructing a Panamanian national identity, and by calling attention to the central significance of Panama in the twentieth-century world of global modernity. Questioning the widespread narrative of Panama as a peripheral North American neo-colony that was at best a marginal actor in international history, Sinán positioned Panama at the center of the modern world where World Wars, international migrations and global capitalism connected. By exploring Sinán’s short story “Sin novedad en Shanghai” that takes place in East Asia during World War II, this study argues that the writer’s deployment of the Orient—as a geopolitical, cultural, symbolic and imaginary space—allows him to reposition Panama. In its symbolic relation to this Orient, Panama emerges not as the backwaters of global modernity, but at its center—a cosmopolis between the Orient and the Occident that reveals a microcosm of the modern world.

  4. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conzuelo González, Viridiana Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  5. La persistencia bacteriana: una problemática ignorada por una ciencia sin respuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FORMENTINI E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ARTÍCULO DE OPINIÓN. En nuestra cultura occidental tenemos un concepto triunfalista y mesiánico de la ciencia, ya que se confía que tarde o temprano la misma hallará respuestas y soluciones a los problemas del hombre. Sin embargo, la ciencia tiende a negar sistemáti-camente todo aquello para lo cual no tiene explicación y condena al olvido a todo conocimiento para lo cual no tiene aplicación actual. Las bacterias persistentes son uno de esos problemas olvidados, que recientemente ha despertado interés en la comunidad científica, al tener que enfrentarse a la problemática creciente de la resistencia bacteriana. Este artículo trata dos temas disímiles pero que están estrechamente relacionados. El primero, consiste en explicar el ignorado y olvidado fenómeno de la persistencia bacteriana y su impli-cancia en la progresiva disminución de la vida útil de los antibióticos. El segundo, es un análisis epistémico-ético con el objetivo de dilucidar la responsabilidad de la ciencia respecto de la ignorancia y el olvido de esta problemática. Finalmente se propone una pos-tura epistemológica para la revalorización constante de los conocimientos olvidados. SUMMARY. Bacterial persistence: an ignored problem by a science without answers. In our western culture, we have a triumphalist and messianic conception of science, since it is confided that sooner or later it will find the answers and the solutions to the problems of humanity. However, science tends to systematically ignore everything for which it has no explanation, and condemns to oblivion all knowledge that has not practical application. Persister cells are one of those forgotten problems, although it has recently attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the growing problem of bacterial resistance. This article addresses two dissimilar but closely related topics. The first is to explain the forgotten and ignored phenomenon of persister cells

  6. Máximos y mínimos sin cálculo aplicado a la economía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Cabrera G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El articulo muestra los problemas más sencillos “Máximos y Mínimos sin Cálculo”. Este tipo de problemas se presentan en ingeniería, la industria, la administración y la vida cotidiana, con una característica en común, no obstante sus diferencias. Esta característica, consiste en determinar la forma  de lograr un efecto óptimo mediante la selección de una entre varias posibilidades. Estos problemas se resuelve por medio de métodos  de cálculo diferencial, pero solo pueden ser calculados únicamente, con la ayuda del álgebra elemental. Este es, precisamente el contenido del artículo, que propone métodos más sencillos, sin la aplicación del cálculo diferencial.

  7. Influencia de los trastornos mentales y de la personalidad en el abandono de procesos en personas sin hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salavera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las personas sin hogar protagonizan un alto índice de abandonos en los procesos terapéuticos que establecen. El motivo de abandono no siempre es conocido, en esta investigación se aborda si viene mediado por los trastornos mentales o son los trastornos de personalidad los que llevan un mayor peso. Los resultados muestran a las personas sin hogar con deterioro cognitivo leve y trastornos de personalidad del grupo de problemas interpersonales y ambivalentes como los principales candidatos al abandono de procesos de corte psicosocial. Esto implica la necesidad de tener en cuenta estos trastornos en el tratamiento y desarrollo de programas específicos de intervención.

  8. GaN-based FETs using Cat-CVD SiN passivation for millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    We have found that SiN passivation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) can significantly increase an electron density of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET). This effect enables thin-barrier HFET structures to have a high-density two-dimensional electron gas and leads to suppression of short-channel effects. We fabricated 30-nm-gate Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N(8 nm)/GaN HFETs using Cat-CVD SiN. The maximum drain current density and extrinsic transconductance were 1.49 A/mm and 402 mS/mm, respectively. Current-gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of the HFETs were 181 and 186 GHz, respectively. These high-frequency device characteristics are sufficiently high enough for millimeter-wave applications

  9. Meningitis neumocócica en un lactante curada sin secuelas neurológicas ni neuroquirúrgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lamote de Grignon

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactante de 45 días, en pésimas condiciones fisiológicas, que presenta una meningitis neumocócica indiscutible. Es tratada con sulfatiazol y penicilina (apenas por vía intratecal. Cura prácticamente a los 17 días sin secuela alguna. A los 8 meses se mantenía bien desde todos los puntos de vista.

  10. Hamster-Adapted Sin Nombre Virus Causes Disseminated Infection and Efficiently Replicates in Pulmonary Endothelial Cells without Signs of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Haddock, Elaine; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    To date, a laboratory animal model for the study of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection or associated disease has not been described. Unlike infection with Andes virus, which causes lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-like disease in hamsters, SNV infection is short-lived, with no viremia and little dissemination. Here we investigated the effect of passaging SNV in hamsters. We found that a host-adapted SNV achieves prolonged and disseminated infection in hamsters, including efficient rep...

  11. Measurement of $sin2\\beta$ from $B^{0}_{d} \\rightarrow J/\\Psi K^{0}_{S}$ with the LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mangiafave, N; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will study CP violation and rare B meson decays at the LHC accelerator, in the CERN laboratories of Geneva. The CP violation in the $b$ quark mesons was observed for the first time measuring the $\\sin2\\beta$ parameter. In the first year of data taking at LHCb the $\\sin2\\beta$ measurement will be performed in the channel $B_d ^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi K_S ^0$ (called golden channel). The comparison with results obtained in previous experiments will show possible systematic errors. Once the systematic errors will be understood, the possible discrepancies with the expected results will be the sign of a new physics beyond the Standard Model. $\\sin2\\beta$ is extracted from the asymmetry in the decay $B_d ^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi(\\mu^+\\mu^-) K_S ^0 (\\pi^+\\pi^-)$ and its CP conjugated $\\overline{B}_d ^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi(\\mu^-\\mu^+) K_S ^0(\\pi^-\\pi^+)$. To distinguish between $B_d ^0$ and $\\overline{B}_d$ flavour tagging algorithms are used. These introduce an additional parameter: the wrong tag fracti...

  12. Theoretical study of isoelectronic SinM clusters (M=Sc-,Ti,V+; n=14-18)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, M. B.; Fernandez Sanchez, Eva; Balbás, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    We study, from first-principles quantum mechanical calculations, the structural and electronic properties of several low-lying energy equilibrium structures of isoelectronic SinM clusters (M=Sc-,Ti,V+) for n=14-18. The main result is that those clusters with n=16 are more stable than its neighbors...... of the spherical potential model). The structures of the two lowest energy isomers of Si16M are nearly degenerate, and consist of the Frank-Kasper polyhedron and a distortion of that polyhedron. The first structure is the ground state for M=V+, and the second is the ground state for Ti and Sc-. For the lowest...... energy isomers of clusters SinM with n=14-18, we analyze the changes with size n, and impurity M of several quantities: binding energy, second difference of total energy, HOMO-LUMO gap, adiabatic electron affinity, addition energy of a Si atom, and addition energy of an M impurity to a pure Si-n cluster...

  13. Maximum Correntropy Unscented Kalman Filter for Ballistic Missile Navigation System based on SINS/CNS Deeply Integrated Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bowen; He, Zhangming; Li, Dong; Zhou, Haiyin; Wang, Jiongqi

    2018-05-27

    Strap-down inertial navigation system/celestial navigation system ( SINS/CNS) integrated navigation is a high precision navigation technique for ballistic missiles. The traditional navigation method has a divergence in the position error. A deeply integrated mode for SINS/CNS navigation system is proposed to improve the navigation accuracy of ballistic missile. The deeply integrated navigation principle is described and the observability of the navigation system is analyzed. The nonlinearity, as well as the large outliers and the Gaussian mixture noises, often exists during the actual navigation process, leading to the divergence phenomenon of the navigation filter. The new nonlinear Kalman filter on the basis of the maximum correntropy theory and unscented transformation, named the maximum correntropy unscented Kalman filter, is deduced, and the computational complexity is analyzed. The unscented transformation is used for restricting the nonlinearity of the system equation, and the maximum correntropy theory is used to deal with the non-Gaussian noises. Finally, numerical simulation illustrates the superiority of the proposed filter compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter. The comparison results show that the large outliers and the influence of non-Gaussian noises for SINS/CNS deeply integrated navigation is significantly reduced through the proposed filter.

  14. The devil is in the details: the seven deadly sins of organizing and continuing interprofessional education in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2011-09-01

    In spite of increased calls for expanding interprofessional practice (IPP) in the US health care system to address concerns about patient safety and quality of care, there has not been a corresponding dramatic growth in interprofessional education (IPE) programs. Indeed, the history of IPE in the US has been a roller-coaster ride of gains and losses, successes and failures. Understanding why this has been so requires the development of a personal and political economy framework, based on an understanding of the structural, ideological, and economic factors and forces that characterize IPE in American higher education. Using a metaphor of the seven deadly sins (lust, pride, greed, gluttony, envy, sloth, and wrath), this discussion focuses on both things that should not be done (sins of commission) and those that should be done but are not (sins of omission) to create successful and sustainable IPE programs. Taken together, these factors help to frame a perspective on IPE that highlights the essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed by faculty and administrators to create, implement, and - most importantly - sustain successful programs. Implications of this framework for promoting increased IPE are discussed, particularly with respect to insuring its successful continuation into the future.

  15. Los procesos de exclusión social de las personas sin hogar en la ciudad de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Matulic-Domandzic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan los procesos de exclusión social de las personas sin hogar en la ciudad de Barcelona a través de tres apartados. En primer lugar se realiza una aproximación a los procesos de exclusión social presentes en las sociedades europeas, seguidamente se centra la mirada en la dimensión conceptual de las personas sin hogar y en sus principales causas, para finalizar con unas conclusiones en donde se sintetizan los temas planteados, así como los retos de futuro que se presentan en este fenémeno. El contenido del artículo forma parte del trabajo de investigación que se está realizando sobre los procesos de inclusión de las personas sin hogar en Barcelona. Dicha investigación está vinculada al Doctorado "Educación y sociedad" de la Universidad de Barcelona, a través del Departamento de Trabajo Social y Servicios Sociales. El incremento del fenómeno del sinhogarismo responde a procesos macrosociales que han caracterizado a las sociedades posfordistas de las últimas décadas donde la fragilidad de las redes de apoyo y de los sistemas de proteción social tienen una importancia crucial.

  16. A Method for SINS Alignment with Large Initial Misalignment Angles Based on Kalman Filter with Parameters Resetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.

  17. Maximum Correntropy Unscented Kalman Filter for Ballistic Missile Navigation System based on SINS/CNS Deeply Integrated Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strap-down inertial navigation system/celestial navigation system ( SINS/CNS integrated navigation is a high precision navigation technique for ballistic missiles. The traditional navigation method has a divergence in the position error. A deeply integrated mode for SINS/CNS navigation system is proposed to improve the navigation accuracy of ballistic missile. The deeply integrated navigation principle is described and the observability of the navigation system is analyzed. The nonlinearity, as well as the large outliers and the Gaussian mixture noises, often exists during the actual navigation process, leading to the divergence phenomenon of the navigation filter. The new nonlinear Kalman filter on the basis of the maximum correntropy theory and unscented transformation, named the maximum correntropy unscented Kalman filter, is deduced, and the computational complexity is analyzed. The unscented transformation is used for restricting the nonlinearity of the system equation, and the maximum correntropy theory is used to deal with the non-Gaussian noises. Finally, numerical simulation illustrates the superiority of the proposed filter compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter. The comparison results show that the large outliers and the influence of non-Gaussian noises for SINS/CNS deeply integrated navigation is significantly reduced through the proposed filter.

  18. Freedom in responsibility: on the relevance of "sin" as a hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth

    2005-08-01

    This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. It will turn out that the question concerning freedom cannot be answered without understanding what being human involves. From a Christian perspective, this implies that the foundational relationship between human freedom and sin will be central to an assessment of the human ability to take responsibility. By obliterating the limits of human freedom, sin jeopardizes the very essence of that freedom. The project of taking into account the sinful state of the human condition thus aims at developing a realistic picture of the authority of humans in action, even in view of the human tasks of promoting science and research.

  19. Determination of wafer bonding mechanisms for plasma activated SiN films with x-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sandhu, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wojtowicz, M [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Sun, Y [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hicks, R [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goorsky, M S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    Specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity measurements were employed for wafer bonding studies of surface and interfacial reactions in {approx}800 A thick SiN films deposited on III-V substrates. CuK{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} radiation was employed for these measurements. The as-deposited films show very low surface roughness and uniform, high density SiN. Reflectivity measurements show that an oxygen plasma treatment converts the nitride surface to a somewhat porous SiO{sub x} layer (67 A thick, at 80% of SiO{sub 2} density), with confirmation of the oxide formation from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reactions at the bonded interface of two oxygen plasma treated SiN layers were examined using a bonded structure from which one of the III-V wafers is removed. Reflectivity measurements of bonded structures annealed at 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C show an increase in the SiO{sub x} layer density and thickness and even a density gradient across this interface. The increase in density is correlated with an increase in bond strength, where after the 300 deg. C anneal, a high interfacial bond strength, exceeding the bulk strength, was achieved.

  20. Chick Hairy1 protein interacts with Sap18, a component of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Raquel P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate adult axial skeleton, trunk and limb skeletal muscles and dermis of the back all arise from early embryonic structures called somites. Somites are symmetrically positioned flanking the embryo axial structures (neural tube and notochord and are periodically formed in a anterior-posterior direction from the presomitic mesoderm. The time required to form a somite pair is constant and species-specific. This extraordinary periodicity is proposed to depend on an underlying somitogenesis molecular clock, firstly evidenced by the cyclic expression of the chick hairy1 gene in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm with a 90 min periodicity, corresponding to the time required to form a somite pair in the chick embryo. The number of hairy1 oscillations at any given moment is proposed to provide the cell with both temporal and positional information along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis. Nevertheless, how this is accomplished and what biological processes are involved is still unknown. Aiming at understanding the molecular events triggered by the somitogenesis clock Hairy1 protein, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system to identify Hairy1 interaction partners. Results Sap18, an adaptor molecule of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex, was found to interact with the C-terminal portion of the Hairy1 protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay and the Hairy1/Sap18 interaction was independently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We have characterized the expression patterns of both sap18 and sin3a genes during chick embryo development, using in situ hybridization experiments. We found that both sap18 and sin3a expression patterns co-localize in vivo with hairy1 expression domains in chick rostral presomitic mesoderm and caudal region of somites. Conclusion Hairy1 belongs to the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcriptional repressor proteins. Our results indicate that during chick somitogenesis

  1. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  2. Fachada ventilada cerámica sin sub-estructuras metálicas denominado: SIERRAVENT®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque-Fernández, F. J.

    2011-04-01

    innovando con su nuevo producto “ SIERRAVENT® ”. El sistema patentado ha supuesto un gran impacto en el sector de la construcción, ya que permite la ejecución de una Fachada Ventilada sin la utilización de complejas estructuras metálicas ni tornillería. En el artículo se describen tanto los componentes del sistema y sus propiedades, como las características técnicas del mismo en su conjunto y los criterios para la resolución de algunos encuentros y puntos singulares. Asimismo, se hace mención a las ventajas competitivas.

  3. El movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra y la reforma agraria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo FERNÁNDEZ FRANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo, es un primer avance, de carácter exploratorio, de una investigación más amplia que el autor está llevando a cabo sobre el mismo tema. Centrado en el "Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales sin Tierra", habitualmente identificado en Brasil por las siglas MST, se contempla dicho movimiento social desde sus orígenes más remotos, al final de los años 50, hasta nuestros días situándolo, por un lado, en las transformaciones políticas y en parte sociales, y en el largo y lento proceso de una reforma agraria inconclusa, por otro. De forma descriptiva, se desarrollan, en un primer paso, los antecedentes, proceso de constitución, etapas y estructura agraria brasileña, se plantea de forma suscinta la problemática de la reforma agraria. Con estas consideraciones preliminares, siguiendo casi literalmente la formulación del propio MST, se exponen, con mayor amplitud, los objetivos y características de la Reforma Agraria desde la perspectiva de los propios trabajadores rurales. Asimismo, aunque de forma más esquemática y en base a los datos oficiales, se plantean las directrices, metas y algunas de las realizaciones del Gobierno de Fernando H. Cardoso sobre dicha reforma. En definitiva, con este artículo, se pretenden establecer las bases y los ejes analíticos necesarios para una investigación más amplia y comprensiva de este fenómeno social de masas que va más allá de la propia realidad de injusticia que se está viviendo en el mundo rural brasileño y que está contando también con un amplio y sorprendente apoyo de sectores urbanos de la población brasileña.ABSTRACT: This article is an introductory and exploratory advance of a more extensive investigation that the author is carrying out on the same subject. The research is centred on the "Movement of the Rural Workers without Land", which is ussually identified in Brazil with the initials MST. This social movement is analyzed since its remotest origins, the

  4. Around the laboratories: Rutherford: Successful tests on bubble chamber target technique; Stanford (SLAC): New storage rings proposal; Berkeley: The HAPPE project to examine cosmic rays with superconducting magnets; The 60th birthday of Professor N.N. Bogolyubov; Argonne: Performance of the automatic film measuring system POLLY II

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Rutherford: Successful tests on bubble chamber target technique; Stanford (SLAC): New storage rings proposal; Berkeley: The HAPPE project to examine cosmic rays with superconducting magnets; The 60th birthday of Professor N.N. Bogolyubov; Argonne: Performance of the automatic film measuring system POLLY II

  5. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  6. Sin as an Ailment of Soul and Repentance as the Process of Its Healing. The Pastoral Concept of Penitentials as a Way of Dealing with Sin, Repentance, and Forgiveness in the Insular Church of the Sixth to the Eighth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursawa Wilhelm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the advent of the Kingdom of God in Jesus contains as an intrinsic quality the opportunity for repentance (metanoia as often as required, the Church of the first five-hundred years shows serious difficulties with the opportunity of conversion after a relapse in sinning after baptism. The Church allowed only one chance of repentance. Requirement for the reconciliation were a public confession and the acceptance of severe penances, especially after committing the mortal sin of apostasy, fornication or murder. As severe as this paenitentia canonica appears, its entire conception especially in the eastern part of the Church, the Oriental Church, is a remedial one: sin represents an ailment of the soul, the one, who received the confession, is called upon to meet the confessing person as a spiritual physician or soul-friend. Penance does not mean punishment, but healing like a salutary remedy. Nevertheless, the lack of privacy led to the unwanted practice of postponing repentance and even baptism on the deathbed. An alternative procedure of repentance arose from the sixth century onwards in the Irish Church as well as the Continental Church under the influence of Irish missionaries and the South-West-British and later the English Church (Insular Church. In treatises about repentance, called penitentials, ecclesiastical authorities of the sixth to the eight centuries wrote down regulations, how to deal with the different capital sins and minor trespasses committed by monks, clerics and laypeople. Church-representatives like Finnian, Columbanus, the anonymous author of the Ambrosianum, Cummean and Theodore developed a new conception of repentance that protected privacy and guaranteed a discrete, an affordable as well as a predictable penance, the paenitentia privata. They not only connected to the therapeutic aspect of repentance in the Oriental Church by adopting basic ideas of Basil of Caesarea and John Cassian, they also established an

  7. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkovits, Theo; Zhao, Yue; O'Brien, Rebecca; Dowey, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin 2 ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin 2 ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a 0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a 0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin 2 ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  8. Percepción del dolor a la presión en mujeres con y sin dismenorrea

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Guerra, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. La dismenorrea está considera el trastorno ginecológico más común y una de las principales causas de absentismo escolar y laboral. La prevalencia más alta se produce en la adolescencia y entre los 20 y 25 años, y es menor después de los 30 años. La investigación sobre la percepción dolorosa en mujeres con dismenorrea es escasa y con resultados contradictorios Objetivos. Determinar si existen diferencias en la percepción nociceptiva entre mujeres con y sin dismenorrea, y si ex...

  9. Surface donor states distribution post SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A- 9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)

    2014-07-21

    In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model to describe the effect of SiN passivation on two-dimensional electron gas density and surface barrier height in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The model is based on an extraction technique to calculate surface donor density and surface donor level at the SiN/AlGaN interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental results and promises to become a useful tool in advanced design and characterization of GaN based heterostructures.

  10. L’écriture rouge de Sherman Alexie : l’exemple de "The Sin Eaters"

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Diane

    2005-01-01

    If the bodies of Native American individuals seem perpetually tormented and exploited, they constitute means of rebellion when they are transformed into the testimony of a witness – into the body of work of the writer. One can read Sherman Alexie’s collection of short-stories, The Toughest Indian In The World (2001), as scattered bodies regaining shape on paper and forces through his angry red ink. The short-story “The Sin Eaters” constitutes its central nerve with a macabre allegory which li...

  11. Tramas de la violencia de género: sustantivación, metonimias, sinécdoques y preposiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Casado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lo que creemos saber sobre la violencia de género (que es una lacra y los maltratadores unos machistas puede estar comprometiendo hoy análisis, diagnósticos e intervenciones. Además “hace género” y afecta al modo y grado en que nos hacemos cargo de la desigualdad. Analizar las sustantivaciones, sinécdoques y metonimias de las tramas de la violencia permite reconstruir relaciones significativas. Porque ¿qué significa la preposición ‘de’ que conecta violencia y género?

  12. Tramas de la violencia de género: sustantivación, metonimias, sinécdoques y preposiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Casado Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lo que creemos saber sobre la violencia de género (que es una lacra y los maltratadores unos machistas puede estar comprometiendo hoy análisis, diagnósticos e intervenciones. Además "hace género" y afecta al modo y grado en que nos hacemos cargo de la desigualdad. Analizar las sustantivaciones, sinécdoques y metonimias de las tramas de la violencia permite reconstruir relaciones significativas. Porque ¿qué significa la preposición 'de' que conecta violencia y género?

  13. Prótesis aórticas sin sutura: revisión de las alternativas actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Otero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Las prótesis sin sutura representan una nueva alternativa en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la estenosis aórtica severa. En el siguiente artículo intentamos resumir las características fundamentales de cada una de ellas y la bibliografía más importante publicada hasta ahora con el fin de hacer una revisión rápida de estas prótesis para poder orientar su uso.

  14. Tunable Luminescence of CeAl11O18 Based Phosphors by Replacement of (AlO)+ by (SiN)+ and Co-Doping with Eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, L.J.; Chen, G.Z; Wang, C.; Xu, X.; Hao, L.Y.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Si-N or Eu-Li doped CeAl11O18 and CeAl12O18N phosphors are prepared by solid–state reaction. Their structure and luminescence are researched carefully. Si-N doping with the concentration less than 8% can be successfully dissolved into CeAl11O18 crystal lattice and doesn't change the

  15. Pájaros enjaulados: homosexualidad y prisión en Hombres sin mujer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo Saborido, Emilio José

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to focus on the interaction between homosexuality and prison in the novel by the Cuban writer Carlos Montenegro, titled Hombres sin mujer (1938. From a sociological approach to literature, we structurally analyze the homosexual notions and practices in a particular Cuban jail. In this regard, we specifically explain their components and the creation of self-explicative categories or ethnocategories. Furthermore, the order which constitutes these elements and the conflicts that dynamize them are studied. Finally, the article concludes considering the notion of homosexuality in prison as a tragedy; an idea that closes the novel.

    Este artículo se centra en la interacción entre homosexualidad y prisión en la novela del cubano Carlos Montenegro titulada “Hombres sin mujer” (1938. A partir de una aproximación sociológica al hecho literario, se analizan estructuralmente las nociones y prácticas homosexuales carcelarias, teniendo en cuenta especialmente sus componentes y la creación de categorías auto-explicativas o etnocategorías, el orden en el que se constituyen estos elementos y los conflictos que los animan. Finalmente, se concluye considerando la noción de homosexualidad carcelaria como tragedia con la que se cierra la obra.

  16. Efecto sinérgico del aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare a la Gentamicina en cultivos de Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Chávez Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente trabajo tuvo como propósito determinar el efecto sinérgico antibacteriano entre el aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare y la Gentamicina en aislados de Escherichia coli. Diseño: Estudio experimental Lugar: Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria (CLEIBA Participantes: Placas Petri conteniendo E. Coli ATCC 25922, aceite esencial de orégano y Gentamicina. Intervenciones: Se aplicó el método de Kirby Bauer (discos de difusión en 20 placas Petri. Se aisló la cepa Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. El grupo Experimental fue tratado con discos de papel filtro, embebidos con Gentamicina y aceite esencial de orégano al 75%; mientras que el grupo Control, con discos de Gentamicina sola. Se realizó la medición de los halos y se registraron los datos. Principales medidas de resultados: Se evaluó el diámetro de los halos de inhibición Resultados: Los halos de inhibición del grupo Experimental resultaron 22,375 mm., mayores que los del grupo Control (20,75 mm. La prueba T determinó que la diferencia era estadísticamente significativa, p = 0,001 (p < 0,05. Conclusiones: Existe un efecto sinérgico antibacteriano in vitro entre el aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare y la gentamicina en E. coli.

  17. Uncertainty, God, and scrupulosity: Uncertainty salience and priming God concepts interact to cause greater fears of sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Rowatt, Wade C

    2015-03-01

    Difficulties tolerating uncertainty are considered central to scrupulosity, a moral/religious presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined whether uncertainty salience (i.e., exposure to a state of uncertainty) caused fears of sin and fears of God, as well as whether priming God concepts affected the impact of uncertainty salience on those fears. An internet sample of community adults (N = 120) who endorsed holding a belief in God or a higher power were randomly assigned to an experimental manipulation of (1) salience (uncertainty or insecurity) and (2) prime (God concepts or neutral). As predicted, participants who received the uncertainty salience and God concept priming reported the greatest fears of sin. There were no mean-level differences in the other conditions. The effect was not attributable to religiosity and the manipulations did not cause negative affect. We used a nonclinical sample recruited from the internet. These results support cognitive-behavioral models suggesting that religious uncertainty is important to scrupulosity. Implications of these results for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. S-I-N tunneling spectroscopy of MgB2 superconductor: evidence of two superconducting energy gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Shashwati; Aswal, D.K.; Singh, Ajay; Gadkari, S.C.; Shah, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Sahni, V.C.

    2002-01-01

    The tunneling spectra of polycrystalline MgB 2 , have been recorded, at different temperatures between 29 K and T c , using planar superconductor- insulating-normal (S-I-N) tunneling spectroscopy. The planar S-I-N tunnel junctions have been fabricated by thermally evaporating Ag electrodes on MgB 2 surface. The naive layer, which forms at the surface of MgB 2 , due to atmospheric degradation, was employed as an insulating layer between Ag electrodes and MgB 2 . We have found presence of two clear superconducting energy gaps in MgB 2 . The magnitudes of these gaps at 29.5 K are 1.8 and 5.9 MeV, respectively. In the vicinity of T c , while larger energy gap obeyed BCS temperature dependence, the smaller energy gap deviated from BCS dependence. All the spectra exhibited zero-bias conductance, which decreased linearly with temperature and vanished at T c . (author)

  19. Valores percibidos en la publicidad de alimentos por jóvenes con y sin trastornos de la conducta alimentaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Mas-Manchón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad utiliza imágenes corporales fuertemente estereotipadas para promocionar cánones físicos y conductas alimentarias no saludables asociadas a productos de alimentación dirigidos sobre todo a jóvenes. El objetivo de este estudio, realizado en Barcelona (España durante el mes de mayo de 2013, es testear la percepción de 25 valores en siete spots televisivos de alimentación (con y sin estrategias de imagen corporal en 139 jóvenes con y sin trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA. Los resultados muestran que solo el grupo de jóvenes con TCA considera que los spots con una estrategia comercial basada en la imagen corporal influyen muy negativamente en valores como salud, bienestar, familia y esfuerzo. En cambio, se ha observado una gran coincidencia entre los dos grupos cuando se evalúa el resto de los spots. Estos resultados señalan que los jóvenes universitarios españoles de hoy han aceptado como normal un canon de belleza basado en el orden social y económico, mientras que los jóvenes en tratamiento por desórdenes alimenticios sí han aprendido a decodificar este tipo de mensajes.

  20. Development and preliminary validation of a measure of social inclusion for use in people with mental health problems: the SInQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; White, Sarah; Thachil, Ajoy; Berg, Rachel; Kallumparam, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Killaspy, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Social exclusion can be both a cause and a consequence of mental health problems. Socially inclusive practice by mental health professionals can mitigate against the stigmatizing and excluding effects of severe mental illness. To develop and test the validity of a measure of social inclusion for individuals with severe mental illness - the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience (SInQUE). The domains of the SInQUE were chosen to reflect the domains of social inclusion identified in the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey. Patients with severe mental illness were recruited from rehabilitation, general and forensic psychiatric services and were asked to complete the questionnaire in an individual interview with a researcher. Sixty six patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder completed the SInQUE, alongside measures of psychiatric symptoms, needs and quality of life, to assess its acceptability, and concurrent and construct (convergent and discriminant) validity. The SInQUE took 45 minutes to complete and was found to have good concurrent and discriminant validity. Convergent validity was established for two domains: social integration and productivity. Preliminary findings suggest that the SInQUE may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring social inclusion in individuals with severe mental illness. It has construct and concurrent validity with measures of unmet need and quality of life in this group. Further testing of the reliability of the SInQUE on a larger population is indicated.

  1. Gas diffusion ultrabarriers on polymer substrates using Al2O3 atomic layer deposition and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcia, P. F.; McLean, R. S.; Groner, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; George, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films grown by Al 2 O 3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been tested as gas diffusion barriers either individually or as bilayers on polymer substrates. Single films of Al 2 O 3 ALD with thicknesses of ≥10 nm had a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% relative humidity (RH), as measured by the Ca test. This WVTR value was limited by H 2 O permeability through the epoxy seal, as determined by the Ca test for the glass lid control. In comparison, SiN PECVD films with a thickness of 100 nm had a WVTR of ∼7x10 -3 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. Significant improvements resulted when the SiN PECVD film was coated with an Al 2 O 3 ALD film. An Al 2 O 3 ALD film with a thickness of only 5 nm on a SiN PECVD film with a thickness of 100 nm reduced the WVTR from ∼7x10 -3 to ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. The reduction in the permeability for Al 2 O 3 ALD on the SiN PECVD films was attributed to either Al 2 O 3 ALD sealing defects in the SiN PECVD film or improved nucleation of Al 2 O 3 ALD on SiN.

  2. Efectos a largo plazo de los síntomas depresivos en una tarea de memoria de trabajo con y sin interferencia atencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Botelho de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La neurobiología de la depresión involucra cambios estructurales del sistema nervioso relacionados con procesos cognitivos como la memoria y la atención. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto a largo plazo de la sintomatología depresiva (SD en una tarea de memoria de trabajo visual con y sin interferencia atencional en estudiantes universitarios. Se utilizó un diseño factorial de 2 × 2 en el cual las variables independientes fueron la condición clínica (con SD y sin SD y la versión del Memonum (con o sin interferencia de color. Memonum es un software para evaluar memoria de trabajo por medio de la retención de dígitos directos, en dos versiones: una blanco-negro (sin interferencia y otra con un distractor atencional de color (con interferencia. Para la evaluación de la SD, 76 universitarios respondieron al CES-D, luego se les aplicó aleatoriamente una u otra versión de la prueba Memonum (con o sin interferencia de color, 2 semanas después de la detección de síntomas. De manera general, la SD no alteró a largo plazo el desempeño de los participantes en tareas de memoria de trabajo visual con o sin interferencia atencional. Sin embargo, se pudo establecer que la utilización de las estrategias para la ejecución de la tarea mnemónica dependió de la condición clínica, y la agrupación fue la menos usada por los participantes con SD.

  3. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976

  4. ¿Ciudad sin ciudadanos? Fragmentación, segregación y temor en Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Dammert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La imagen de la ciudad como espacio de interacción y celebración de las diferencias está siendo amenazada en Santiago. Visiones alternativas la muestran como espacio de conflicto, desorden e inseguridad, donde la diferencia se convierte en un elemento peligroso que requiere ser excluido o segregado. De esta manera se desarrolla una ciudad sin ciudadanos, es decir, una no-ciudad, que sirve como espacio de movimiento pero no de interacción. El objetivo de este artículo es empezar a analizar esta problemática desde uno de sus elementos: la sensación de inseguridad. El resultado plantea interrogantes sobre la ciudad que se está construyendo y sus posibles consecuencias.

  5. Herpes zóster oftálmico en paciente pediátrico sin inmunocompromiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Zamora-de la Cruz

    2015-04-01

    La paciente evolucionó favorablemente, sin presentar secuelas significativas. Se mantuvo vigilada a la paciente durante los 3 meses posteriores al cuadro. El diagnóstico de esta entidad es principalmente clínico; se sabe que uno de los factores de riesgo más importantes en este grupo de edad no es el inmunocompromiso, sino la infección por varicela zóster durante el primer año de vida. Es primordial realizar siempre una evaluación exhaustiva en los pacientes con estas características por las secuelas a largo plazo y el riesgo de ambliopía por deprivación en caso de leucomas corneales residuales. El curso clínico del herpes zóster oftálmico en niños inmunocompetentes es benigno si se trata oportunamente con aciclovir.

  6. ¿Es posible construir una escuela sin exclusiones? Is it possible to build a school without exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Melero

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea, fundamentalmente, que no se debe confundir integración educativa con escuela inclusiva y que, probablemente, esta confusión ha originado interpretaciones dispares que está originando una serie de barreras para la presencia, aprendizaje y participación de las personas y culturas diferentes en el aula. Se analizan solo las barreras didácticas y se propone como se pueden salvar las mismas para construir una escuela sin exclusiones.The main idea in this article is that we must not confuse the concept of "educational integration" with "inclusive schooling". Probably, such confusion has generated different interpretations of the above concepts resulting in barriers in learning and participation in the classroom for those who are different or who come from diverse cultural backgrounds. The article analyses mainly barriers in didactics and suggests how to overcome them in order to construct a school without exclusion.

  7. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  8. La comprensión verbal y la lectura en niños con y sin retraso lector

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Fernanda Bohórquez Montoya; María Alejandra Cabal Álvarez; María Cristina Quijano Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Describir diferencias entre el desempeño en tareas de lectura y de comprensión verbal en niños con y sin retraso lector, así como la relación entre ambos tipos de desempeños. Método. Se utilizaron tareas de lectura de la Evaluación neuropsicológica infantil (ENI) y el Índice de Comprensión Verbal (ICV) de la escala de inteligencia Wechsler (WISC-IV) para niños. Los participantes fueron 40 niños de ambos sexos, entre 7 y 9 años de edad, quienes cursaban entre 2° y 4° grado de primaria en un co...

  9. La comprensión verbal y la lectura en niños con y sin retraso lector

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez Montoya, Luisa Fernanda; Cabal álvarez, María Alejandra; Quijano Martínez, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir diferencias entre el desempeño en tareas de lectura y de comprensión verbal en niños con y sin retraso lector, así como la relación entre ambos tipos de desempeños. Método. Se utilizaron tareas de lectura de la Evaluación neuropsicológica infantil (ENI) y el índice de Comprensión Verbal (ICV) de la escala de inteligencia Wechsler (WISC-IV) para niños. Los participantes fueron 40 niños de ambos sexos, entre 7 y 9 años de edad, quienes cursaban entre 2° y 4° grado de primari...

  10. PERSISTENCIA DEL ARCO AÓRTICO DERECHO EN PERRO SIN PELO DEL PERÚ – REPORTE DE UN CASO.

    OpenAIRE

    Grandez R., Ricardo; Bowler T., Brenda; Miguel de Priego G., Claudia; Yi A., Pedro; Torres P., Luis; Valencia L., Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Un canino de la raza Perro sin Pelo del Perú, de dos meses de edad, fue atendido con historia de regurgitación por un mes y pérdida progresiva de su condición corporal desde el destete. Al examen clínico presentó un estado de alerta y baja condición corporal. El paciente recibió tratamiento de sostén y se le realizó estudios imagenológicos, radiografía cervical, torácica y esofagografía, evidenciando una dilatación de esófago craneal al corazón. Se realizó la eutanasia a solicitud del propiet...

  11. Lipotransferencia en piernas con o sin fasciotomía subcutánea de la aponeurosis tibial posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Añorve-Borquez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La lipotransferencia en muslos y piernas es un procedimiento muy poco empleado como complemento a la lipoescultura, siendo ésta una zona muy importante para dar más armonía y belleza al contorno corporal. Analizamos 139 procedimientos de lipotrasnferencia en muslos y piernas, ésta última complementada con o sin fasciotomía subcutánea de la aponeurosis tibial posterior o fascia profunda de la pierna. Describimos la técnica y las cantidades de grasa empleadas según zonas disminuyendo al mínimo las complicaciones y reacciones secundarias, que cuando se producen en las piernas, y si no se ha realizado la fasciotomía, puede confundir con otras patologías tales como es el síndrome compartimental y/o la trombosis venosa profunda.

  12. Religious celebration and artistic virtuosity in Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado, by Francisco Bramón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisco Hopkins Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This article tries to deepen into the rhetoric, theological and autobiographic mechanisms that lie under Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado by Francisco Bramón (1620. A divine pastoral romance conceived to celebrate the Immaculate Conception of Mary, dogma still under debate during the XVIIth Century, but with a strong support among the Spaniards, both in Spain and its American colonies. An opportunity that Bramón grabbed not only to honor the Immaculate, but also to denounce the poor conditions that suffer authors in the New Spain through a complex erudition structure. Resumen:Este artículo intenta profundizar en los mecanismos retóricos, teológicos y autobiográfico que están detrás de Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado de Francisco Bramón (1620. Una novela pastoril a lo divino concebida para celebrar la Inmaculada Concepción de María, dogma aún en debate en el siglo XVII, pero con una fuerte devoción entre los españoles, tanto en España como en sus colonias americanas. Una oportunidad que Bramón aprovechó no solo para honrar a la Inmaculada, sino también para denunciar las condiciones precarias de los autores en la Nueva España a través de un complejo edificio de erudición.

  13. Policy recommendations on tacing and reducing program mismatch and perverse incentives present in earmarking sin tax to tobacco growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiline Joy Aloria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Recognizing that the Philippine 1991 tobacco tax sharing law favoured the development of tobacco, the Sin Tax Law, a separate law on restructuring cigarette tax, expanded the use of such to also cover shifting farmers to viable alternative livelihood. Aside from health-driven supply reduction objectives, this is crucial as evidence shows that tobacco production is continuously declining starting decades ago, requiring to actively shift farmers. Methods Data on tobacco excise tax earmarking and utilization, farmers´ production and shifting behaviours, labor improvement and poverty alleviation indicators, and LGU capacity were analysed to determine potential program mismatches and perverse incentives. Supporting qualitative data were used to identify policy and structural gaps to address these. Results Financing livelihood projects becomes the least priority (only 6% average share i funds, as a result of LGU´s final allocation being determined by their share in total tobacco leaf production, which actually put pressure on their farmers to increase production volume. Meanwhile, infrastructure continue to get bulk of sin tax earmarking and are linked to its political benefits. Last, the provision of cooperative and agro-industrial projects in selected areas were shifting behaviour is heavy can still be improved. Conclusions As the two tobacco tax sharing laws fund both programs to develop tobacco and to shift tobacco farmers to other livelihood, a schizophrenic management exists. Key structural and policy ingredients have to be present to reverse this. First is the need to establish institutional support to manage alternative livelihood funds, in order to balance the powers of National Tobacco Administration over tobacco growing areas. Allocation should not be based on production volume but rather on a systemic or comprehensive welfare assessment of shifted farmers. As livelihood programs are most commonly coursed through civil society

  14. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.

  15. Crustáceos decápodos de la cuenca del Río Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia

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    Jorge Alexander Quirós Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la composición, abundancia y distribución de los crustáceos decápodos en la cuenca del río Sinú, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia, se estudiaron ocho localidades: cuatro en el río Sinú y cuatro en el complejo cenagoso del bajo Sinú. Para ello, se realizaron seis muestreos entre abril de 2005 y mayo de 2006. En total se registraron 458 crustáceos decápodos distribuidos en tres familias, seis géneros y ocho especies. La familia mejor representada fue Trichodactylidae con cuatro géneros y cuatro especies, seguida de Palaemonidae con un género y tres especies, mientras que de la familia Atyidae solo registró una especie. Especies como Macrobrachium carcinus y M. acanthurus, presentaron el rango más amplio de distribución, siendo características tanto para el rio Sinú como para el CCBS. Entre las especies identificadas, Atya crassa en el río Sinú y Trichodactylus quinquedentatus en el CCBS son nuevos registros para el departamento de Córdoba.

  16. Salud, calidad de vida y consumo de sustancias en función del tiempo en situación sin hogar

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    Sonia Panadero-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo principal conocer las características diferenciales de aquellas personas que están "recién" llegadas a la situación sin hogar frente a aquellas que llevan un largo tiempo en dicha situación. Concretamente en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la comparación en diferentes variables (calidad de vida, salud, etc. entre personas sin hogar que llevaban menos de un año en esa situación y personas sin hogar que llevaban más de 5 años, con la intención de profundizar en el efecto de la situación sin hogar e identificar variables diferenciales que permitan avanzar en la identificación de necesidades específicas, favoreciendo así la planificación de servicios y recursos ajustados a las necesidades de cada grupo y momento. Los resultados apuntan diferencias importantes entre ambos grupos que parecen indican un mayor deterioro entre aquellos que llevan más tiempo en la situación sin hogar (mayor consumo de alcohol y otras sustancias, más discapacidades, etc. así como unas mayores carencias (duermen en mayor medida literalmente en la calle, ejercen en mayor medida la mendicidad, etc..

  17. PROPAGACIÓN POR ESTACAS JUVENILES DEL BALSO BLANCO (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis UTILIZANDO PROPAGADORES DE SUBIRRIGACIÓN PROPAGATION OF WHITE BALSUM (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis CUTTINGS USING NONMIST PROPAGATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vásquez Restrepo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado mundial de edulcorantes orgánicos es una oportunidad para la panela, producto básico de la canasta familiar que representa ingresos importantes para la población rural colombiana. El balso blanco (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. es la especie más usada en procesos de clarificación de la panela en Antioquia y las zonas cañeras húmedas colombianas. Pero la extracción de la corteza de árboles obtenidos de la regeneración natural comienza a ser insostenible, por el daño causado a los individuos y la presión creciente a este recurso. La prohibición del uso de sustancias químicas en procesos de clarificación de panela ha aumentado la demanda de la corteza del balso blanco. En este trabajo se estimó el enraizamiento de estacas juveniles de balso blanco, por propagadores de subirrigación. Se realizaron dos experimentos, utilizando ácido anaftalenacético (ANA. En el primero se evaluó el efecto del transporte, cicatrizante y sustrato sobre el enraizamiento de las estacas de balso blanco. El mejor medio de transporte fue en cristales de hidrogel para mantener la humedad de las estacas, sin utilizar cicatrizante y sembrándolas en el sustrato tierra (55 % de enraizamiento. En el segundo se analizó la influencia de la intensidad lumínica y el área foliar en el porcentaje de enraizamiento de las estacas. El más alto enraizamiento se obtuvo con el tratamiento de doble sombra y un área foliar de 20 cm² (25 % de enraizamiento. Aunque los mejores resultados indican un relativo éxito en el uso de medios de enraizamiento, es una primera aproximación para propagar esta especie que necesita ser protegida.The world market of organic edulcorants is an opportunity for “panela”, a basic domestic consumption product that provides important income to rural population. White balsum (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. is the most used species in the panela clarification processes in

  18. Protective effects of Lagerstroemia speciosa on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Ting

    2013-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pancreatic β cell death affects insulin secretion and is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Lagerstroemia speciosa, a traditional folk medicine, has been used for t he prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, whether Lagerstroemia speciosa has a cytoprotective effect on pancreatic β cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of hot water extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (LWE) on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative damage in Syrian hamster pancreatic insulinoma HIT-T15 cells. The HIT-T15 cells were first treated with SIN-1 (50 µM) for 24 h and then co-incubated with LWE for 48 h. SIN-1 significantly decreased HIT-T15 cell viability (PHIT-T15 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. To further investigate the protective effects of LWE on SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells, the cellular levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), were determined. LWE decreased the intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that LWE has a cytoprotective effect against SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, a decrease in ROS levels and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. In addition, LWE increased insulin secretion in SIN-1-treated HIT-T15 cells. Our results suggested that LWE were effective in the treatment of diabetes. Further studies are required to study the anti-diabetic molecular mechanism in a cell model.

  19. Regulación del ciclo vesicular sináptico por las quinasas dependientes de GMPc en neuronas grabulares de cerebelo

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Alsina, Marina Andrea

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación entre las neuronas ocurre en regiones anatómicamente identificables denominadas sinapsis. Existen dos tipos de transmisión sináptica, las sinapsis químicas y las eléctricas, aunque predominan las sinapsis químicas. En este tipo de sinapsis, la comunicación neuronal ocurre en zonas especializadas de los axones, denominados terminales sinápticos, los cuales almacenan en su interior pequeñas vesículas que contienen un neurotransmisor. Ante la llegada de un potencial de acción al ...

  20. Método y sistema para la medición directa y sin contacto de la temperatura superficial en un cable

    OpenAIRE

    Mañana Canteli, Mario; Arroyo Gutiérrez, Alberto; Castro Alonso, Pablo Bernardo; Madrazo Maza, Alfredo; Valli, Cristina Alice; González Diego, Antonio; Martínez Torre, Raquel; Laso Pérez, Alberto; Domingo Fernández, Rodrigo; Sierra Molleda, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Sistema de medición directa y sin contacto de la temperatura superficial en un cable, que comprende al menos un cable cuya temperatura desea ser monitorizada al menos un cuerpo de medición térmica envolviendo cada cable, tal que cada cuerpo de medición térmica envuelve a un único cable; y al menos un sensor de temperatura sin contacto que enfoca al menos un cuerpo de medición térmica, estando cada cuerpo de medición térmica configurado para incrementar el área efectiva sobre el cual incide al...