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Sample records for serovar heidelberg isolates

  1. Effect of Various Inoculum Levels of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate on Cecal Colonization, Dissemination to Internal Organs, and Deposition in Skeletal Muscles of Commercial Turkeys after Experimental Oral Challenge

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    Divek V. T. Nair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg is a major foodborne pathogen colonizing poultry. The pathogen is associated with a significant number of foodborne outbreaks through contaminated poultry meat, including turkeys. Recently, multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of S. Heidelberg have emerged as a threat to human public health in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and the potential for skeletal muscle deposition of an MDR S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States after the experimental oral challenge of poults (young turkeys and adult turkey hens. In the poult study, two separate experiments using day-old, straight-run, commercial hybrid converter poults were randomly assigned to five challenge groups (0, 10∧2, 10∧4, 10∧6, 10∧8 CFU groups; 12 poults/group; N = 60/experiment and a week after, treatment groups were challenged separately with 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8- log10 CFU of S. Heidelberg orally. After 14 days post-challenge, the poults were euthanized, and samples were collected to determine MDR S. Heidelberg colonization in the cecum, dissemination to liver and spleen, and deposition in the thigh, drumstick, and breast muscles. A similar experimental design was followed for the adult turkey hens. In two separate experiments, 11-week-old commercial Hybrid Converter turkey hens (4 hens/group; N = 20/experiment were challenged with MDR S. Heidelberg and on day 16 post-challenge, birds were euthanized and samples were collected to determine Salmonella populations in the samples. The results indicated that, in turkey poults, the recovery of MDR S. Heidelberg was highest in the cecum followed by spleen, liver, thigh, drumstick, and breast. All tested inoculum levels resulted in more than 3.5 log10 CFU/g colonization in the poult cecum. The cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and tissue

  2. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  3. Impact of the choice of reference genome on the ability of the core genome SNV methodology to distinguish strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg.

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    Usongo, Valentine; Berry, Chrystal; Yousfi, Khadidja; Doualla-Bell, Florence; Labbé, Genevieve; Johnson, Roger; Fournier, Eric; Nadon, Celine; Goodridge, Lawrence; Bekal, Sadjia

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is one of the top serovars causing human salmonellosis. The core genome single nucleotide variant pipeline (cgSNV) is one of several whole genome based sequence typing methods used for the laboratory investigation of foodborne pathogens. SNV detection using this method requires a reference genome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the choice of the reference genome on the cgSNV-informed phylogenetic clustering and inferred isolate relationships. We found that using a draft or closed genome of S. Heidelberg as reference did not impact the ability of the cgSNV methodology to differentiate among 145 S. Heidelberg isolates involved in foodborne outbreaks. We also found that using a distantly related genome such as S. Dublin as choice of reference led to a loss in resolution since some sporadic isolates were found to cluster together with outbreak isolates. In addition, the genetic distances between outbreak isolates as well as between outbreak and sporadic isolates were overall reduced when S. Dublin was used as the reference genome as opposed to S. Heidelberg.

  4. DNA sequence analysis of plasmids from multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolates.

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    Jing Han

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations.

  5. Characterization of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg outbreak strain in commercial turkeys: Colonization, transmission, and host transcriptional response

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    In recent years, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg has been associated with numerous human foodborne illness outbreaks due to consumption of poultry. For example, in 2011, an MDR S. Heidelberg outbreak associated with ground turkey sickened 136 individuals and resulted...

  6. Genotypic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from chickens and turkeys in the midwestern United States.

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    Nisar, Muhammad; Kassem, Issmat I; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Voss, Shauna; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2017-05-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne illnesses in humans in the United States, and domestic poultry is considered an important source of this pathogen. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is the fourth most commonly reported Salmonella from retail meats and food animals in the United States. We assessed the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from various chicken and turkey hatcheries and breeder farms in the Midwest. The genotypes of 33 S. Heidelberg isolates from chickens ( n = 19) and turkeys ( n = 14) were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Cluster analysis of the fingerprints showed that the majority of the chicken isolates grouped together with 87% similarity; those from turkeys clustered with 88% similarity. Similarity between chicken and turkey isolates was also high (86%). Isolates from turkeys were generally more genetically diverse than those from chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis detected resistance to sulfisoxazole (36% of the isolates), streptomycin (33%), gentamicin (27%), tetracycline (24%), ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (15%), cefoxitin (12%), ceftriaxone and ceftiofur (12%), and chloramphenicol (9%). None of the isolates was resistant to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or nalidixic acid. Although the number of the isolates was limited in our study, we conclude that S. Heidelberg isolates from the same host generally clustered together and that a considerable number of the isolates were resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents.

  7. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  8. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

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    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  9. Six new leptospiral serovars isolated from wild animals in Peru.

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    Liceras de Hidalgo, J L; Sulzer, K R

    1984-01-01

    Six new serovars of Leptospira interrogans were isolated from opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum) trapped in the Peruvian jungle. The proposed names, type strain designation, and serogroup of the serovars, respectively, were: huallaga, strain M-7, Djasiman serogroup; luis, strain M-6, Tarassovi serogroup; machiguenga, strain MMD-3, Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup; rioja, strain MR-12, Bataviae serogroup; rupa rupa, strain M-3, Sejroe serogroup; and tingomaria, strain M-13, Cy...

  10. Homologous stress adaptation, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm forming ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (ATCC8326) on different food-contact surfaces following exposure to sub-lethal chlorine concentrations

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    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an ...

  11. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

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    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  12. First isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli from wild birds in Italy

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    Laura Mancini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820 which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.

  13. Characterization of Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Stanley, a Serovar Endemic to Asia and Associated with Travel

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    Le Hello, Simon; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Pornruangmong, Srirat; Chaichana, Phattharaporn; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Weill, François-Xavier; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) is a common serovar in Southeast Asia and was the second most common serovar implicated in human salmonellosis in Thailand in the years 2002 to 2007. In contrast, this serovar is relatively uncommon in Europe. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of S. Stanley strains isolated from Thai (n = 62), Danish (n = 39), and French (n = 24) patients to gain a broader understanding of the genetic diversity, population dynamics, and susceptibility to antimicrobials. All isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The molecular mechanisms of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid profiling, replicon typing, and microarray analysis were used to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in 10 extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing isolates. Considerable genetic diversity was observed among the isolates characterized with 91 unique XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, including 17 distinct clusters consisting of two to seven indistinguishable isolates. We found some of the S. Stanley isolates isolated from patients in Europe were acquired during travel to Southeast Asia, including Thailand. The presence of multiple plasmid lineages carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-encoding blaCMY-2 gene in S. Stanley isolates from the central part of Thailand was confirmed. Our results emphasize that Thai authorities, as well as authorities in other countries lacking prudent use of antimicrobials, should improve the ongoing efforts to regulate antimicrobial use in agriculture and in clinical settings to limit the spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates and plasmids among humans and pigs in Thailand and abroad. PMID:22205822

  14. Comparative genomics of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola isolated from swine and human in Brazil

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    Luisa Z Moreno

    Full Text Available Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola is one of the most important pathogenic serovars for the maintenance of urban leptospirosis. Even though it is considered highly adapted to dogs, serovar Canicola infection has already been described in other animals and even a few human cases. Here, we present the genomic characterisation of two Brazilian L. interrogans serovar Canicola strains isolated from slaughtered sows (L0-3 and L0-4 and their comparison with human strain Fiocruz LV133. It was observed that the porcine serovar Canicola strains present the genetic machinery to cause human infection and, therefore, represent a higher risk to public health. Both human and porcine serovar Canicola isolates also presented sequences with high identity to the Chinese serovar Canicola published plasmids pGui1 and pGui2. The plasmids identification in the Brazilian and Chinese serovar Canicola strains suggest that extra-chromosomal elements are one more feature of this serovar that was previously unnoticed.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

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    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Bataviae Strain LepIMR 22 Isolated from a Rodent in Johor, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amran, Fairuz; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Mohamad, Saharuddin; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Ahmad, Norazah; Goris, Marga G. A.; Muhammad, Ayu Haslin; Noor Halim, Nurul Atiqah

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae was recently identified as one of the persistent Leptospira serovars in Malaysia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the L. interrogans serovar Bataviae strain LepIMR 22 isolated from kidney of a rodent in Johor, Malaysia

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Bataviae Strain LepIMR 22 Isolated from a Rodent in Johor, Malaysia.

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    Amran, Fairuz; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Mohamad, Saharuddin; Mat Ripen, Adiratna; Ahmad, Norazah; Goris, Marga G A; Muhammad, Ayu Haslin; Noor Halim, Nurul Atiqah

    2016-09-08

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae was recently identified as one of the persistent Leptospira serovars in Malaysia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the L. interrogans serovar Bataviae strain LepIMR 22 isolated from kidney of a rodent in Johor, Malaysia. Copyright © 2016 Amran et al.

  18. Serovars of Salmonella isolated from Danish turkeys between 1995 and 2000 and their antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, H.C.; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    , florfenicol, or amoxycillin with clavulanic acid, only 24 isolates were resistant to two or more compounds in various combinations of up to six compounds; one Salmonella Havana isolate was resistant to six compounds. Six isolates were serovar Typhimurium, but none of them belonged to phage type DT104....

  19. Characterization of Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Stanley, a Serovar Endemic to Asia and Associated with Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) is a common serovar in Southeast Asia and was the second most common serovar implicated in human salmonellosis in Thailand in the years 2002 to 2007. In contrast, this serovar is relatively uncommon in Europe. The objective of this study was to cha...

  20. Changes in the prevalence of Salmonella serovars associated swine production and correlations of avian, bovine and swine-associated serovars with human-associated serovars in the United States (1997-2015).

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    Yuan, C; Krull, A; Wang, C; Erdman, M; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Logue, C M; O'Connor, A M

    2018-04-23

    As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20-year observation period (1997-2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between changes in S. enterica serovars frequently recovered from food animals and changes in S. enterica serovars associated with disease in humans. We found decreasing proportions of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, serovar Derby and serovar Heidelberg and increasing proportions of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, serovar Infantis and serovar Johannesburg in swine over time. We also found positive correlations for the yearly changes in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, serovar Anatum and serovar Johannesburg between swine and human data; in S. enterica Worthington between avian and human data; and in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- between bovine and human data. We found negative correlations for the yearly changes in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- and serovar Johannesburg between avian and human data. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Tetracycline promotes the expression of ten fimbrial operons in specific Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates

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    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans and presents an important food safety concern. Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has become especially prevalent as over 27 per cent of isolates from humans in the Unit...

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella spp., and serovars isolated from captive exotic reptiles in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikillus, K H; Gartrell, B D; Motion, E

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in captive exotic reptile species in New Zealand, and identify the serovars isolated from this population. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 378 captive exotic reptiles, representing 24 species, residing in 25 collections throughout New Zealand between 2008 and 2009. Samples were cultured for Salmonella spp., and suspected colonies were serotyped by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR). Forty-three of the 378 (11.4%) reptiles sampled tested positive for Salmonella spp., with 95% CI for the estimated true prevalence being 12-25% in exotic reptiles in this study population. Lizards tested positive for Salmonella spp. more often than chelonians. Agamid lizards tested positive more often than any other family group, with 95% CI for the estimated true prevalence being 56-100%.. Six Salmonella serovars from subspecies I and two from subspecies II were isolated. The serovar most commonly isolated was S. Onderstepoort (30.2%), followed by S. Thompson (20.9%), S. Potsdam (14%), S. Wangata (14%), S. Infantis (11.6%) and S. Eastbourne (2.3%). All of the subspecies I serovars have been previously reported in both reptiles and humans in New Zealand, and include serovars previously associated with disease in humans. This study showed that Salmonella spp. were commonly carried by exotic reptiles in the study population in New Zealand. Several serovars of Salmonella spp. with known pathogenicity to humans were isolated, including S. Infantis, which is one of the most common serovars isolated from both humans and non-human sources in New Zealand. The limitations of this study included the bias engendered by the need for voluntary involvement in the study, and the non-random sampling design. Based on the serovars identified in this and previous studies, it is recommended native and exotic reptiles be segregated within collections, especially when native reptiles may be used for biodiversity restoration

  3. VNTR molecular typing of salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates in Kathmandu valley

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    B Acharya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typhoid fever continues to be a worldwide health problem, especially in developing countries. Effective epidemiological surveillance is needed to monitor the presence and spread of disease. Materials and Methods: Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR was performed for Salmonella enterica serovar typhi by multiplex-PCR in 28 Nepalese isolates of sporadic typhoid fever. Results: From all 28 total isolates, we could identify 12 VNTR profiles among the isolates, signifying multiple variants in circulation within the region. Conclusion: The VNTR-based typing assay for serovar typhi isolates can be used during an outbreak of enteric fever. The typing could eventually form the basis of an effective epidemiological surveillance system for developing rational strategies to control typhoid fever. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6026 JPN 2012; 2(3: 220-223

  4. Isolation and characterization of polyvalent bacteriophages infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mayada; Askora, Ahmed; Barakat, Ahmed Barakat; Rabie, Omar El-Farouk; Hassan, Sayed Emam

    2018-02-02

    In this study, we isolated and characterized three phages named as Salmacey1, Salmacey2 and Salmacey3, infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. kentucky. All these Salmonella serovars were found to be resistant to more than two of the ten antimicrobial agents tested. Only S. kentucky was found to be resistant to seven antimicrobial agents. Examination of these phage particles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), demonstrated that two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) were found to belong to family Siphoviridae, and Salmacey3 was assigned to the family Myoviridae. The results of host range assay revealed that these bacteriophages were polyvalent and thus capable of infecting four strains of Salmonella serovars and Citrobacter freundii. Moreover, the two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) had a lytic effect on Enterobacter cloacae and Salmacey3 was able to infect E. coli. All phages could not infect S. para Typhi, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus cereus. One-step growth curves of bacteriophages revealed that siphovirus phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) have burst size (80 and 90pfu per infected cell with latent period 35min and 40min respectively), and for the myovirus Salmacey3 had a burst size 110pfu per infected cell with latent period 60min. Molecular analyses indicated that these phages contained double-stranded DNA genomes. The lytic activity of the phages against the most multidrug resistant serovars S. kentucky as host strain was evaluated. The result showed that these bacteriophages were able to completely stop the growth of S. kentucky in vitro. These results suggest that phages have a high potential for phage application to control Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Molecular Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

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    Arunava Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.

  6. Identification of Salmonella serovars isolated from live molluscan shellfish and their significance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; Hernandez-Cordova, Gustavo; Lozano, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar; Espinosa, Joaquin

    2003-02-01

    A study on the presence of Salmonella spp. in live molluscs was performed, which included a description of the different serovars isolated and their relationship to the marine environment. A total of 2,980 samples of shellfish from Galicia (N.W. Spain) were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. between September 1998 and August 2001. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 1.8% and showed a slight rise during the 3 years of the study. Mussels and oysters presented a higher incidence than clams and cockles, possibly because of their distinct growing habitat. A seasonal pattern was noted for the isolation of Salmonella spp.: 54% of the isolations were detected from September to November. That nearly 67% of the total Salmonella was isolated from shellfish with fecal coliform levels fecal coliforms do not necessarily indicate the absence of Salmonella. A total of nine serovars were found in the 54 Salmonella isolated. Salmonella Senftenberg was the most frequent (50%), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (18%) and Salmonella Agona (17%). Salmonella Senftenberg was detected frequently during the year, whereas the remaining serovars were detected only on occasional contamination events.

  7. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

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    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  8. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain...... Kingston (n = 13; 5.7 %). The most widely distributed serovars among the farms were Salmonella Give (six farms) and Salmonella Elisaberthville (six farms). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline ranged from 11.6 % (n = 26) to 22.8 % (n = 51). Resistance....... Other PMQR genes were not detected. Pigs constitute an important source of diverse Salmonella serovars in Ibadan. The isolates were more resistant to old antimicrobials with some multiple resistant. Control measures and regulation of antimicrobials are warranted....

  9. Genomic characterisation of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica Subspecies enterica Serovar Bovismorbificans isolates from Malawi.

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    Christina Bronowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS are an important cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research has shown that iNTS strains exhibit a pattern of gene loss that resembles that of host adapted serovars such as Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans was a common serovar in Malawi between 1997 and 2004.We sequenced the genomes of 14 Malawian bacteraemia and four veterinary isolates from the UK, to identify genomic variations and signs of host adaptation in the Malawian strains.Whole genome phylogeny of invasive and veterinary S. Bovismorbificans isolates showed that the isolates are highly related, belonging to the most common international S. Bovismorbificans Sequence Type, ST142, in contrast to the findings for S. Typhimurium, where a distinct Sequence Type, ST313, is associated with invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Although genome degradation through pseudogene formation was observed in ST142 isolates, there were no clear overlaps with the patterns of gene loss seen in iNTS ST313 isolates previously described from Malawi, and no clear distinction between S. Bovismorbificans isolates from Malawi and the UK. The only defining differences between S. Bovismorbificans bacteraemia and veterinary isolates were prophage-related regions and the carriage of a S. Bovismorbificans virulence plasmid (pVIRBov.iNTS S. Bovismorbificans isolates, unlike iNTS S. Typhiumrium isolates, are only distinguished from those circulating elsewhere by differences in the mobile genome. It is likely that these strains have entered a susceptible population and are able to take advantage of this niche. There are tentative signs of convergent evolution to a more human adapted iNTS variant. Considering its importance in causing disease in this region, S. Bovismorbificans may be at the beginning of this process, providing a reference against which to compare changes that may

  10. Variable carbon catabolism among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

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    Lay Ching Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is strictly a human intracellular pathogen. It causes acute systemic (typhoid fever and chronic infections that result in long-term asymptomatic human carriage. S. Typhi displays diverse disease manifestations in human infection and exhibits high clonality. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of S. Typhi in its human host during acute and chronic infections remain largely unknown and are therefore the main objective of this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain insight into the intracellular lifestyle of S. Typhi, a high-throughput phenotypic microarray was employed to characterise the catabolic capacity of 190 carbon sources in S. Typhi strains. The success of this study lies in the carefully selected library of S. Typhi strains, including strains from two geographically distinct areas of typhoid endemicity, an asymptomatic human carrier, clinical stools and blood samples and sewage-contaminated rivers. An extremely low carbon catabolic capacity (27% of 190 carbon substrates was observed among the strains. The carbon catabolic profiles appeared to suggest that S. Typhi strains survived well on carbon subtrates that are found abundantly in the human body but not in others. The strains could not utilise plant-associated carbon substrates. In addition, α-glycerolphosphate, glycerol, L-serine, pyruvate and lactate served as better carbon sources to monosaccharides in the S. Typhi strains tested. CONCLUSION: The carbon catabolic profiles suggest that S. Typhi could survive and persist well in the nutrient depleted metabolic niches in the human host but not in the environment outside of the host. These findings serve as caveats for future studies to understand how carbon catabolism relates to the pathogenesis and transmission of this pathogen.

  11. Leptospira Serovars for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans and Animals in Africa: Common Leptospira Isolates and Reservoir Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgode, Georgies F; Machang'u, Robert S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-12-01

    The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT), and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents); Kenya (rodents and shrews); Mwogolo (rodents); Lora (rodents); Qunjian (rodent); serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle); and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries.

  12. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vasconcellos Silvio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  13. Multilocus Sequence Typing of the Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tehran Hospitals

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most important serovars of Salmonella enterica and is associated with human salmonellosis worldwide. Many epidemiological studies have focused on the characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium in many countries as well as in Asia. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Methods: Clinical samples (urine, blood, and stool were collected from patients, who were admitted to 2 hospitals in Tehran between April and September, 2015. Salmonella Typhimurium strains were identified by conventional standard biochemical and serological testing. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates against 16 antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion assay. The clonal relationship between the strains of Salmonella Typhimurium was analyzed using MLST. Results: Among the 68 Salmonella isolates, 31% (n=21 were Salmonella Typhimurium. Of the total 21 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 76% (n=16 were multidrug-resistant and showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotic families. The Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were assigned to 2 sequence types: ST19 and ST328. ST19 was more common (86%. Both sequence types were further assigned to 1 eBURST group. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in Iran to determine the sequence types of the clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tehran hospitals using MLST. ST19 was detected as the major sequence type of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars isolated from oysters served raw in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, Crystal D; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-06-01

    To determine if Salmonella-contaminated oysters are reaching consumer tables, a survey of raw oysters served in eight Tucson restaurants was performed from October 2007 to September 2008. Salmonella spp. were isolated during 7 of the 8 months surveyed and were present in 1.2% of 2,281 oysters tested. This observed prevalence is lower than that seen in a previous study in which U.S. market oysters were purchased from producers at bays where oysters are harvested. To test whether the process of refrigerating oysters in restaurants for several days reduces Salmonella levels, oysters were artificially infected with Salmonella and kept at 4°C for up to 13 days. Direct plate counts of oyster homogenate showed that Salmonella levels within oysters did not decrease during refrigeration. Six different serovars of Salmonella enterica were found in the restaurant oysters, indicating multiple incidences of Salmonella contamination of U.S. oyster stocks. Of the 28 contaminated oysters, 12 (43%) contained a strain of S. enterica serovar Newport that matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis a serovar Newport strain seen predominantly in the study of bay oysters performed in 2002. The repeated occurrence of this strain in oyster surveys is concerning, since the strain was resistant to seven antimicrobials tested and thus presents a possible health risk to consumers of raw oysters.

  15. Serovar 4b complex predominates among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongxia; Ye, Jiangbo; Fang, Weihuan

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative organism of listeriosis, is primarily transmitted to humans through contaminated food. In this study, we examined 1275 batches of aquatic products imported from 29 countries and found that 36 batches from 8 countries were contaminated by Listeria (2.8%), with L. monocytogenes accounting for 2.6% (33/1275) and L. innocua for 0.2% (3/1275). Of the 23 selected L. monocytogenes isolates (from the 33 identified), 15 (65.2%) were of serovar 4b complex (4b, 4d, or 4e), three (13.0%) of 1/2a or 3a, four (17.4%) of 1/2b or 3b, and one (4.4%) of 1/2c or 3c. Notably, four of the 23 isolates belonged to epidemic clone I (ECI) and another four were associated with epidemic clone II (ECII), two highly clonal 4b clusters responsible for most of the documented listeriosis outbreaks. In the multilocus sequence typing scheme based on the concatenated genes gyrB-dapE-hisJ-sigB-ribC-purM-betL-gap-tuf, serovar 4b complex isolates from imported aquatic products exhibited significant genetic diversity. While the four ECI isolates were genetically related to those from Chinese diseased animals, both lacking one proline-rich repeat of ActA, the four ECII isolates were located between 1/2b or 3b strains. As the L. monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products possessed a nearly complete set of major infection-related genes, they demonstrated virulence potential in mouse model.

  16. Food Grade Pimenta Leaf Essential Oil Reduces the Attachment of Salmonella enterica Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate on to Turkey Skin

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    Divek V. T. Nair

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella attached to the poultry skin is a major source of carcass contamination during processing. Once attached to the poultry skin, it is difficult to detach and inactivate Salmonella by commonly used antimicrobial agents since the pathogen is entrapped deeply in the feather follicles and the crevices on the skin. Essential oils could be natural, safe, and effective alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agents during commercial and organic processing setup. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pimenta (Pimenta officinalis Lindl. leaf essential oil (PEO, and its nanoemulsion in reducing Salmonella Heidelberg attachment on to turkey (Meleagris gallopavo skin during simulated scalding (65°C and chilling (4°C steps in poultry processing. A multidrug resistant S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States was used in the study. Results showed that PEO and the nanoemulsion resulted in significant reduction of S. Heidelberg attachment on turkey skin. Turkey skin samples treated with 1.0% PEO for 5 min resulted in >2 log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. Similarly, skin samples treated with 1.0% pimenta nanoemulsion (PNE for 5 min resulted in 1.5- and 1.8- log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. In addition, PEO and PNE were effective in reducing S. Heidelberg on skin during short-term storage at 4 and 10°C (temperature abuse (n = 6; P < 0.05. No Salmonella was detected in the dipping solution containing 0.5 or 1.0% PEO or PNE, whereas a substantial population of the pathogen survived in the control dipping solution. The results were validated using scanning electron -, and confocal - microscopy techniques. PEO or PNE could be utilized as an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce S. Heidelberg attachment to turkey skin during poultry processing.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strain SPE101, Isolated from a Chronic Human Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Silva, Claudia; Betancor, Laura; Astocondor, Lizeth; Cestero, Juan J; Ochoa, Theresa; García, Coralith; Puente, José L; Chabalgoity, José A; García-Del Portillo, Francisco

    2017-07-20

    We report a 4.99-Mb draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strain SPE101, isolated from feces of a 5-month-old breast-fed female showing diarrhea associated with severe dehydration and malnutrition. The infection prolonged for 6 months despite antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Iriarte et al.

  18. Research note: Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Tshiongwe recently isolated in Malaysia during 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Bakeri, Shamsilawani Ahmad; Lai, Kin Seng; Koh, Yin Tee; Taib, Mohd Zainuldin; Lim, V K E; Yasin, Rohani Md

    2004-03-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis were undertaken on twenty-three strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Tshiongwe, an unusual serovar, which recently emerged in Malaysia. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis showed that all the strains were sensitive to ampicilin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, and kanamycin. Twenty (87%) and 8 (3.5%) strains had resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin respectively. PFGE analysis subtyped 23 strains into 10 profiles (Dice coefficient of similarity, F = 0.7-1.0). The predominant profile, X1 was found in both clinical and environmental isolates and was widely distributed in different parts of Malaysia during the study period. In addition, isolates recovered from food, a hand-towel, apron and the surface of a table-top in one particular location had unique, indistinguishable profiles (X4/4a) and identical antibiograms. Similarly, isolates from cooked meat and a chopping board had PFGE profiles similar to some human isolates. These probably indicated cross-contamination and poor hygiene in food practices, hence contributing to Salmonellosis. Factors causing the emergence of this rare Salmonella serovar being responsible for food poisoning episodes during the study period remained unclear. The study reiterated the usefulness and versatility of PFGE in the molecular subtyping of this rare Salmonella serovar in Malaysia.

  19. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates from various countries in Asia by a multiplex PCR assay on variable-number tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichun; Lee, May-Ann; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Mavis, Yeo; Tan, Ai-Ling; Quek, Hung-Hiang

    2003-09-01

    A multiplex PCR method incorporating primers flanking three variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci (arbitrarily labeled TR1, TR2, and TR3) in the CT18 strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has been developed for molecular typing of S. enterica serovar Typhi clinical isolates from several Asian countries, including Singapore, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Nepal. We have demonstrated that the multiplex PCR could be performed on crude cell lysates and that the VNTR banding profiles produced could be easily analyzed by visual inspection after conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was highly discriminative in identifying 49 distinct VNTR profiles among 59 individual isolates. A high level of VNTR profile heterogeneity was observed in isolates from within the same country and among countries. These VNTR profiles remained stable after the strains were passaged extensively under routine laboratory culture conditions. In contrast to the S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates, an absence of TR3 amplicons and a lack of length polymorphisms in TR1 and TR2 amplicons were observed for other S. enterica serovars, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. DNA sequencing of the amplified VNTR regions substantiated these results, suggesting the high stability of the multiplex PCR assay. The multiplex-PCR-based VNTR profiling developed in this study provides a simple, rapid, reproducible, and high-resolution molecular tool for the epidemiological analysis of S. enterica serovar Typhi strains.

  20. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from poultry in Iran

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    Ghaderi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the major food-borne pathogens with more than 2,500 serotypes worldwide. The present study addresses antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Iran. A collection of 151 Salmonella spp. isolates collected from poultry were serotyped to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Sixty-one Salmonella Enteritidis were subsequently tested against 30 antimicrobials. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (n=55, 90.2% followed by nalidixic acid (n=41, 67.2%, and cephalexin (n=23, 37.7%. Multi-drug resistance were observed in 35 (57.4% out of 61 isolates. Twenty-six antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among the 61 Salmonella Enteritidis. All isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin, imipenem, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, our results revealed that implementing new policies toward overuse of antimicrobial drugs in Iranian poultry industry are of great importance.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF SALMONELLA SEROVARS ISOLATED DURING 2009-2016 IN TERNOPIL REGION, UKRAINE

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    Pokryshko O.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salmonellosis is registered in all regions of the world. Relevance of salmonellosis is due its global distribution, increasing incidence, even in developed countries, frequent outbreaks. The most reports in different countries demonstrated that one of the common Salmonella serotypes isolated from food and environmental samples had been serovars Salmonella Enterica, Typhimurium. In Ukraine 7.3% of all acute diarrheal infections have been cases of salmonellosis. Although large Salmonella outbreaks usually attract media attention, 60–80% of all salmonellosis cases are not recognized as part of a known outbreak and are classified as sporadic cases, or are not diagnosed as such at all. Material & methods. The samples from cultured stool, bile samples, food and environment were inoculated in the Tryptic Soya Broth (TSB for the enrichment and detection of the bacteria. After 24 hours incubation, microorganisms were cultured on the MacConkey agar plates. Then biochemical and serological tests were performed to identify the serovars of the isolated Salmonella in Ternopil regional laboratory center, Ukraine.Results & discussion. Over the past 8 years the incidence of salmonellosis has varied between 8.41 3.3 cases per 100 thousand of population (35 - 90 cases. During this period, the lowest rate recorded in 2015 (3.3 cases per 100 thousand of population, the highest – in 2014. Analysis of morbidity has been shown that elevated levels of infection were due to outbreaks registrated in 2011 (the number of infected people was 23, in 2013 (53 infected people, in 2014 (67 infected people and in 2016 (16 infected people. In Ternopil region the dominant serovar of Salmonella spp. isolated from patients are S. enteritidis (56.8 - 93.5% of all cases of diseases and S. typhimurium (7.8 - 43.8% in last 8 years. Among the carriers circulate S.enteritidis, S. typhimurium – mainly (64,8% and 35.2% respectively. Not typical for Ternopil region

  2. Repeated isolation of Salmonella enterica Goverdhan, a very rare serovar, from Danish poultry surveillance samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Szabo, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    We report here the appearance of a very rare serovar of Salmonella, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Goverdhan, in routine Salmonella surveillance samples from Danish poultry production. S. Goverdhan was found on nine occasions: in one broiler breeder farm in October 2010, four broiler farms a...

  3. Characterization of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolated from swine in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Luisa Z.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Langoni, Helio; Shimabukuro, Fabio H.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans swine infection is a cause of serious economic loss and a potential human health hazard. In Brazil, the most common serovars associated with swine infections are Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagie and Tarassovi. Cross-reactions among serovars and the failure of infected animals to

  4. Genetic diversity of human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeri, S A; Yasin, R M; Koh, Y T; Puthucheary, S D; Thong, K L

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine clonal relationship and genetic diversity of the human strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from 1995 to 2002 from different parts of Malaysia. Antimicrobial susceptibility test, plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were applied to analyse 65 human isolates of S. Enteritidis obtained over an eight year period from different parts of Malaysia. Four nonhuman isolates were included for comparison. A total of 14 distinct XbaI-pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) were observed, although a single PFP X1 was predominant and this particular clone was found to be endemic in Malaysia. The incidence of drug resistant S. Enteritidis remained relatively low with only 37% of the strains analysed being resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. All except one resistant strain carried at least one plasmid ranging in size from 3.7 to 62 MDa giving nine plasmid profiles. The three isolates from raw milk and one from well-water had similar PFPs to that of the human isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis strains were more diverse than was previously thought. Fourteen subtypes were noted although one predominant clone persisted in Malaysia. The combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid profiling and antibiograms provided additional discrimination to the highly clonal strains of S. Enteritidis. This is the first report to assess the genotypes of the predominant clinical S. Enteritidis in different parts of the country. As S. Enteritidis is highly endemic in Malaysia, the data generated would be useful for tracing the source during outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the study area.

  5. Molecular characterization, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni isolates from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Matsuo, Minekazo; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Freitas, Julio César; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Costa, Bárbara Letícia; Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae is the major serogroup infecting humans worldwide, and rodents and dogs are the most significant transmission sources in urban environments. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Hayashi, Ricardo Mitsuo; Wammes, Jessica Caroline; Gonzalez-Esquerra, Ricardo; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis -based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro , and (iii) SCOA in vivo ; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo trials used 1-day-old chicks housed for 21 days in 8 sterilized isolated negative pressure rooms with 4 battery cages of 12 birds each. Birds were challenged or not with 10 7  CFU/bird of SH UFPR1 orally and exposed or not to SCOA in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Zootechnical parameters were unaffected ( P  > 0.05), no clinical signs were observed, and few cecal and hepatic histologic and immune-related alterations were seen, in birds challenged with SH. Formic and propionic acids added together in drinking water, fumaric and benzoic acid in feed (Trial 1), and coated calcium butyrate in feed (Trial 2) did not reduce the SH isolation frequencies seen in cecum and liver in broilers after SH challenge ( P  > 0.05). SH UFPR1 was susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, ceftiofur, cephalexin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline; and mildly susceptible to ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamycin in an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration model using Mueller-Hinton agar. The whole genome of SH UFPR1 was sequenced and consisted of a circular chromosome, spanning 4,760,321 bp with 52.18% of GC-content encoding 84 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 4,427 protein-coding genes. The comparison between SH UFPR1 genome and a multidrug-resistant SL476 strain revealed 11 missing genomic fragments and 5 insertions related to bgt, bgr , and rpoS genes. The

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1 has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro, and (iii SCOA in vivo; and (iv relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo trials used 1-day-old chicks housed for 21 days in 8 sterilized isolated negative pressure rooms with 4 battery cages of 12 birds each. Birds were challenged or not with 107 CFU/bird of SH UFPR1 orally and exposed or not to SCOA in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Zootechnical parameters were unaffected (P > 0.05, no clinical signs were observed, and few cecal and hepatic histologic and immune-related alterations were seen, in birds challenged with SH. Formic and propionic acids added together in drinking water, fumaric and benzoic acid in feed (Trial 1, and coated calcium butyrate in feed (Trial 2 did not reduce the SH isolation frequencies seen in cecum and liver in broilers after SH challenge (P > 0.05. SH UFPR1 was susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, ceftiofur, cephalexin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline; and mildly susceptible to ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamycin in an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration model using Mueller–Hinton agar. The whole genome of SH UFPR1 was sequenced and consisted of a circular chromosome, spanning 4,760,321 bp with 52.18% of GC-content encoding 84 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 4,427 protein-coding genes. The comparison between SH UFPR1 genome and a multidrug-resistant SL476 strain revealed 11 missing genomic fragments and 5 insertions related to bgt, bgr, and rpoS genes. The

  8. In Vitro Development of Ciprofloxacin Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Indiana Isolates from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Chuan-Zhen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Gu, Xi-Xi; Li, Wan; Yang, Ling; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-09-01

    Difference in the development of resistance may be associated with the epidemiological spread and drug resistance of different Salmonella enterica serovar strains. In the present study, three susceptible S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium (ST), Enteritidis (SE), and Indiana (SI) strains, were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. The results indicated that the mutation frequencies of the SI group were 10 1 -10 4 higher and developed resistance to ciprofloxacin more rapidly compared with the ST and SE groups. Ciprofloxacin accumulation in the SI strain was also higher than the other two strains in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. The development of ciprofloxacin resistance was quite different among the three serovar strains. In SI, increasing AcrAB-TolC efflux pump expression and single or double mutations in gyrA with or without a single parC mutation (T57S) were found in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance. In SE, an increase in the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump regulatory gene ramA gradually decreased as resistant bacteria developed; then resistance resulted from gyrA D87G and gyrB E466D mutations and/or in other active efflux pumps besides AcrAB-TolC. For ST, ramA expression increased rapidly along with gyrA D87 N and/or gyrB S464F mutations. In conclusion, persistent use of ciprofloxacin may aggravate the resistance of different S. enterica serovars and prudent use of the fluoroquinolones is needed. The quicker resistance and higher mutation frequency of the SI isolates present a potential public health threat.

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica food and animal isolates from Colombia: identification of a qnrB19-mediated quinolone resistance marker in two novel serovars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczmarczyk, M.; Martins, M.; McCusker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-three Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial foods and exotic animals in Colombia were studied. The serotypes, resistance profiles and where applicable the quinolone resistance genes were determined. Salmonella Anatum (n=14), Uganda (19), Braenderup (10) and Newport (10) were the most...... plasmids, two of which were completely sequenced. These exhibited 97% (serovar 6,7:d:- isolate) and 100% (serovar Infantis isolate) nucleotide sequence identity with previously identified ColE-like plasmids. This study demonstrates the occurrence of the qnrB19 gene associated with small ColE plasmids...

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda A.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Obiri-Danso, K.

    2016-01-01

    Poultry are possible sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars which may cause foodborne human disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in egg-laying hens and broilers at the farm level and their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly...... of antimicrobials). Of the resistant strains (n = 57), the most significant were to nalidixic acid (89·5%), tetracycline (80·7%), ciprofloxacin (64·9%), sulfamethazole (42·1%), trimethoprim (29·8%) and ampicillin (26·3%). All S. Kentucky strains were resistant to more than two antimicrobials and shared common...

  11. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  12. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 Isolated from Denmark and Comparison with Isolates from Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Sandvang, D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    A total of 136 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 from Denmark (n = 93), Germany (n = 10), Italy (n = 4), Spain (n = 5), and the United Kingdom (n = 9) were characterized by antimicrobial resistance analysis, plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......) with the restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI, and analysis for the presence of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. The isolates from Denmark were from nine pig herds, while the isolates from other countries were both of animal and of human origin. All but 10 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol......, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Five isolates from the United Kingdom and Spain were sensitive to all antibiotics examined, whereas four isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States were also resistant to one or more of the antibiotics, namely, gentamicin, neomycin...

  13. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, M. I.; Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Ramsamy, Veemala D.

    2013-01-01

    from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Investigation of H2S-Negative Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis Isolates in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a highly invasive pathogen of swine that frequently causes serious outbreaks, in particular in Asia, and can also cause severe invasive disease in humans. In this study, 21 S. Choleraesuis isolates, detected from 21 patients with diarrhea in China between 2010 and 2011, were found to include 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates and two H2S-positive isolates. This is the first report of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolated from humans. The majority of H2S-negative isolates exhibited high resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only six isolates were resistant to norfloxacin. In contrast, all of the isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins. Fifteen isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. In norfloxacin-resistant isolates, we detected mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and identified two new mutations in the parC gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR analysis were employed to investigate the genetic relatedness of H2S-negative and H2S-positive S. Choleraesuis isolates. PFGE revealed two groups, with all 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates belonging to Group I and H2S-positive isolates belonging to Group II. By MLST analysis, the H2S-negative isolates were all found to belong to ST68 and H2S-positive isolates belong to ST145. By CRISPR analysis, no significant differences in CRISPR 1 were detected; however, one H2S-negative isolate was found to contain three new spacers in CRISPR 2. All 19 H2S-negative isolates also possessed a frame-shift mutation at position 760 of phsA gene compared with H2S-positive isolates, which may be responsible for the H2S-negative phenotype. Moreover, the 19 H2S-negative isolates have similar PFGE patterns and same mutation site in the phsA gene, these

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Investigation of H2S-Negative Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis Isolates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Zhu, Jiangong; Li, Peng; Liang, Beibei; Li, Hao; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Wu, Zhihao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a highly invasive pathogen of swine that frequently causes serious outbreaks, in particular in Asia, and can also cause severe invasive disease in humans. In this study, 21 S. Choleraesuis isolates, detected from 21 patients with diarrhea in China between 2010 and 2011, were found to include 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates and two H2S-positive isolates. This is the first report of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolated from humans. The majority of H2S-negative isolates exhibited high resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only six isolates were resistant to norfloxacin. In contrast, all of the isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins. Fifteen isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. In norfloxacin-resistant isolates, we detected mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and identified two new mutations in the parC gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis were employed to investigate the genetic relatedness of H2S-negative and H2S-positive S. Choleraesuis isolates. PFGE revealed two groups, with all 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates belonging to Group I and H2S-positive isolates belonging to Group II. By MLST analysis, the H2S-negative isolates were all found to belong to ST68 and H2S-positive isolates belong to ST145. By CRISPR analysis, no significant differences in CRISPR 1 were detected; however, one H2S-negative isolate was found to contain three new spacers in CRISPR 2. All 19 H2S-negative isolates also possessed a frame-shift mutation at position 760 of phsA gene compared with H2S-positive isolates, which may be responsible for the H2S-negative phenotype. Moreover, the 19 H2S-negative isolates have similar PFGE patterns and same mutation site in the phsA gene, these results indicated

  16. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from blood cultures and gallbladder specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Hatta

    Full Text Available Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  18. PANIC at Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    Earlier this year in Heidelberg there was PANIC - short for Particle and Nuclei International Conference. This is the new name which has been adopted for a series which in fact began in 1963, the aim being to cover the common ground between the physics of nuclei and of elementary particles.

  19. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  20. Chronological Change of Resistance to β-Lactams in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis Isolated from Broilers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuma, Takehisa; Miyasako, Daisuke; Dahshan, Hesham; Takayama, Tomoko; Nakamoto, Yuko; Shahada, Francis; Akiba, Masato; Okamoto, Karoku

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance study was conducted in southern Japan to determine the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and characterize the β-lactamase genes and the plasmids harboring these genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) isolates from broilers. Between January, 2007 and December, 2008, a total of 1,472 fecal samples were collected and examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Kagoshima University, Japan. In 93 (6.3%) isolates recovered, 33 (35.5%) isolates showed resistance to cefotaxime, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), conferred by TEM-20, TEM-52 and CTX-M-25 extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). In addition to ESC-resistance, eight (8.6%) isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin mediated by CMY-2 AmpC β-lactamase. Plasmid analysis and polymerase chain reaction replicon typing revealed the bla TEM-20 and bla CMY-2 genes were associated with IncP plasmids, bla TEM-52 was linked with a non-typable plasmid and bla CTX-M-25 was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. Non-β-lactam resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline encoded by the aadA1, sul1, and tet(A) genes, respectively, was found in 86 (92.5%) isolates. Resistance to kanamycin and ofloxacin was exhibited in 12 (12.9%) and 11 (11.8%) isolates, respectively, the former was mediated by aphA1-Iab. These data indicate that S. Infantis isolates producing ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamase have spread among broiler farms in Japan. These data demonstrated that the incidence of ESC-resistant S. Infantis carrying bla TEM-52 remarkably increased and S. Infantis strains harboring bla CMY-2, bla TEM-20, or bla CTX-M-25 genes emerged from broilers in Japan for the first time in 2007 and 2008.

  1. Genomic Signature of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Related to a Massive Outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    ). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon......Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified...

  2. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  3. Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars, and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Liang, Anita S; Walker, Samarpita; Bengson, Yingjia; Govoni, Jessica; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-06-01

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119 water samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella. Animals sampled were frogs (n=331), lizards (n=59), newts (n=5), salamanders (n=6), snakes (n=39), and toads (n=20). Salmonella was isolated from 37 individual animals, including frogs, lizards, snakes, and toads. Snakes were the most likely to contain Salmonella, with 59% testing positive followed by 15.3% of lizards, 5% of toads, and 1.2% of frogs. Fifteen water samples (12.6%) were positive. Twenty-two different serovars were identified, and the majority of isolates were S. enterica subsp. IIIb, with subsp. I, II, and IIIa also found. The serovar isolated most frequently was S. enterica subsp. IIIb 16:z₁₀:e,n,x,z₁₅, from snakes and frogs in five different locations. S. enterica subsp. I serovar Typhimurium and the monophasic I 6,8:d:- were isolated from water, and subspecies I Duisburg and its variants were found in animals and water. Some samples contained more than one type of Salmonella. Analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes indicated that some strains persisted in animals and water collected from the same location. Sixty-six isolates displayed antibiotic resistance, with 27 isolates resistant to more than one antibiotic, including a subspecies IIIb isolate from snake having resistance to five different antibiotics. Twenty-three isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotic, and six isolates were resistant to three classes. While these subspecies of IIIa and IIIb cause fewer instances of human illness, they may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, determinants in the environment, and be sources of contamination of leafy greens associated with product recalls.

  4. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  5. Whole genome sequencing of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from humans and poultry in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Lienemann, Taru; Frye, Jonathan G; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method. The whole genome of the S. Typhimurium isolates was analyzed using Illumina technology and compared with 20 isolates of S. Typhimurium for which the ST has been deposited in a global MLST database.The ResFinder Web server was used to find the antibiotic resistance genes from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. For comparative genomics, publicly available complete and draft genomes of different S. Typhimurium laboratory-adapted strains were downloaded from GenBank. All the tested Salmonella serotype Typhimurium were multiresistant to five commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim). The multilocus sequence type ST313 was detected from all the strains. Our sequences were very similar to S. Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580 isolated from a patient with invasive non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infection in Malawi, also located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of ResFinder web server on the whole genome of the strains showed a resistance to aminoglycoside associated with carriage of the following resistances genes: strA , strB , and aadA1 ; resistance to β-lactams associated with carriage of a bla TEM-1B genes; resistance to phenicol associated with carriage of catA1 gene; resistance to sulfonamide associated with carriage of sul1 and sul2 genes; resistance to tetracycline associated with carriage of tet B gene; and resistance to trimethoprim associated to dfrA1 gene

  6. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Lankau

    Full Text Available It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  7. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  8. Salmonella Strains Isolated from Galápagos Iguanas Show Spatial Structuring of Serovar and Genomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome. PMID:22615968

  9. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  10. Newly recognized Leptospira species ("Leptospira inadai" serovar lyme) isolated from human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, G P; Steere, A C; Kornblatt, A N; Kaufmann, A F; Moss, C W; Johnson, R C; Hovind-Hougen, K; Brenner, D J

    1986-01-01

    Leptospira strain 10, which represents a new Leptospira species, was isolated from a skin biopsy of a patient with Lyme disease. Although pathogenic for laboratory animals, the organism was not considered to have a significant role in the patient's illness.

  11. Prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella strains isolated from animals in the United Arab Emirates from 1996 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Sebastian; Braun, Peggy; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Pees, Michael; Flieger, Antje; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to give some insights into the prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic resistances of Salmonella from animal origin in the United Arab Emirates. Data on diagnostic samples from animals (n = 20,871) examined for Salmonella between 1996 and 2009 were extracted from the databases of the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory in Dubai and from typed strains (n = 1052) from the Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch in Germany and analyzed for general and animal-specific trends. Salmonella was isolated from 1,928 (9 %) of the 20,871 samples examined. Among the 1,052 typed strains, most were from camels (n = 232), falcons (n = 166), bustards (n = 101), antelopes (n = 66), and horses (n = 63). The predominant serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (25 %), Salmonella Kentucky (8 %), followed by Salmonella Frintrop (7 %), and Salmonella Hindmarsh (5 %). When analyzed by animal species, the most frequent serovars in camels were Salmonella Frintrop (28 %) and Salmonella Hindmarsh (21 %), in falcons Salmonella Typhimurium (32 %), in bustards Salmonella Kentucky (19 %), in antelopes Salmonella Typhimurium (9 %), and in horses Salmonella Typhimurium (17 %) and S. Kentucky (16 %). Resistance of all typed Salmonella strains (n = 1052) was most often seen to tetracycline (23 %), streptomycin (22 %), nalidixic acid (18 %), and ampicillin (15 %). These data show trends in the epidemiology of Salmonella in different animal species which can be used as a base for future prevention, control, and therapy strategies.

  12. Whole genome sequencing analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples collected from the Southern coastal area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Yang, Xingfen; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Qiuxia; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui

    2018-02-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden is the most common non-typhoid Salmonella found in South and Southeast Asia. It causes zoonoses worldwide through the consumption of contaminated foods and seafood, and is considered as an important food-borne pathogen in China, especially in the Southern coastal area. We compared the whole genomes of 44 S. Weltevreden strains isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples from Southern Coastal China, in order to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and establish their genetic relatedness to known international strains. ResFinder analysis of the draft genomes of isolated strains detected antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in only eight isolates, equivalent to minimum inhibitory concentration assay, and only a few isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin or ampicillin. In silico MLST analysis revealed that 43 out of 44 S. Weltevreden strains belonged to sequence type 365 (CC205), the most common sequence type of the serovars. Phylogenetic analysis of the 44 domestic and 26 international isolates suggested that the population of S. Weltevreden could be segregated into six phylogenetic clusters. Cluster I included two strains from food and strains of the "Island Cluster", indicating potential inter-transmission between different countries and regions through foods. The predominant S. Weltevreden isolates obtained from the samples from Southern coastal China were found to be phylogenetically related to strains from Southern East Asia, and formed clusters II-VI. The study has demonstrated that WGS-based analysis may be used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of this bacterium as part of a food-borne disease surveillance program. The methods used are also more widely applicable to other geographical regions and areas and could therefore be useful for improving our understanding of the international spread of S. Weltevreden on a global scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  13. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  14. Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, D.R.; Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Tishyadhigama, P.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To study the occurrence and diversity of Salmonella serovars in urban water supply systems of Nepal. Methods and Results: Occurrence of Salmonella was detected in 42 out of 300 water samples by enrichment culture technique in selenite F broth followed by plating on Salmonella Shigella agar...... isolates of Salm. Enteritidis indicated the presence of one of the ESBL genes, blaSHV, whereas the genes blaTEM and blaCTX were absent. Conclusions: The microbiological quality of the urban water supply is poor and indicates possibility of fatal outbreaks of enteric fever and related infections in Nepal....... Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study will be useful in water borne disease control and prevention strategy formulation in Nepal and in the global context....

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...... in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S....... Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava, strain PigK151

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Leptospira contains pathogens serologically classified into over 250 serovars, intermediate pathogens and saprophytes with genetic classification into 21 different species. Worldwide, leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses. L. interrogans serovar Bratislava has been isolated ...

  17. Complete genome sequence of Leptospira alstonii serovar room 22, strain GWTS#1

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the complete genome sequence of Leptospira alstonii serovar room 22 strain GWTS#1. This is the first isolate of L. alstonii to be cultured from a mammal, in Western Europe, and represents a new serovar of pathogenic leptospires....

  18. Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporinase-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Isolates from Patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichote, P.; Hasman, Henrik; Pulsrikarn, C.

    2010-01-01

    isolates were recovered from 21 Thai patients during 2003, 2007, or 2008 and one isolate was recovered from a Danish traveler to Thailand. ESC production was confirmed in 13 out of the 24 isolates by MIC testing. Microarray and plasmid profiling (replicon typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism...... on susceptibility patterns, the ESC-producing isolates were more closely related than non-ESC-producing isolates. Microarray, PCR, plasmid profiling, and replicon typing revealed that the 13 ESC-producing isolates harbored either bla(CMY-2) containing incA/C or bla(CTX-M-14) containing incFIIA, inc......FrepB, and an unknown replicon located on plasmids ranging in size from 75 to 200 kb. The RFLP and replicon typing clustered the isolates into four distinct groups. PFGE revealed 16 unique patterns and five clusters; each cluster contained two or three of the 24 isolates. The isolate from the Danish patient...

  19. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients a...

  20. Anabaptist Spirituality and the Heidelberg Catechism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, Hendrik; Huijgen, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Although the Anabaptists are not explicitly mentioned in the Heidelberg Catechism, it is generally acknowledged that the catechism influenced by the debates with the so-called radical reformation. This paper assesses Zacharias Ursinus’ Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism and the report of the

  1. Genome Sequences of Three Highly Copper-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. I Serovar Typhimurium Strains Isolated from Pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yanan; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is the causative agent of typhoid fever, which causes nearly 21.7 million illnesses and 217,000 deaths around the world each year. Here, we describe the draft genome sequences of the Salmonella typhimurium strains S7, S15, and S23, isolated from copper-fed pigs in Denmark...

  2. Analysis of the clonal relationship among clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis by different typing methods Análisis de la relación clonal entre aislamientos clínicos de Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis mediante diferentes métodos de tipificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Merino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Infantis has been the second most common serovar in Argentina in the last two years, being isolated mostly from paediatric hospitalised patients. In order to determine the clonal relationship among Salmonella Infantis strains, we examined 15 isolates from paediatric patient faeces in Argentina (12 geographically related and 3 geographically non-related by using antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiling, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC PCR, and low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Four Spanish strains were included as controls of clonal diversity in molecular techniques. Antibiotype and plasmid profile was not useful as epidemiological tools. PFGE and REP-PCR were able to discriminate between Argentinean and Spanish isolates of Salmonella Infantis allowing to detect genetically related strains in three different cities. This finding indicates that a possible spread of a clone of this serovar in the North-eastern Region of Argentina has taken place in 1998.Salmonella Infantis ha sido el segundo serovar más común en la Argentina en los últimos dos años, siendo aislada principalmente, a partir de pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados. La relación clonal entre 15 aislamientos de Salmonella Infantis obtenidos de heces de pacientes pediátricos en Argentina se estudió mediante la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, el perfil plasmídico, amplificación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de las secuencias repetitivas REP y ERIC, y electroforesis de ADN total en campo pulsátil (PFGE. Cuatro cepas españolas fueron incluidas como control de diversidad clonal. El antibiotipo y el perfil plasmídico no fueron herramientas útiles en la tipificación. PFGE y REP-PCR fueron capaces de discriminar entre las cepas argentinas y españolas de Salmonella Infantis, permitiendo detectar cepas gen

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella serovars from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-21

    Jan 21, 2014 ... Presumptive Salmonella isolates were determined by using the conventional ... Salmonella represents a major contaminant of vegetables consumed in Maiduguri, North-eastern ... serovars in vegetables in Nigeria do not exist.

  4. Anabaptist Spirituality and the Heidelberg Catechism

    OpenAIRE

    van den Belt, Hendrik; Huijgen, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Although the Anabaptists are not explicitly mentioned in the Heidelberg Catechism, it is generally acknowledged that the catechism influenced by the debates with the so-called radical reformation. This paper assesses Zacharias Ursinus’ Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism and the report of the 1571 Frankenthal disputation in order to get a clearer picture of this influence. It concludes that the implicit polemics against the Anabaptists regard the relationship between the Old and the New Te...

  5. A Unique Capsule Locus in the Newly Designated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serovar 16 and Development of a Diagnostic PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N; Fodor, László; Langford, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar-designated serovar 16-of A. pleuropneumoniae . Copyright © 2017 Bossé et al.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF BENZOPHENANTHRIDINE AND PROTOPINE ALKALOIDS IN BROILER CHALLENGED AND NOT BY SALMONELLA HEIDELBERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PFG Previato do Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonellosis is a globally important zoonosis, and Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the most prevalent serovars in poultry production worldwide, as well as in food poisoning cases. Antimicrobial drugs were previously widely used to face health challenges in animal production; however, since their ban as performance enhancers, many alternative strategies have been proposed. One of these strategies is the use of plant extracts, such as those containing the alkaloids benzophenanthridine and protopine. These compounds have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and nutritional effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the supply of a product containing benzophenanthridine and protopine (Sangrovit(rWS 100 g/1000 L of drinking water to broilers during different rearing periods 1-21, 1-6 and 6-21 days of age challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg at six days of age. There was no effect of the product on the performance, jejunal morphometry, cecal goblet cell counts, or control of Salmonella spp. in broilers challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg. However, the group receiving the alkaloids from 1 to 21 days of age, compared with the control group, presented a numerical difference of 28 points in productive efficiency index, which directly impacts live production cost of live broiler, representing savings of R$ 0.11/kg of meat produced.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.L.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Xie, Z.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug...

  8. William James and the Heidelberg fiasco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2018-02-01

    Urged on by his father to become a physician instead of a painter, William James pursued 3 evasion stratagems. First, to avoid becoming a practitioner, he declared that he wanted to specialize in physiology. Based upon this premise, he left for Germany in the spring of 1867. The second step was giving up general physiology and announcing that he would specialize in the nervous system and psychology. Based upon this premise, he declared that he would go to Heidelberg and study with Helmholtz and Wundt. However, he then deferred going there. When, at last, he was urged by an influential friend of his father's to accompany him to Heidelberg, he employed his default stratagem: He simply fled. He returned home after 3 terms in Europe without enrolling at a single university. There is no evidence that he had learned anything there about psychology or experimental psychology, except, possibly, by reading books. James's "Heidelberg fiasco" was the apogee of his evasion of his father's directive. A dense fog of misinformation surrounds his stay in Heidelberg to this day. By analyzing circumstances and context, this article examines the fiasco and places it in the pattern of his behavior during his stay in Europe. Nevertheless, experiencing this fiasco potentially shaped James's ambivalent attitude toward experimental psychology on a long-term basis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. the heidelberg catechism: a hidden creedal text and catechetical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    until 2002 the Heidelberg Catechism had never been translated into one of the vernacular ... acknowledge the Heidelberg Catechism as one of the confessions of faith ... Also informing us about the reception of the Heidelberg Catechism in. Malawi is ... Murray divided its content into three parts: sin and misery, salvation and.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase CTX-M-65-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis Isolates from Humans, Food Animals, and Retail Chickens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P.; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Chen, Jessica; Hoffmann, Maria; Li, Cong; Morales, Cesar; Tyson, Gregory H.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Brown, Allison C.; Green, Alice; Wilson, Wanda; Dessai, Uday; Abbott, Jason; Joseph, Lavin; Haro, Jovita; Ayers, Sherry; McDermott, Patrick F.; Zhao, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the genomes of 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates containing blaCTX-M-65 obtained from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes [aph(4)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, aph(3′)-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1] located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid (∼316 to 323 kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolate from a patient in Italy. High-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis revealed that all U.S. isolates were closely related, separated by only 1 to 38 pairwise high-quality SNPs, indicating a high likelihood that strains from humans, chickens, and cattle recently evolved from a common ancestor. The U.S. isolates were genetically similar to the blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolate from Italy, with a separation of 34 to 47 SNPs. This is the first report of the blaCTX-M-65 gene and the pESI (plasmid for emerging S. Infantis)-like megaplasmid from S. Infantis in the United States, and it illustrates the importance of applying a global One Health human and animal perspective to combat antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28483962

  12. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  13. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  14. Salmonella Pathogenicity and Host Adaptation in Chicken-Associated Serovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Ricke, Steven C.; Nayak, Rajesh; Danzeisen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica cause significant morbidity and mortality. S. enterica serovars are a diverse group of pathogens that have evolved to survive in a wide range of environments and across multiple hosts. S. enterica serovars such as S. Typhi, S. Dublin, and S. Gallinarum have a restricted host range, in which they are typically associated with one or a few host species, while S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium have broad host ranges. This review examines how S. enterica has evolved through adaptation to different host environments, especially as related to the chicken host, and continues to be an important human pathogen. Several factors impact host range, and these include the acquisition of genes via horizontal gene transfer with plasmids, transposons, and phages, which can potentially expand host range, and the loss of genes or their function, which would reduce the range of hosts that the organism can infect. S. Gallinarum, with a limited host range, has a large number of pseudogenes in its genome compared to broader-host-range serovars. S. enterica serovars such as S. Kentucky and S. Heidelberg also often have plasmids that may help them colonize poultry more efficiently. The ability to colonize different hosts also involves interactions with the host's immune system and commensal organisms that are present. Thus, the factors that impact the ability of Salmonella to colonize a particular host species, such as chickens, are complex and multifactorial, involving the host, the pathogen, and extrinsic pressures. It is the interplay of these factors which leads to the differences in host ranges that we observe today. PMID:24296573

  15. Determination of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae as the persistent Leptospira serovars circulating in the urban rat populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sim, Shin Zhu; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Galloway, Renee L; Souris, Marc; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including Malaysia. Over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the Leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate Leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Rat trappings were carried out between October 2011 to February 2014 in five urban cities which were chosen as study sites to represent different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and PCR were carried out to identify the Leptospiral serogroup and determine the pathogenic status of the isolates, respectively while pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR were used to characterize the isolates. Three rat species were identified from the three hundred and fifty seven rats captured with Rattus rattus, being the dominant rat species (285, 80 %) followed by Rattus norgevicus (53, 15 %) and Rattus exulans (19, 5 %). Only 39 samples (11.0 %) were positive by culture and further confirmed as pathogenic Leptospira by PCR. Significant associations were shown between host infection with locality, season, host-age and species. Based on MAT, two serogroups were identified in the population namely; L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica (n = 16) and L. interrogans serogroup Bataviae (n = 23). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) distinguished the two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (41 %), and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (59 %). RAPD-PCR yielded 14 distinct patterns and was found to be more discriminative than PFGE. This study confirms two Leptospira serovars circulating among the urban rats population in Peninsular

  16. Influence of Environmental Factors and Human Activity on the Presence of Salmonella Serovars in a Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; de Novoa, Jacobo; Perez-Piñeiro, Pelayo; Peiteado, Jesus; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of Salmonella contamination in the coastal waters of Galicia (northwestern Spain) relative to contamination events with different environmental factors (temperature, wind, hours of sunlight, rainfall, and river flow) were investigated over a 4-year period. Salmonellae were isolated from 127 of 5,384 samples of molluscs and seawater (2.4%), and no significant differences (P < 0.05) between isolates obtained in different years were observed. The incidence of salmonellae was significantly higher in water column samples (2.9%) than in those taken from the marine benthos (0.7%). Of the 127 strains of Salmonella isolated, 20 different serovars were identified. Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg was the predominant serovar, being represented by 54 isolates (42.5%), followed by serovar Typhimurium (19 isolates [15%]) and serovar Agona (12 isolates [9.4%]). Serovar Senftenberg was detected at specific points on the coast and could not be related to any of the environmental parameters analyzed. All serovars except Salmonella serovar Senftenberg were found principally in the southern coastal areas close to the mouths of rivers, and their incidence was associated with high southwestern wind and rainfall. Using multiple logistic regression analysis models, the prevalence of salmonellae was best explained by environmental parameters on the day prior to sampling. Understanding this relationship may be useful for the control of molluscan shellfish harvests, with wind and rainfall serving as triggers for closure. PMID:15066800

  17. Memory culture in the making: the Heidelberg Catechism in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the Heidelberg Catechism in the memory of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) between 1862 and 1937, with specific focus on the events of 1862. By making the Heidelberg Catechism the point of focus the article's contribution is not by way of answering the “what happened”-questions related to the ...

  18. Prevalência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de sorovares de Salmonella isolados de lingüiças suínas tipo frescal em Lages, SC Prevalence and profile of resistance to antimicrobials of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw pork sausage in Lages, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Spricigo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and profile of resistance to antimicrobials of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw pork sausage were studied in Lages county, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 125 samples of 12 trademarks were collected in different commercial establishments. Salmonella sp. was present in 12.8% (16/125 of the samples and Typhimurium serovar was the most prevalent. Fourteen different antimicrobials were tested and most of the samples showed resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline (81.2%. Eight positive samples (50% were resistant at least to four antimicrobials, being considered as multi-resistant Salmonella. Seven (58.3% trademarks were disagreement with the Brazilian law, representing a risk to the public health. The high level of resistance to the antimicrobials should produce a concern by the pig industry and veterinarians in order to prevent the transmission of resistant strains through the food chain.

  19. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in asia and molecular mechanism of reduced susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Campbell, James Ian; Galindo, Claudia M.; van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Nga, Tran Thu Thi; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Tuan, Phung Quoc; Page, Anne Laure; Ochiai, R. Leon; Schultsz, Constance; Wain, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Parry, Christopher M.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Dutta, Shanta; Agtini, Magdarina; Dong, Baiqing; Honghui, Yang; Anh, Dang Duc; Canh, Do Gia; Naheed, Aliya; Albert, M. John; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Basnyat, Buddha; Arjyal, Amit; La, Tran Thi Phi; Rang, Nguyen Ngoc; Phuong, Le Thi; van Be Bay, Phan; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dougan, Gordon; Clemens, John D.; Vinh, Ha; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Acosta, Camilo J.; Farrar, Jeremy; Dolecek, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar

  20. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The discrimination of d-tartrate positive and d-tartrate negative S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B isolated in Malaysia by phenotypic and genotypic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norazah; Hoon, Shirley Tang Gee; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Tee, Koh Yin

    2012-06-01

    Serotyping is not sufficient to differentiate between Salmonella species that cause paratyphoid fever from the strains that cause milder gastroenteritis as these organisms share the same serotype Salmonella Paratyphi B (S. Paratyphi B). Strains causing paratyphoid fever do not ferment d-tartrate and this key feature was used in this study to determine the prevalence of these strains among the collection of S. Paratyphi B strains isolated from patients in Malaysia. A total of 105 isolates of S. Paratyphi B were discriminated into d-tartrate positive (dT+) and d-tartrate negative (dT) variants by two lead acetate test protocols and multiplex PCR. The lead acetate test protocol 1 differed from protocol 2 by a lower inoculum size and different incubation conditions while the multiplex PCR utilized 2 sets of primers targeting the ATG start codon of the gene STM3356. Lead acetate protocol 1 discriminated 97.1% of the isolates as S. Paratyphi B dT+ and 2.9% as dT while test protocol 2 discriminated all the isolates as S. Paratyphi B dT+. The multiplex PCR test identified all 105 isolates as S. Paratyphi B dT+ strains. The concordance of the lead acetate test relative to that of multiplex PCR was 97.7% and 100% for protocol 1 and 2 respectively. This study showed that S. Paratyphi B dT+ is a common causative agent of gastroenteritis in Malaysia while paratyphoid fever appears to be relatively uncommon. Multiplex PCR was shown to be a simpler, more rapid and reliable method to discriminate S. Paratyphi B than the phenotypic lead acetate test.

  2. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms......% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates. Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens...

  4. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from chickens in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2% possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310, with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039. The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.

  5. remembering the heidelberg catechism in south africa today?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deserves to be known and studied. ... In an essay for the recent anniversary publication Power of. Faith: 450 years of the Heidelberg Catechism, Herman Selderhuis refers to Anna Maria van Schurman, the first woman to attend lectures at the.

  6. Acquired homotypic and heterotypic immunity against oculogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars following female genital tract infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña A Salvador

    2005-11-01

    could in part explain the stable difference in serovar prevalence among human isolates.

  7. High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) for the characterisation of pathogenic leptospires: intra-serovar divergence, inter-serovar convergence, and evidence of attenuation in Leptospira reference collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsiani, S M; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Cobbold, R C; Dohnt, M F; Burns, M-A; Jansen, C C; Leung, L K-P; Field, H E; Smythe, L D

    2010-07-01

    High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) is a novel technology that has emerged as a possible method to characterise leptospires to serovar level. RAPD-HRM has recently been used to measure intra-serovar convergence between strains of the same serovar as well as inter-serovar divergence between strains of different serovars. The results indicate that intra-serovar heterogeneity and inter-serovar homogeneity may limit the application of RAPD-HRM in routine diagnostics. They also indicate that genetic attenuation of aged, high-passage-number isolates could undermine the use of RAPD-HRM or any other molecular technology. Such genetic attenuation may account for a general decrease seen in titres of rabbit hyperimmune antibodies over time. Before RAPD-HRM can be further advanced as a routine diagnostic tool, strains more representative of the wild-type serovars of a given region need to be identified. Further, RAPD-HRM analysis of reference strains indicates that the routine renewal of reference collections, with new isolates, may be needed to maintain the genetic integrity of the collections.

  8. Genomic Dissection of Travel-Associated Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Originating from the Philippines: a One-Off Occurrence or a Threat to Effective Treatment of Typhoid Fever?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Mikoleit, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One unreported case of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was identified, whole-genome sequence typed, among other analyses, and compared to other available genomes of S. Typhi. The reported strain was similar to a previously published strain harbo...

  9. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Vieira, Antonio R; Karlsmose, Susanne; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Jensen, Arne B; Wegener, Henrik C; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance

  10. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  11. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Shi, Xiaolu; Li, Yinghui; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Ho, Y. S.; Naeem, Raeece; Pickard, Derek; Klena, John D.; Xu, Xuebing; Pain, Arnab; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public

  12. A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Deep drillings in the Heidelberg Basins provide access to one of the thickest and most complete successions of Quaternary and Upper Pliocene continental sediments in Central-Europe [1]. In absence of any comprehensive chronostratigraphic model, these sediments are so far classified by lithological and hydrogeological criteria. Therefore the age of this sequence is still controversially discussed ([1], [2]). In spite of the fact that fluvial sediments are a fundamental challenge for the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy we performed a thorough study on four drilling cores (from Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen and nearby Viernheim). Here, we present the results from the analyses of these cores, which yield to a consistent chronostratigraphic framework. The components of natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) were separated by alternating field and thermal demagnetisation techniques and the characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) were isolated by principle component analysis [3]. Due to the coring technique solely inclination data of the ChRM is used for the determination of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Rock magnetic proxies were applied to identify the carriers of the remanent magnetisation. The investigations prove the NRM as a stable, largely primary magnetisation acquired shortly after deposition (PDRM). The Matuyama-Gauss boundary is clearly defined by a polarity change in each core, as suggested in previous work [4]. These findings are in good agreement with the biostratigraphic definition of the base of the Quaternary ([5], [6], [7]). The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary could be identified in core Heidelberg UniNord 1 and 2 only. Consequently, the position of the Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron can be inferred from the lithostratigraphy and the development of fluvial facies architecture in the Rhine system. The continuation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy into the Gilbert chron (Upper Pliocene) allows alternative correlation schemes for the cores

  13. Proteome analysis of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum of Salmonella enterica subspecies I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Shajna

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes several closely related serovars which differ in host ranges and ability to cause disease. The basis for the diversity in host range and pathogenic potential of the serovars is not well understood, and it is not known how host-restricted variants appeared and what factors were lost or acquired during adaptations to a specific environment. Differences apparent from the genomic data do not necessarily correspond to functional proteins and more importantly differential regulation of otherwise identical gene content may play a role in the diverse phenotypes of the serovars of Salmonella. Results In this study a comparative analysis of the cytosolic proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the proteins of interest were identified using mass spectrometry. An annotated reference map was created for serovar Typhimurium containing 233 entries, which included many metabolic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, chaperones and many other proteins characteristic for the growing cell. The comparative analysis of the two serovars revealed a high degree of variation amongst isolates obtained from different sources and, in some cases, the variation was greater between isolates of the same serovar than between isolates with different sero-specificity. However, several serovar-specific proteins, including intermediates in sulphate utilisation and cysteine synthesis, were also found despite the fact that the genes encoding those proteins are present in the genomes of both serovars. Conclusion Current microbial proteomics are generally based on the use of a single reference or type strain of a species. This study has shown the importance of incorporating a large number of strains of a species, as the diversity of the proteome in the microbial population appears to be significantly greater than expected. The characterisation of a diverse selection of

  14. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tabata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  15. are humans by birth as wicked as the heidelberg catechism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Catechism's view that (after alienation from God in the Fall) all human individuals ... capacities of empathy and altruism already in young children of different cultures as ... characterized by the natural right to self-preservation, which in itself ... and stabilizing the institutions of family, church and state in the Heidelberg.

  16. Die Britse owerheid en die onderwys op Heidelberg gedurende die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of Christian National Education (CNE) Schools stimulated the concept of mother tongue education. Oor die klaskamerpraktyk en die werklike gehalte van onderrig tydens die kampskooltydperk is daar min bekend. Heidelberg wat na 1902 in 'n belangrike onderwyssentrum in Transvaal ontwikkel het, het ...

  17. Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisation of the old indoor swimming pool Heidelberg; Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisierung des alten Hallenbads Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Since its closure before nearly 30 years due to safety aspects, the monument protected indoor swimming pool in Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany) dilapidated appreciably. Only after moving away of the local council from its demand of the wet use, an investor could be found.

  18. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Asia and Molecular Mechanism of Reduced Susceptibility to the Fluoroquinolones▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Campbell, James Ian; Galindo, Claudia M.; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Nga, Tran Thu Thi; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Tuan, Phung Quoc; Page, Anne Laure; Ochiai, R. Leon; Schultsz, Constance; Wain, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Parry, Christopher M.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar Typhi strains collected in southern Vietnam, the proportion of multidrug resistance has remained high since 1993 (50% in 2004) and there was a dramatic increase in nalidixic acid resistance between ...

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  20. Pseudogene accumulation in the evolutionary histories of Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi A and Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Brian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A and Typhi has been attributed to convergent evolution via relatively recent recombination of a quarter of their genomes. The accumulation of pseudogenes is a key feature of these and other host-adapted pathogens, and overlapping pseudogene complements are evident in Paratyphi A and Typhi. Results We report the 4.5 Mbp genome of a clinical isolate of Paratyphi A, strain AKU_12601, completely sequenced using capillary techniques and subsequently checked using Illumina/Solexa resequencing. Comparison with the published genome of Paratyphi A ATCC9150 revealed the two are collinear and highly similar, with 188 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 39 insertions/deletions. A comparative analysis of pseudogene complements of these and two finished Typhi genomes (CT18, Ty2 identified several pseudogenes that had been overlooked in prior genome annotations of one or both serovars, and identified 66 pseudogenes shared between serovars. By determining whether each shared and serovar-specific pseudogene had been recombined between Paratyphi A and Typhi, we found evidence that most pseudogenes have accumulated after the recombination between serovars. We also divided pseudogenes into relative-time groups: ancestral pseudogenes inherited from a common ancestor, pseudogenes recombined between serovars which likely arose between initial divergence and later recombination, serovar-specific pseudogenes arising after recombination but prior to the last evolutionary bottlenecks in each population, and more recent strain-specific pseudogenes. Conclusion Recombination and pseudogene-formation have been

  1. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph for the Detection of Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT is a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope which acquires and analyzes 3-dimensional images of the optic nerve head. The latest instrument HRT3 includes software with larger ethinic-specific normative database. This review summarizes relevant published literature on HRT in diagnosing glaucoma, detecting glaucoma progression, the diagnostic accuracy of HRT among other imaging devices and its role in clinical practice.

  2. An induction accelerator for the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellert, C.; Habs, D.; Music, M.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Jaeschke, E.; Kambara, T.; Sigray, P.

    1992-01-01

    An induction accelerator has been installed in the heavy ion test storage ring TSR in Heidelberg. It allows for constant acceleration or deceleration of stored coasting ion beams without affecting their velocity profile and is well suited for ion beam manipulation in cooling experiments and for measurements of velocity dependent cooling forces. The design and operation of the device and first applications to laser cooling and to measurements of laser and electron cooling forces are described. (orig.)

  3. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg. Research report 1997/1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center) publishes alternating every year the 'Research Report' and the 'Wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisbericht' (in German). Both volumes are reports on the present state of research activities of the DKFZ as a National Research Center to the funding federal and state authorities (Federal Republic of Germany, Land (state) Baden-Wuerttemberg). Furthermore they shall inform colleagues and the scientifically interested public. Both reports are structured according to the center's eight research programs. (orig.) [de

  4. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg. Report on scientific results 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center) publishes alternating every year the ''Wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisbericht'' (in German) and the ''Research Report'' (in English). Both volumes are reports on the present state of research activities of the DKFZ as a National Research Center to the funding federal and state authorities [Federal Republic of Germany, Land (state) Baden-Wuerttemberg]. The report is structured according to the center's six research programs

  5. Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta

    2012-12-01

    Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.

  6. A refuge for inorganic chemistry: Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after its opening in 1855, Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory became iconic as the most modern and best equipped laboratory in Europe. Although comparatively modest in size, the laboratory's progressive equipment made it a role model for new construction projects in Germany and beyond. In retrospect, it represents an intermediate stage of development between early teaching facilities, such as Liebig's laboratory in Giessen, and the new 'chemistry palaces' that came into existence with Wöhler's Göttingen laboratory of 1860. As a 'transition laboratory,' Bunsen's Heidelberg edifice is of particular historical interest. This paper explores the allocation of spaces to specific procedures and audiences within the laboratory, and the hierarchies and professional rites of passage embedded within it. On this basis, it argues that the laboratory in Heidelberg was tailored to Bunsen's needs in inorganic and physical chemistry and never aimed at a broad-scale representation of chemistry as a whole. On the contrary, it is an example of early specialisation within a chemical laboratory preceding the process of differentiation into chemical sub-disciplines. Finally, it is shown that the relatively small size of this laboratory, and the fact that after ca. 1860 no significant changes were made within the building, are inseparably connected to Bunsen's views on chemistry teaching.

  7. New Leptospira serovar Sokoine of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from cattle in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgode, G. F.; Machang'u, R. S.; Goris, M. G.; Engelbert, M.; Sondij, S.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of leptospirosis is generally high in domestic animals and rodents in Tanzania. Identification of Leptospira isolates from cattle was carried out to establish prevalent Leptospira serovars. Serological typing was done based on monoclonal antibodies and the standard cross-agglutination

  8. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Alexander, Sarah; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E

    2016-11-03

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939. © Crown copyright 2016.

  9. Changing trends in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Padma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chloramphenicol was considered the anti-microbial gold standard for typhoid treatment but, following the increasing worldwide frequency of antibiotic resistance, ciprofloxacin has been the mainstay of therapy since 1980. Recent studies have shown a shifting of susceptibility to conventional drugs like chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of chloramphenicol and other first-line drugs in comparison with cephalosporins and quinolones. Materials and Methods: Fifty isolates of Salmonella obtained from blood culture were subjected to serotyping at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Phage typing and biotyping was performed at the National Phage Typing Centre, New Delhi. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out for 10 drugs by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution for nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime and ofloxacin. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains were checked for plasmid. Results: In the present study, 70 and 30% of the isolates were Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A, respectively. They were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (86%, ampicillin (84% and cotrimoxazole (88%. Highest sensitivity was seen for cephalosporins, followed by quinolones. Seventeen/21 (81% and 100% of the Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strains belonged to E1 phage type and biotype 1, respectively. Antibiogram showed 2% of the strains to be sensitive to all the drugs tested and 12% were MDR and showed the presence of plasmids. Conclusion: The study indicates reemergence of chloramphenicol-susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A isolates, a significant decline in MDR strains and high resistance to nalidixic acid. E1 phage type and biotype 1 are found to be most prevalent in Chennai, India.

  10. Genome-wide methylation patterns in Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica Serovars.

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    Cary Pirone-Davies

    Full Text Available The methylation of DNA bases plays an important role in numerous biological processes including development, gene expression, and DNA replication. Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, and methylation in Salmonella is implicated in virulence. Using single molecule real-time (SMRT DNA-sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of eleven Salmonella enterica isolates from nine different serovars, and analysed the whole-genome methylation patterns of each genome. We describe 16 distinct N6-methyladenine (m6A methylated motifs, one N4-methylcytosine (m4C motif, and one combined m6A-m4C motif. Eight of these motifs are novel, i.e., they have not been previously described. We also identified the methyltransferases (MTases associated with 13 of the motifs. Some motifs are conserved across all Salmonella serovars tested, while others were found only in a subset of serovars. Eight of the nine serovars contained a unique methylated motif that was not found in any other serovar (most of these motifs were part of Type I restriction modification systems, indicating the high diversity of methylation patterns present in Salmonella.

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Avians Using Multiplex-PCR

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    Alireza Talebi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S.enterica serovar Enteritidis are the most frequently isolated serovars from food-borne diseases throughout the world. According to their antigenic profiles, salmonella shows different disease syndromes and host specificities. It is necessary and important to discriminate salmonella serovars from each other in order to ensure that each pathogen and its epidemiology are correctly recognized. Many PCR-based methods have been developed to identify salmonella serovars. The objective of present study was to identify S. Typhimurium in avians from different regions including: North, Northwest and capital city (Tehran of Iran. Also in this research, the quality of CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium (CAS medium in veterinary medicine was evaluated. The results of present study showed that out of 1870 intestine samples, fifty two S. Typhimurium including broiler (n=13, layer (n=12, duck (n=5, goose (n=5, sparrow (n=8, canary (n=3, pigeon (n=5 and African grey parrot (n=1 were identified using serotyping as well as multiplex-PCR. In conclusion, important measures must be taken on prevention and propagation of S. Typhimurium among avians. CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium has high levels of sensitivity and specificity and reduced the time to final identification of salmonella spp. in comparison with biochemical tests.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

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    Luisa Z Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101 that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  13. Efficacy of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR in Typing of Salmonella Isolates from Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Purnima; Borah, Probodh; Hussain, Iftikar; Das, Leena; Hazarika, Girin; Tamuly, Shantanu; Barkalita, Luit Moni

    2018-05-01

    A total of 12 Salmonella isolates belonging to different serovars, viz , Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ( n = 4), Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden ( n = 4), Salmonella enterica serovar Newport ( n = 1), Salmonella enterica serovar Litchifield ( n = 1), and untypeable strains ( n = 2) were isolated from 332 diarrheic fecal samples collected from animals, birds, and humans. Of the two molecular typing methods applied, viz , repetitive element sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PFGE could clearly differentiate the strains belonging to different serovars as well as differentiate between strains of the same serovar with respect to their source of isolation, whereas REP-PCR could not differentiate between strains of the same serovar. Thus, it can be suggested that PFGE is more useful and appropriate for molecular typing of Salmonella isolates during epidemiological investigations than REP-PCR. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Evidência do cão como reservatório da leptospirose humana: isolamento de um sorovar, caracterização molecular e utilização em inquérito sorológico Evidence of dog as a reservoir for human leptospirosis: a serovar isolation, molecular characterization and its use in a serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiomar Soares Brod

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose canina é conhecida como enfermidade de Stuttgard desde 1898, sendo os cães, depois dos roedores, considerados como a segunda principal fonte de infecção para o homem. O isolamento de um sorovar patogênico da urina de um cão, laboratorial e clinicamente identificado como tendo leptospirose, e sua utilização para testar amostras de soro de casos de leptospirose humana e canina, evidenciou a sua importância no ecossistema da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados do teste de soroaglutinação microscópica indicaram que 100% das amostras de soro humano de 12 pacientes do banco de soro de 2001 do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, que haviam reagido com títulos que variaram de 25 a 3.200 para o sorovar canicola, e 72% das amostras de 105 soros caninos do mesmo banco de soro, também reagiram contra o novo isolado. O título médio e mediana dos soros humanos testados com a bateria de antígenos recomendada pela OMS, foi respectivamente 630 e 100, ao passo que os testados com o isolado foi de 1.823 e 400. Nos soros caninos, os títulos foram respectivamente de 347 e 100 para a bateria e de 1.088 e 200 para o isolado.Canine leptospirosis has been known as Stuttgart disease since 1898, and dogs are considered to be the second principal source of infection in man. The isolation of a pathogenic serovar from dog urine that was diagnosed clinically and laboratorial as having leptospirosis and its utilization to test serological samples of human and canine cases of leptospirosis, has demonstrated its importance to the ecosystem of the southern region of Brazil. The results of the serological microscopic agglutination test indicated that 100% of human serum samples from 12 patients from the serum bank of 2001 at the Center for Control of Zoonoses, that had titers between 25 and 3,200 with the canicola serovar, and 72% of 105 canine serum samples from the same serum bank, also reacted with the new isolate. The mean and median titers of the

  15. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    -locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008-2012 (50 veterinary/food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using......). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found...

  16. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  17. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg. Report on scientific results 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center) publishes alternating every year the ''Wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisbericht'' (in German) and the ''Research Report'' (in English). Both volumes are reports on the present state of research activities of the DKFZ as a National Research Center to the funding federal and state authorities [Federal Republic of Germany, Land (state) Baden-Wuerttemberg]. Furthermore they shall inform colleagues and the scientifically interested public. Both reports are structured according to the center's eight research programs. The last Research Report was published in 2001. In Germany a new orthography has been accepted. Some authors used the new form others the traditional one. The orthography was not standardized. (orig.)

  18. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  19. Serovariedades de Salmonella enterica subespecie enterica en porcinos de faena y su resistencia a los antimicrobianos Serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and its antimicrobial resistance in slaughterhouse pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ibar

    2009-09-01

    possible reservoir of resistance. From a total of 386 samples from four porcine slaughterhouses of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Provinces (Argentina, 93 (24,1% Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains were identified, 52 (55,9% from cecal contents and 41 (44,1% from ileocecal lymph nodes. Thirteen serovars of S. enterica were found, the most prevalent were: S. Schwarzengrund, S. Heidelberg, S. subspecie I 6,8:e,h:-, S. Derby and S. Bredeney. Fifteen antimicrobials by the agar dilution method were tested: amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cephalotin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, polimixin-B, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and nalidixic acid. According to the CIM determination, 73% Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains were sensible to all the antimicrobials tested. Antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline in 24 (25,8% of 93 strains, to chloramphenicol in 22 (23,7%, to streptomycin in 22 (23,7%, to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 20 (21,5%, to ampicillin in 18 (19,4%, to nitrofurantoin in 3 (3,2% and to nalidixic acid in 3 (3,2%. Some isolates of S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, S. Derby, S. Orion showed multidrug resistance and carried the class 1 integrase gene. The highest percentage of resistance corresponded to the antimicrobials currently used in veterinary and porcine farms.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  1. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H; Aarestrup, Frank M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20). Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored bla(CTX-M-63) and one bla(CMY-2). PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and Gallinarum from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Parvej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for animal and human diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and stereotyping of Salmonella isolates isolated from apparently healthy poultry. Furthermore, the clonal relatedness among the isolated Salmonella serovars was assessed. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swab samples from apparently healthy chickens were collected, and were subjected for the isolation and identification of associated Salmonella organisms. The isolated colonies were identified and characterized on the basis of morphology, cultural characters, biochemical tests, slide agglutination test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were also investigated using commonly used antibiotics. Results: Of the 150 samples, 11 (7.33% produced characteristics pink colony with black center on XLD agar medium, and all were culturally and biochemically confirmed to be Salmonella. All possessed serovar-specific gene SpeF and reacted uniformly with group D antisera, suggesting that all of the isolates were Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum, biovar Pullorum and/or Gallinarum. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 54.54% of the isolated Salmonella Enterica serovars were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas the 81.81% isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, doxycycline, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the XbaI-digested genomic DNA exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting that the multidrug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovars occurring in commercial layers are highly clonal in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of poultry Salmonella in layer chicken and to find out the clonal relationship among them. The data in this study suggest the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica, which is multidrug resistant and

  3. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-01-01

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced

  4. [The isolation and differentiation of leptospires from cattle drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyven, G; Schönberg, A

    1989-08-01

    The cultural isolation and identification of leptospires from three water samples of farm wells were described. All three strains isolated belong to the apathogenic species L. biflexa. The cattle stock of these farms (A, B, C) had reacted serologically to serovars hardjo and grippotyphosa. The strain isolated from farm A is a new serovar called krefeldi and belongs to serogroup Doberdo. The strain isolated from farm B belongs to serovar montefiascone of serogroup Botanica and the strain from farm C to serovar bessemans of serogroup Bessemans. It is remarkable that serovar krefeldi with all the sera of farm A (titre up to 1:40) and only with part of the sera of farm B reacted.

  5. Prevalência, quantificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de sorovares de Salmonella isolados de lingüiça frescal suína Prevalence, quantification, and antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from fresh pork sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Augusto Spricigo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Salmonella sp. é uma das principais causas mundiais de toxinfecção alimentar. Nos últimos anos, as preocupações têm se voltado para a carne e produtos suínos tanto no aspecto de saúde pública como na sua comercialização/exportação. O presente estudo tem como objetivos: 1 verificar a prevalência de sorovares de Salmonella sp. em lingüiças tipo frescal de matéria-prima suína comercializadas em Lages (SC, bem como o seu nível de contaminação; e 2 verificar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos destes isolados. Para tanto, foram coletadas 200 amostras de nove marcas, em diferentes estabelecimentos comerciais. Foram isoladas Salmonella sp. em 27% (54, sendo o sorovar Derby o mais encontrado. Apenas uma amostra apresentou uma concentração de microorganismos maior que 1,100 NMP.g-1, valor normalmente tido como necessário para causar infecção por Salmonella do grupo não-tifóide. Posteriormente, os 60 isolados foram submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade in vitro, frente a 14 antimicrobianos. Entre esses isolados, 56,67% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados e o perfil de multirresistência foi encontrado em 20%. A prevalência elevada de produtos positivos para Salmonella sp. pode representar um risco ao consumidor, principalmente considerando-se o alto número de isolados resistentes encontrado neste estudo.Salmonella sp. is one of the main causes of food poisoning. In the last years, the main focus has been on beef and swine products because of both public health concerns and commercialization/exportation. This study was conducted in order to: 1 verify the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in fresh pork sausages commercialized in Lages, state of Santa Catarina and analyze its level of contamination; and 2 determine the profile of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella sp. isolates. For this purpose, 200 samples of nine brands were collected from different commercial stores

  6. Expression of hilA in response to mild acid stress in Salmonella enterica is serovar and strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gil, Francisco; Le Bolloch, Alexandre; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Wallis, Audra; Hanning, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne illness with poultry and poultry products being primary sources of infection. The 2 most common S. enterica serovars associated with human infection are Typhimurium and Enteritidis. However, Kentucky and Heidelburg and the 2 most prevalent serovars isolated from poultry environments. Given the prevalence of other serovars in poultry products and environments, research is needed to understand virulence modulation in response to stress in serovars other than Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Thus, the objective of this research was to compare hilA gene expression (a master regulator of the virulence pathogenicity island) in response to acid stress among different strains and serovars of Salmonella. A total of 11 serovars consisting of 15 strains of S. enterica were utilized for these experiments. Cultures were suspended in tryptic soy broth (TSB) adjusted to pH 7.2, 6.2, or 5.5 with HCl or acetic acid. Total RNA was extracted from cultures at specific time points (0, 2, 4, and 24 h). Gene expression of hilA was measured with quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Growth and pH were measured throughout the 24 h time frame. Regulation of hilA in response to acid stress varied by serovar and strain and type of acid. The results of these experiments indicate that hilA regulation may have some impact on virulence and colonization of S. enterica. However, these results warrant further research to more fully understand the significance of hilA regulation in response to mild acid stress in S. enterica. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Serological and molecular characterization of leptospira serovar Kenya from captive African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) from Morogoro Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machang'u, R. S.; Mgode, G. F.; Assenga, J.; Mhamphi, G.; Weetjens, B.; Cox, C.; Verhagen, R.; Sondij, S.; Goris, M. G.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Two identical leptospiral isolates coded Sh9 and Sh25 obtained from the urine of captive African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus), destined for use as biodetector of antipersonnel landmines were typed as serovar Kenya using cross-agglutination absorption test and DNA fingerprinting with the

  8. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    : Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...... to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human...

  10. Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alice; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Douris, Aphrodite; Vetter, Danah; Atkinson, Richard; Kissler, Bonnie; Khroustalev, Allison; Robertson, Kis; Sharma, Yudhbir; Becker, Karen; Dessai, Uday; Antoine, Nisha; Allen, Latasha; Holt, Kristin; Gieraltowski, Laura; Wise, Matthew; Schwensohn, Colin

    2018-03-01

    On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

  11. Helical tomotherapy. Experiences of the first 150 patients in Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzing, F.; Schubert, K.; Sroka-Perez, G.; Kalz, J.; Debus, J.; Herfarth, K. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Background and purpose: helical tomotherapy was introduced into clinical routine at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany, in July 2006. This report is intended to describe the experience with the first 150 patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Patient selection, time effort, handling of daily image guidance with megavoltage (MV) CT, and quality of radiation plans shall be assessed. Patients and methods: between July 2006 and May 2007, 150 patients were treated with helical tomotherapy in the University Hospital of Heidelberg. Mean age was 60 years with a minimum of 30 years and a maximum of 85 years. 79 of these patients received radiotherapy as a part of multimodal treatment pre- or postoperatively, 17 patients received treatment as a combined radiochemotherapy. 76% were treated with curative intent. Radiotherapy sites were central nervous system (n = 7), head and neck (n = 28), thoracic (n = 37), abdominal (n = 58) and skeletal system (n = 20). Most common tumor entities were prostate cancer (n = 28), breast cancer (n = 17), gastrointestinal tumors (n = 19), pharyngeal carcinoma (n = 14), lymphoma (n = 13), metastatic disease (bone n = 14, liver n = 6, lung n = 4, lymph node n = 2), sarcoma (n = 8), malignant pleural mesothelioma (n = 5), ovarian cancer treated with whole abdominal irradiation (n = 4), lung cancer (n = 3), skin malignancies (n = 3), chordoma (n = 2), meningioma (n = 2), one ependymoma and one medulloblastoma treated with craniospinal axis irradiation (n = 2), and others (n = 4). Nine patients were treated with single-fraction radiosurgery, nine with image-guided spinal reirradiation, and twelve patients were treated at multiple targets simultaneously. A pretreatment MV-CT scan was performed in 98.2% of the 3,026 fractions applied. After matching with the kilovoltage planning CT, corrections for translations and rotation around longitudinal axis (roll) were done. Results: mean time on table was 24

  12. Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise; Goering, Richard V; Tham, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Among 504 clinical lineage II isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during 1958-2010 in Sweden, 119 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (AscI) have been identified based on the number and distribution of all banding patterns in each DNA profile. In this study, these types were further divided into PFGE groups based on the configuration of small bands with sizes kb. The 504 isolates included 483 serovar 1/2a isolates distributed into 114 PFGE types and 21 serovar 1/2c isolates distributed into 9 PFGE types; these were further divided into 21 PFGE groups. PFGE group, that is, configuration of small bands below 145.5 kb, and serovars were correlated. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, M, S, V, W, Y, and Ö-6 to Ö-12 shared serovar 1/2a, with one exception. PFGE group E also included two PFGE types sharing serovar 1/2c and four PFGE types belonging to either serovar 1/2a or 1/2c. Isolates belonging to PFGE group N shared serovar 1/2c. In contrast to lineage I isolates, small fragments kb were visible in all L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to lineage II. In the results from both the present and previous studies, the genomic region of small bands was genetically more conservative than in large bands. The distribution of these small bands established the relatedness of strains and defined a genetic marker for both lineages I and II, while also establishing their serogroup. The division of L. monocytogenes PFGE types into PFGE groups is advantageous as the profile of every new isolate can be identified easily and quickly through first studying the PFGE group affiliation of the isolate based on the smaller band patterns kb, and then identifying the PFGE type based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

  13. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  14. Anchoring interprofessional education in undergraduate curricula: The Heidelberg story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah; Goetz, Katja; Leowardi-Bauer, Christina; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-03-01

    The ability of health professionals to collaborate effectively has significant potential impact on patient safety and quality-care outcomes, especially given the increasingly complex and dynamic clinical practice environments of today. Educators of the health professions are faced with an immediate challenge to adapt curricula and traditional teaching methods to ensure graduates are equipped with the necessary interprofessional competencies and (inter)professional values for their future practice. The World Health Organization's "Framework for action in interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice" promotes IPE as a key strategy to enhance patient outcomes by preparing a "collaborative practice-ready health workforce." Logistical and attitudinal barriers can hinder integration of IPE into curricula. Lessons learned through the implementation of a planned change to establish four interprofessional seminars (team communication, medical error communication, healthcare English, and small business management) at Heidelberg University Medical Faculty, Germany, are described. A key factor in successfully anchoring IPE seminars in the undergraduate curricula was the structured approach drawing on change management concepts.

  15. The Heidelberg Appendicitis Score Predicts Perforated Appendicitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Michael; Günther, Patrick; Breil, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    In the future, surgical management of pediatric appendicitis might become limited to nonperforating appendicitis. Thus, it becomes increasingly important to differentiate advanced from simple appendicitis and to predict perforated appendicitis among a group of children with right-sided abdominal pain, which was the aim of this study. An institutionally approved, single-center retrospective analysis of all patients with appendectomy from January 2009 to December 2010 was conducted. All diagnostic aspects were evaluated to identify predictors and differentiators of perforated appendicitis. In 2 years, 157 children suffered from appendicitis. Perforation occurred in 47 (29.9%) of the patients. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels higher than 20 mg/dL ( P = .037) and free abdominal fluid on ultrasonography ( P = .031) are the most important features to differentiate perforated from simple appendicitis. Moreover, all children with perforation had a positive Heidelberg Appendicitis Score (HAS). A negative HAS excludes perforation in all cases (negative predictive value = 100%). Perforated appendicitis can be ruled out by the HAS. In a cohort with right-sided abdominal pain, perforation should be considered in children with high CRP levels and free fluids or abscess formation on ultrasound.

  16. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, A.; Hanning, I.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  17. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels.

  18. Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid and Cefotaxime Resistance in Salmonella Minnesota and Salmonella Heidelberg from Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues IBBE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the resistance of various Salmonella strains to beta-lactam antibiotics. Salmonella Minnesota (36 strains and Salmonella Heidelberg (24 strains were isolated from broiler chickens and carcasses by the Disk Diffusion Test and resistance genes blaCTX-M-8, blaACC-1 and blaCMY-2 were detected by PCR. Of the 60 strains tested, 80% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Specifically, 66.7% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 75% were resistant to cefotaxime. Among the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant strains, the blaCMY-2 gene was detected in 40%, blaACC-1 in 37.5% and blaCTX-M-8 in 7.5%. Among the cefotaxime resistant strains, we detected the genes blaCTX-M-8 in 13.3%, blaACC-1 in 33.3%, and blaCMY-2 in 31.1%. The presence of cefotaxime- and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Salmonella in poultry, and the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamases and AmpC-betalactamases in these strains are of huge concern to public health and economy.

  19. Library goes Anatomy. Anatomische Lehrmedien an der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrlein, S

    2014-01-01

    Heidelberg University Library is following new paths to optimize the librarian services for medical studies. In close cooperation with the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology at Heidelberg University the library is profoundly expanding the anatomical teaching equipment: the virtual dissecting table Anatomage enables medical students to work on life-size, anatomical models in 3D, providing the possibility to prepare for and practice their anatomy lessons. The comprehensive collection of ana...

  20. Genome and Transcriptome Adaptation Accompanying Emergence of the Definitive Type 2 Host-Restricted Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Pathovar

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsley, Robert A.; Kay, Sally; Connor, Thomas; Barquist, Lars; Sait, Leanne; Holt, Kathryn E.; Sivaraman, Karthi; Wileman, Thomas; Goulding, David; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Seshasayee, Aswin; Harris, Simon; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 2 (DT2) is host restricted to Columba livia (rock or feral pigeon) but is also closely related to S. Typhimurium isolates that circulate in livestock and cause a zoonosis characterized by gastroenteritis in humans. DT2 isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster within S. Typhimurium based on whole-genome-sequence polymorphisms. Comparative genome analysis of DT2 94-213 and S. Typhimurium SL1344, DT104, and D23580 identified few diff...

  1. Salmonella Heidelberg: Genetic profile of its antimicrobial resistance related to extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuriatti, Jéssica; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Brisola, Maiara Cristina; Crecencio, Regiane Boaretto; Bitner, Dinael Simão; Faria, Gláucia Amorim

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of antimicrobial susceptibility and the possible involvement of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the resistance profile of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) isolated from chicken meat. We used 18 SH isolates from chicken meat produced in 2013 in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The isolates were submitted to disk-diffusion tests and from these results it was possible to determine the number of isolates considered multiresistant and the index of multiple antimicrobial resistance (IRMA) against ten antimicrobials routinely used in human and veterinary medicine. It was considered multidrug resistant the isolate that showed resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. Another test performed was the disc-approximation in order to investigate interposed zones of inhibition, indicative of ESBLs production. In the isolates that presented multidrug resistance (18/18), a search of resistance genes involved in the production of ESBLs was performed using PCR: blaCMY-2, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M2, blaOXA-1, blaPSE-1 and AmpC. The overall antimicrobial resistance was 80.55%. The highest levels of resistance were observed for nalidixic acid and ceftiofur (100%). The most commonly resistance pattern found (42.1%) was A (penicillin-cephalosporin-quinolone-tetracycline). The results were negative for ghost zone formation, indicative of ESBLs. However, PCR technique was able to detect resistance genes via ESBLs where the blaTEM-1 gene showed the highest amplification (83.33%), and the second most prevalent genes were blaCMY-2 (38.88%) and AmpC gene (38.88%). The blaOXA-1 and blaPSE-1 genes were not detected. These results are certainly of concern since SH is becoming more prevalent in the South of Brazil and able to cause severe disease in immune compromised individuals, showing high antimicrobial resistance to those drugs routinely used in the treatment and control of human and

  2. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Y. Thung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60 were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR in combination with the most probable number (MPN method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of <3 to 15 MPN/g. Eight different serovars of Salmonella were identified among the 23 isolates, and S. Agona was the predominant serovar (26.09%. Interestingly, all the Salmonella isolates were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and vancomycin, but the sensitivity was observed for tetracycline, gentamicin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All 23 isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Two S. Typhimurium isolates (8.70% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.56 which shown resistance to nine antibiotics. PCR analysis of virulence genes showed that all Salmonella isolates (100% were positive for the invA gene. Meanwhile, pefA was only identified in S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The findings in this study indicate that retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  3. Listeria prevalence and Listeria monocytogenes serovar diversity at cull cow and bull processing plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, T Steven D; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of epidemic and sporadic listeriosis, is routinely isolated from many sources, including cattle, yet information on the prevalence of Listeria in beef processing plants in the United States is minimal. From July 2005 through April 2006, four commercial cow and bull processing plants were sampled in the United States to determine the prevalence of Listeria and the serovar diversity of L. monocytogenes. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, winter, and spring. Listeria prevalence on hides was consistently higher during cooler weather (28 to 92% of samples) than during warmer weather (6 and 77% of samples). The Listeria prevalence data collected from preevisceration carcass ranged from undetectable in some warm season samples to as high as 71% during cooler weather. Listeria on postintervention carcasses in the chill cooler was normally undetectable, with the exception of summer and spring samples from one plant where > 19% of the carcasses were positive for Listeria. On hides, L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2a was the predominant serovar observed, with serovars 1/2b and 4b present 2.5 times less often and serovar 1/2c not detected on any hides sampled. L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2c, and 4b were found on postintervention carcasses. This prevalence study demonstrates that Listeria species are more prevalent on hides during the winter and spring and that interventions being used in cow and bull processing plants appear to be effective in reducing or eliminating Listeria contamination on carcasses.

  4. Arginine-dependent acid resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not survive a pH 2.5 acid challenge under conditions similar to those used for Escherichia coli (J. W. Foster, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:898-907, 2004). Here, we provide evidence that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium can display arginine-dependent acid

  5. Molecular characteristics and virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from Chinese food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Luo, Xiaokai; Jiang, Lingli; Jin, Peijie; Wei, Wei; Liu, Dongyou; Fang, Weihuan

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we examined Listeria monocytogenes isolates from Chinese food sources in an attempt to gain further insights on the molecular characteristics and virulence potential of this important foodborne pathogen. Of the 88 L. monocytogenes food isolates recovered, 42 (47.7%) were of serovars 1/2a or 3a; 23 (26.1%) of serovars 1/2b or 3b; 15 (17.0%) of 1/2c or 3c; 6 (6.8%) of serovars 4b, 4d or 4e; and 2 (2.2%) of serovars 4a or 4c. In contrast to inlAB locus conserved in all serovars, internalin cluster between ascB and dapE varies with different serovars, with inlC2DE, inlGC2DE and inlGHE predominantly in serovars 1/2b or 4b, serovar 1/2a and serovar 1/2c. While inlF existed in all the inlGHE- and inlGC2DE-containing isolates but 17.4% of those having inlC2DE, lmo2026 existed in all the inlGHE-containing isolates but 20.0% of those bearing inlGC2DE, suggesting that inlF might have co-evolved with inlGC2DE and inlGHE while lmo2026 with inlGHE only. With the exception of serovar 4a isolate, most serovar isolates demonstrated remarkable ability to form plaques on L929 cells and produced significant mouse mortality irrespective of the internalin gene organization and whether an intact actA gene is present or not. These results indicate that majority of these food isolates may have the potential to cause human diseases if ingested via contaminated foods. Given that serovar 4b accounts for nearly half of human clinical listeriosis cases documented, the relative low proportion of serovar 4b food isolates suggests that this serovar is probably more tolerant of the adverse conditions in the host's stomach and/or more efficient in entering host cells than serovars 1/2a, 1/2b and 1/2c.

  6. Temperature and oxygen dependent metabolite utilization by Salmonella enterica serovars Derby and Mbandaka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Hayward

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen of clinical and veterinary significance, with over 2500 serovars. In previous work we compared two serovars displaying host associations inferred from isolation statistics. Here, to validate genome sequence data and to expand on the role of environmental metabolite constitution in host range determination we use a phenotypic microarray approach to assess the ability of these serovars to metabolise ~500 substrates at 25°C with oxygen (aerobic conditions to represent the ex vivo environment and at 37°C with and without oxygen (aerobic/anaerobic conditions to represent the in vivo environment. A total of 26 substrates elicited a significant difference in the rate of metabolism of which only one, D-galactonic acid-g-lactone, could be explained by the presence (S. Mbandaka or the absence (S. Derby of metabolic genes. We find that S. Mbandaka respires more efficiently at ambient temperatures and under aerobic conditions on 18 substrates including: glucosominic acid, saccharic acid, trehalose, fumaric acid, maltotriose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosamine, fucose, L-serine and dihydroxy-acetone; whereas S. Derby is more metabolically competent anaerobically at 37°C for dipeptides, glutamine-glutamine, alanine-lysine, asparagine-glutamine and nitrogen sources glycine and nitrite. We conclude that the specific phenotype cannot be reliably predicted from the presence of metabolic genes directly relating to the metabolic pathways under study.

  7. Molecular identification of the ompL1 gene within Leptospira interrogans standard serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhbord, Mehrangiz; Esmaelizad, Majid; Khaki, Pejvak; Fotohi, Fariba; Zarehparvar Moghaddam, Athena

    2014-06-11

    Leptospirosis, caused by infection with pathogenic Leptospira species, is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases in the world. Current leptospiral vaccines are mainly multivalent dead whole-cell mixtures made of several local dominant serovars. Therefore, design and construction of an efficient recombinant vaccine for leptospirosis control is very important. OmpL1 is an immunogenic porin protein that could be of special significance in vaccination and serodiagnosis for leptospirosis. Three strains belonging to pathogenic L. interrogans were analyzed. The specific primers for proliferation of the ompL1 gene were designed. The amplified gene was cloned. In order to investigate the ompL1 nucleotide sequence and homological analysis of this gene, ompL1 genes cloned from standard vaccinal Leptospira serovars prevalent in Iran were sequenced and cloned. PCR amplification of the ompL1 gene using the designed primers resulted in a 963 bp ompL1 gene product. The PCR based on the ompL1 gene detected all pathogenic reference serovars of Leptospira spp. tested. Based on alignment and phylogenetic analysis, although the ompL1 nucleotide sequence was slightly different within three vaccinal serovars (100%-85% identity), amino acid alignment of the OmpL1 proteins revealed that there would be inconsiderable difference among them. The ompL1 gene of the three isolates was well conserved, differing only by a total of 6 bp and the proteins by 2 amino acids. The cloned gene could be further used for expression and recombinant OmpL1 as an efficient and conserved antigen, and may be a useful vaccine candidate against leptospirosis in our region.

  8. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Asia and Molecular Mechanism of Reduced Susceptibility to the Fluoroquinolones▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Campbell, James Ian; Galindo, Claudia M.; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Nga, Tran Thu Thi; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Tuan, Phung Quoc; Page, Anne Laure; Ochiai, R. Leon; Schultsz, Constance; Wain, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Parry, Christopher M.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Dutta, Shanta; Agtini, Magdarina; Dong, Baiqing; Honghui, Yang; Anh, Dang Duc; Canh, Do Gia; Naheed, Aliya; Albert, M. John; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Basnyat, Buddha; Arjyal, Amit; La, Tran Thi Phi; Rang, Nguyen Ngoc; Phuong, Le Thi; Van Be Bay, Phan; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dougan, Gordon; Clemens, John D.; Vinh, Ha; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Acosta, Camilo J.; Farrar, Jeremy; Dolecek, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar Typhi strains collected in southern Vietnam, the proportion of multidrug resistance has remained high since 1993 (50% in 2004) and there was a dramatic increase in nalidixic acid resistance between 1993 (4%) and 2005 (97%). In a cross-sectional sample of 381 serovar Typhi strains from 8 Asian countries, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, and central Vietnam, collected in 2002 to 2004, various rates of multidrug resistance (16 to 37%) and nalidixic acid resistance (5 to 51%) were found. The eight Asian countries involved in this study are home to approximately 80% of the world's typhoid fever cases. These results document the scale of drug resistance across Asia. The Ser83→Phe substitution in GyrA was the predominant alteration in serovar Typhi strains from Vietnam (117/127 isolates; 92.1%). No mutations in gyrB, parC, or parE were detected in 55 of these strains. In vitro time-kill experiments showed a reduction in the efficacy of ofloxacin against strains harboring a single-amino-acid substitution at codon 83 or 87 of GyrA; this effect was more marked against a strain with a double substitution. The 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin showed rapid killing of serovar Typhi harboring both the single- and double-amino-acid substitutions. PMID:17908946

  9. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  10. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are commensals and pathogens of the human urogenital tract and of newborn infants. There are four distinct U. parvum serovars and 10 distinct U. urealyticum serovars. Both species possess a distinct immunodominant variable surface protein, the multiple banded antigen (MBA), which shows size variability among isolates as a result of changes in the number of C-terminal repeating units. Adjacent to the MBA gene (UU375) lies UU376, which was annotated as 'Ureaplasma-specific conserved hypothetical gene'. In four different strains of U. parvum serovar 3, we demonstrated expression of UU376 by Western blot analysis and phase variation between UU376, here designated Upvmp376 (Ureaplasma phase-variable membrane protein 376), and MBA after application of selective pressure with hyperimmune antisera directed against either protein. By Southern blot analysis, we found that the switch between MBA and Upvmp376 expression is associated with a DNA inversion event in which the nonrepetitive region of the MBA gene and its putative promoter region are opposed to either the repetitive region of MBA or UU376. We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376.

  11. Lack of efflux mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

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    Sylvie eBaucheron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates from human patients in France displaying different levels of resistance to quinolones or fluoroquinolones were studied for resistance mechanisms to these antimicrobial agents. All resistant isolates carried either single or multiple target gene mutations (i.e. in gyrA, gyrB, or parC correlating with the resistance levels observed. Active efflux, through upregulation of multipartite efflux systems, has also been previously reported as contributing mechanism for other serovars. Therefore, we investigated also the occurrence of non-target gene mutations in regulatory regions affecting efflux pump expression. However, no mutation was detected in these regions in both Typhi and Paratyphi isolates of this study. Besides, no overexpression of the major efflux systems was observed for these isolates. Nevertheless, a large deletion of 2334 bp was identified in the acrS-acrE region of all S. Typhi strains but which did not affect the resistance phenotype. As being specific to S. Typhi, this deletion could be used for specific molecular detection purposes. In conclusion, the different levels of quinolone or FQ resistance in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A seem to rely only on target modifications.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

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    García V

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanesa García,1 Inácio Mandomando,2,3 Joaquim Ruiz,4 Silvia Herrera-León,5 Pedro L Alonso,3,4 M Rosario Rodicio1 1Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; 2Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes, plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Results: Fifteen S. Typhimurium and 21 S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from blood samples of 25 children, the majority with underlying risk factors. With regard to phage typing, most isolates were either untypeable or reacted but did not conform, revealing that a number of previously unrecognized patterns are circulating in Mozambique. Most isolates were multidrug-resistant, with nearly all of the responsible genes located on derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids. ST313 and ST11 were the predominant sequence types associated with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively, and the uncommon ST1479 was also detected in S. Enteritidis. A distinct XbaI fragment of ~350 kb was associated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of

  13. Library goes Anatomy. Anatomische Lehrmedien an der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

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    Gehrlein, Sabine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Heidelberg University Library is following new paths to optimize the librarian services for medical studies. In close cooperation with the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology at Heidelberg University the library is profoundly expanding the anatomical teaching equipment: the virtual dissecting table Anatomage enables medical students to work on life-size, anatomical models in 3D, providing the possibility to prepare for and practice their anatomy lessons. The comprehensive collection of anatomical models and plastinates supports students, in particular, in their preparation for the preliminary medical examination.

  14. Discriminação de sorovares de Salmonella spp. isolados de carcaças de frango por REP e ERIC-PCR e fagotipagem do sorovar Enteriditis Discrimination of Salmonella serovars isolated from chicken meat by REP and ERIC-PCR and phagotyping of Enteriditis sorovar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Alcocer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonelose é a infecção bacteriana de origem alimentar mais freqüente no Paraná, Brasil, e os surtos estão associados, principalmente, ao consumo de ovos, carne de aves e derivados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os sorovares de Salmonella isolados de carcaças de frango e caracterizá-los molecularmente por REP e ERIC-PCR, assim como identificar os fagotipos de Salmonella Enteriditis. Dos 25 isolados de Salmonella spp. analisados, 18 foram identificados como Enteriditis, 4 como Braenderup, 2 como Worthington e 1 como infantis. Dos 18 isolados de Enteriditis, 14 foram PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 e 1 RDNC, por se tratar de colônia rugosa. REP-PCR forneceu padrão eletroforético distinto de 10 a 13 bandas distribuídas entre 120 e 2072 pb para cada sorovar diferente testado. A ERIC-PCR mostrou um padrão de 4 a 5 bandas entre 180 e 1000 pb e foi menos discriminativa quando comparada à REP-PCR. Os resultados encontrados confirmaram que a fagotipagem é uma ferramenta útil e discriminativa para o sorovar Enteriditis. Apesar do pequeno número de sorovares testados, os resultados sugerem que a REP-PCR parece ser um método atrativo a ser utilizado no futuro para a discriminação preliminar de sorovares de Salmonella.Salmonellosis is the most prevalent bacterial food-borne disease in the State of Paraná, Brazil, and the outbreaks are often associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this study was to serotype Salmonella strains isolated from chicken carcasses and characterize them molecularly using REP and ERIC-PCR. The phage types of Salmonella Enteriditis were also identified. Of the 25 Salmonella strains analysed, 18 were identified as Enteriditis, 4 as Braenderup, 2 as Worthington and 1 as infantis. Of the 18 Enteriditis isolates, 14 were PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 and 1 "reacted, but did not conform" - RDNC. Distinct REP-PCR profiles with 10 to 13 fragments distributed between 120 and 2072 pb were easily obtained for

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars of endemic trachoma had been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The serovars that we identified from Japanese infants and pregnant women ... Once Japan was thought to be belong to an endemic area of trachoma as other Asian countries.

  16. Genome and transcriptome adaptation accompanying emergence of the definitive type 2 host-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Robert A; Kay, Sally; Connor, Thomas; Barquist, Lars; Sait, Leanne; Holt, Kathryn E; Sivaraman, Karthi; Wileman, Thomas; Goulding, David; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Seshasayee, Aswin; Harris, Simon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Gardner, Paul; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Wigley, Paul; Humphrey, Tom; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2013-08-27

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 2 (DT2) is host restricted to Columba livia (rock or feral pigeon) but is also closely related to S. Typhimurium isolates that circulate in livestock and cause a zoonosis characterized by gastroenteritis in humans. DT2 isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster within S. Typhimurium based on whole-genome-sequence polymorphisms. Comparative genome analysis of DT2 94-213 and S. Typhimurium SL1344, DT104, and D23580 identified few differences in gene content with the exception of variations within prophages. However, DT2 94-213 harbored 22 pseudogenes that were intact in other closely related S. Typhimurium strains. We report a novel in silico approach to identify single amino acid substitutions in proteins that have a high probability of a functional impact. One polymorphism identified using this method, a single-residue deletion in the Tar protein, abrogated chemotaxis to aspartate in vitro. DT2 94-213 also exhibited an altered transcriptional profile in response to culture at 42°C compared to that of SL1344. Such differentially regulated genes included a number involved in flagellum biosynthesis and motility. IMPORTANCE Whereas Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can infect a wide range of animal species, some variants within this serovar exhibit a more limited host range and altered disease potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences can identify lineages associated with specific virulence traits, including host adaptation. This study represents one of the first to link pathogen-specific genetic signatures, including coding capacity, genome degradation, and transcriptional responses to host adaptation within a Salmonella serovar. We performed comparative genome analysis of reference and pigeon-adapted definitive type 2 (DT2) S. Typhimurium isolates alongside phenotypic and transcriptome analyses, to identify genetic signatures linked to host adaptation within the DT2 lineage.

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar-specific transcriptional reprogramming of infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Sebastian; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-07-01

    Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. In contrast, the non-typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting gastroenteritis. The molecular bases for these different clinical presentations are incompletely understood. The ability to re-program gene expression in host cells is an essential virulence factor for typhoidal and non-typhoidal S. enterica serovars. Here, we have compared the transcriptional profile of cultured epithelial cells infected with S. Typhimurium or S. Typhi. We found that both serovars stimulated distinct transcriptional responses in infected cells that are associated with the stimulation of specific signal transduction pathways. These specific responses were associated with the presence of a distinct repertoire of type III secretion effector proteins. These observations provide major insight into the molecular bases for potential differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of typhoidal and non-typhoidal S. enterica serovars.

  18. Salmonella enterica serovar-specific transcriptional reprogramming of infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hannemann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. In contrast, the non-typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting gastroenteritis. The molecular bases for these different clinical presentations are incompletely understood. The ability to re-program gene expression in host cells is an essential virulence factor for typhoidal and non-typhoidal S. enterica serovars. Here, we have compared the transcriptional profile of cultured epithelial cells infected with S. Typhimurium or S. Typhi. We found that both serovars stimulated distinct transcriptional responses in infected cells that are associated with the stimulation of specific signal transduction pathways. These specific responses were associated with the presence of a distinct repertoire of type III secretion effector proteins. These observations provide major insight into the molecular bases for potential differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of typhoidal and non-typhoidal S. enterica serovars.

  19. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Friis, Carsten; Zankari, Ea; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Price, Lance B; Rahmani, Maral; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Fashae, Kayode; Vandenberg, Olivier; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-10-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is an invasive and phylogenetically distinct lineage present in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the presence of S. Typhimurium ST313 from patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. Eighteen S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, six of the isolates were characterized by whole genome sequence typing (WGST). The presence of a putative virulence determinant was examined in 177 Salmonella isolates belonging to 57 different serovars. All S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates harbored resistant genes encoded by blaTEM1b, catA1, strA/B, sul1, and dfrA1. Additionally, aac(6')1aa gene was detected. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic relationships among Congolese and Nigerian isolates from both blood and stool. Comparative genomic analyses identified a putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and S. Dublin. We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Comparative genomics showed an interesting putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and invasive S. Dublin.

  20. Ascertaining the relationship between Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- by MLVA and inferring the sources of human salmonellosis due to the two serovars in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Cortini, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The current picture of human salmonellosis shows Salmonella Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- as the most common serovars in Italy. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic relationship between these serovars, as well as to test the possibility of inferring sources of human...... salmonellosis due to S. Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- by using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) subtyping data. Single isolates from 268 human sporadic cases and 325 veterinary isolates (from pig, cattle, chicken, and turkey) collected over the period 2009-2011 were typed by MLVA......, and the similarities of MLVA profiles were investigated using different analytical approaches. Results showed that isolates of S. 4,[5],12:i:- were more clonal compared to S. Typhimurium and that clones of both serovars from different non-human sources were very close to those which were responsible for human...

  1. Defining the Core Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium for Genomic Surveillance and Epidemiological Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Songzhe; Octavia, Sophie; Tanaka, Mark M.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common Salmonella serovar causing foodborne infections in Australia and many other countries. Twenty-one S. Typhimurium strains from Salmonella reference collection A (SARA) were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput genome sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 SARA strains ranged from 46 to 11,916 SNPs, with an average of 1,577 SNPs per strain. Together with 47 strains selected from publicly available S. Typhimurium genomes, the S. Typhimurium core genes (STCG) were determined. The STCG consist of 3,846 genes, a set that is much larger than that of the 2,882 Salmonella core genes (SCG) found previously. The STCG together with 1,576 core intergenic regions (IGRs) were defined as the S. Typhimurium core genome. Using 93 S. Typhimurium genomes from 13 epidemiologically confirmed community outbreaks, we demonstrated that typing based on the S. Typhimurium core genome (STCG plus core IGRs) provides superior resolution and higher discriminatory power than that based on SCG for outbreak investigation and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhimurium. STCG and STCG plus core IGR typing achieved 100% separation of all outbreaks compared to that of SCG typing, which failed to separate isolates from two outbreaks from background isolates. Defining the S. Typhimurium core genome allows standardization of genes/regions to be used for high-resolution epidemiological typing and genomic surveillance of S. Typhimurium. PMID:26019201

  2. The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project - Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of the Quaternary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Dietrich; Gabriel, Gerald; Hahne, Jürgen; Hoselmann, Christian; Menzies, John; Simon, Theo; Weidenfeller, Michael; Wielandt-Schuster, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Within the context of the Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project (Gabriel et al. 2008), a detailed sediment succession is presented here based upon deep drillings taken at Heidelberg UniNord and Mannheim Käfertal. Sediment structures, and micromorphological and pollen analyses were conducted and used to reconsider some of the climate transitions within the lower Pleistocene. A new and novel scenario is postulated regarding the preservation of Quaternary sediment packages within the Cenozoic Graben environment of the Heidelberg basin. The palynological evidence comprises the periods of warm climate of the Holsteinian (mainly Abies (fir), some Fagus (beech), Pterocarya & Azolla); the Cromerian (Pinus-Picea-QM (pine-spruce-QM)); the Bavelian (Abies, Tsuga (hemlock fir), QM & phases of increased NAP including Pinus); the Waalian (Abies, Tsuga, QM); and the Tiglian (Fagus & early Pleistocene taxa especially Sciadopytis, downward increasing Tertiary taxa). The sediment package was studied both macroscopically and microscopically. Both techniques provide evidence of fluvial, lacustrine and mass movement sedimentary processes. Some include evidence of periglacial processes (silt droplets within fine grained sands indicative of frozen ground conditions). The periglacial structures are often, not always, accompanied by pollen spectra dominated by pine and NAP. E.g. the Tiglian part of the succession shows periglacial sediment structures at its base and top but not in its middle sections. I.e. it appears not as a series of warm and cold phases but rather as a constant warm period with warm-cold-alternations at its bottom and top. All results illustrate sediment preservation in the Heidelberg basin almost throughout the Quaternary. This may be due to tectonic subsidence, but also to compaction by sediment loading of underlying fine sediments (Oligocene to Quaternary) leading to incomplete but virtually continuous sediment preservation (Tanner et al. 2009). References Gabriel, G

  3. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnė, D; Bisgaard, M; Pedersen, K; Olsen, J E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and to characterize the persistent strains. Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates. Characteristically, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2 S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility with this serovar. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  5. Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora García-Fernández

    Full Text Available In developed countries, typhoid fever is often associated with persons who travel to endemic areas or immigrate from them. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to standard first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by this Salmonella serovar represents an emerging public health issue. Two S. enterica ser. Typhi strains resistant to ciprofloxacin (CIP were reported to the Italian surveillance system for foodborne and waterborne diseases (EnterNet-Italia in 2013. The strains were isolated from two Italian tourists upon their arrival from India. A retrospective analysis of 17 other S. enterica ser. Typhi strains isolated in Italy during 2011-2013 was performed to determine their resistance to CIP. For this purpose, we assayed for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and conducted PCR and nucleotide sequence analyses. Moreover, all strains were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to evaluate possible clonal relationships. Sixty-eight percent of the S. enterica ser. Typhi strains were resistant to CIP (MICs, 0.125-16 mg/L, and all isolates were negative for determinants of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Analysis of sequences encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV subunits revealed mutations in gyrA, gyrB, and parC. Thirteen different clonal groups were detected, and the two CIP-resistant strains isolated from the individuals who visited India exhibited the same PFGE pattern. Because of these findings, the emergence of CIP-resistant S. enterica ser. Typhi isolates in Italy deserves attention, and monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is important for efficiently managing cases of typhoid fever.

  6. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  7. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; ,

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast.

  8. Survival of Salmonella enterica serovar infantis on and within stored table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Avishai; Maler, Ilana; Mechani, Sara; Pinto, Riky; Sela-Saldinger, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    Contaminated table eggs are considered a primary source of foodborne salmonellosis globally. Recently, a single clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis emerged in Israel and became the predominant serovar isolated in poultry. This clone is currently the most prevalent strain in poultry and is the leading cause of salmonellosis in humans. Because little is known regarding the potential transmission of this strain from contaminated eggs to humans, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Salmonella Infantis to survive on the eggshell or within the egg during cold storage or at room temperature. Salmonella cells (5.7 log CFU per egg) were inoculated on the surface of 120 intact eggs or injected into the egg yolk (3.7 log CFU per egg) of another 120 eggs. Half of the eggs were stored at 5.5 ± 0.3°C and half at room temperature (25.5 ± 0.1°C) for up to 10 weeks. At both temperatures, the number of Salmonella cells on the shell declined by 2 log up to 4 weeks and remained constant thereafter. Yolk-inoculated Salmonella counts at cold storage declined by 1 log up to 4 weeks and remained constant, while room-temperature storage supported the growth of the pathogen to a level of 8 log CFU/ml of total egg content, as early as 4 weeks postinoculation. Examination of egg content following surface inoculation revealed the presence of Salmonella in a portion of the eggs at both temperatures up to 10 weeks, suggesting that this strain can also penetrate through the shell and survive within the egg. These findings imply that Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is capable of survival both on the exterior and interior of table eggs and even multiply inside the egg at room temperature. Our findings support the need for prompt refrigeration to prevent Salmonella multiplication during storage of eggs at room temperature.

  9. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  10. Fifteen years of successful spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka clone ST413 in Poland and its public health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hoszowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, [i]Salmonella enterica[/i] serovar (S. Mbandaka occurred in feed and poultry in Poland. In the following years, the serovar also gained epidemiological importance in other EU countries. The objectives of current study were to evaluate the genetic relationship of contemporary S. Mbandaka with isolates originating from the beginning of the epidemics, and to assess the contribution of poultry as the source of infections in humans. Seventy S. Mbandaka isolated mainly in 2009 – 2010 from humans, poultry, food, and feed were typed with API ID32 [sup]®[/sup], MIC, plasmid profiling, PFGE, and MLST. PCR and sequencing were used to identify plasmid mediated quinolone and cephalosporin resistance mechanisms. Six biochemical profiles were identified and 59 of S. Mbandaka proved to be susceptible to the applied antimicrobials. Eight strains carried plasmids and a few of them were positive for [i]bla[/i][sub]CMY-2[/sub] and [i]qnr[/i]S1 genes. Two clusters of 15 [i]XbaI[/i]-PFGE profiles with similarity of 77.5% were found. The first cluster, gathered 7 profiles involving historical isolates and several contemporary non-human S. Mbandaka. The predominant profile in the second cluster consisted of 28 human and 1 broiler isolate. MLST analysis showed sequence type ST413 occurring among all tested isolates. The identification of close genetic relationships between S. Mbandaka of human and poultry origin indicates animals as a primal human infection route. Despite [i]Salmonella [/i]control programmes, the S. Mbandaka ST413 clone has been circulating for several years in Poland. [i]Salmonella[/i] control polices in food production chain should be continuously updated to target serovars of major epidemiological importance. Resistance noted in S. Mbandaka to such antimicrobials as fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins may hinder public health.

  11. The classification of Sejroe group serovars of Leptospira interrogans with monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, W. J.; Korver, H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Klatser, P. R.; Kolk, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Using the hybridoma technique we produced monoclonal antibodies to serovars of Leptospira interrogans. We focussed on serovar hardjo which is an important pathogen for humans and animals, and on other serovars of the Sejroe group. With combinations of monoclonals, characteristic patterns of

  12. [Evaluation of traditional German undergraduate surgical training. An analysis at Heidelberg University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, S; Schellberg, D; Schmidt, J; Kallinowski, F; Mehrabi, A; Herfarth, Ch; Büchler, M W; Kadmon, M

    2006-04-01

    The medical faculty of Heidelberg University implemented a new problem-based clinical curriculum (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale, or Heicumed) in 2001. The present study analyses the evaluation data of two student cohorts prior to the introduction of Heicumed. Its aim was to specify problems of the traditional training and to draw conclusions for implementation of a new curriculum. The evaluation instrument was the Heidelberg Inventory for the Evaluation of Teaching (HILVE-I). The data were analysed calculating differences in the means between defined groups, with the 13 primary scales of the HILVE I-instrument as dependent variables. Teaching method and subject had no systematic influence on evaluation results. Thus, didactic lecture in orthopedic surgery achieved better results than small group tutorials, while the data on vascular and general surgery showed opposite results. Major factors for success were continuity and didactic training of lecturers and tutors. This is convincingly reflected by the results of the lecture course "Differential diagnosis in general surgery". The good evaluation data on small group tutorials resulted largely from the "participation" and "discussion" scales, which represent interactivity in learning. The results of the present study suggest the importance of two major pedagogic ideas: continuity and didactic training of lecturers and tutors. These principles were widely implemented in Heicumed and have contributed to the success of the new curriculum.

  13. Predicting adhesion and biofilm formation boundaries on stainless steel surfaces by five Salmonella enterica strains belonging to different serovars as a function of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Juliana O; Cruz, Ellen A; Souza, Enio G F; Oliveira, Tereza C M; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Peña, Wilmer E L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Magnani, Marciane

    2018-05-26

    This study aimed to assess the capability of 97 epidemic S. enterica strains belonging to 18 serovars to form biofilm. Five strains characterized as strong biofilm-producers, belonging to distinct serovars (S. Enteritidis 132, S. Infantis 176, S. Typhimurium 177, S. Heidelberg 281 and S. Corvallis 297) were assayed for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The experiments were conducted in different combinations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10% w/v), pH (4, 5, 6 and 7) and temperatures (8 °C, 12 °C, 20 °C and 35 °C). Only adhesion was assumed to occur when S. enterica counts were ≥3 and biofilm formation was defined as when the counts were ≥5 log CFU/cm 2 . The binary responses were used to develop models to predict the probability of adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces by five strains belonging to different S. enterica serovars. A total of 99% (96/97) of the tested S. enterica strains were characterized as biofilm-producers in the microtiter plate assays. The ability to form biofilm varied (P biofilm-producers, 21% (20/96), 45% (43/96), and 35% (34/96) were weak, moderate and strong biofilm-producers, respectively. The capability for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces under the experimental conditions studied varied among the strains studied, and distinct secondary models were obtained to describe the behavior of the five S. enterica tested. All strains showed adhesion at pH 4 up to 4% of NaCl and at 20 °C and 35 °C. The probability of adhesion decreased when NaCl concentrations were >8% and at 8 °C, as well as in pH values ≤ 5 and NaCl concentrations > 6%, for all tested strains. At pH 7 and 6, biofilm formation for S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg was observed up to 6% of NaCl at 35 °C and 20 °C. The predicted boundaries for adhesion were pH values biofilm formation, the predicted boundaries were pH values biofilm formation

  14. High resolution clustering of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo strains using a next-generation sequencing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allard Marc W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS is increasingly being used as a molecular epidemiologic tool for discerning ancestry and traceback of the most complicated, difficult to resolve bacterial pathogens. Making a linkage between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires distinguishing the suspected pathogen from an environmental background and placing the variation observed into the wider context of variation occurring within a serovar and among other closely related foodborne pathogens. Equally important is the need to validate these high resolution molecular tools for use in molecular epidemiologic traceback. Such efforts include the examination of strain cluster stability as well as the cumulative genetic effects of sub-culturing on these clusters. Numerous isolates of S. Montevideo were shot-gun sequenced including diverse lineage representatives as well as numerous replicate clones to determine how much variability is due to bias, sequencing error, and or the culturing of isolates. All new draft genomes were compared to 34 S. Montevideo isolates previously published during an NGS-based molecular epidemiological case study. Results Intraserovar lineages of S. Montevideo differ by thousands of SNPs, that are only slightly less than the number of SNPs observed between S. Montevideo and other distinct serovars. Much less variability was discovered within an individual S. Montevideo clade implicated in a recent foodborne outbreak as well as among individual NGS replicates. These findings were similar to previous reports documenting homopolymeric and deletion error rates with the Roche 454 GS Titanium technology. In no case, however, did variability associated with sequencing methods or sample preparations create inconsistencies with our current phylogenetic results or the subsequent molecular epidemiological evidence gleaned from these data. Conclusions Implementation of a validated pipeline for NGS data acquisition and

  15. Species and serovars of the genus Listeria lsolated from different sources in Brazil from 1971 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using phenotype techniques, characterization was made to species and serovar of 3,112 strains of Listeria, isolated from different sources of infection such as human (247-7.9% and animals (239-7.6%, as well as from various routes of infection, including food (2,330-74.8% and environmental constituents (296-9.5%, all coming from different regions of the country and collected during the period 1971-1997. The following species were recovered in the cultures analysed: L. monocytogenes (774-24.8%, L. innocua (2,269-72.9%, L. seeligeri (37-1.1%, L. welshimeri (22-0.7%, L. grayi (9-0.2%, and L. ivanovii (1-0.03%. L. monocytogenes was represented by ten serovars, the most prevalent being 4b (352-11.3%, 1/2a (162-5.2%, and 1/2b (148-4.7%. The predominant serovar in L. innocua was 6a (2,093-67.2%. Considerations about laboratory methods for diagnosis and epidemiological aspects are presented on the basis of the results obtained.

  16. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  17. Comparative analysis of core genome MLST and SNP typing within a European Salmonella serovar Enteritidis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Madison E; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Dallman, Timothy J; Zhou, Zhemin; Grant, Kathie; Maiden, Martin C J

    2018-06-02

    Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Combination of the cgMLST and epidemiological data confirmed that the genetic diversity among the isolates predated the outbreak, and was likely present at the infection source. There was consequently no link between country of isolation and genetic diversity, but the cgMLST clusters were congruent with date of isolation. Furthermore, comparison with publicly available Enteritidis isolate data demonstrated that the cgMLST scheme presented is highly scalable, enabling outbreaks to be contextualised within the Salmonella genus. The cgMLST scheme is therefore shown to be a standardised and scalable typing method, which allows Salmonella outbreaks to be analysed and compared across laboratories and jurisdictions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutral genomic microevolution of a recently emerged pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Agona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhemin Zhou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Agona has caused multiple food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis since it was first isolated in 1952. We analyzed the genomes of 73 isolates from global sources, comparing five distinct outbreaks with sporadic infections as well as food contamination and the environment. Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s. Homologous recombination with other serovars of S. enterica imported 42 recombinational tracts (360 kb in 5/143 nodes within the genealogy, which resulted in 3,164 additional SNPs. In contrast to this paucity of genetic diversity, Agona is highly diverse according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, which is used to assign isolates to outbreaks. PFGE diversity reflects a highly dynamic accessory genome associated with the gain or loss (indels of 51 bacteriophages, 10 plasmids, and 6 integrative conjugational elements (ICE/IMEs, but did not correlate uniquely with outbreaks. Unlike the core genome, indels occurred repeatedly in independent nodes (homoplasies, resulting in inaccurate PFGE genealogies. The accessory genome contained only few cargo genes relevant to infection, other than antibiotic resistance. Thus, most of the genetic diversity within this recently emerged pathogen reflects changes in the accessory genome, or is due to recombination, but these changes seemed to reflect neutral processes rather than Darwinian selection. Each outbreak was caused by an independent clade, without universal, outbreak-associated genomic features, and none of the variable genes in the pan-genome seemed to be associated with an ability to cause outbreaks.

  20. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  1. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  2. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Peter G.; Andersen, Gary L.; Walker, Richard L.

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  3. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): Initial clinical experience in the first 80 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E. (Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)), E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ellerbrock, Malte; Haberer, Thomas (Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) started clinical operation in November 2009. In this report we present the first 80 patients treated with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and describe patient selection, treatment planning and daily treatment for different indications. Patients and methods. Between November 15, 2009 and April 15, 2010, 80 patients were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with carbon ion and proton radiotherapy. Main treated indications consisted of skull base chordoma (n = 9) and chondrosarcoma (n = 18), malignant salivary gland tumors (n=29), chordomas of the sacrum (n = 5), low grade glioma (n=3), primary and recurrent malignant astrocytoma and glioblastoma (n=7) and well as osteosarcoma (n = 3). Of these patients, four pediatric patients aged under 18 years were treated. Results. All patients were treated using the intensity-modulated rasterscanning technique. Seventy-six patients were treated with carbon ions (95%), and four patients were treated with protons. In all patients x-ray imaging was performed prior to each fraction. Treatment concepts were based on the initial experiences with carbon ion therapy at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) including carbon-only treatments and carbon-boost treatments with photon-IMRT. The average time per fraction in the treatment room per patient was 29 minutes; for irradiation only, the mean time including all patients was 16 minutes. Position verification was performed prior to every treatment fraction with orthogonal x-ray imaging. Conclusion. Particle therapy could be included successfully into the clinical routine at the Dept. of Radiation Oncology in Heidelberg. Numerous clinical trials will subsequently be initiated to precisely define the role of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy in radiation oncology.

  4. The cultural heritage tourism in the city of Heidelberg, Germany: Plans, motivations and realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Pires Daniel Vítor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, heritage has been responsible for the visibility that a large number of cities around the world have been getting as regards affirmation and differentiation of places. This also increased the number of cultural tourists that visit those cities worldwide. In this struggle for affirmation and differentiation, Heidelberg has quite an advantage, since the city's cultural heritage, as well as its unique atmosphere, have been spread by the Romantic Movement in the 19th century and it still happens nowadays, after more than two hundred years. But is Heidelberg indeed a city that receives cultural tourists? In this article, through an exploratory study, we intend to characterize the tourists that visit the city, to understand if the defined politics, actions and events taken by the different institutional authorities (like the Heidelberger Marketing and City Town hall, among others are getting the expected results. Through literature review and question­naires completed by the city's tourists, based on a probabilistic random sample and semi-structured interviews, we expect to trace the evolution of the policies defined, and compare those to the type of tourists that actually visit the city. As a preliminary result, we concluded that there is a difference between the tourist profile defined by the institutional authorities with responsibilities in the promotion and communication of the city's cultural heritage assets, comparing with the tourists that actually visit the city. This is the result not only of the motivations and effective length of the visits, but also in the lack of alternative or multiple visit narratives and routes for the cultural heritage city's assets.

  5. The Heidelberg circle: German inflections on the professionalization of Russian chemistry in the 1860s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The success of the "second importation" of science to Russia during the Great Reforms of the 1860s is illustrated by examining the extended postdoctoral study of chemists in Heidelberg. While there, they adapted the Russian intelligentsia institution of the "circle," or kruzhok, to cope with their alienation from the German culture they were confronting. Upon their return to Russia, they felt the lack of the communicative network they had established while abroad and reimported the kruzhok to serve as a central model for the formation of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868.

  6. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Tze Y; Radu, Son; Mahyudin, Nor A; Rukayadi, Yaya; Zakaria, Zunita; Mazlan, Nurzafirah; Tan, Boon H; Lee, Epeng; Yeoh, Soo L; Chin, Yih Z; Tan, Chia W; Kuan, Chee H; Basri, Dayang F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che W J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60) were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  7. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... the seroprevalence. Salmonella persisted in the paddock environment, as Salmonella was isolated from 46% of soil and water samples (n = 294). After removal of pigs, Salmonella was found in soil samples for up to. 5 weeks and in shelter huts during the entire test period (7 weeks). Subsequent introduction...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  8. Diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from surface water in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Vellidis, George; Liu, Huanli; Jay-Russell, Michele; Zhao, Shaohua; Hu, Zonglin; Wright, Anita; Elkins, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    A study of prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in surface water in the southeastern United States was conducted. A new scheme was developed for recovery of Salmonella from irrigation pond water and compared with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed., 2014) (BAM) method. Fifty-one isolates were recovered from 10 irrigation ponds in produce farms over a 2-year period; nine Salmonella serovars were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and the major serovar was Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport, n = 29), followed by S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 6), S. enterica serovar Muenchen (n = 4), S. enterica serovar Javiana (n = 3), S. enterica serovar Thompson (n = 2), and other serovars. It is noteworthy that the PulseNet patterns of some of the isolates were identical to those of the strains that were associated with the S. Thompson outbreaks in 2010, 2012, and 2013, S. Enteritidis outbreaks in 2011 and 2013, and an S. Javiana outbreak in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed 16 S. Newport isolates of the multidrug resistant-AmpC (MDR-AmpC) phenotype, which exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT), and to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ceftriaxone). Moreover, the S. Newport MDR-AmpC isolates had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the patterns of the isolates from clinical settings. These findings suggest that the irrigation water may be a potential source of contamination of Salmonella in fresh produce. The new Salmonella isolation scheme significantly increased recovery efficiency from 21.2 (36/170) to 29.4% (50/170) (P = 0.0002) and streamlined the turnaround time from 5 to 9 days with the BAM method to 4 days and thus may facilitate microbiological analysis of environmental water. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  9. Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C.; Ganschow, P.; Groener, J. B.; Huwendiek, S.; Köchel, A.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Pjontek, R.; Rodrian, J.; Scheibe, F.; Stadler, A.-K.; Steiner, T.; Stiepak, J.; Tabatabai, J.; Utz, A.; Kadmon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  10. Dimensions of the foveal avascular zone using the Heidelberg retinal angiogram-2 in normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study the dimensions of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ using Heidelberg Retinal Angiogram-2 (HRA-2; Heidelberg Engineering GmBH, Dossenheim, Germany. Materials and Methods: An observational study of the FAZ area and circumference was done with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA using HRA-2 in 31 normal individuals. The FAZ was studied using both contrast-adjusted and nonadjusted methods. Contrast adjustment was done to obtain better visualization of the finer capillaries around the fovea enabling more precise measurements of the FAZ in normal eyes. Results: The mean area of the FAZ calculated by the contrast-adjusted method was 0.2753 mm 2 (±0.074 and the mean circumference was 2.22 mm (±0.048. By the conventional method, the area and circumference of the FAZ were 0.6241 mm 2 (±0.177 and 3.23 mm (±0.454, respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of area and circumference of FAZ using contrast-adjusted methods were significantly smaller than the conventional method.

  11. Improvement of the Oracle setup and database design at the Heidelberg ion therapy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, K.; Haberer, T.; Mosthaf, J.M.; Peters, A.; Thomas, M.; Welde, A.; Froehlich, G.; Juelicher, S.; Schaa, V. R.W.; Schiebel, W.; Steinmetz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Therapy) center is an accelerator facility for cancer therapy using both carbon ions and protons, located at the university hospital in Heidelberg. It provides three therapy treatment rooms: two with fixed beam exit (both in clinical use), and a unique gantry with a rotating beam head, currently under commissioning. The backbone of the proprietary accelerator control system consists of an Oracle database running on a Windows server, storing and delivering data of beam cycles, error logging, measured values, and the device parameters and beam settings for about 100,000 combinations of energy, beam size and particle rate used in treatment plans. Since going operational, we found some performance problems with the current database setup. Thus, we started an analysis that focused on the following topics: hardware resources of the database server, configuration of the Oracle instance, and a review of the database design that underwent several changes since its original design. The analysis revealed issues on all fields. The outdated server will be replaced by a state-of-the-art machine soon. We will present improvements of the Oracle configuration, the optimization of SQL statements, and the performance tuning of database design by adding new indexes which proved directly visible in accelerator operation, while data integrity was improved by additional foreign key constraints. (authors)

  12. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy for chronic-tonal tinnitus - treatment outline and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2012-01-01

    Musical training positively influences the cortical plasticity of the brain and has proven to be effective in treating chronic tinnitus. A neuro-music therapy concept, the "Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy" treatment was developed and evaluated. A prospective, cross-sectional design was used. N = 135 patients (mean age 47 years) with chronic, tonal tinnitus attended a standardized protocol for Neuro-Music Therapy (either "standard therapy" ST or "compact therapy" CT). The results were compared to a cognitive behavioral placebo music therapy procedure (PT). Tinnitus distress was assessed using the German version of the Tinnitus-Questionnaire (TQ) at admission, at discharge and six months after therapy. Changes were assessed statistically and by means of clinical significance. TQ scores significantly improved - independent of group allocation. But more than 80% of the music therapy patients (both ST and CT) revealed a reliable improvement ("responder") compared to 44% in the PT group. Therapy impact seems to be lasting since TQ scores remained stable until follow-up at six months. The "Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy" is a method with fast onset and long lasting effect for patients with "tonal" tinnitus. A number of potential working factors accounting for the treatment success are highlighted.

  13. Genetic lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky spreading in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Magdalena; Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Le Hello, Simon; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-10-25

    The purpose of the study was to define genetic diversity of reptilian Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Kentucky isolates and their epidemiological relations to the ones from poultry, food, and environmental origin in Poland. Between 2010 and 2012 twenty-four S. Kentucky isolates derived from snakes (N=8), geckos (N=7), chameleons (N=4), agamas (N=1), lizard (N=1), and environmental swabs taken from reptile exhibition (N=3) were identified. They were characterized with antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentration testing, XbaI-PFGE and MLST typing. The profiles compared to S. Kentucky available in BioNumerics local laboratory database (N=40) showed 67.3% of relatedness among reptile isolates. Three genetic lineages were defined. The first lineage gathered 20 reptile isolates with 83.4% of similarity and wild-type MICs for all antimicrobials tested but streptomycin in single case. The remaining three reptilian and one post-exhibition environment S. Kentucky isolates were clustered (87.2%) with isolates originating from poultry, mainly turkey, food, and environment and presented variable non-wild type MICs to numerous antimicrobials. The third S. Kentucky lineage was composed of two isolates from feed (96.3%). The results suggest diverse sources and independent routes of infection. Most of the isolates belonged to reptile-associated clones spread both horizontally and vertically. Simultaneously, PFGE profiles and MLST type indistinguishable from the ones observed in poultry point out carnivore reptiles as possible vector of infection with multidrug and high-level ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC≥8 mg/L) S. Kentucky. Public awareness and education are required to prevent potential reptile-associated S. Kentucky infections in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4a is a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Jiang, Lingli; Chen, Xueyan; Luo, Xiaokai; Chen, Yang; Yu, Ying; Tian, Guoming; Liu, Dongyou; Fang, Weihuan

    2009-03-01

    The genus Listeria consists of six closely related species and forms three phylogenetic groups: L. monocytogenes- L. innocua, L. ivanovii-L. seeligeri-L. welshimeri, and L. grayi. In this report, we attempted to examine the evolutionary relationship in the L. monocytogenes-L. innocua group by probing the nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, and the gene clusters lmo0029-lmo0042, ascBdapE, rplS-infC, and prs-ldh in L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 4a, and 4b, and L. innocua. Additionally, we assessed the status of L. monocytogenes-specific inlA and inlB genes and 10 L. innocua-specific genes in these species/serovars, together with phenotypic characterization by using in vivo and in vitro procedures. The results indicate that L. monocytogenes serovar 4a strains are genetically similar to L. innocua in the lmo0035-lmo0042, ascB-dapE, and rplS-infC regions and also possess L. innocua-specific genes lin0372 and lin1073. Furthermore, both L. monocytogenes serovar 4a and L. innocua exhibit impaired intercellular spread ability and negligible pathogenicity in mouse model. On the other hand, despite resembling L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b in having a nearly identical virulence gene cluster, and inlA and inlB genes, these serovar 4a strains differ from serovars 1/2a and 4b by harboring notably altered actA and plcB genes, displaying strong phospholipase activity and subdued in vivo and in vitro virulence. Thus, by possessing many genes common to L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b, and sharing many similar gene deletions with L. innocua, L. monocytogenes serovar 4a represents a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.

  15. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E; Arent, Zbigniew; Bayles, Darrell O; Hornsby, Richard L; Gilmore, Colm; Regan, Siobhan; McDevitt, Allan D; Yearsley, Jon; Fanning, Séamus; McMahon, Barry J

    2016-12-01

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.

  16. Lymphogranuloma Venereum-Serovar L2b Presenting With Painful Genital Ulceration: An Emerging Clinical Presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Roger; Maatouk, Ismaël; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bagot, Martine; Janier, Michel; Fouéré, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    These 5 cases of atypical inflammatory lymphogranula venereum (LGV) serovar L2b presenting initially with edema and persistent painful ulceration illustrate that clinical manifestations of LGV in the current outbreak in men who have sex with men reflect the influence of both the serovars virulence and the host immune system and are not confined to proctitis. L2b serovar could have a particular high virulence profile, and the need for awareness of LGV as a cause of genital ulceration is crucial.

  17. Occurrence of purulent arthritis broilers vertically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Song, E-A; Kwon, J-H; Kwon, Y-K

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) has been associated with morbidity and mortality in broiler chickens worldwide. The present study described purulent arthritis of broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and investigated antibiograms and genetic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from epidemiologically related properties such as a hatchery and breeder farm in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. Clinical disease and mortality were observed in the affected broiler flock. Mortality was 5.8% until 12 d of age. The birds typically showed lameness with moderately swollen hock joints and footpads. The most prevalent lesions were severely purulent arthritis with polyserositis. Histopathology revealed moderate to severe inflammation in the synovial membrane of leg joints and visceral organs. When the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed against 7 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis from broilers, and relevant hatchery and breeder farms by the disk diffusion method using 18 antimicrobial agents, isolates from broiler and breeder farms had the same antibiogram characterized by multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline, whereas isolates from the hatchery were differently resistant to only nalidixic acid. Through the genetic analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme XbaI, Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from both broiler and breeder farms also showed the same PFGE pattern compared with the hatchery isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. As a result, the same PFGE profiles and antibiogram patterns among isolates from broilers and breeder farms provided direct evidence of vertical Salmonella Enteritidis transmission from the contaminated breeder farm to commercial broiler.

  18. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-01-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals

  19. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-08-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals.

  20. A Phylogenetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden, an Emerging Agent of Diarrheal Disease in Tropical Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Makendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies.

  1. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility......, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. Conclusions: It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain...... in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. Significance and Impact of the Study: S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility...

  2. Isolation, serotype diversity and antibiogram of Salmonella enterica isolated from different species of poultry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad Mir

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Occurrence of high proportion of serovars in our study which can cause serious gastroenteritis in humans is a matter of concern. Salmonella Altona has been detected for the first time in India from poultry. This serotype is known to cause serious outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans. Multidrug resistant isolates were recovered at high percentage which can be attributed to non-judicious use of antibiotics both in prophylaxis and treatment regimen. This observation draws serious attention as poultry serves as an important source of transmission of these multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars to humans.

  3. Plasmid fingerprinting and virulence gene detection among indigenous strains of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.U.; Schwarz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important frequently reported zoonotic pathogen and a common cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The highly conserved Serospecific plasmids (SSPs) and Salmonella plasmid virulence (Spv) genes have been shown to mediate extra-intestinal colonization and systemic infection. The objective of current study was to document the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes prevailing in the indigenous population of serovar Enteritidis. A total of 48 epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella enteritidis were included in the study. Preparation of plasmids DNA suitable for endonuclease digestion and separation of respective fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis followed previously described protocols. The plasmids of Escherichia coli V517, 1-kbp ladder, and lambda DNA HindIII fragments served as DNA size standards. Transfer of DNA fragments from agarose gels to nitrocellulose membranes was achieved by capillary blot procedure. An ECL labeled 3.6 kbp HindIII fragment of plasmid PRQ 51 was used as probe for SpvB/SpvC gene detection. Plasmid DNA fingerprinting revealed the presence of two different profiles of approximately 55 kbp and 90 kbp and were identified as virulence plasmids by DNA hybridization. The SpvB/SpvC genes were located on HindIII fragments of 3.6 kbp in each of the two types of virulence plasmids. The study confirms the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes in indigenous strains of S. enteritidis isolated from Northern Punjab area of Pakistan and substantiate the previous data on such findings from other parts of the world. (author)

  4. Identification and Characterization of Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Proteins in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, Seul I; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a primary cause of enteric diseases and has acquired a variety of virulence factors during its evolution into a pathogen. Secreted virulence factors interact with commensal flora and host cells and enable Salmonella to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from many Gram-negative bacteria function as a mechanism for the secretion of complex mixtures, including virulence factors. We performed a proteomic analysis of OMVs that were isolated under standard laboratory and acidic minimal medium conditions and identified 14 OMV-associated proteins that were observed in the OMV fraction isolated only under the acidic minimal medium conditions, which reproduced the nutrient-deficient intracellular milieu. The inferred roles of these 14 proteins were diverse, including transporter, enzyme, and transcriptional regulator. The absence of these proteins influenced Salmonella survival inside murine macrophages. Eleven of these proteins were predicted to possess secretion signal sequences at their N termini, and three (HupA, GlnH, and PhoN) of the proteins were found to be translocated into the cytoplasm of host cells. The comparative proteomic profiling of OMVs performed in this study revealed different protein compositions in the OMVs isolated under the two different conditions, which indicates that the OMV cargo depends on the growth conditions and provides a deeper insight into how Salmonella utilizes OMVs to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:24935973

  5. Hemolysin as a Virulence Factor for Systemic Infection with Isolates of Mycobacterium avium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239

  6. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, J; Garvey, P; Ryan, A; O'Donnell, J; Cormican, M; Jackson, S; Cloak, F; Cullen, L; Swaan, C M; Schimmer, B; Appels, R W; Nygard, K; Finley, R; Sreenivasan, N; Lenglet, A; Gossner, C; McKeown, P

    2014-04-01

    Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10.2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.

  7. Laser spectroscopy with a cooler ring at the ESR (GSI) and the TSR (MPI Heidelberg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Borneis, S.; Greten, G.; Marx, D.; Neumann, R.; Schroeder, S.; Grieser, R.; Hoog, I.; Huber, G.; Klaft, I.; Klein, R.; Merz, P.; Balykin, V.; Bock, M.; Ellert, C.; Forck, P.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Habs, D.; Miesner, H.J.; Petrich, W.; Wanner, B.; Becker, C.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.

    1992-01-01

    At the TSR cooler ring at Heidelberg, laser studies were carried out using singly charged lithium and beryllium ions. Laser spectroscopy of relativistic lithium ions (υ = 0.04c) yielded signals with a narrow linewidth, suitable for an experimental test of special relativity. A dramatic reduction of the beam temperature, as defined by the longitudinal velocity spread, was achieved via laser cooling in both cases. At the ion energies available at ESR it will become possible to prepare and store bare ions up to U 92+ . Electron cooling was successfully demonstrated for hydrogen-like Bi 82+ ions, where a laser experiment is scheduled to study the ground-state hyperfine splitting. (orig.)

  8. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-07-26

    SUMMARY Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts\\' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10·2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.

  9. Physics with colder molecular ions: The Heidelberg Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajfman, D; Wolf, A; Schwalm, D; Orlov, D A; Grieser, M; Hahn, R von; Welsch, C P; Lopez-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Schroeter, C D; Urbain, X; Ullrich, J

    2005-01-01

    A novel cryogenic electrostatic storage ring is planned to be built at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. The machine is expected to operate at low temperatures (∼2K) and to store beams with kinetic energies between 20 to 300 keV. An electron target based on cooled photocathode technology will serve as a major tool for the study of reactions between molecular ions and electrons. Moreover, atomic beams can be merged and crossed with the stored ion beams allowing for atom molecular-ion collision studies at very low up to high relative energies. The proposed experimental program, centered around the physics of cold molecular ions, is shortly outlined

  10. Commissioning of the Cryogenic Plant for the Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at Heidelberg

    CERN Document Server

    von Hahn, R; Grieser, M; Haberstroh, C; Kaiser, D; Lange, M; Laux, F; Menk, S; Orlov, D A; Repnow, R; Sieber, T; Quack, H; Varju, J; Wolf A

    2009-01-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg a next generation electrostatic storage ring for low velocity atomic and molecular ion beams is under construction. In contrast to existing electrostatic storage rings, the Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR will be cooled down to temperatures below 2 K. Thus acting as a large cryopump it will provide long storage times and, in addition, open a new field of quantum state controlled molecular physics due to a low heat radiation background from space-like environment. A concept for cooling the storage ring has been developed and is presently tested by means of a linear trap as a prototype with a length of 1/10 of the planned ring. A commercial refrigerator with 21 W at 2 K has been successfully commissioned and was connected to the prototype. This paper presents the status of the cryogenic plant after the commissioning and one year of operation.

  11. The Heidelberg POLYP - a flexible and fault-tolerant poly-processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenner, R.; Deluigi, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Heidelberg poly-processor system POLYP is described. It is intended to be used in nuclear physics for reprocessing of experimental data, in high energy physics as second-stage trigger processor, and generally in other applications requiring high-computing power. The POLYP system consists of any number of I/O-processors, processor modules (eventually of different types), global memory segments, and a host processor. All modules (up to several hundred) are connected by a multiple common-data-bus system; all processors, additionally, by a multiple sync bus system for processor/task-scheduling. All hard- and software is designed to be decentralized and free of bottle-necks. Most hardware-faults like single-bit errors in memory or multi-bit errors during transfers are automatically corrected. Defective modules, buses, etc., can be removed with only a graceful degradation of the system-throughput. (orig.)

  12. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ). Report on scientific results 1998/1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center) publishes alternating every year the 'Wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisbericht' (in German) and the 'Research Report' (in English). Both volumes are reports on the present state of research activities of the DKFZ as a National Research Center to the funding federal and state authorities (Federal Republic of Germany, Land (state) Baden-Wuerttemberg). Furthermore, they shall inform colleagues and the scientifically interested public. Both reports are structured according to the center's eight research programs. The next Research Report will be published in 2001. In Germany a new orthography has been accepted. Some authors used the new form others the traditional one. The orthography was not standardized. (orig.) [de

  13. Cortical reorganization in recent-onset tinnitus patients by the Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Maria Krick

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiology and treatment of tinnitus still are fields of intensive research. The neuroscientifically motivated Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy, previously developed by the German Center for Music Therapy Research, Heidelberg, Germany, was applied to explore its effects on individual distress and on brain structures. This therapy is a compact and fast application of nine consecutive 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy implemented over one week. Clinical improvement and long-term effects over several years have previously been published. However the underlying neural basis of the therapy’s success has not yet been explored. In the current study, the therapy was applied to acute tinnitus patients (TG and healthy active controls (AC. Non-treated patients were also included as passive controls (PTC. As predicted, the therapeutic intervention led to a significant decrease of tinnitus-related distress in TG compared to PTC. Before and after the study week, high-resolution MRT scans were obtained for each subject. Assessment by repeated measures design for several groups (two-way ANOVA revealed structural gray matter (GM increase in TG compared to PTC, comprising clusters in precuneus, medial superior frontal areas, and in the auditory cortex. This pattern was further applied as mask for general GM changes as induced by the therapy week. The therapy-like procedure in AC also elicited similar GM increases in precuneus and frontal regions. Comparison between structural effects in TG versus AC was calculated within the mask for general GM changes to obtain specific effects in tinnitus patients, yielding GM increase in right Heschl's gyrus, right Rolandic operculum, and medial superior frontal regions. In line with recent findings on the crucial role of the auditory cortex in maintaining tinnitus-related distress, a causative relation between the therapy-related GM alterations in auditory areas and the long-lasting therapy effects can be

  14. Cortical reorganization in recent-onset tinnitus patients by the Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Christoph M.; Grapp, Miriam; Daneshvar-Talebi, Jonas; Reith, Wolfgang; Plinkert, Peter K.; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology and treatment of tinnitus still are fields of intensive research. The neuroscientifically motivated Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy, previously developed by the German Center for Music Therapy Research, Heidelberg, Germany, was applied to explore its effects on individual distress and on brain structures. This therapy is a compact and fast application of nine consecutive 50-min sessions of individualized therapy implemented over 1 week. Clinical improvement and long-term effects over several years have previously been published. However, the underlying neural basis of the therapy's success has not yet been explored. In the current study, the therapy was applied to acute tinnitus patients (TG) and healthy active controls (AC). Non-treated patients were also included as passive controls (PTC). As predicted, the therapeutic intervention led to a significant decrease of tinnitus-related distress in TG compared to PTC. Before and after the study week, high-resolution MRT scans were obtained for each subject. Assessment by repeated measures design for several groups (Two-Way ANOVA) revealed structural gray matter (GM) increase in TG compared to PTC, comprising clusters in precuneus, medial superior frontal areas, and in the auditory cortex. This pattern was further applied as mask for general GM changes as induced by the therapy week. The therapy-like procedure in AC also elicited similar GM increases in precuneus and frontal regions. Comparison between structural effects in TG vs. AC was calculated within the mask for general GM changes to obtain specific effects in tinnitus patients, yielding GM increase in right Heschl's gyrus, right Rolandic operculum, and medial superior frontal regions. In line with recent findings on the crucial role of the auditory cortex in maintaining tinnitus-related distress, a causative relation between the therapy-related GM alterations in auditory areas and the long-lasting therapy effects can be assumed. PMID:25745385

  15. Maximizing time from the constraining European Working Time Directive (EWTD): The Heidelberg New Working Time Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Simon; Hinz, Ulf; Wagner, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas; Strothmann, Hendrik; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) has greatly reduced training hours of surgical residents, which translates into 30% less surgical and clinical experience. Such a dramatic drop in attendance has serious implications such compromised quality of medical care. As the surgical department of the University of Heidelberg, our goal was to establish a model that was compliant with the EWTD while avoiding reduction in quality of patient care and surgical training. We first performed workload analyses and performance statistics for all working areas of our department (operation theater, emergency room, specialized consultations, surgical wards and on-call duties) using personal interviews, time cards, medical documentation software as well as data of the financial- and personnel-controlling sector of our administration. Using that information, we specifically designed an EWTD-compatible work model and implemented it. Surgical wards and operating rooms (ORs) were not compliant with the EWTD. Between 5 pm and 8 pm, three ORs were still operating two-thirds of the time. By creating an extended work shift (7:30 am-7:30 pm), we effectively reduced the workload to less than 49% from 4 pm and 8 am, allowing the combination of an eight-hour working day with a 16-hour on call duty; thus, maximizing surgical resident training and ensuring patient continuity of care while maintaining EDTW guidelines. A precise workload analysis is the key to success. The Heidelberg New Working Time Model provides a legal model, which, by avoiding rotating work shifts, assures quality of patient care and surgical training.

  16. Heidelberg’s relevance for a postmodern age: The doctrine of Scripture in the Heidelberg Catechism revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlastuin, W.

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the doctrine of Scripture is ongoing. In this article, the use of Scripture is investigated in the Heidelberg Catechism, a catechism in which there is no explicit statement about Scripture, the notion of the Word refers to the preached Word, and the focus is placed on soteriology and

  17. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkhill, J.; Dougan, G.; James, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans with an annual global burden of approximately 16 million cases, leading to 600,000 fatalities(1). Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface...

  18. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  19. Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadass P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.

  20. Frequency of serovars and antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Peirano

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 296 Shigella spp. were received from State Public Health Laboratories, during the period from 1999 to 2004, by National Reference Laboratory for Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NRLCED - IOC/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The frequency of Shigella spp. was: S. flexneri (52.7%, S. sonnei (44.2%, S. boydii (2.3%, and S. dysenteriae (0.6%. The most frequent S. flexneri serovars were 2a and 1b. The highest incidence rates of Shigella isolation were observed in the Southeast (39% and Northeast (34% regions and the lowest rate in the South (3% of Brazil. Strains were further analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method as part of a surveillance program on antimicrobial resistance. The highest rates of antimicrobial resistance were to trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole (90%, tetracycline (88%, ampicillin (56%, and chloramphenicol (35%. The patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates pose a major difficulty in the determination of an appropriate drug for shigellosis treatment. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Shigella spp. through a surveillance system is thus essential for effective therapy and control measures against shigellosis.

  1. Cloning, expression, and homology modeling of GroEL protein from Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis strain N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C; Timoney, John F

    2011-10-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Leptospira species. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the immunodominant protein GroEL from L. interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2, which was isolated from the urine of a patient during an outbreak of leptospirosis in Chennai, India. This groEL gene encodes a protein of 60 kDa with a high degree of homology (99% similarity) to those of other leptospiral serovars. Recombinant GroEL was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the sera from confirmed leptospirosis patients showed strong reactivity with the recombinant GroEL while no reactivity was observed with the sera from seronegative control patient. In addition, the 3D structure of GroEL was constructed using chaperonin complex cpn60 from Thermus thermophilus as template and validated. The results indicated a Z-score of -8.35, which is in good agreement with the expected value for a protein. The superposition of the Ca traces of cpn60 structure and predicted structure of leptospiral GroEL indicates good agreement of secondary structure elements with an RMSD value of 1.5 Å. Further study is necessary to evaluate GroEL for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis and for its potential as a vaccine component. Copyright © 2011 Beijing Genomics Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi: An Unusual Cause of Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Robson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While typhoid fever is a common infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a rare cause of endocarditis. We describe the case of a 20-year-old male who was treated for a primary episode of microbiologically-confirmed typhoid fever. He presented six weeks post-discharge with fever and lethargy. S. Typhi was again identified in blood cultures, and echocardiography identified a mitral valve lesion. Our case suggests that a relapse of typhoid should prompt further investigation for a deep-seated infection, including consideration of echocardiographic evaluation to rule out infective endocarditis.

  3. A new multivalent (DHPPi/L4R) canine combination vaccine prevents infection, shedding and clinical signs following experimental challenge with four Leptospira serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; King, Vickie; Plevová, Edita; Chromá, Ludmila; Siedek, Elisabeth; Illambas, Joanna; Salt, Jeremy; Sture, Gordon

    2013-06-28

    Although effective vaccines have been developed against the common Leptospira serovars, they are still reported in clinical cases, while others are increasingly prevalent. The results from four challenge studies following vaccination of dogs with a new combination vaccine (DHPPi/L4R) containing inactivated L. serovars, L. canicola, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. bratislava and L. grippotyphosa conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph (01/2008:0447), are reported. Six week old dogs received two vaccinations, three weeks apart, and were challenged 25 days later with different isolates of the L. serovars. Clinical observations were recorded, and blood, urine and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Following challenge, non-vaccinated dogs demonstrated various clinical signs, while no vaccinated dogs were affected; significant differences in mean clinical scores were observed. Measurable antibody titres to each Leptospira antigen were seen in vaccinated dogs 21 days following the first vaccination, with further increases in antibody titres observed following challenge with the respective Leptospira strain. Non-vaccinated dogs remained seronegative until challenge. Leptospira were re-isolated from the blood, urine, kidney and liver of all non-vaccinated dogs following challenge. In contrast no vaccinated dogs had Leptospira re-isolated from the same tissues. Significant differences were seen in number of days with positive isolation (blood and urine) and in number of dogs with positive samples (kidney and liver). In conclusion, vaccination of dogs with the new vaccine induces protective immunity 25 days after second vaccination with protection against infection, renal infection and clinical signs following challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA SEROVARS IN FREE-LIVING SEA LIONS IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND ALONG THE BAJA CALIFORNIA COAST OF MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Atilano-López, Daniel; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Ramírez-Delgado, David; Ramírez-Echenique, María F; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Suzán, Gerardo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2016-04-28

    The California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), a permanent inhabitant of the Gulf of California in Mexico, is susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection, which can result in hepatic and renal damage and may lead to renal failure and death. During summer 2013, we used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in blood of clinically healthy sea lion pups from seven rookery islands on the Pacific Coast of Baja California (Pacific Ocean) and in the Gulf of California. We also used PCR to examine blood for Leptospira DNA. Isolation of Leptospira in liquid media was unsuccessful. We found higher antibody prevalence in sea lions from the rookery islands in the gulf than in those from the Pacific Coast. Antibodies against 11 serovars were identified in the Gulf of California population; the most frequent reactions were against serovars Bataviae (90%), Pyrogenes (86%), Wolffi (86%), Celledoni (71%), and Pomona (65%). In the Pacific Ocean population, MAT was positive against eight serovars, where Wolffi (88%), Pomona (75%), and Bataviae (70%) were the most frequent. Serum samples agglutinated with more than one Leptospira serovar. The maximum titer was 3,200. Each island had a different serology profile, and islands combined showed a distinct profile for each region. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA in 63% of blood samples, but we found no saprophytic Leptospira. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood samples with high and low MAT titers. Together, these two methods enhance the diagnosis and interpretation of sea lion leptospirosis. Our results may be related to human activities or the presence of other reservoirs with which sea lions interact, and they may also be related to sea lion stranding.

  5. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  6. Analysis of mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum serovars resistant to fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Gargiulo, Franco; Biscaro, Valeria; Caccuri, Francesca; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance of Ureaplasma biovars and serovars isolated from urogenital clinical samples and determine the underlying molecular mechanism for quinolone resistance for all resistant isolates. Of 105 samples confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, 85 were resistant to quinolones by the Mycoplasma-IST2 kit. However, only 43 out of 85 quinolone resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in GyrA, GyrB, ParC and ParE proteins underlining that this assay have mis-identified as fluoroquinolone resistant 42 isolates. The known ParC E87K and ParC S83L mutations were found in 1 and 10 isolates, respectively. An original mutation of ureaplasmal ParC (E87Q, 1 isolate) was found. Furthermore, we found a ParE R448K mutation in one isolate, already described. Among the additional alterations detected, the most prevalent mutation found was L176F in GyrA protein in 18 isolates with single infection and in 3 isolates with mixed ureaplasma infections. Mutations in GyrB (E502Q, 4 isolates), ParE (Q412K, Q412P, Q412T, 3 independent isolates), whose role is unknown, were also found. Other sporadic mutations in the four genes were identified. This investigation is the result of monitoring the data for molecular fluoroquinone resistance in Ureaplasma spp. in Italy. Resulting that this acquired resistance is high and that continued local epidemiological studies are essential to monitor and document their antimicrobial resistance trends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Release procedure according to paragraph 29 StrlSchv on example of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II; Durchfuehrung von Freigabeverfahren nach paragraph 29 am Beispiel des TRIGA Heidelberg II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J. [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (SNT) (Germany); Sold, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ) (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this lecture is to show the schedule of a release procedure according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV on the example of the decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II. It is shown on the effort done by the radiation protection representative of this plant. Considering this example, starting with planning, application, survey and execution, the complex context of the release procedure is becomes apparent. Thereby the new applied measuring techniques that require a certain practice and the responsibility of the radiation protection representative in the radiation protection law play a relevant role. In such small facilities as the TRIGA Heidelberg II, the radiation protection staff are employed according to the plant's size and work is focussed on radiation protection research and laboratories. The decommissioning process with its wide range of radiation protection requirements represents new challenges which have to be coordinated with the present duties of the radiation protection representative. The supervision and the responsibility for the release procedure according to paragraph 29 are the largest and the most sensitive part of decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II. (orig.)

  8. Molecular and cellular characterization of a Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi a outbreak strain and the human immune response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Mor, Ohad; Suez, Jotham; Elhadad, Dana; Porwollik, Steffen; Leshem, Eyal; Valinsky, Lea; McClelland, Michael; Schwartz, Eliezer; Rahav, Galia

    2012-02-01

    Enteric fever is an invasive life-threatening systemic disease caused by the Salmonella enterica human-adapted serovars Typhi and Paratyphi. Increasing incidence of infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and the spreading of its antibiotic-resistant derivates pose a significant health concern in some areas of the world. Herein, we describe a molecular and phenotypic characterization of an S. Paratyphi A strain accounted for a recent paratyphoid outbreak in Nepal that affected at least 37 travelers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the outbreak isolates revealed one genetic clone (pulsotype), confirming a single infecting source. Genetic profiling of the outbreak strain demonstrated the contribution of specific bacteriophages as a prime source of genetic diversity among clinical isolates of S. Paratyphi A. Phenotypic characterization in comparison with the S. Paratyphi A ATCC 9150 reference sequenced strain showed differences in flagellar morphology and increased abilities of the outbreak strain with respect to its motility, invasion into nonphagocytic cells, intracellular multiplication, survival within macrophages, and higher induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted by host cells. Collectively, these differences suggest an enhanced virulence potential of this strain and demonstrate an interesting phenotypic variation among S. Paratyphi A isolates. In vivo profiling of 16 inflammatory cytokines in patients infected with the outbreak strain revealed a common profile of a remarkable gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induction together with elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-15, but not IL-12, which was previously demonstrated as elevated in nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. This apparent profile implies a distinct immune response to paratyphoid infections.

  9. Profiling of Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii by SE-AFLP, PFGE and susceptibility testing--a continuous attempt at species and serovar differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-03-09

    Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.

  10. The intensity feedback system at Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoemers, Christian, E-mail: christian.schoemers@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Feldmeier, Eike; Naumann, Jakob; Panse, Ralf; Peters, Andreas; Haberer, Thomas

    2015-09-21

    At Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT), more than 2500 tumour patients have been treated with charged particle beams since 2009 using the raster scanning method. The tumour is irradiated slice-by-slice, each slice corresponding to a different beam energy. For the particle dose of each raster point the pre-irradiation by more distal slices has to be considered. This leads to highly inhomogeneous dose distributions within one iso-energy slice. The particles are extracted from the synchrotron via transverse RF knock-out. A pure feed forward control cannot take into account fluence inhomogeneities or deal with intensity fluctuations. So far, fluctuations have been counteracted by a reduced scanning velocity. We now added a feedback loop to the extraction system. The dose monitoring ionisation chambers in front of the patient have been coupled to the extraction device in the synchrotron. Characterization and implementation of the intensity feedback system into the HIT facility is described here. By its implementation the treatment time has been reduced by 10% in average.

  11. [Evaluation of fundus autofluorescence in hereditary retinal diseases using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côco, Monique; Baba, Natalia Tamie; Sallum, Juliana Maria Ferraz

    2007-01-01

    To define characteristics of the fundus autofluorescence examination, verifying usefulness in the diagnosis and care of hereditary retinal diseases. 28 patients, adults, divided equally into four groups with diagnoses of Stargardt macular dystrophy, cone dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa and healthy volunteers for the establishment of the normality pattern. An average of nine images with the filter for fluorescein angiography was obtained for the formation of the image autofluorescence using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph2. The images of each group of patients were analyzed to verify common characteristics. The fundus autofluorescence of healthy volunteers showed the foveal area darker than the surrounding retina. The images of Stargardt macular dystrophy, in general, presented an oval central lesion, with reduced autofluorescence. The main alterations of the autofluorescence in patients with cone dystrophy were reduced foveal autofluorescence with a parafoveal ring of increased autofluorescence. In general, the images of retinitis pigmentosa showed outlying pigments with reduced autofluorescence, and of the foveal area, in some cases disorganization or reduced autofluorescence. The study showed the existence of patterns of fundus autofluorescence in the hereditary retinal diseases that allow the diagnosis and better interpretation of the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  12. The joy at the Last Judgement according to the Heidelberg Catechism Question 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Busch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the author reflects on Question 52 of the Heidelberg Catechism where it asks: ‘What comfort is it to you that Christ “shall come to judge the living and the dead”?’ The author points out possible sources from which this formulation stems, that is, Articles 86 and 87 in John Calvin’s Catechism from 1545. God is described as a compassionate judge. Even more: the One who is the last judge, was also judged and had paid for our sins. In a dialectical fashion we discover a God who is just, but also merciful. The Reformed tradition did not follow a dead-end where it is taught that God shows us grace instead of righteousness. Had God proceeded in this way, he would only mean things well, but he would not make them well. The realisation of God being just and merciful leads to joy and repentance. The contribution ends with a discussion of the final separation of the just and evil.

  13. Low Energy Electron Cooling and Accelerator Physics for the Heidelberg CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadil, H.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, R. von; Orlov, D.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently under construction at MPI-K in Heidelberg. The CSR is an electrostatic ring with a total circumference of about 34 m, straight section length of 2.5 m and will store ions in the 20 ∼ 300 keV energy range (E/Q). The cryogenic system in the CSR is expected to cool the inner vacuum chamber down to 2 K. The CSR will be equipped with an electron cooler which has also to serve as an electron target for high resolution recombination experiments. In this paper we present the results of numerical investigations of the CSR lattice with finite element calculations of the deflection and focusing elements of the ring. We also present a layout of the CSR electron cooler which will have to operate in low energy mode to cool 20 keV protons in the CSR, as well as numerical estimations of the cooling times to be expected with this device

  14. Analysis of retinal nerve fibre layer changes in anisometropic amblyopia by Heidelberg retina tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.; Afzal, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify if anisometropic amblyopia is associated with changes in optic disk morphology. Methods: The study comprised a total of 80 eyes recruited from Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad between May and October 2012. Anisometropic amblyopia was the only cause of disability (visual acuity >6/12) in amblyopic eyes whereas normal eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6 and no morbidities. Patients with other causes of amblyopia, co-morbid ocular diseases, and in whom a good-quality image could not be obtained were excluded. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was analysed using Heidelberg retina tomograph. Analysis of frequency distribution, probability and regression were run on the data collected during the study using SPSS version 15.0. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.85+-5.85 years. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness ranged between 0.09mm and 0.35 mm (mean: 0.23mm+-0.07) in amblyopic eyes, and between 0.18mm and 0.36mm (mean: 0.25mm+-0.05) in normal eyes. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.087). No association was found between the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness or the age and refractive error of patients. Conclusion: The optic disk does not appear to be the site of morphological changes in amblyopia. (author)

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT SALMONELLA SEROVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eLosasso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses in humans worldwide. Consequently, great interest exists in reducing its impact on human health by lowering its prevalence in the food chain. Antimicrobial formulations in the form of nanoparticles exert bactericidal action due to their enhanced reactivity resultant from their high surface/volume ratio. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to be highly toxic to Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug resistant bacteria. However, few data concerning their success against different Salmonella serovars are available. Aims of the present study were to test the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNPs, against Salmonella Enteritidis, Hadar and Senftenberg, and to investigate the causes of their different survival abilities from a molecular point of view.Results showed an immediate, time-limited and serovar-dependent reduction of bacterial viability. In the case of S. Senftenberg, the reduction in numbers was observed for up to 4 h of incubation in the presence of 200 mg/L of AgNPs; on the contrary, S. Enteritidis and S. Hadar resulted to be inhibited for up to 48 h. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated the constitutive expression of the plasmidic silver resistance determinant (SilB by S. Senftenberg, thus suggesting the importance of a cautious use of AgNPs.

  16. DETERMINASI SEROVAR BAKTERI LEPTOSPIRA PADA RESERVOIR DI KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Leptospirosis transmitted to human through direct contact with body fluids of infected animals or indirectly through contaminated puddles . The prevalence of leptospirosis in Banyumas tends to increase for 3 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the leptospira serovar in reservoir to prove of a current infection. Surveys was conducted using single live traps for three consecutive days, determination of leptospira serovar was conducted using Microscopic Aglutination Test (MAT. Data analysis was performed by univariate and presented in tables and graphs. The results showed that the trapped animals consisted of Rattus tanezumi (70.6% and Suncus murinus (29.4% with 6.5% succsess trap. Rattus tanezumi were dominantly caught inside the house (51% than outside the house (49%. Female rats were dominantly caught (66.7% than male rats (33.3%. Suncus murinus and Rattus tanezumi shown a titer of 1/100 to be infected with L.icterohaemorrhagiae , L.javanica and L.cynopteri which are pathogenic Leptospira in humans. Efforts are needed to improve community participation in preventing tranmission of leptospirosis by avoiding contact with contaminated water and soil. For people who are risk of exposure to infected animal should wear protective clothes or footwear.

  17. The Use of a Combined Bioinformatics Approach to Locate Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Plasmids From Whole Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovars From Humans in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Kudirkiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we identified plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in draft whole genome sequences of 16 selected Salmonella enterica isolates representing six different serovars from humans in Ghana. The plasmids and the location of resistance genes in the genomes were predicted using a combination of PlasmidFinder, ResFinder, plasmidSPAdes and BLAST genomic analysis tools. Subsequently, S1-PFGE was employed for analysis of plasmid profiles. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella isolates showing multidrug resistance phenotypically. ESBL, either blaTEM52−B or blaCTX−M15 were present in two cephalosporin resistant isolates of S. Virchow and S. Poona, respectively. The systematic genome analysis revealed the presence of different plasmids in different serovars, with or without insertion of antimicrobial resistance genes. In S. Enteritidis, resistance genes were carried predominantly on plasmids of IncN type, in S. Typhimurium on plasmids of IncFII(S/IncFIB(S/IncQ1 type. In S. Virchow and in S. Poona, resistance genes were detected on plasmids of IncX1 and TrfA/IncHI2/IncHI2A type, respectively. The latter two plasmids were described for the first time in these serovars. The combination of genomic analytical tools allowed nearly full mapping of the resistance plasmids in all Salmonella strains analyzed. The results suggest that the improved analytical approach used in the current study may be used to identify plasmids that are specifically associated with resistance phenotypes in whole genome sequences. Such knowledge would allow the development of rapid multidrug resistance tracking tools in Salmonella populations using WGS.

  18. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea in Queensland, Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Skelly, Chris; Dohnt, Michael; Smythe, Lee D

    2015-06-14

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease, with increasing frequency and severity of outbreaks, changing epidemiology of populations at risk, and the emergence of new serovars. Environmental drivers of disease transmission include flooding, urbanisation, poor sanitation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, and socioeconomic factors. In Queensland, human infection with Leptosira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea was first reported in 2001. This study aims to report the emergence of serovar Arborea in Queensland from 2001 to 2013, and investigate potential risk factors for infection and drivers of emergence. Data on laboratory-confirmed cases of human leptospirosis in Queensland were obtained from the enhanced surveillance system at the WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis in Brisbane, Australia. The changing epidemiology of serovar Arborea from 2001 to 2003 was described with respect to case numbers, proportion of leptospirosis cases attributed to the serovar, and geographic distribution. Differences in risk factors for the most common serovars were compared. During this period, 1289 cases of leptospirosis were reported, including 233 cases attributed to serovar Arborea. Risk factors for infection include male gender (91 % of cases), occupation, and recreational exposure. Most common occupations recorded were banana workers (28.4 %), meat workers (7.2 %), dairy farmers (5.8 %), graziers/stockmen (5.5 %), 'other agricultural/rural workers' (16.4 %), and tourists or tourism operators (4.6 %). Time trend analysis showed that while non-Arborea cases decreased over the study period, Arborea cases increased by 3.4 cases per year. The proportion of annual cases attributed to Arborea peaked at 49 % in 2011 after unprecedented flooding in Queensland. Mapping of cases by residential location showed expansion of the geographic range of serovar Arborea, concentrating mostly around Brisbane, Cairns and Innisfail. Serovars

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid. Copyright © 2015 Silva et al.

  20. Expression and characterization of recombinant leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL32 from Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Konghom, Ganokrot; Mongkolsiri, Kaveewan; Jirapongwattana, Chanin; Balachandra, Kruavon; Naigowit, Pimjai; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2009-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis, a causative agent of leptospirosis in Thailand, was isolated from a patient for DNA extraction and amplification of LipL32 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 782 bp PCR product was obtained, which was inserted into pAE plasmid with polyhistidine (His6 tag) to construct pAE-LipL32. This recombinant plasmid was transfected into E. coli BL21 (DE3). His6-LipL32 was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used as antigen for testing with sera from leptospirosis and syphilis patients by dot-ELISA technique. It reacted positively with leptospirosis patient sera and negatively with syphilis and healthy sera.

  1. Cross-Contamination and Biofilm Formation by Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Various Cutting Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Stéfani T A; Rossi, Bruna F; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Castilho, Ivana G; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Fernandes, Ary; Rall, Vera L M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-contamination is one of the main factors related to foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to analyze the cross-contamination process of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry to cucumbers, on various cutting board surfaces (plastic, wood, and glass) before and after washing and in the presence and absence of biofilm. Thus, 10 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were used to test cross-contamination from poultry to the cutting boards and from thereon to cucumbers. Moreover, these strains were evaluated as to their capacity to form biofilm on hydrophobic (wood and plastic) and hydrophilic materials (glass). We recovered the 10 isolates from all unwashed boards and from all cucumbers that had contacted them. After washing, the recovery ranged from 10% to 100%, depending on the board material. In the presence of biofilm, the recovery of salmonellae was 100%, even after washing. Biofilm formation occurred more on wood (60%) and plastic (40%) than glass (10%) boards, demonstrating that bacteria adhered more to a hydrophobic material. It was concluded that the cutting boards represent a critical point in cross-contamination, particularly in the presence of biofilm. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to form a biofilm on these three types of cutting boards but glass showed the least formation.

  2. Agreement among graders on Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) topographic change analysis (TCA) glaucoma progression interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iester, Michele M; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate agreement among experts of Heidelberg retina tomography's (HRT) topographic change analysis (TCA) printout interpretations of glaucoma progression and explore methods for improving agreement. 109 eyes of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect and healthy subjects with ≥5 visits and 2 good quality HRT scans acquired at each visit were enrolled. TCA printouts were graded as progression or non-progression. Each grader was presented with 2 sets of tests: a randomly selected single test from each visit and both tests from each visit. Furthermore, the TCA printouts were classified with grader's individual criteria and with predefined criteria (reproducible changes within the optic nerve head, disregarding changes along blood vessels or at steep rim locations and signs of image distortion). Agreement among graders was modelled using common latent factor measurement error structural equation models for ordinal data. Assessment of two scans per visit without using the predefined criteria reduced overall agreement, as indicated by a reduction in the slope, reflecting the correlation with the common factor, for all graders with no effect on reducing the range of the intercepts between the graders. Using the predefined criteria improved grader agreement, as indicated by the narrower range of intercepts among the graders compared with assessment using individual grader's criteria. A simple set of predefined common criteria improves agreement between graders in assessing TCA progression. The inclusion of additional scans from each visit does not improve the agreement. We, therefore, recommend setting standardised criteria for TCA progression evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Iron-regulated proteins (IRPS of leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I

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    Sritharan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been shown to induce the expression of siderophores and their receptors, the iron-regulated membrane proteins in a number of bacterial systems. In this study, the response of Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I to conditions of iron deprivation was assessed and the expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two methods were used for establishing conditions of iron deprivation. One method consisted of addition of the iron chelators ethylenediamine-N, N′-diacetic acid (EDDA and ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHPA and the second method involved the addition of iron at 0.02 µg Fe/mL. Alternatively, iron sufficient conditions were achieved by omitting the chelators in the former method and adding 4 µg Fe/mL of the medium in the latter protocol. Triton X-114 extraction of the cells was done to isolate the proteins in the outer membrane (detergent phase, periplasmic space (aqueous phase and the protoplasmic cylinder (cell pellet. The proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis. RESULTS: In the presence of the iron-chelators, four iron-regulated proteins (IRPs of apparent molecular masses of 82, 64, 60 and 33 kDa were expressed. The 82-kDa protein was seen only in the aqueous phase, while the other three proteins were seen in both the aqueous and detergent fractions. These proteins were not identified in organisms grown in the absence of the iron chelators. The 64, 60 and the 33 kDa proteins were also demonstrated in organisms grown in media with 0.02 µg Fe/mL. In addition, a 24 kDa protein was found to be down-regulated at this concentration of iron as compared to the high level of expression in organisms grown with 4 µg Fe/mL. The blue CAS agar plates with top agar containing 0.02µg Fe/mL showed a colour change to orange-red. CONCLUSION: The expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins under conditions of iron deprivation

  4. Prevalence and epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum from poultry in some parts of Haryana, India

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    Devan Arora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was investigated to ascertain the epidemiological status of fowl typhoid (FT in broilers in some parts of Haryana during January 2011 to December 2013. Materials and Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological status of FT in broiler chickens for the 3 years (2011-2013 and to study the prevalence of various Salmonella serovars in poultry on the basis of culture characteristics, biochemical features, serotyping, and their antibiogram profile from some parts of Haryana (India. Results: A total of 309 outbreaks of FT were recorded in chickens during this period. Overall percent morbidity, mortality, case-fatality rate (CFR in broiler chicks due to FT during this period was 9.45, 6.77, and 71.55. The yearly observations were divided into quarters A (January-March, B (April-June, C (July-September and D (October-December. Maximum number of outbreaks - 106 (34.3% was recorded in quarter D followed by quarters B - 84 (27.3%, C - 64 (20.7%, and A - 55 (17.7%. Salmonella isolates (253 were recovered from disease outbreaks in broilers from different parts of Haryana. Typical morphology and colony characters on MacConkeys Lactose Agar and Brilliant Green agar, biochemical reactions, serotyping along with antibiogram profiles were able to group these isolates into 3 groups namely Salmonella Gallinarum (183, Salmonella Enteritidis (41 and Salmonella Typhimurium (29. The antibiogram pattern of 183 isolates of S. Gallinarum revealed that most of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin (76% followed by amikacin (72%, kanamycin (71%. Conclusion: FT is prevalent in commercial broiler flocks in different parts of Haryana and is responsible for considerably high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. Isolation of S. Gallinarum (9, 12:183 from FT cases suggest it to be the primary pathogen, however, isolation of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis from these cases is a major concern. The detection of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium from

  5. Multiple‐locus variable‐number tandem repeat analysis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, M. K.; Torpdahl, M.; Campos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella serovar Dublin causes disease in cattle and leads to considerable production losses. In humans, severe invasive disease and high mortality rates are reported. The presently available typing methods provide insufficient discrimination within Salm. Dublin for epidemiological investigatio...

  6. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio A; Fernandes, Érika F S T; Santana, Sandra C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Barros, Mércia R; Vilela, Sineide M O; Reis, Eliane M F; Mota, Rinaldo A; Silva, Jean C R

    2018-03-03

    The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Coinfection in Male Patients with Urethritis in Greece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogeorgakis, Helen; Pittaras, Theodore E.; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Katsambas, Andreas; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection was studied in a group of 100 C. trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece. The serovar distribution revealed that apart from the predominant worldwide types E and F, the relatively uncommon type G is also prevalent. Gonococcal coinfection was frequent (30%) and was associated with genovariant Ja (75%, P = 0.008). PMID:20357220

  8. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lenice Roteia Cardoso; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini

    2015-06-01

    Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars.

  10. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Roteia Cardoso Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars.

  12. Persistence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT12 clone in a piggery and in agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baloda, Suraj B.; Christensen, Lise; Trajcevska, Silvija

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence of Salmonella enterica on a Danish pig farm presenting recurrent infections was investigated. A comparison of the pulsed-held gel electrophoresis patterns of fecal isolates from piggeries, waste slurry, and agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated animal waste (slurry......) and subclinical isolates from the same farm (collected in 1996 and later) showed identical patterns, indicating long-term persistence of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 clone in the herd environment. Furthermore, when Salmonella-contaminated slurry was disposed of on the agricultural soil (a...... common waste disposal practice), the pathogen was isolated up to 14 days after the spread, indicating potentially high risks of transmission of the pathogen in the environment, animals, and humans....

  13. Molecular analysis of Leptospira spp. isolated from humans by restriction fragment length polymorphism, real-time PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Milas, Zoran; Mojcec, Vesna; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; Staresina, Vilim; Stritof, Zrinka; Habus, Josipa; Postic, Daniele

    2009-11-01

    A total of 17 Leptospira clinical strains isolated from humans in Croatia were serologically and genetically analysed. For serovar identification, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used. To identify isolates on genomic species level, PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time PCR were performed. MAT revealed the following serogroup affinities: Grippotyphosa (seven isolates), Icterohaemorrhagiae (eight isolates) and Javanica (two isolates). RFLP of PCR products from a 331-bp-long fragment of rrs (16S rRNA gene) digested with endonucleases MnlI and DdeI and real-time PCR revealed three Leptospira genomic species. Grippotyphosa isolates belonged to Leptospira kirschneri, Icterohaemorrhagiae isolates to Leptospira interrogans and Javanica isolates to Leptospira borgpetersenii. Genomic DNA from 17 leptospiral isolates was digested with NotI and SgrAI restriction enzymes and analysed by PFGE. Results showed that seven isolates have the same binding pattern to serovar Grippotyphosa, eight isolates to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two isolates to serovar Poi. Results demonstrate the diversity of leptospires circulating in Croatia. We point out the usefulness of a combination of PFGE, RFLP and real-time PCR as appropriate molecular methods in molecular analysis of leptospires.

  14. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  15. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  16. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest

  17. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Enhances Task-Negative Activity in Tinnitus Patients

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    Christoph M. Krick

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suffering from tinnitus causes mental distress in most patients. Recent findings point toward a diminished activity of the brain's default-mode network (DMN in subjects with mental disorders including depression or anxiety and also recently in subjects with tinnitus-related distress. We recently developed a therapeutic intervention, namely the Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy (HNMT, which shows an effective reduction of tinnitus-related distress following a 1-week short-term treatment. This approach offers the possibility to evaluate the neural changes associated with the improvements in tinnitus distress. We previously reported gray matter (GM reorganization in DMN regions and in primary auditory areas following HNMT in cases of recent-onset tinnitus. Here we evaluate on the same patient group, using functional MRI (fMRI, the activity of the DMN following the improvements tinnitus-related distress related to the HNMT intervention.Methods: The DMN activity was estimated by the task-negative activation (TNA during long inter-trial intervals in a word recognition task. The level of TNA was evaluated twice, before and after the 1-week study period, in 18 treated tinnitus patients (“treatment group,” TG, 21 passive tinnitus controls (PTC, and 22 active healthy controls (AC. During the study, the participants in TG and AC groups were treated with HNMT, whereas PTC patients did not receive any tinnitus-specific treatment. Therapy-related effects on DMN activity were assessed by comparing the pairs of fMRI records from the TG and PTC groups.Results: Treatment of the TG group with HNMT resulted in an augmented DMN activity in the PCC by 2.5% whereas no change was found in AC and PTC groups. This enhancement of PCC activity correlated with a reduction in tinnitus distress (Spearman Rho: −0.5; p < 0.005.Conclusion: Our findings show that an increased DMN activity, especially in the PCC, underlies the improvements in tinnitus

  18. Staff review of 'Radioecological assessment of the Wyhl nuclear power plant': Analysis of the report prepared by the University of Heidelberg, West Germany. Draft summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congel, F.J.; Cardile, F.P.; Zalcman, B.; Pasciak, W.J.; Chu, A.

    1980-06-01

    The Heidelberg Report presents an assessment of the environmental radiological impact of a proposed pressurized-water reactor to be built near Wyhl, West Germany. The assessment is based largely on mathematical models that are used to calculate doses to humans in the area surrounding a reactor site and describe the movement of radioactive materials in the environment. These are the same mathematical models that are used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in licensing reactors in the United States. The NRC uses these models to make sure that any radiation exposure due to a reactor is far below national and international recommended 'safe' levels, as well as below natural radiation levels. The NRC staff reviewed certain parts of the Heidelberg Report because the report implied that the NRC may be substantially underestimating doses to individuals living near nuclear power plants by using incorrect values for parameters in the mathematical models. Although the Heidelberg Report assessment is based largely on environmental models described in four NRC Regulatory Guides, the NRC staff's review of the Heidelberg Report indicates that the Heidelberg authors used values for some model parameters that are too high

  19. Relationship of Triamine-Biocide Tolerance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg to Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Serum Resistance and Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futoma-Kołoch, Bożena; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Kapczyńska, Katarzyna; Krzyżewska, Eva; Wańczyk, Martyna; Korzekwa, Kamila; Rybka, Jacek; Klausa, Elżbieta; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2017-07-11

    A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg ( S. Senftenberg) strains to triamine-containing disinfectant did not result in variants with resistance to antibiotics, but has changed their susceptibility to normal human serum (NHS). Three biocide variants developed reduced sensitivity to NHS in comparison to the sensitive parental strains, while two isolates lost their resistance to serum. For S. Senftenberg, which exhibited the highest triamine tolerance (6 × MIC) and intrinsic sensitivity to 22.5% and 45% NHS, a downregulation of flagellin and enolase has been demonstrated, which might suggest a lower adhesion and virulence of the bacteria. This is the first report demonstrating the influence of biocide tolerance on NHS resistance. In conclusion, there was a potential in S. Senftenberg to adjust to the conditions, where the biocide containing triamine was present. However, the adaptation did not result in the increase of antibiotic resistance, but manifested in changes within outer membrane proteins' patterns. The strategy of bacterial membrane proteins' analysis provides an opportunity to adjust the ways of infection treatments, especially when it is connected to the life-threating bacteremia caused by Salmonella species.

  20. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James W; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John; Polglase, Graeme R; Kallapur, Suhas G; Pillow, J Jane; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Knox, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA), a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic) and short term (acute) durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7) colony-forming-units (CFU) of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up) or media controls (C) were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4); day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2); and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2) of gestation (term = 145-150d). At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i) snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up) or very few MBA variants (7d Up) were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion), during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  1. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Robinson

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA, a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic and short term (acute durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7 colony-forming-units (CFU of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up or media controls (C were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4; day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2; and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2 of gestation (term = 145-150d. At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up or very few MBA variants (7d Up were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion, during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Kolkata, India, and In Vitro Experiments on Effect of Combined Chemotherapy

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    Shyamapada Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication states the changing patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi isolates causing enteric fever in and around Kolkata, India. Among the isolates resistance to ampicillin (A, chloramphenicol (C, cotrimoxazole (Co and tetracycline (T were plasmid mediated; the plasmid was unstable in S. Typhi, and the other enteric bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris were found to be the potential source of dissemination of such plasmids into S. Typhi. The infection with such S. Typhi strains were successfully treated with ciprofloxacin (Cp: MICs 0.0075–0.075 μg mL−1 and/or ofloxacin (Ofx: MICs 0.0125–0.075 μg mL−1, but in the later course, the S. Typhi strains, showing resistance to nalidixic acid, developed low level of resistance to Cp and Ofx, causing the treatment failure. Thus, the treatment regimen was shifted to the third generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone (Ct and cefotaxime (Cf. Keeping in mind the anticipation of development of resistance to Ct/Cf, we prepared the treatment regimen for MDR enteric fever, based on the double-drug synergy tests in vitro; Cp-gentamycin (FICI 0.121–0.216 and Cp-trimethoprim (FICI 0.14–0.483 combinations were found effective against S. Typhi isolates having decreased sensitivity to cp (MICs: 0.5–1.25 μg mL−1.

  3. A hermeneutical reflection on the resurrection of Jesus Christ in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism

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    Kobus Labuschagne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to elaborate hermeneutically on the different historical contexts, related the one to the other and to the centre point of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism. The aim is not only to find the true meaning that the Heidelberg Catechism intends to convey in the mentioned question and answer, but also to explain the underlying hermeneutical thinking as well as to bring to the surface and explain alternative assumptions that ordinary church-going Christians experience as the unusual outcome of an unknown and different kind of approach. Different hermeneutical processes lead to different outcomes of understanding − sometimes worlds apart. Vanuit die sentrale punt van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in vraag en antwoord 45 van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, wil hierdie artikel in ’n hermeneutiese besinning oor die verskillende verbandhoudende historiese kontekste uitbrei. Die doel is nie slegs om die ware betekenis te vind van wat die Heidelbergse Kategismus in genoemde vraag en antwoord poog om weer te gee nie, maar ook om die onderliggende hermeneutiese denke te verduidelik en alternatiewe aannames, wat gewone Christen-kerkgangers as ’n vreemde en verskillende benaderings ervaar, na die oppervlakte te bring en te verduidelik. Verskillende hermeneutiese prosesse lei tot verskillende uitkomste van verstaan – soms wêrelde van mekaar verwyderd.

  4. Evaluation of the use of selective PCR amplification of LPS biosynthesis genes for molecular typing of leptospira at the serovar level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra da Silva, Josefa; Carvalho, Eneas; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Ho, Paulo L.

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important epidemic zoonosis worldwide. Currently, there are more than 250 Leptospira pathogenic serovars known that can potentially infect humans. Conventional classification of leptospires with the serovar as the basic taxon, based on serological recognition of

  5. Immunological and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from a bovine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Ridieri, Karine Forster; Jorge, Sérgio; Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; Hartwig, Daiane Drawanz; Amaral, Marta Gonçalves; Hartleben, Cláudia Pinho; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Cattle are commonly infected with pathogenic leptospires, and similarly to rodents, they excrete the bacteria in their urine and can transmit the pathogen from animal to animal or animal to human. Thus, surveillance and monitoring systems for detection of new Leptospira serovars are important for the control of leptospirosis. Here, we report the isolation of a spirochete from a stillborn bovine foetus and its characterization by immunological and molecular techniques. A variable number tandem repeat profile using seven discriminatory primers identified the spirochete as belonging to species Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis serovar Muenchen. A phenotypic analysis using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against leptospiral membrane-associated proteins confirmed the expression of important virulence and pathogenicity factors (LipL32 and LigBrep). Out of 120 reference sera tested, 22 positive (36.66%) and 9 negative (15%) also reacted with the new isolate. Furthermore, the serovar Muenchen isolate was virulent in hamster model. The animal inoculated developed acute lethal infection characterized by hepatic, pulmonary and renal lesions. Local isolates exhibited unique characteristics that differed from those of reference strains; therefore, isolation of leptospires is useful in the surveillance of local pathogenic serovars. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study can contribute to the epidemiological understanding and control of leptospirosis in southern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indicadores de calidad sanitaria y fenotipificación de Salmonella enterica aislada de pollo crudo comercializado en el área urbana de Mérida, Venezuela Sanitary quality indicators and phenotyping of Salmonella enterica isolated from raw chickens marketed in urban area of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldy Molina

    2010-09-01

    , Venezuela and characterize the phenotype of isolated Samonella enterica strains. Materials and methods: A total of 45 raw chicken samples were studied; 15 of them were without seasoning, 15 were with seasoning, and 15 were industrially processed. The following sanitary quality indicators were assessed: Mesophiles Aerobic Bacteria (MAB, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, and the Venezuelan Commission of Industrial Norms methodology was used for that purpose. Microbiological and serological identification of Salmonella was carried out using conventional techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the detection of extended-spectrum β- lactamases (ESBLs was carried out by using the double disc synergy test. Susceptibility to disinfectants was determined by the dilution-neutralization method. Results. Regardless of the (not industrial samples’ characteristics and/or the commercial establishment, it was determined that the ranges for MAB, total coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts significantly exceeded limits of acceptability. Strains of Salmonella enterica were isolated in 20% of the samples, whose distribution showed that serovars Heidelberg (55.6% and Enteritidis (22.2% were the most frequent. These serovars showed multi-resistance to antibiotics and ESBLs production but were susceptible to the tested disinfectants. Conclusion. This study showed that raw chickens, with and without seasoning, processed in the surveyed commercial establishments do not meet the required microbiological quality standards suitable for human consumption. Therefore, these are short-term perishable products and a haven for important pathogens that threaten consumer health.

  7. rpoS-Regulated core genes involved in the competitive fitness of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in the intestines of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Pedroso, Adriana Ayres; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Lee, Margie D; Kwan, Tiffany; Zamperini, Katherine; Soni, Vivek; Sellers, Holly S; Russell, Scott M; Maurer, John J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has become the most frequently isolated serovar from poultry in the United States over the past decade. Despite its prevalence in poultry, it causes few human illnesses in the United States. The dominance of S. Kentucky in poultry does not appear to be due to single introduction of a clonal strain, and its reduced virulence appears to correlate with the absence of virulence genes grvA, sseI, sopE, and sodC1. S. Kentucky's prevalence in poultry is possibly attributable to its metabolic adaptation to the chicken cecum. While there were no difference in the growth rate of S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium grown microaerophilically in cecal contents, S. Kentucky persisted longer when chickens were coinfected with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo advantage that S. Kentucky has over S. Typhimurium appears to be due to differential regulation of core Salmonella genes via the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS. Microarray analysis of Salmonella grown in cecal contents in vitro identified several metabolic genes and motility and adherence genes that are differentially activated in S. Kentucky. The contributions of four of these operons (mgl, prp, nar, and csg) to Salmonella colonization in chickens were assessed. Deletion of mgl and csg reduced S. Kentucky persistence in competition studies in chickens infected with wild-type or mutant strains. Subtle mutations affecting differential regulation of core Salmonella genes appear to be important in Salmonella's adaptation to its animal host and especially for S. Kentucky's emergence as the dominant serovar in poultry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

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    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  9. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

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    Hung-Chih Kuo

    Full Text Available We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 48 (44% had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  10. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chen, Chiou-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chen; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Kuo, Jung-Che; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-01-01

    We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 48 (44%) had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  11. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2018-04-08

    Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance-namely KPC ( Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) (class A), IMP (imipenemase), NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (class B), and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D)-have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids), together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these "last resort" antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical “last resort” antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter, which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients, carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance—namely KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (class A, IMP (imipenemase, NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (class B, and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D—have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids, together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these “last resort” antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  13. A Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo vaccine induces a Th1 response, activates NK cells, and reduces renal colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic infection of cattle with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo reduces animal production through reproductive failure and presents a persistent health threat to workers in the animal industry. Cattle are maintenance hosts for serovar Hardjo and development of a protective vaccine has bee...

  14. Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

  15. Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad eGal-Mor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica represent major disease burdens worldwide. This highly ubiquitous species consists of more than 2600 different serovars that can be divided into typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serovars. Despite their genetic similarity, these two groups elicit very different diseases and distinct immune responses in humans. Comparative analyses of the genomes of multiple Salmonella serovars have begun to explain the basis of the variation in disease manifestations. Recent advances in modeling both enteric fever and intestinal gastroenteritis in mice will facilitate investigation into both the bacterial- and host-mediated mechanisms involved in salmonelloses. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for differences in disease outcome will augment our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis, host immunity, and the molecular basis of host specificity. This review outlines the differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and the human immune response to typhoidal and NTS infections and summarizes the current thinking on why these differences might exist.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of 64 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis Isolates from Mice in US

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 has rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food-safety and public health concern. Here, we report a complete genome sequence of a CipR S. Kentucky ST198 strain PU131 isolated from a ...

  17. Cloning and Sequencing of Gene Encoding Outer Membrane Lipoprotein LipL41 of Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Grippotyphosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Soltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Development of reliable and applicable diagnostic test and also recombinant vaccine for this disease require specific antigens that are highly conserved among diverse pathogenic leptospiral serovars. Outer membrane proteins(OMPs of leptospira are effective antigens which can stimulate remarkable immune responses during infection, among them LipL41 is an immunogenic lipoprotein which is present only in pathogenic serovars so it could be regarded as a good candidate for vaccine development and diagnostic method. In order to identify genetic conservation of the lipL41 gene, we cloned and sequenced this gen from Leptospira interrogans serovar vaccinal and field of Grippotyphosa. Materials and Methods: Leptospira interrogans serovar vaccinal Grippotyphosa (RTCC2808 and serovar field Grippotyphosa (RTCC2825were used to inoculate into the selective culture medium(EMJH. The genomic DNA was extracted by standard phenol-chloroform method. The lipL41 gene were amplified by specific primers and cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and transformed into the competent E. coli (Top10 cells. the extracted recombinant plasmid were sequenced. And the related sequences were subjected to homology analysis by comparing them to sequences in the Genbank database. Results: PCR amplification of the lipL41 gene resulted in the 1065 bp PCR product. DNA sequence analysis revealed that lipL41 gene between serovar vaccinal Grippotyphosa (RTCC2808and serovar field Grippotyphosa (RTCC2825 in Iran was 100%. It was also showed that the lipL41 gene had high identity (96%-100% with other pathogenic serovars submitted in Genbank database. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the lipL41 gene was highly conserved among various pathogenic Leptospira serovars( >95.9 % identity. Hence the cloned gene could be further used for expression of recombinant protein for serodiagnosis

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica isolated from pet dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisanga, Songsak; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Sringam, Patcharee; Le Ho, Phuong T.; Vo, An T. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 122), including 32 serotypes from 113 dogs and 9 cats, were obtained from household dogs (n = 250) and cats (n = 50) during 2012–2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping and genotyping, and virulence gene screening. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common. The majority (43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequent (66.7%). The only class integron in serovar Albany was located on a conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL-producing isolates (i.e., a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried blaTEM and blaCTX-M, and the blaTEM gene in both was horizontally transferred. Of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. Most Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%), and sipB (91%). Positive associations between resistance and virulence genes were observed for blaPSE-1/orgA, cmlA/spaN, tolC, and sul1/tolC (p resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals may select for the examined Salmonella virulence factors. PMID:27586467

  19. Development of the leptospirosis by experimental infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, strain LO4, by intact and scratched skin exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and evolution of leptospirosis in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus by experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, LO4 strain, by intact and scratched skin exposures, having as control the intraperitoneal route, were evaluated. Hundred-twenty female hamsters distributed in two groups according to inoculation route (intact and scratched skin were used. Infectious inoculum was constituted by a pure culture of L. interrogans serovar Canicola (strain LO4, isolated from liver from a slaughtered swine in Londrina, Paraná state and typified by agglutinins adsortion technique with monoclonal antibody kit at the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The animals were observed twice a day during 21 days. Animals that died were necropsied and kidneys, liver, genital tract (uterus and ovaries and brain were aseptically collected. On the 21st post-inoculation day, surviving animals were euthanized. In these animals, serum samples were also collected by cardiac puncture to antileptospires agglutinins research using microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Fresh direct microscopy and microbiological culture were used for the detection of leptospires. Scratched skin route induced larger lethality when compared to intact skin route, with establishment and evolution of leptospirosis. On the other hand, intact skin route induced renal and/or genital carrier state more frequently. LO4 strain presented low immunogenic power, characterized by soroconversion at the MAT in only one inoculated animal.

  20. Search for cold and hot dark matter with the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, HDMS, GENIUS and GENIUS-TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Dietz, A.; Krivosheina, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The recent result from the Heidelberg-Moscow double beta experiment allows neutrinos still to play an important role as hot dark matter in the Universe. HDMS has started in 2001 its search for cold dark matter (WIMPS), with a HPGe crystal of enriched 73 Ge. Concerning hot dark matter, GENIUS will improve the present accuracy for the (effective) neutrino mass. At the same time GENIUS will extend the range of sensitivity in an unprecedented way to cover a wide range of the parameter space of SUSY parameters for neutralinos as cold dark matter. A GENIUS Test Facility in the Gran Sasso has been approved in 2001 and will come into operation by end of 2002. Finally some comments are given to some criticism of the result presented elsewhere

  1. Long-term effects of the “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy” in patients with chronic tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Plinkert, Peter; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2012-01-01

    Objective The “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus” is a manualized short term treatment (nine 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy on five consecutive days). It has proven to be efficient in reducing tinnitus symptoms in the short run. Now the long-term impact of the treatment after up to 5.4 years should be explored. Materials and methods 206 patients who had attended the neuro-music therapy were addressed in a structured follow-up questionnaire survey. 107 complete questionnaires entered analysis. Follow-up time was 2.65 (SD 1.1) years. Results 76% of the patients achieved a reliable reduction in their tinnitus scores, the overall tinnitus distress as measured by the Mini-TQ diminished from 11.9 (SD = 4.9) to 7.4 (SD = 5.2) points, 87% of the patients were satisfied by the way they were treated during therapy, and 71% of the patients did not undergo any further treatment after. Evaluation of therapeutic elements displays, that only music therapy specific interventions were rated helpful by the patients. Tinnitus related factors (such as tinnitus pitch or loudness, time since onset) did not influence therapy outcome but female gender, positive therapeutic relationship, and higher initial Mini-TQ scores became apparent as factors predicting better chances for greater therapy success. Discussion The “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus” seems to be effective in the long run. The outcome effect size of d’ = 0.89, can be accounted for as “large” effect and falls into the upper range value compared to established treatments. PMID:22993646

  2. The Stuttgart-Heidelberg Model of Active Feedback Driven Quality Management: Means for the Optimization of Psychotherapy Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Kordy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de la calidad busca la evaluación del tratamiento psicoterapéutico. Un aspecto central se relaciona con el desarrollo de baterías de evaluación y criterios de evaluación adecuados. El modelo Stuttgart-Heidelberg (S-H representa un sistema que proporciona conceptos, instrumentos psicométricos y un programa informático desarrollado para la gestión de la calidad basada en el feedback activo. La información central del modelo Stuttgart-Heidelberg es el resultado individual del tratamiento. El planteamiento es que la psicoterapia puede mejorarse si proporcionamos información sobre los resultados terapéuticos (en especial los negativos, pues los procesos de solución de problemas se estimularán por el feedback recibido. El presente trabajo presenta un inventario de evaluación, la evaluación estandarizada de los resultados y las diversas herramientas de feedback del modelo SH. Un estudio sistemático incluyendo 1715 pacientes de un hospital especializado en trastornos psicosomáticos documenta la validez de este abordaje. Los resultados empíricos refuerzan una estrategia de transparencia acerca de lo que acontece en la práctica clínica – por ejemplo, acerca de los tratamientos administrados, sus resultados y costos. Implicaciones para la posterior optimización de los servicios de salud son discutidos.

  3. Heidelberg physicists report. Vol. 2. Reviews of research in physics and astronomy. Fundamental contributions to the physics of the atomic nuclei and the star atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, Immo; Dubbers, Dirk; Siebig, Hans-Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2018-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: 50 years theoretical astrophysics, nuclear physics after the discovery of the shell model, from the small van de Graaf to the large HERA, from ''chamber physics'' to big research, reminiscences on physical research in Heidelberg. (HSI)

  4. Genetic analysis and CRISPR typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from different sources revealed potential transmission from poultry and pig to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuchun; Wang, Xin; Yin, Kequan; Hu, Yachen; Xu, Haiyan; Xie, Xiaolei; Xu, Lijuan; Fei, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2018-02-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes in Salmonella isolated from poultry and the most commonly reported cause of human salmonellosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 329 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from different sources from 2009 to 2016 in China. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing was used to characterize these 262 chicken clinical isolates, 38 human isolates, 18 pig isolates, six duck isolates, three goose isolates and two isolates of unknown source. A total of 18 Enteritidis CRISPR types (ECTs) were identified, with ECT2, ECT8 and ECT4 as the top three ECTs. CRISPR typing identified ECT2 as the most prevalent ECT, which accounted for 41% of S. Enteritidis strains from all the sources except duck. ECT9 and ECT13 were identified in both pig and human isolates and revealed potential transmission from pig to human. A cluster analysis distributed 18 ECTs, including the top three ECTs, into four lineages with LI as the predominant lineage. Forty-eight out of 329 isolates were subjected to whole genome sequence typing, which divided them into four clusters, with Cluster I as the predominant cluster. Cluster I included 92% (34/37) of strains located in LI identified from the CRISPR typing, confirming the good correspondence between both typing methods. In addition, the CRISPR typing also revealed the close relationship between ECTs and isolated areas, confirming that CRISPR spacers might be obtained by bacteria from the unique phage or plasmid pools in the environment. However, further analysis is needed to determine the function of CRISPR-Cas systems in Salmonella and the relationship between spacers and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival and Filamentation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 at Low Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Cole, M. B.; Porter, J.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we investigated the long-term survival of and morphological changes in Salmonella strains at low water activity (aw). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 survived at low aw for long periods, but minimum humectant concentrations of 8% NaCl (aw, 0.95), 96% sucrose (aw, 0.94), and 32% glycerol (aw, 0.92) were bactericidal under most conditions. Salmonella rpoS mutants were usually more sensitive to bactericidal levels of NaCl, sucrose, and glycerol. At a lethal aw, incubation at 37°C resulted in more rapid loss of viability than incubation at 21°C. At aw values of 0.93 to 0.98, strains of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium formed filaments, some of which were at least 200 μm long. Filamentation was independent of rpoS expression. When the preparations were returned to high-aw conditions, the filaments formed septa, and division was complete within approximately 2 to 3 h. The variable survival of Salmonella strains at low aw highlights the importance of strain choice when researchers produce modelling data to simulate worst-case scenarios or conduct risk assessments based on laboratory data. The continued increase in Salmonella biomass at low aw (without a concomitant increase in microbial count) would not have been detected by traditional microbiological enumeration tests if the tests had been performed immediately after low-aw storage. If Salmonella strains form filaments in food products that have low aw values (0.92 to 0.98), there are significant implications for public health and for designing methods for microbiological monitoring. PMID:10742199

  6. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2012-01-01

    The increased percentage of bloodstream infections as described in the 2009 observational study could not be attributed to a single clone. Future efforts should focus on assessing the immune status of bacteriaemic patients and identifying prevention and control measures, including attribution...

  7. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon

    2016-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally struc...

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Mediterranean ready-to-eat meat products in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Jaradat, Ziad W; Taha, Mohammad; Al-Kherasha, Mohammed; Meherat, Mervet; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products is considered a major concern for food control authorities worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 in Mediterranean RTE chicken and beef (CB) products sold in Jordanian restaurants and (ii) the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 1,028 samples of various types of RTE CB products (550 RTE chicken and 478 RTE beef products) were analyzed by methods described by the International Organization for Standardization followed by molecular confirmation of the isolates. The VITEK2 automated system was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars in RTE CB products was 0.5%, with 0.8 and 0.2% in RTE chicken and RTE beef, respectively. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in RTE CB products was 2%, with 2.7 and 1.5% in RTE chicken and RTE beef products, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any of the tested samples. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolates were found. The majority of Salmonella isolates were sensitive to most of the tested antibiotics, and all of the isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Similarly, more than 85% of L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive to nine antibiotics, and the majority of L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to fosfomycin and oxacillin.

  9. Remediation measures at the former hazardous waste dump at Malsch near Heidelberg; Sanierung der ehemaligen Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch. Hydrogeologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstein, P.; Hoetzl, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The former hazardous waste deposit of Malsch is located south of Heidelberg at the eastern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Using a former clay pit about 700.000 m{sup 3} of partly high toxic organic and inorganic wastes were deposited from 1971 to 1984. A leakage from the deposit was first recognised in 1984. Detailed investigation showed that thin channel-like conglomerate layers intercalated in the clays and marls as well as faults are cropping out into the base of the deposit and cause a direct seepage of leachate. Contaminants pollute the downstream area over a distance of 500 m. Remediation measures adding up to 100 Mio. DM were carried out including the construction of a slurry wall encircling laterally the whole site, a surface cover with a multi-liner system as well as a pump and treat system for the leachate was installed and are now in operation. Model studies of the ground water flow including a 3-dimensional site model and a 2-dimensional regional model started during the remediation work. According to the complex geological situation specific procedures was applied to transform the heterogeneous tectonical structure into the numerical models. The balance of water flowing through the deposit was calculated by the piezometric heads to assess different remediation stages. In spite of the missing impervious base the calculation could prove that in connection of a certain pumping rate of the leachate the environment and especially the groundwater can be protected from further leakage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fruehere Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch wurde 1971 in einer stillgelegten Tongrube suedlich von Heidelberg am oestlichen Rand des Oberrheingrabens angelegt und bis 1984 betrieben. Insgesamt wurden ueber 700.000 m{sup 3} zum Teil hochtoxische organische und anorganische Sonderabfaelle abgelagert. Mit Abschluss der Deponierungsphase wurden Sickerwasseraustritte im westlichen Deponievorfeld festgelstellt. Ursache fuer die Undichtigkeiten waren geringmaechtige

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of a urease-negative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroya; Takahashi, Sayaka; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2018-01-01

    An atypical urease-negative mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 2 was isolated in Japan. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the urease gene cluster revealed that the insertion of a short DNA sequence into the cbiM gene was responsible for the urease-negative activity of the mutant. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories should be watchful for the presence of aberrant urease-negative A. pleuropneumoniae isolates.

  11. Isolation and purification of enterocin E-760 with broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Svetoch, E A; Eruslanov, B V; Perelygin, V V; Mitsevich, E V; Mitsevich, I P; Levchuk, V P; Svetoch, O E; Seal, B S; Siragusa, G R; Stern, N J

    2008-03-01

    Strain NRRL B-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, or Enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to Campylobacter jejuni. The isolate produced a 5,362-Da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and 20 other Campylobacter species isolates. The enterocin, E-760, was isolated and purified by cation-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies. The proteinaceous nature of purified enterocin E-760 was demonstrated upon treatment with various proteolytic enzymes. Specifically, the antimicrobial peptide was found to be sensitive to beta-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and papain, while it was resistant to lysozyme and lipase. The enterocin demonstrated thermostability by retaining activity after 5 min at 100 degrees C and was stable at pH values between 5.0 and 8.7. However, activity was lost below pH 3.0 and above pH 9.5. Administration of enterocin E-760-treated feed significantly (P Enterocin E-760 also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of naturally acquired Campylobacter species in market age broiler chickens when administered in treated feed 4 days prior to analysis.

  12. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, Tim, E-mail: tim.winkelmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie Centrum (HIT), D -69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  14. Cryogenic Concept for the Low-energy Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at MPI-K in Heidelberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R. von; Andrianarijaona, V.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Fadil, H.; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Orlov, D. A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Rappaport, M.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-01-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg a next generation electrostatic storage ring for cryogenic temperatures is under development. The main focus of this unique machine is the research on ions, molecules and clusters up to bio molecules in the energy range of 20-300 keV at low temperatures down to 2 Kelvin. The achievement of this low temperature for all material walls seen by the ions in the storage ring will allow novel experiments to be performed, such as rotational and vibrational state control of molecular ions and their interaction with ultra-low energy electrons and laser radiation. The low temperature of the storage ring not only causes a strong reduction of black body radiation incident onto the stored particles, but also acts as a large cryopump, expected to lead to a vacuum in the 10-15 mbar range. In this paper the cryogenic concept of the storage ring and the related vacuum design will be presented

  15. Relationship between short-wavelength automatic perimetry and Heidelberg retina tomograph parameters in eyes with ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pitsas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare and correlate optic nerve head parameters obtained byHeidelberg retina tomograph (HRT with short-wavelength automatic perimetry (SWAP indices in eyes with ocular hypertension (OHT.METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients with OHT included in the present study. All subjects had reliable SWAP and HRT measurements performed within a 2wk period. The eyes were classified as normal/abnormal according to visual field criteria and Moorfields regression analysis (MRA. Correlations between visual field indices and HRT parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r.RESULTS:Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% had SWAP defects. Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% were classified as abnormal according to global MRA. Six eyes (4.1% had abnormal global MRA and SWAP defects. The k statistic is 0.116 (P=0.12 indicating a very poor agreement between the methods. No statistical significant correlation between HRT and SWAP parameters was detected.CONCLUSION:SWAP defects may coexist with abnormalities of optic disc detected by HRT in eyes with OHT. In most eyes, however, the two methods detect different glaucoma properties.

  16. Quality management and accreditation of research tissue banks: experience of the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, Esther; Röcken, Christoph; Manke, Heike; Schirmacher, Peter; Flechtenmacher, Christa

    2010-12-01

    Tissue banks are key resource and technology platforms in biomedical research that address the molecular pathogenesis of diseases as well as disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Due to the central role of tissue banks in standardized collection, storage, and distribution of human tissues and their derivatives, quality management and its external assessment is becoming increasingly relevant for the maintenance, acceptance, and funding of tissue banks. Little experience exists regarding formalized external evaluation of tissue banks, especially regarding certification and accreditation. Based on the accreditation of the National Center of Tumor Diseases (NCT) tissue bank in Heidelberg (Germany), criteria, requirements, processes, and implications were compiled and evaluated. Accreditation formally approved professional competence and performance of the tissue bank in all steps involved in tissue collection, storage, handling as well as macroscopic and histologic examination and final (exit) examination of the tissue and transfer supervised by board-certified competent histopathologists. Thereby, accreditation provides a comprehensive measure to evaluate and document the quality standard of tissue research banks and may play a significant role in the future assessment of tissue banks. Furthermore, accreditation may support harmonization and standardization of tissue banking for biomedical research purposes.

  17. Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul: an outbreak investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Christensen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    factor, antibiogram typing, plasmid profiling, ribotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, in order to identify the most probable source of infection. After typing, the source of the investigated outbreak remains obscure because so far no isolates with traits of the outbreak strain have been...... explanation for the failure to find isolates with traits of the outbreak strain could be the presence of a third, but so far unidentified, source. The present investigation illustrates the necessity of using more than one epidemiological typing method for outbreak investigation. This is especially important...

  18. Heidelberg physicists report. Vol. 2. Reviews of research in physics and astronomy. Fundamental contributions to the physics of the atomic nuclei and the star atmospheres; Heidelberger Physiker berichten. Bd. 2. Rueckblicke auf Forschung in der Physik und Astronomie. Grundlegende Beitraege zur Physik der Atomkerne und der Sternatmosphaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Immo; Dubbers, Dirk; Siebig, Hans-Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht (eds.)

    2018-04-01

    The following topics are dealt with: 50 years theoretical astrophysics, nuclear physics after the discovery of the shell model, from the small van de Graaf to the large HERA, from ''chamber physics'' to big research, reminiscences on physical research in Heidelberg. (HSI)

  19. Serotyping and analysis of produced pigments kinds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković-Nedeljković Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is devided into 20 serotypes on the base of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. P. aeruginosa serotyping is important because of few reasons but epidemiological is the most important. The aim of the study was serotyping of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, analysing of single clinical isolates P. aeruginosa present in the particular samples, and analysing of pyocianin and fluorescin production in different isolates of P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 223 isolates of P. aeruginosa, isolated in the microbiological laboratory of the Health Center “Aleksinac”, Aleksinac, were examinated. P. aeruginosa isolates were put on the pseudomonas isolation agar, pseudomonas agar base, acetamid agar, asparagin prolin broth, pseudomonas asparagin broth, Bushnnell-Haas agar, cetrimid agar base, King A and King B plates, plates for pyocianin production, plates for fluorescin production and tripticasa soya agar (Himedia. Polyvalent and monovalent serums were used in the agglutination (Biorad. Pigment production was analysed on the bases of growth on the plates for pyocianin and fluorescin production. Results. Serologically, we identificated the serovars as follows: O1, O3, O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, O10, O11 and O12. O1 (38% was the most often serovar, then O11 (19% and O6 (8.6%. A total of 18.6% (42 isolates did not agglutinate with any serum, whereas 21 isolates agglutinated only with polyvalent serum. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolates produced fluorescin, 129 (58.54%, 53 (22.94% produced pyocianin whereas 49 (21.21% isolates produced both pigments. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa was isolated most of the from urine, sputum and other materials. The majority often serovars were O1, O6 and O11. The most of isolates produced fluorescin (58.54%, while 22.94% producted pyocianin and 21.21% both pigments.

  20. Investigation on the presence of leptospires in ovaries of hamsters experimentally infected whith Leptospiras interrogans serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto de Almeida Camargo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available After inoculating L. interrogans serovar pomona in 75 primiparous hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, the invasiveness of leptospires into lhe ovaries and lhe ability in causing ovary morphologic alterations were investigated by means of microscopic examination and bacterial isolation. For this purpose, 75 hamsters were inoculated with 0.5 ml of virulent strain containing 30-40 leptospires by the microscopic field and the other 15 hamsters were held as the uninfected controls. Signs and symptoms (prostration, tachypnea, rufled hair, jaundice, and nasal, bucal and perineal hemorrage were detected in all inoculated animals. The animals were killed in the agonic state of the illness, which were done through 4th and 7th day post inoculation. The ovaries were taken asseptically during the necropsies, thoroughly washed using the sterile phosphate buffered saline, in order to eliminate the possible external contamination. The fresh ovary samples were submitted to the dark field direct microscopic examination. After the formalin fixation, the specimens were stained by means of histopathologic techniques using the Levaditi and Hematoxylin Eosin stains. The ovary smears were also examined by the direct fluorescent antibody technique andlhe bacterial isolation was carried out in the Fletcher’s medium. The dark field direct microscopic examination was found tobe less sensitive in demonstrating the presence of leptospiresin the ovaries. In those specimens stained by the Lcvadititechnique, leptospires were visualized in different ovaryinternal structures, involving the interspace, pellucid zone andin the inner ovules. Through the histopathologic examination,typical morphologic alterations resembling acute infiamatoryprocess were found in 57% of ovaries examined.

  1. Babies and bearded dragons: sudden increase in reptile-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections, Germany 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bettina; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Koch, Judith; Mutschmann, Frank; Roggentin, Peter; Frank, Christina

    2011-09-01

    In 2008 a marked increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in infants occurred in Germany. In March and April 2008, eight cases were notified compared to a median of 0-1 cases in 2001-2006. We carried out an investigation including a case-control study to identify the source of infection. A patient was a child < 3 years of age with Salmonella Tennessee isolated from stool from September 1, 2007, through December 31, 2008, identified through the national surveillance system. A control was a child with a notified rotavirus infection in the matching district, frequency matched by age group. We conducted telephone interviews on feeding, herbal infusions, and animal contact. Matched odds ratios (mOR) were calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. For Salmonella Tennessee isolates, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis were performed. Further cloacal swab samples of reptiles kept in case households were investigated. We identified 18 cases < 3 years. Ten children were male; median age was 3 months (1-32 months). In 8 of 16 case households reptiles were kept. Direct contact between child and reptile was denied. Other forms of reptile contact were reported in four of the remaining eight households. Ten case- and 21 control-patients were included in the study. Only keeping of a reptile and "any reptile contact" were associated with Salmonella Tennessee infection (mOR 29.0; 95% CI 3.1 ± ∞ and mOR 119.5; 95% CI 11.7 - ∞). Identical Salmonella Tennessee strains of child and reptile kept in the same household could be shown in 2 cases. Reptiles were the apparent source of Salmonella Tennessee infection in these infants. Indirect contact between infants and reptiles seems to be sufficient to cause infection and should therefore be avoided.

  2. Número mais provável de Salmonella isoladas de carcaças de frango resfriadas Most probable number of Salmonella isolated from refrigerated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2010-11-01

    (XLT4. The results showed 12,2% occurrence of Salmonella by conventional microbiological method from refrigerated broiler carcasses. The MPN per ml rates was 2,7 cells on XLT4 agar and 1,3 cells on BGN agar plate. The Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler carcasses were S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S. Rissen, S. Heidelberg and S. Livingstone. Results analysis showed that could be a variable number of cells contaminating refrigerated broiler carcasses, which have been selling to the consumer.

  3. Avaliação da autofluorescência do fundo de olho nas distrofias de retina com o aparelho Heidelberg Retina Angiograph2 Evaluation of fundus autofluorescence in hereditary retinal diseases using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Côco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Definir características do exame de autofluorescência, verificando sua utilidade no diagnóstico e acompanhamento de distrofias retinianas. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo, 28 pacientes, adultos, divididos igualmente em quatro grupos com diagnósticos de doença de Stargardt, distrofia de Cones, retinose pigmentar e voluntários saudáveis para estabelecimento do padrão de normalidade. Em média foram obtidas nove imagens com o filtro para angiofluoresceinografia para a formação da imagem autofluorescente no Heidelberg Retina Angiograph2. As imagens de cada grupo de pacientes foram analisadas para verificar características comuns. RESULTADOS: As imagens fundoscópicas autofluorescentes dos voluntários do grupo controle mostraram área foveal hipoautofluorescente em relação à retina do pólo posterior. As imagens dos portadores de doença de Stargardt, em geral, apresentaram lesão hipoautofluorescente, correspondendo à área macular. As principais alterações da autofluorescência em pacientes com distrofia de cones foram hipoautofluorescência macular com halo hiperautofluorescente. Nos portadores de retinose pigmentar, foram encontrados pigmentos periféricos causando hipoautofluorescência. Na região macular, hipoautofluorescência ou apenas desorganização do pigmento. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou a existência de padrões de autofluorescência de fundo nas distrofias de retina que permitem o diagnóstico e melhor interpretação da fisiopatogenia destas doenças.PURPOSE: To define characteristics of the fundus autofluorescence examination, verifying usefulness in the diagnosis and care of hereditary retinal diseases. METHODS: 28 patients, adults, divided equally into four groups with diagnoses of Stargardt macular dystrophy, cone dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa and healthy volunteers for the establishment of the normality pattern. An average of nine images with the filter for fluorescein angiography was obtained

  4. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

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    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the edta extract of Leptospira interrogans, serovar icterohaemorrhagiae

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    Lilian Terezinha de Queiroz Leite

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MABs ivere produced against an etbylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA extract of Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae being characterized by gel precipitation as IgM and IgG (IgGl and IgG2b. The EDTA extract was detected as several bands by silver staining in SDS-PAGE. In the Western blot the bands around 20 KDa reacted with a monoclonal antibody, 47B4D6, and was oxidized by periodate and was not digested by pronase, suggesting that the determinant is of carbohydrate nature, lmmunocytochemistry, using colloidal gold labeling, showed that an EDTA extract determinant recognized by monoclonal antibody 47B4D6, is localized under the outer envelope of serovar icterohaemorrhagiae. Hoe AIAB raised against the EDTA extract was not able to protect hamsters from lethal challenge with virulent homologous leptospires.

  6. Breast abscess due to salmonella enterica serovar typhi in ayoung diabetic female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Barai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is occasionally associated with abscess formation in various organs of the body. But breast abscess by S. Typhi without the general and specific symptoms of typhoid fever is unusual. We report a case of breast abscess due to S. Typhi in a 20 year old non-lactating diabetic female without the features of typhoid fever. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 16-17

  7. Genomic analysis of $\\textit{Salmonella enterica}$ serovar Typhimurium from wild passerines in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Alison E; Lawson, Becki; de, Pinna Elizabeth; Wigley, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Page, Andrew J; Holmes, Mark Adrian; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognised disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, including common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with $\\textit{Salmonella enterica}$ serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S. Typhimurium – definitive phage types (DT) 40, 56 variant, and 160 – are host-adapted to passerines, and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used whole g...

  8. Host-Nonspecific Iron Acquisition Systems and Virulence in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Roig, Francisco J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Hor, Lien-I

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus (known as biotype 2 serovar E) is the etiological agent of human and fish vibriosis. The aim of the present work was to discover the role of the vulnibactin- and hemin-dependent iron acquisition systems in the pathogenicity of this zoonotic serovar under the hypothesis that both are host-nonspecific virulence factors. To this end, we selected three genes for three outer membrane receptors (vuuA, a receptor for ferric vulnibactin, and hupA and hutR, two hemin receptors), obtained single and multiple mutants as well as complemented strains, and tested them in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays, using eels and mice as animal models. The overall results confirm that hupA and vuuA, but not hutR, are host-nonspecific virulence genes and suggest that a third undescribed host-specific plasmid-encoded system could also be used by the zoonotic serovar in fish. hupA and vuuA were expressed in the internal organs of the animals in the first 24 h of infection, suggesting that they may be needed to achieve the population size required to trigger fatal septicemia. vuuA and hupA were sequenced in strains representative of the genetic diversity of this species, and their phylogenies were reconstructed by multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping and virulence genes as a reference. Given the overall results, we suggest that both genes might form part of the core genes essential not only for disease development but also for the survival of this species in its natural reservoir, the aquatic environment. PMID:24478087

  9. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...... types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third...

  10. Experimental infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum Infecção experimental com Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum em poedeiras comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Helaine de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections were set up in commercial laying birds, comprising a white relatively resistant line and a red susceptible line infecting with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum. The major findings were that in susceptible birds clinical disease occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Faecal excretion occurred in susceptible birds almost up to death but also occurred in the more resistant line and in birds, which were convalescing. Removal of birds, which had died from the disease, from the environment, reduced the resultant mortality/morbidity and may be regarded as a useful measure for control.Infecções experimentais por Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum foram realizadas em aves de postura comercial, incluindo uma linhagem branca resistente e uma linhagem vermelha susceptível ao desenvolvimento da enfermidade clínica. As aves de linhagem susceptível apresentaram doença clínica dependente da dose administrada. Excreção fecal foi observada em aves da linhagem susceptível próximo ao momento da morte e, eventualmente, em aves da linhagem resistente e aves convalescentes. A remoção das aves mortas do meio ambiente reduziu a taxa de mortalidade/morbidade, procedimento este que pode ser utilizado como medida de controle.

  11. Construction and testing of a source for the production of polarized heavy ions at the Heidelberg MP tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    At the Heidelberg MP tandem a source for the production of nuclear-spin polarized lithium and sodium ions was constructed. The ion source works according to the atomic beam principle. By a furnace a thermal atomic beam is produced the electron shell of which is polarized in a quadrupole magnet. This beam passes then three high frequency passages in which by exchange of suitable hyperfine structure levels the nuclear spin is partly polarized. The atoms are ionized on a hot tungsten surface and transcharged in cesium vapour to negative ions. The alignment of the spin in the desired spatial direction is rendered possible by means of a Wien filter rotable around the beam axis. For the beam transport until the accelerator exclusively electrostatic lenses and deviation elements are used. For the checking of the function modus of the different source parts the polarization of the atomic beam and low energy ion beams was studied. The polarization of the accelerated sup(7->)Li beam was measured by the reaction 1 H(sup(7->)Li, α) 4 He at Esub(Li) = 44 MeV. The tensor polarization was determined to Psub(zz) = 0.35 +- 0.01. The polarization of odd stages was determined to >= 80% of the theoretically reachable values. For a tensor polarized 23 Na 9+ beam accelerated to 110 MeV could be shown that during the acceleration 50% of the polarization remains conserved. With this at the first time a powerful source for the production of polarized Na beams of an accelerator is available which permits nuclear physics studies inthe energy range Esub(Na) [de

  12. In Vivo-Expressed Proteins of Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Autumnalis N2 Elicit Strong IgM Responses of Value in Conclusive Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Veerapandian; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Artiushin, Sergey C; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that is underdiagnosed because of limited access to laboratory facilities in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. Timely diagnosis of locally distributed serovars of high virulence is crucial for successful care and outbreak management. Using pooled patient sera, an expression gene library of a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2 isolated in South India was screened. The identified genes were characterized, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) either singly or in combination. Sera (n = 118) from cases of acute leptospirosis along with sera (n = 58) from healthy subjects were tested for reactivity with the identified proteins in an ELISA designed to detect specific IgM responses. We have identified nine immunoreactive proteins, ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, RplS, RnhB, Lp28.6, and Lrr44.9, which were found to be highly conserved among pathogenic leptospires. Apparently, the proteins ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, and Lrr44.9 are expressed during natural infection of the host and undetectable in in vitro cultures. Among all the recombinant proteins used as antigens in IgM ELISA, ArgC had the highest sensitivity and specificity, 89.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the conclusive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The use of ArgC and RecA in combination for IgM ELISA increased the sensitivity and specificity to 95.7% and 94.9%, respectively. ArgC and RecA thus elicited specific IgM responses and were therefore effective in laboratory confirmation of Leptospira infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Assessment of exposure to Leptospira serovars in veterinary staff and dog owners in contact with infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmettler, Reto; Schweighauser, Ariane; Bigler, Susanne; Grooters, Amy M; Francey, Thierry

    2011-01-15

    To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008. People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks. Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.

  14. Vaccination with leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL32 reduces kidney invasion of Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphryes, P C; Weeks, M E; AbuOun, M; Thomson, G; Núñez, A; Coldham, N G

    2014-04-01

    The Leptospira interrogans vaccines currently available are serovar specific and require regular booster immunizations to maintain protection of the host. In addition, a hamster challenge batch potency test is necessary to evaluate these vaccines prior to market release, requiring the use of a large number of animals, which is ethically and financially undesirable. Our previous work showed that the N terminus of the outer membrane protein LipL32 was altered in Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola vaccines that fail the hamster challenge test, suggesting that it may be involved in the protective immune response. The aim of this study was to determine if vaccination with LipL32 protein alone could provide a protective response against challenge with L. interrogans serovar Canicola to hamsters. Recombinant LipL32, purified from an Escherichia coli expression system, was assessed for protective immunity in five groups of hamsters (n = 5) following a challenge with the virulent L. interrogans serovar Canicola strain Kito as a challenge strain. However, no significant survival against the L. interrogans serovar Canicola challenge was observed compared to that of unvaccinated negative controls. Subsequent histological analysis revealed reduced amounts of L. interrogans in the kidneys from the hamsters vaccinated with recombinant LipL32 protein prior to challenge; however, no significant survival against the L. interrogans serovar Canicola challenge was observed compared to that of unvaccinated negative controls. This finding corresponded to a noticeably reduced severity of renal lesions. This study provides evidence that LipL32 is involved in the protective response against L. interrogans serovar Canicola in hamsters and is the first reported link to LipL32-induced protection against kidney invasion.

  15. Evidence of metabolic switching and implications for food safety from the phenome(s) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 cultured at selected points across the pork production food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; McCusker, Matthew P; McCabe, Evonne M; O'Leary, Denis; Duffy, Geraldine; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 is a recognized food-borne pathogen that displays a multidrug-resistant phenotype and that is associated with systemic infections. At one extreme of the food chain, this bacterium can infect humans, limiting the treatment options available and thereby contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Although the antibiotic resistance profile is well defined, little is known about other phenotypes that may be expressed by this pathogen at key points across the pork production food chain. In this study, 172 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104/DT104b isolated from an extensive "farm-to-fork" surveillance study, focusing on the pork food chain, were characterized in detail. Isolates were cultured from environmental, processing, retail, and clinical sources, and the study focused on phenotypes that may have contributed to persistence/survival in these different niches. Molecular subtypes, along with antibiotic resistance profiles, tolerance to biocides, motility, and biofilm formation, were determined. As a basis for human infection, acid survival and the ability to utilize a range of energy sources and to adhere to and/or invade Caco-2 cells were also studied. Comparative alterations to biocide tolerance were observed in isolates from retail. l-Tartaric acid and d-mannose-1-phosphate induced the formation of biofilms in a preselected subset of strains, independent of their origin. All clinical isolates were motile and demonstrated an enhanced ability to survive in acidic conditions. Our data report on a diverse phenotype, expressed by S. Typhimurium isolates cultured from the pork production food chain. Extending our understanding of the means by which this pathogen adapts to environmental niches along the "farm-to-fork" continuum will facilitate the protection of vulnerable consumers through targeted improvements in food safety measures.

  16. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Egg Shells and the Layer Farm Environment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Davos, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 103 or 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. PMID:25362057

  17. Salmonella serovar spectrum associated with reptiles in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piasecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of Salmonella isolates from a wide variety of reptiles in Poland. A total of 374 faecal samples from chelonians, lizards and snakes were collected between 2009 and 2012. The nested, two-step PCR and multiplex PCR were performed to access the incidence and to characterize Salmonella isolates. Salmonella strains were found in 122 of 374 samples (32.6%. Among the different reptilian species, Salmonella strains were found in 58 samples from lizards (38.9%, 31 samples from snakes (28.7% and 33 samples from chelonians (28.2%. Of the total of 122 strains, 72 belonged to the species Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, 20 to the species S. enterica subs. salamae or S. enterica subs. houtanae. The incidence of S. enterica subs. diarizonae and S. enterica subs. indica was low, constituting less than 3.5% of the examined population. The findings show that reptiles can be considered as a reservoir for Salmonella and hence could pose a zoonotic hazard. In addition, multiplex PCR assay is a rapid, specific and easy-to-perform method and might be applied for rapid screening of large numbers of Salmonella samples.

  18. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Contamination of Root and Leaf Vegetables Grown in Soils with Incorporated Bovine Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Erin E.; Ingham, Steven C.; Ingham, Barbara H.; Cooperband, Leslie R.; Roper, Teryl R.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P ≥ 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of vegetables are not contaminated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Manure application under warmer (daily average maximum temperature >20°C) summer conditions is not recommended when

  19. Genomic characterization of Haemophilus parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5 prevalent in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofei Xu

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis can be either a commensal bacterium of the porcine respiratory tract or an opportunistic pathogen causing Glässer's disease, a severe systemic disease that has led to significant economical losses in the pig industry worldwide. We determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5, which was isolated from a hog pen in North China. The single circular chromosome was 2,269,156 base pairs in length and contained 2,031 protein-coding genes. Together with the full spectrum of genes detected by the analysis of metabolic pathways, we confirmed that H. parasuis generates ATP via both fermentation and respiration, and possesses an intact TCA cycle for anabolism. In addition to possessing the complete pathway essential for the biosynthesis of heme, this pathogen was also found to be well-equipped with different iron acquisition systems, such as the TonB system and ABC-type transport complexes, to overcome iron limitation during infection and persistence. We identified a number of genes encoding potential virulence factors, such as type IV fimbriae and surface polysaccharides. Analysis of the genome confirmed that H. parasuis is naturally competent, as genes related to DNA uptake are present. A nine-mer DNA uptake signal sequence (ACAAGCGGT, identical to that found in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mannheimia haemolytica, followed by similar downstream motifs, was identified in the SH0165 genome. Genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other Pasteurellaceae species further indicated that H. parasuis was closely related to another swine pathogenic bacteria A. pleuropneumoniae. The comprehensive genetic analysis presented here provides a foundation for future research on the metabolism, natural competence and virulence of H. parasuis.

  20. Duration of immunity of a multivalent (DHPPi/L4R) canine vaccine against four Leptospira serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; King, Vickie; Plevová, Edita; Chromá, Ludmila; Siedek, Elisabeth; Illambas, Joanna; Salt, Jeremy; Sture, Gordon

    2013-06-28

    Despite effective vaccines against common Leptospira serovars, the development of new products with long duration of immunity is still important to protect dogs against leptospirosis. The results from four challenge studies performed one year after vaccination of dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing four Leptospira antigens are reported. Six week old dogs received two vaccinations, three weeks apart, and were challenged 367 days later. Clinical observations were recorded, while blood (culture, biochemistry and haematology), urine (culture) and liver and kidney (culture) samples were collected throughout the study or at necropsy. All control dogs remained seronegative until challenge, when they seroconverted. Antibody titres to Leptospira antigens were seen in vaccinated dogs 21 days after first vaccination and peaked three to six weeks after the second vaccination. Titres decreased in all studies over the following 12 months, until challenge when anamnestic responses were observed. In all studies control dogs demonstrated various abnormal clinical signs, while no vaccinated dogs were affected; differences between groups were only significant following L. bratislava challenge. Analysis of blood cultures showed all control and five of the 24 vaccinated dogs were Leptospira positive after challenge; all studies showed significant differences between treatment groups in mean number of days with positive cultures. Significant differences between vaccinated and control groups in mean number of days with positive urine cultures were also observed, with all non-vaccinated and one vaccinated dog Leptospira positive. The urine culture positive vaccinated dog also gave positive culture from kidney and liver samples. All except one control dog also showed positive Leptospira isolation from kidney or liver, with significant differences between vaccinated and control groups observed. The results demonstrate that administration of a new vaccine to six week old puppies

  1. Regulation of the Two-Component Regulator CpxR on Aminoglycosides and β-lactams Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eHuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The two-component signal transduction system CpxAR is especially widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. It has been reported that CpxAR contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR in Escherichia coli. CpxR is a response regulator in the two-component CpxAR system. The aim of this study was to explore the role of cpxR in the MDR of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of various antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine for strains JS (a multidrug-susceptible standard strain of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, JS△cpxR, JS△cpxR/pcpxR, JS△cpxR/pcpxR*, JS△cpxR△acrB, JS△cpxR△acrB/pcpxR, JS△cpxR△acrB/pcpxR*, 9 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates (SH1–9, and SH1–9△cpxR were determined by the 2-fold broth microdilution method. The relative mRNA expression levels of ompF, ompC, ompW, ompD, tolC, acrB, acrD, acrF, mdtA, marA, and soxS in strains JS, JS△cpxR, and JS△cpxR/pcpxR were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed 2- to 4-fold decreases in the MICs of amikacin (AMK, gentamycin (GEN, apramycin (APR, neomycin (NEO, ceftriaxone (CRO, ceftiofur (CEF, and cefquinome (CEQ for strain JS△cpxR, as compared to those for the parental strain JS. Likewise, SH1–9△cpxR were found to have 2- to 8-fold reduction in resistance to the above antibiotics, except for NEO, as compared to their parental strains SH1–9. Furthermore, 2- to 4-fold further decreases in the MICs of AMK, GEN, APR, and CEF for strain JS△cpxR△acrB were observed, as compared to those for strain JS△acrB. In addition, CpxR overproduction in strain JS△cpxR led to significant decreases in the mRNA expression levels of ompF, ompC, ompW, ompD, tolC, acrB, marA, and soxS, and significant increases in those of stm3031 and stm1530. Notably, after all strains were induced simultaneously by GEN to the 15th passage at subinhibitory concentrations, strain JS△cpxR/pcpxR showed significant increases in m

  2. The Heidelberg pomeron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirner, H.J. [Heidelberg Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In this work we develop a model combining perturbative and non-perturbative QCD to compute high-energy reactions of hadrons and photons with special emphasis on saturation effects that manifest the S-matrix unitarity. Aiming at a unified description of hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon reactions involving real or virtual photons as well, we follow the functional integral approach to high-energy scattering in the eikonal approximation, in which the S-matrix element factorizes into the universal correlation of 2 light-like Wegner-Wilson loops S{sub DD} and reaction-specific light-cone wave functions. The light-like Wegner-Wilson loops describe color-dipoles given by the quark and anti-quark in the meson or photon and in a simplified picture by a quark and diquark in the baryon. Consequently, hadrons and photons are described as color-dipoles with size and orientation determined by appropriate light-cone wave functions. Thus, the loop-loop correlation function S{sub DD} is the basis for our unified description. We compute the T-matrix in a functional integral approach developed for parton-parton scattering in the eikonal approximation. There is a good agreement between the computed total cross-sections and the experimental data collected from accelerators and cosmic rays for pp, pp-bar, {pi}{sup {+-}}p, K{sup {+-}}p, {gamma}p and {gamma}{gamma} scattering. The prediction for the total pp cross-section at LHC ({radical}s = 14 TeV) is {sigma}(tot){sub pp} = 114,2 mb.

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W N; Gillespie, I A; Smyth, F B; Rooney, P J; McClenaghan, A; Devine, M J; Tohani, V K

    2009-10-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infection occurred in Northern Ireland during September and October 2004. Typing of isolates from patients confirmed that this strain was indistinguishable from that in concurrent outbreaks in regions of England, in Scotland and in the Isle of Man. A total of 130 cases were distributed unequally across local government district areas in Northern Ireland. The epidemic curve suggested a continued exposure over about 4 weeks. A matched case-control study of 23 cases and 39 controls found a statistically significant association with a history of having eaten lettuce in a meal outside the home and being a case (odds ratio 23.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-404.3). This exposure was reported by 57% of cases. Although over 300 food samples were tested, none yielded any Salmonella spp. Complexity and limited traceability in salad vegetable distribution hindered further investigation of the ultimate source of the outbreak.

  4. Sorovares de Salmonella em carne de eqüídeos abatidos no nordeste do Brasil Salmonella serovars in meat of horses slaughtered in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas décadas de 60 e 70, houve um extraordinário incremento da exportação de produtos cárneos de eqüídeos dos países da América do Sul para a Europa e Japão. Este acontecimento favoreceu o aumento de risco da veiculação de Salmonella através desses produtos, para as populações humana e animal, consumidoras. Assim, num estabelecimento industrial e exportador de carne de eqüídeos localizado no nordeste do Brasil (Pernambuco, foram analisados bacteriologicamente, 19.238 fragmentos de músculos mais externos, que revelaram 666 exames positivos referentes a 433 animais (eqüinos e asininos e resultando no isolamento de 745 cepas de Salmonella. Na amostragem foram caracterizados do ponto de vista antigênico 98 sorovares, predominantemente classificados na subespécie I (98,9% e tendo como os mais freqüentes S. Anatum, S. Carrau, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona e S. Typhimurium. Pelas análises efetuadas admite-se que as causas primordiais da presença de Salmonella nas carnes, provavelmente decorreu do contato com os excretas dos animais abatidos, bem como pela possível contaminação ambiental resultante, tendo em vista a ausência de portadores humanos, pesquisados numa parcela do pessoal.In the sixties and seventies there was an extraordinary increase in export of horse meat products to Europe and Japan. This favored an increase in risk of Salmonella outspread through those products to human and animal consumer populations. Thus, from an exporting company dealing with horse meat located in northeastern Brazil (state of Pernambuco, 19,238 fragments of more external muscles, Salmonella was isolated from 666 samples colleted from 433 animals (horses and donkeys. The serotyping of 745 isolates showed 98 serovars pertaining to 14 serogroups, predominantly classified into subspecies I (98.9%. S. Anatum, S. Carrau, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, and S. Typhimurium were the most frequent serovars isolated. Preliminary data indicate that the primary

  5. Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Morre, S.A.; Pol, R; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    50% contained both serovars D and E. The nested VD2 PCR-RLB developed is a simple, fast, and specific method for the identification of individual urogenital C. trachomatis serovars previously detected by using plasmid PCR. Moreover, it is an appropriate method for studying multiple C. trachomatis

  6. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Restores Attention-Related Activity in the Angular Gyrus in Chronic Tinnitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Christoph M; Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Plinkert, Peter K; Reith, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound without external acoustic stimulation. Recent tinnitus research suggests a relationship between attention processes and tinnitus-related distress. It has been found that too much focus on tinnitus comes at the expense of the visual domain. The angular gyrus (AG) seems to play a crucial role in switching attention to the most salient stimulus. This study aims to evaluate the involvement of the AG during visual attention tasks in tinnitus sufferers treated with Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy (HNMT), an intervention that has been shown to reduce tinnitus-related distress. Methods: Thirty-three patients with chronic tinnitus, 45 patients with recent-onset tinnitus, and 35 healthy controls were tested. A fraction of these (21/21/22) were treated with the "compact" version of the HNMT lasting 1 week with intense treatments, while non-treated participants were included as passive controls. Visual attention was evaluated during functional Magnet-Resonance Imaging (fMRI) by a visual Continous Performance Task (CPT) using letter-based alarm cues ("O" and "X") appearing in a sequence of neutral letters, "A" through "H." Participants were instructed to respond via button press only if the letter "O" was followed by the letter "X" (GO condition), but not to respond if a neutral letter appeared instead (NOGO condition). All participants underwent two fMRI sessions, before and after a 1-week study period. Results: The CPT results revealed a relationship between error rates and tinnitus duration at baseline whereby the occurrence of erroneous "GO omissions" and the reaction time increased with tinnitus duration. Patients with chronic tinnitus who were treated with HNMT had decreasing error rates (fewer GO omissions) compared to treated recent-onset patients. fMRI analyses confirmed greater activation of the AG during CPT in chronic patients after HNMT treatment compared to treated recent-onset patients. Conclusions: Our

  7. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Restores Attention-Related Activity in the Angular Gyrus in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M. Krick

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound without external acoustic stimulation. Recent tinnitus research suggests a relationship between attention processes and tinnitus-related distress. It has been found that too much focus on tinnitus comes at the expense of the visual domain. The angular gyrus (AG seems to play a crucial role in switching attention to the most salient stimulus. This study aims to evaluate the involvement of the AG during visual attention tasks in tinnitus sufferers treated with Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy (HNMT, an intervention that has been shown to reduce tinnitus-related distress.Methods: Thirty-three patients with chronic tinnitus, 45 patients with recent-onset tinnitus, and 35 healthy controls were tested. A fraction of these (21/21/22 were treated with the “compact” version of the HNMT lasting 1 week with intense treatments, while non-treated participants were included as passive controls. Visual attention was evaluated during functional Magnet-Resonance Imaging (fMRI by a visual Continous Performance Task (CPT using letter-based alarm cues (“O” and “X” appearing in a sequence of neutral letters, “A” through “H.” Participants were instructed to respond via button press only if the letter “O” was followed by the letter “X” (GO condition, but not to respond if a neutral letter appeared instead (NOGO condition. All participants underwent two fMRI sessions, before and after a 1-week study period.Results: The CPT results revealed a relationship between error rates and tinnitus duration at baseline whereby the occurrence of erroneous “GO omissions” and the reaction time increased with tinnitus duration. Patients with chronic tinnitus who were treated with HNMT had decreasing error rates (fewer GO omissions compared to treated recent-onset patients. fMRI analyses confirmed greater activation of the AG during CPT in chronic patients after HNMT treatment compared to treated

  8. Comparison of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in diagnosing optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) is a valid test for diagnosing congenital optic nerve hypoplasia (CONH) compared to the ratio of the distance between the centre of the optic disc and the centre of the macula and the mean optic disc diameter (DM:DD ratio). Furthermore, to determine the optimal cut-off value of HRT disc area to differentiate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. A total of 33 subjects with CONH (4-67 years old) and 160 normal subjects (5-65 years old) were recruited and underwent comprehensive eye examinations, fundus photography and HRT. Receiver operating characteristic curves for DM:DD ratio and HRT disc area were constructed based on data from the 46 CONH eyes and 160 control eyes. Mean (±S.D.) HRT disc area was 1.94 (±0.54) mm(2) for the control eyes and 0.84 (±0.35) mm(2) for the CONH eyes (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) for DM:DD ratio was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.90). The AUC for HRT disc area was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.99). A statistically significant difference was found between AUC for HRT disc area and that for DM:DD ratio (p = 0.0004). The optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area was 1.42 mm(2) with 95% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The optimal cut-off value for DM:DD ratio was 3.20 with 78% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Both HRT and the DM:DD ratio are valid tests to aid diagnosis of CONH. HRT is superior to DM:DD ratio in diagnosing CONH with higher sensitivity and specificity. We suggest the optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area as 1.42 mm(2) in order to discriminate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  10. A multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing assay for detecting mutations that result in decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Song, Yajun

    2010-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become a major problem for the successful therapy of human infections caused by Salmonella enterica, especially the life-threatening typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. METHODS: By using Luminex xTAG beads, we developed a rapid, reliable and cost-effective multiplexed genotyping assay for simultaneously detecting 11 mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parE of S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A that result in nalidixic acid resistance (Nal(R)) and\\/or decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. RESULTS: This assay yielded unambiguous single nucleotide polymorphism calls on extracted DNA from 292 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (Nal(R) = 223 and Nal(S) = 69) and 106 isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi A (Nal(R) = 24 and Nal(S) = 82). All of the 247 Nal(R) Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were found to harbour at least one of the target mutations, with GyrA Phe-83 as the most common one (143\\/223 for Salmonella Typhi and 18\\/24 for Salmonella Paratyphi A). We also identified three GyrB mutations in eight Nal(S) Salmonella Typhi isolates (six for GyrB Phe-464, one for GyrB Leu-465 and one for GyrB Asp-466), and mutations GyrB Phe-464 and GyrB Asp-466 seem to be related to the decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility phenotype in Salmonella Typhi. This assay can also be used directly on boiled single colonies. CONCLUSIONS: The assay presented here would be useful for clinical and reference laboratories to rapidly screen quinolone-resistant isolates of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, and decipher the underlying genetic changes for epidemiological purposes.

  11. The isolated Leptospira Spp. Identification by molecular biological techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjai Suwancharoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria of Leptospira spp. Identification of this bacterium relies on serotyping and genotyping. Data base for animal causative serovars in Thailand is limited. As the unknown serovars are found in the laboratory, they need to be sent overseas for referent identification. To reduce the cost, this research intended to develop a leptospiral identification method which is user–friendly and able to classify efficiently. Ten Leptospira isolations were cultured from urine samples. They were identified by three molecular biological techniques, including Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. These methods were developed and compared to find the most suitable one for leptospiral identification. VNTR was found to be inappropriate since it could not identify the agents and it did not show the PCR product. PFGE and MLST gave the same results of the unknown 1 and 2 which were L.weilii sv Samin st Samin. Unknown 4 showed different results by each technique. Unknown 5 to 10 were likely to be L.meyeri sv Ranarum st ICF and Leptonema illini sv Illini st 3055 by PFGE but MLST could not identify the serovar. However, molecular biological technique for Leptospira identification should be done by several methods in order to confirm the result of each other.

  12. Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Taryn-Ann; du Plessis, Erika; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-06-01

    The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified.

  13. Human leptospirosis: occurrence of serovars of Leptospira spp. in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marluce Aparecida Assunção; Leal, Élida Aparecida; Correia, Max Assunção; Serufo Filho, José Carlos; Dias, Ricardo Souza; Serufo, José Carlos

    Leptospirosis is an infectious and acute disease caused by Leptospira spp. that have high epidemic potential. This study verified the main Leptospira spp. serovars detected by MAT from serum of patients with suspicion of leptospirosis from 2008 to 2012 in Minas Gerais State. The laboratory received sera from 4654 patients. All serum were screened by IgM-ELISA according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each sample reactive or indeterminate were tested against twenty-four serovars of Leptospira by MAT. In this study, 597 patients were classified as reactive on MAT. Only 301 patients were confirmed by laboratory test. It was not possible confirmation by laboratory diagnosis of 296 patients. Among the samples classified as reactive on MAT, 273 patients exhibited titers bigger than 800 for one or more serovars; seroconversion was detected in 28 cases. Percentage of 85.1% of the samples reactive on MAT corresponded to males, 39.4% corresponded to patients aged between 20 and 39 years old. The most common serovars found were Icterohaemorrhagiae, Andamana, Patoc, Tarassovi, Copenhageni, Hardjo and Australis. Concerning the samples that exhibited titers bigger than 800, serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae was also the most common, followed by Copenhageni, Andamana, Patoc, Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa and Canicola. In this study, 40% of the cases occurred to the metropolitan area, state capital and 34 neighboring towns. Our results show the possibly spreading serovars in Minas Gerais State and contribute to knowledge of human leptospirosis, aiming at improving the prevention, control of the disease, as well as the treatment of infected patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Birgit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1 -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies.

  15. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Anke; Henrich, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1) -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H) -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies. PMID:18447917

  16. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  17. Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni harbors two lexA genes involved in SOS response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane S Fonseca

    Full Text Available Bacteria activate a regulatory network in response to the challenges imposed by DNA damage to genetic material, known as the SOS response. This system is regulated by the RecA recombinase and by the transcriptional repressor lexA. Leptospira interrogans is a pathogen capable of surviving in the environment for weeks, being exposed to a great variety of stress agents and yet retaining its ability to infect the host. This study aims to investigate the behavior of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni after the stress induced by DNA damage. We show that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni genome contains two genes encoding putative LexA proteins (lexA1 and lexA2 one of them being potentially acquired by lateral gene transfer. Both genes are induced after DNA damage, but the steady state levels of both LexA proteins drop, probably due to auto-proteolytic activity triggered in this condition. In addition, seven other genes were up-regulated following UV-C irradiation, recA, recN, dinP, and four genes encoding hypothetical proteins. This set of genes is potentially regulated by LexA1, as it showed binding to their promoter regions. All these regions contain degenerated sequences in relation to the previously described SOS box, TTTGN 5CAAA. On the other hand, LexA2 was able to bind to the palindrome TTGTAN10TACAA, found in its own promoter region, but not in the others. Therefore, the L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni SOS regulon may be even more complex, as a result of LexA1 and LexA2 binding to divergent motifs. New possibilities for DNA damage response in Leptospira are expected, with potential influence in other biological responses such as virulence.

  18. MARTX Toxin in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus Triggers an Early Cytokine Storm in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Murciano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2-serovar E is a zoonotic clonal complex that can cause death by sepsis in humans and fish. Unlike other biotypes, Bt2 produces a unique type of MARTXVv (Multifunctional-Autoprocessive-Repeats-in-Toxin; RtxA13, which is encoded by a gene duplicated in the pVvBt2 plasmid and chromosome II. In this work, we analyzed the activity of this toxin and its role in human sepsis by performing in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. First, we demonstrated that the ACD domain, present exclusively in this toxin variant, effectively has an actin-cross-linking activity. Second, we determined that the whole toxin caused death of human endotheliocytes and monocytes by lysis and apoptosis, respectively. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that RtxA13 contributes to human death caused by this zoonotic serovar by triggering an early cytokine storm in blood. To this end, we used a Bt2-SerE strain (R99 together with its rtxA13 deficient mutant, and a Bt1 strain (YJ016 producing RtxA11 (the most studied MARTXVv together with its rtxA11 deficient mutant, as controls. Our results showed that RtxA13 was essential for virulence, as R99ΔΔrtxA13 was completely avirulent in our murine model of infection, and that R99, but not strain YJ016, induced an early, strong and dysregulated immune response involving the up-regulation of a high number of genes. This dysregulated immune response was directly linked to RtxA13. Based on these results and those obtained ex vivo (human blood, we propose a model of infection for the zoonotic serovar of V. vulnificus, in which RtxA13 would act as a sepsis-inducing toxin.

  19. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius NIAS840, Isolated from Chicken Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jun-Sang; Kim, Hyoun-Wook; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Jang, Aera; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hun; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius is a well-known lactic acid bacterium to which increasing attention has been paid recently for use as probiotics for humans and animals. L. salivarius NIAS840 was first isolated from broiler chicken feces, displaying antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. salivarius NIAS840 (2,046,557 bp) including a small plasmid and two megaplasmids. PMID:21914873

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken Carcasses in Retail Markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Zaw; Paulsen, Peter; Pichpol, Duangporn; Fries, Reinhard; Irsigler, Herlinde; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Oo, Kyaw Naing

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications. Twelve antimicrobial agents belonging to eight pharmacological groups were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method). Salmonella was recovered from 138 (97.9%) of the 141 samples. The isolates were most frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.3% of isolates), tetracycline (54.3%), streptomycin (49.3%), and ampicillin (47.1%). Resistance was also found to chloramphenicol (29.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (17.4%), ciprofloxacin (9.4%), tobramycin (8.7%), gentamicin (8%), cefazolin (7.2%), lincomycin-spectinomycin (5.8%), and norfloxacin (0.7%). Among the 138 Salmonella isolates, 72 (52.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-four serovars were identified among the 138 Salmonella-positive samples; serovars Albany, Kentucky, Braenderup, and Indiana were found in 38, 11, 10, and 8% of samples, respectively. None of the potential risk factors were significantly related to Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses. This study provides new information regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella serovar diversity in retail markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

  1. BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA-ENTERICA SEROVAR BERTA, AND COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR TYPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1992-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar berta (S. berta) from Denmark and seven other countries have been characterized with the aim of developing a rational typing strategy in connection with outbreak investigations, Biotyping divided the strains into H2S-positive (90 %) and H2S-negative (10...... with restriction enzyme analysis of plasmids seemed to be the most rational typing strategy for S. berta. The results indicated that S. berta strains regardless of geographical source or host are possibly clonal in nature....

  2. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...... technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear...

  3. The transcriptional landscape and small RNAs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kröger, Carsten; Dillon, Shane C.; Cameron, Andrew D. S.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50 y of research have provided great insight into the physiology, metabolism, and molecular biology of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), but important gaps in our knowledge remain. It is clear that a precise choreography of gene expression is required......-thirds of these TSSs were associated with σ70 (including phoP, slyA, and invF) from which we identified the −10 and −35 motifs of σ70-dependent S. Typhimurium gene promoters. Overall, we corrected the location of important genes and discovered 18 times more promoters than identified previously. S. Typhimurium...

  4. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic agglutination test (MAT is considered the “golden standard” leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [5]. These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing.

  5. Integration von Schulungsveranstaltungen der Bibliothek ins Curriculum - am Beispiel der Fakultät für Klinische Medizin Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler-Schmetz, Martina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In the winter semester 2004/05 the Faculty for Clinical Medicine Mannheim of Heidelberg University implemented the new Querschnittsschein "Epidemiology, medical biometrics and medical informatics" and integrated the first library instructional classes into its medical curriculum. In order to meet the new requirements the medical library established an instructional team that designed tailor-made courses for the student target group and put into practice the experiences gathered both in workshops (such as the continuing education course "Teaching Library" offered by the BIB in May 2004 and from the relevant literature. With a maximum participation of library staff almost all of the first clinical semster medical students finished three different instructional modules of the beginners and intermediate skill levels. Resonance to these courses was ascertained by evaluation forms completed by the participants immediately after the classes. The feedback was predominantly positive, and the members of the instructional team unanimously regarded the experiences made as new and inspiring. As a further development of the orientation and instruction classes integrated in the curriculum the medical library intends to participate in the navigation system LOTSE of the Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster starting in the academic year 2005/06. Moreover, by then, one of the aforementioned classes is planned to be offered on the e-Learning platform ATHENA of Heidelberg University.

  6. A Naturally Occurring Deletion in FliE from Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin Results in an Aflagellate Phenotype and Defective Proinflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez-Sanguiné, Adriana; Betancor, Laura; Martínez, Arací; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Iriarte, Andrés; Chabalgoity, José A; Yim, Lucía

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but is able to infect humans with high invasiveness. An acute inflammatory response at the intestine helps to prevent Salmonella dissemination to systemic sites. Flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated signaling through pattern recognition receptors. In a previous work, we reported a high frequency (11 out of 25) of S Dublin isolates lacking flagella in a collection obtained from humans and cattle. The aflagellate strains were impaired in their proinflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo The aim of this work was to elucidate the underlying cause of the absence of flagella in S Dublin isolates. We report here that class 3 flagellar genes are repressed in the human aflagellate isolates, due to impaired secretion of FliA anti-sigma factor FlgM. This phenotype is due to an in-frame 42-nucleotide deletion in the fliE gene, which codes for a protein located in the flagellar basal body. The deletion is predicted to produce a protein lacking amino acids 18 to 31. The aflagellate phenotype was highly stable; revertants were obtained only when fliA was artificially overexpressed combined with several successive passages in motility agar. DNA sequence analysis revealed that motile revertants resulted from duplications of DNA sequences in fliE adjacent to the deleted region. These duplications produced a FliE protein of similar length to the wild type and demonstrate that amino acids 18 to 31 of FliE are not essential. The same deletion was detected in S Dublin isolates obtained from cattle, indicating that this mutation circulates in nature. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Analysis of triclosan-selected Salmonella enterica mutants of eight serovars revealed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility and reduced growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rensch

    Full Text Available The biocide triclosan (TRC is used in a wide range of household, personal care, veterinary, industrial and medical products to control microbial growth. This extended use raises concerns about a possible association between the application of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance. In the present study we determined triclosan mutant prevention concentrations (MPC for Salmonella enterica isolates of eight serovars and investigated selected mutants for their mechanisms mediating decreased susceptibility to triclosan. MPCTRC values were 8-64-fold higher than MIC values and ranged between 1-16 µg/ml. The frequencies at which mutants were selected varied between 1.3 x 10(-10-9.9 x 10(-11. Even if MIC values of mutants decreased by 3-7 dilution steps in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide, only minor changes were observed in the expression of genes encoding efflux components or regulators, indicating that neither the major multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC nor AcrEF are up-regulated in triclosan-selected mutants. Nucleotide sequence comparisons confirmed the absence of alterations in the regulatory regions acrRA, soxRS, marORAB, acrSE and ramRA of selected mutants. Single bp and deduced Gly93→Val amino acid exchanges were present in fabI, the target gene of triclosan, starting from a concentration of 1 µg/ml TRC used for MPC determinations. The fabI genes were up to 12.4-fold up-regulated. Complementation experiments confirmed the contribution of Gly93→Val exchanges and fabI overexpression to decreased triclosan susceptibility. MIC values of mutants compared to parent strains were even equal or resulted in a more susceptible phenotype (1-2 dilution steps for the aminoglycoside antibiotics kanamycin and gentamicin as well as for the biocide chlorhexidine. Growth rates of selected mutants were significantly lower and hence, might partly explain the rare occurrence of Salmonella field isolates exhibiting

  8. A functional cra gene is required for Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium virulence in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, J. H.; Utley, M.; Van den Bosch, H.

    2000-01-01

    A minitransposon mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SR-11, SR-11 Fad(-), is unable to utilize gluconeogenic substrates as carbon sources and is avirulent and immunogenic when administered perorally to BALB/c mice (M. J. Utley et al., FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 163:129-134, 1998). Here,...

  9. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol induce expression of genes associated with pathogenicity in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a serious public health threat as infections caused by these strains are more difficult and expensive to treat. Livestock serve as a reservoir for MDR Salmonella, and the antibiotics chlortetracycline an...

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of swarm motility phenotype of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant defective in periplasmic glucan synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of food-borne pathogens on moist surfaces enables them to migrate towards more favorable niches and facilitate their survival for extended periods of time. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants defective in OPG synthesis are unable to exhibit motility on moist surfaces (swarming) ...

  11. Quantification of contamination of lettuce by GFP-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, Eelco; Visser, Anna A; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Klerks, Michel M; Termorshuizen, Aad J; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the possibility of internalization of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) strains MAE 110 (multi-cellular morphology) and 119 (wild type morphology) into lettuce seedlings (Lactuca

  12. Characterization and identification of early proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, PM

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of early proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By pulse-label experiments, the synthesis of seven proteins was observed at 2 to 8 h postinfection before the major outer membrane protein was detected at 8 to 10 h after...

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran; Lin, Pengpeng; Bougouffa, Salim; Essack, Magbubah; Boxrud, David; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Vidovic, Sinisa

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  15. A rapid and specific detection of pathogenic serovar Salmonella typhimurium by loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ravan

    2017-09-01

    Discussion and conclusion: As a result of a high sensitivity and specificity of the method as well as its low cost per assay, it could be concluded that the present LAMP assay is a powerful, accurate, and efficient method for detecting pathogenic serovar Salmonella typhimurium in food-processing industries and diagnostic laboratories.

  16. Characterization of Leptospira isolates from humans and the environment in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meny, Paulina; Menéndez, Clara; Quintero, Jair; Hernández, Elba; Ríos, Cristina; Balassiano, Ilana Teruszkin; Trindade, Camilla Nunes Dos Reis; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; Ashfield, Natalia; Feble, Camila; Avila, Esthefani; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2017-12-21

    Laboratory diagnosis of human leptospirosis usually relies on indirect methods exploring specific immune response. Isolation and identification of the involved strains are cumbersome, but can provide biological resources for pathogenic studies and relevant information for guiding prevention and control measures. The aim of the research we are hereby reporting was the characterization of Leptospira isolates obtained from humans and the environment in Uruguay. Blood cultures were performed from early samples of 302 Uruguayan patients, mainly rural workers, and from 36 water samples taken from their living or working environments. Eight human isolates and seven environmental isolates were obtained and analyzed by end point Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and other molecular methods. Human isolates corresponded to several serogroups and serovars of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri species, probably reflecting the infection with similar involved Leptospira species and serovars of an extended animal reservoir in rural settings of the country, mostly dedicated to meat and dairy production. Culture-positive patients were older than usually affected workers, and presented signs and symptoms of severe illness. A high organic and circulating bacterial burden may explain an easier positive result from these workers' samples. Environmental isolates were mainly identified as Leptospira biflexa strains, with a single L. meyeri isolate of uncertain significance.

  17. Characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from an integrated broiler chicken operation in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Cheong Kyu; Kim, Ki Seuk; Bae, Dong Hwa; Kang, Min Su; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Ae Ran; Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Byoung Han

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological and genetic characterization of persistent Salmonella isolates in an integrated broiler chicken operation, in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. From the breeder farm, the hatchery, the broiler farm and the chicken slaughter house of an integrated broiler chicken operation, a total of 6 serotypes were observed. Although S. Heidelberg was not detected in the broiler farm, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, the hatchery and the chicken slaughter house. Also, S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg were found in the hatchery and the chicken slaughter house, and the hatchery and the broiler farm, respectively. S. Gallinarum and S. Blockley were found only in the broiler farm, and S. Virchow was only recovered in the chicken slaughter house. Isolated S. Heidelberg, S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg strains were divided into 3, 5 and 7 types, respectively, on the basis of all properties. Especially, S. Senftenberg isolates, divided into four types by their antimicrobial resistance patterns, were all obviously the XbaI PFGE pattern. Also, four S. Enteritidis isolates resistant to nalidixic acid showed a difference in phage type and PFGE pattern. Such a different pattern was shown despite Salmonella isolates originating from an integrated broiler operation, suggesting that further epidemiological studies on many integrated chicken companies in Korea are needed.

  18. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis brain abscess mimicking meningitis after surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Léa; Dubourg, Grégory; Graillon, Thomas; Honnorat, Estelle; Lepidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel; Seng, Piseth; Stein, Andreas

    2016-07-07

    Salmonella brain abscess associated with brain tumor is rare. Only 11 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a case of brain abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mimicking post-surgical meningitis in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. A 60-year-old Algerian woman was admitted through an emergency department for a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting, and behavioral disorders. Surgery for cerebral tumor excision was performed and histopathological analysis revealed glioblastoma multiforme. On the seventh day post-surgery, she presented a sudden neurological deterioration with a meningeal syndrome, confusion, and fever of 39.8°C. Her cerebrospinal fluid sample and blood cultures were positive for S. enterica Enteritidis. She was treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. On the 17th day post-surgery, she presented a new neurological disorder and purulent discharge from the surgical wound. Brain computed tomography revealed a large cerebral abscess located at the operative site. Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed and microbial cultures of surgical deep samples were positive for the same S. enterica Enteritidis isolate. She recovered and was discharged 6 weeks after admission. In this case report, a brain abscess was initially diagnosed as Salmonella post-surgical meningitis before the imaging diagnosis of the brain abscess. The diagnosis of brain abscess should be considered in all cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella meningitis after surgery for brain tumor. Surgical brain abscess drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic treatment remains a major therapeutic option.

  19. Effect of dietary fatty acid intake on prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi; Linseisen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN....... RESULTS: Stearic acid intake was linearly associated with weight gain (P acid intake, significantly so in women. In multinomial models, women in the highest tertile of ALA and stearic acid intake showed increased OR (95 % CI......) and categorised into four groups (weight loss, or =2.5 to or =7.5%/5 years). Energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid intake data were estimated from the FFQ completed at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models as well as multinomial logistic regression analyses (carbohydrate replacement models) were conducted...

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  1. Diversity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains collected from india using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sathish; Kuppanan, Suresh; Nandagopal, Balaji; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2013-08-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in India, and a seasonal increase of cases is observed annually. In spite of effective therapies and the availability of vaccines, morbidity is widespread owing to the circulation of multiple genetic variants, frequent migration of asymptomatic carriers, unhygienic food practices and the emergence of multidrug resistance and thus continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries, particularly in India. Classical methods of strain typing such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, ribotyping, random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism are either laborious and technically complicated or less discriminatory. We investigated the molecular diversity of Indian strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolated from humans from different parts of India to establish the molecular epidemiology of the organism using the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-PCR analysis. The electrophoretic band pattern was analysed using the GelCompar II software program. Of the 94 strains tested for three VNTRs loci, 75 VNTR genotypes were obtained. Of the three VNTRs tested in this study, VNTR1 was amplified in all the strains except one and found to be predominant. VNTR2 was amplified only in 57 strains with a Simpson diversity index of 0.93 indicating the high variability of this region within the strains. VNTR3 was amplified in 90 strains. The discriminatory power of this typing tool has been greatly enhanced by this VNTR2 region as the other two regions could not discriminate strains significantly. In our study, about 55 % of the strains amplified all three VNTR regions and 39 % of the strains lacked the VNTR2 region. Among the three VNTR regions tested, the majority of the strains produced similar banding pattern for any two regions grouped into a cluster. The strains grouped as a genotype were from the same geographical location. Strains collected from each geographical region were also

  2. Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-hedielberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

  3. The relationship between subjective perception and the psychological effects of patients in spatial isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibert, Fabienne; Eckstein, Monika; Günther, Frank; Mutters, Nico T

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients. Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany's largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, pSurfing the internet had a positive relationship with thinking about beautiful things (r=.41, pwell-being of the patient.

  4. Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Angen, Øystein; Chriel, M.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection in Danish broiler flocks. The data included all broiler flocks slaughtered in 1995, and the epidemiological unit was the individual broiler...... flock. The S. typhimurium status was determined by microbiological examination of 60 fresh fecal samples. This procedure should detect an infected flock with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 5%, and given that the sensitivity of the test is 100%. Nineteen variables were selected...... for analysis. Five factors and an interaction term were found significant by multivariate logistic regression analysis. An increased risk for S, typhimurium infection was associated with two parent flocks, one confirmed infected and one suspected of being infected with S. typhimurium, with two...

  5. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

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    Peter J Hart

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  6. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  7. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the edta extract of Leptospira interrogans, serovar icterohaemorrhagiae

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    Lilian Terezinha de Queiroz Leite

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MABs ivere produced against an etbylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA extract of Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae being characterized by gel precipitation as IgM and IgG (IgGl and IgG2b. The EDTA extract was detected as several bands by silver staining in SDS-PAGE. In the Western blot the bands around 20 KDa reacted with a monoclonal antibody, 47B4D6, and was oxidized by periodate and was not digested by pronase, suggesting that the determinant is of carbohydrate nature, lmmunocytochemistry, using colloidal gold labeling, showed that an EDTA extract determinant recognized by monoclonal antibody 47B4D6, is localized under the outer envelope of serovar icterohaemorrhagiae. Hoe AIAB raised against the EDTA extract was not able to protect hamsters from lethal challenge with virulent homologous leptospires.Anticorpos monoclonais (AcM foram produzidos contra o extrato EDTA obtido de Leptospira interrogans, sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae. Pelo teste de precipitação foram caracterizados como IgM e IgG (IgGl e IgG2. A eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida do extrato EDTA revelou diversas bandas quando corada pela prata. No "Western blot", as bandas em torno de 20 kDa reagiram com o AcM 47B4D6, foram oxidadas pelo periodato e não digeridas pela pronase, sugerindo que o determinante é de natureza carboidrato. O determinante reconhecido pelo AcM 47B4D6 estã localizado sob o envelope externo como revelado pela imunocitoquímica usando marcação com ouro coloidal. O AcM contra extrato EDTA do sorovar icterohaemorrahagiae não protegeu hamsters quando inoculados com lepstopira homóloga virulenta.

  8. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

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    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  9. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Novel Probiotic Strains Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Marutpong; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Srivoramas, Thanyakarn; Chaiwong, Tarinee

    2016-01-01

    To isolate, identify, and evaluate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants. The probiotic tests included investigation of hemolysis activity, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions (acid and bile salt tolerance), susceptibility to antibiotics, and ability to inhibit selected bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium). The bacterial species identification was performed by both carbohydrate utilization and partial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Five of fifty LAB isolates (UBU-03, UBU-06, UBU-09, UBU-34, and UBU-37) showed good probiotic properties. These five isolates showed non-hemolysis type (gamma-hemolysis), susceptibility to all antibiotics tested except for vancomycin, ability to survive in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of both acid and bile salt solution, and ability to inhibit growth of E. coli O157: H7 and V. cholerae. Bacterial species identification revealed that all five isolates were firmly identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. The L. rhamnosus strains that were isolated and characterized in this study could be considered as probiotic strains, and then used for further probiotic characterization in human cell cultures or animal models.

  10. CRISPR Typing and Antibiotic Resistance Correlates with Polyphyletic Distribution in Human Isolates of Salmonella Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosik, Dorothy; Tewari, Deepanker; Dettinger, Lisa; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Shariat, Nikki W

    2018-02-01

    Although infrequently associated with reported salmonellosis in humans, Salmonella enterica, subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky (ser. Kentucky) is the most common nonclinical, nonhuman serovar reported in the United States. The goal of this study was to use Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) to subtype a collection of human clinical isolates of ser. Kentucky submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Health and to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in these strains. This analysis highlighted the polyphyletic nature of ser. Kentucky, and separated our isolates into two groups, Group I and Group II, which were equally represented in our collection. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all isolates using a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel of antibiotics demonstrated that resistance profiles could be divided into two groups. Group I isolates were resistant to cephems and penicillins, whereas Group II isolates were resistant to quinolones, gentamicin, and sulfisoxazole. Collectively, 50% of isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics and 30% were resistant to five or more classes. The correlation of antibiotic resistance with the two different lineages may reflect adaptation within two distinct reservoirs of ser. Kentucky, with differential exposure to antimicrobials.

  11. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria

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    Rachid Elgroud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and human patients in the Constantine region of Algeria, in order to explore the contribution of avian strains to human salmonellosis cases in this region over the same period of time. The isolates were characterized by phenotypic as well as genotypic methods. A large variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles was found among human isolates, while only seven profiles were found among avian isolates. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR, Insertion Sequence 200-PCR (IS200-PCR, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE resulted in the allocation of the isolates to 16, 20, and 34 different profiles, respectively. The 3 genotyping methods led to complementary results by underlining the clonality of some serovars with the diffusion and persistence of a single clone in the Constantine area as well as stressing the polymorphism present in isolates belonging to other serovars, indicating the diversity of potential reservoirs of nontyphoidal Salmonella. Altogether, our results seem to indicate that nontyphoidal avian Salmonella may play an important role in human salmonellosis in the Constantine region.

  12. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and food animals using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

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    Golab, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are the second leading cause of zoonotic bacterial foodborne illness. Main source of infection in human is contaminated food products. The aim of this study was sub typing isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained during our previous study by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE technique. All 46 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and then subjected to PFGE. Total isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. In this study, PFGE and serotyping were used to subtype 46 Salmonella isolates belonging to 27different serovars and derived from human and different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Typhimurium was found to be the most predominant serovar. 40 PFGE patterns out of 46 isolates were obtained. The Discrimination Index obtained by serotyping (DI = 0.93 was lower than PFGE (DI = 0.99. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica is very important and shows that animal origin can be one of a reservoir that potentially could be transferred to human through the food chain. In addition, results of this study also revealed that this procedure is a golden standard for genotyping of such salmonella serotypes.

  13. Reversion to virulence evaluation of a 9R vaccine strain of Salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum in commercial brown layers

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    AS Okamoto

    2010-03-01

    reaction or clinical alteration because of the vaccine. We only managed to re-isolate the vaccine strain in the inocula made from organs of birds in group 1. We confirmed the isolation by means of biochemical tests, serology, and acriflavine agglutination test. All other cultures made from organs or feces, from all the other experimental groups did not show any growth of the vaccine strain or any other Salmonella serovar, suggesting that the vaccinated birds did not shed the SG9R vaccine strain. No bird presented any clinical symptoms or died during the trials, and no gross lesions were observed in the post-mortem examinations. Under the controlled conditions and time-frame of the present experiment, it was possible to conclude that the rough 9R strain of Salmonella Gallinarum present in the vaccine Cevac S. Gallinarum (Ceva Campinas Ltda. - Campinas, SP - Brazil did not revert to virulence.

  14. Leptospira santorosai Serovar Shermani detergent extract induces an increase in fibronectin production through a Toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Yi-Jung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Wu, Mai-Szu; Phillips, Aled; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Leptospirosis can activate inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and may cause renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). We have previously demonstrated that Leptospira santorosai serovar Shermani detergent extract stimulates ECM accumulation in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanistic basis of these previous observations and, in particular, to examine the potential involvement of TLRs. The addition of serovar Shermani detergent extract led to an increase in fibronectin gene expression and production. Inhibition of TLR2 but not TLR4 expression abrogated serovar Shermani detergent extract-mediated increases in fibronectin production. This response was also blocked by the knockdown of the gene expression of the TLR2 downstream transducers myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Serovar Shermani detergent extract also activated nuclear factor-κB, and its inhibition by curcumin-attenuated serovar Shermani detergent extract induced increases in fibronectin production. These effects were also mimicked by the specific TLR2 agonist, Pam(3)CsK(4), a response that was also abrogated by the knockdown of MyD88 and TRAF6. Similarly, the administration of live leptospires to cells also induced fibronectin production that was blocked by inhibition of TLR2 and MyD88 expression. In conclusion, serovar Shermani detergent extract can induce fibronectin production through the TLR2-associated cascade, providing evidence of an association between TLRs and leptospirosis-mediated ECM deposition.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  16. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates are resistant to antibiotics that influence their swimming and swarming motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile bacteria utilize one or more strategies for movement, such as darting, gliding, sliding, swarming, swimming, and twitching. The ability to move is considered a virulence factor in many pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella encodes acquired factors t...

  17. Mobilome differences between Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum and Typhimurium isolated from cattle and humans and potential impact on virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is an important group of pathogens capable of inhabiting a range of niches and hosts with varying degrees of impact, from commensal colonization to invasive infection. Recent outbreaks of multi-drug resistant S. enterica, attributed to consumption of contaminated ...

  18. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial Cultures Sampled in German Chicken-Fattening Farms During the Years 2011–2012 Revealed Additional VIM-1 Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli and a Serologically Rough Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschanski, Nicole; Fischer, Jennie; Falgenhauer, Linda; Pietsch, Michael; Guenther, Sebastian; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Chakraborty, Trinad; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe H.

    2018-01-01

    Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics used in human medicine. The increased detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is therefore worrying. In 2011 we reported the first livestock-associated VIM-1-producing Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Infantis (R3) isolate from dust, sampled in a German chicken fattening farm. Due to this observation we retrospectively investigated more than 536 stored bacterial cultures, isolated from 45 chicken fattening farms during the years 2011 and 2012. After a non-selective overnight incubation, the bacteria were transferred to selective media. Escherichia (E.) coli and Salmonella growing on these media were further investigated, including antibiotic susceptibility testing, carbapenemase gene screening and whole genome sequencing (WGS). In total, four CRE were found in three out of 45 investigated farms: Besides R3, one additional Salmonella (G-336-1a) as well as two E. coli isolates (G-336-2, G-268-2). All but G-268-2 harbored the blaVIM-1 gene. Salmonella isolates R3 and G-336-1 were closely related although derived from two different farms. All three blaVIM-1-encoding isolates possessed identical plasmids and the blaVIM-1- containing transposon showed mobility at least in vitro. In isolate G-268-2, the AmpC beta-lactamase gene blaCMY-2 but no known carbapenemase gene was identified. However, a transfer of the phenotypic resistance was possible. Furthermore, G-268-2 contained the mcr-1 gene, combining phenotypical carbapenem- as well as colistin resistance in one isolate. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been found in three out of 45 investigated chicken flocks. This finding is alarming and emphasizes the importance of intervention strategies to contain the environmental spread of resistant bacteria in animals and humans. PMID:29636734

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial Cultures Sampled in German Chicken-Fattening Farms During the Years 2011-2012 Revealed Additional VIM-1 Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli and a Serologically Rough Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschanski, Nicole; Fischer, Jennie; Falgenhauer, Linda; Pietsch, Michael; Guenther, Sebastian; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Chakraborty, Trinad; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe H

    2018-01-01

    Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics used in human medicine. The increased detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is therefore worrying. In 2011 we reported the first livestock-associated VIM-1-producing Salmonella ( S .) enterica serovar Infantis (R3) isolate from dust, sampled in a German chicken fattening farm. Due to this observation we retrospectively investigated more than 536 stored bacterial cultures, isolated from 45 chicken fattening farms during the years 2011 and 2012. After a non-selective overnight incubation, the bacteria were transferred to selective media. Escherichia (E.) coli and Salmonella growing on these media were further investigated, including antibiotic susceptibility testing, carbapenemase gene screening and whole genome sequencing (WGS). In total, four CRE were found in three out of 45 investigated farms: Besides R3, one additional Salmonella (G-336-1a) as well as two E. coli isolates (G-336-2, G-268-2). All but G-268-2 harbored the bla VIM-1 gene. Salmonella isolates R3 and G-336-1 were closely related although derived from two different farms. All three bla VIM-1 -encoding isolates possessed identical plasmids and the bla VIM-1- containing transposon showed mobility at least in vitro . In isolate G-268-2, the AmpC beta-lactamase gene bla CMY-2 but no known carbapenemase gene was identified. However, a transfer of the phenotypic resistance was possible. Furthermore, G-268-2 contained the mcr-1 gene, combining phenotypical carbapenem- as well as colistin resistance in one isolate. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been found in three out of 45 investigated chicken flocks. This finding is alarming and emphasizes the importance of intervention strategies to contain the environmental spread of resistant bacteria in animals and humans.

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial Cultures Sampled in German Chicken-Fattening Farms During the Years 2011–2012 Revealed Additional VIM-1 Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli and a Serologically Rough Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics used in human medicine. The increased detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE is therefore worrying. In 2011 we reported the first livestock-associated VIM-1-producing Salmonella (S. enterica serovar Infantis (R3 isolate from dust, sampled in a German chicken fattening farm. Due to this observation we retrospectively investigated more than 536 stored bacterial cultures, isolated from 45 chicken fattening farms during the years 2011 and 2012. After a non-selective overnight incubation, the bacteria were transferred to selective media. Escherichia (E. coli and Salmonella growing on these media were further investigated, including antibiotic susceptibility testing, carbapenemase gene screening and whole genome sequencing (WGS. In total, four CRE were found in three out of 45 investigated farms: Besides R3, one additional Salmonella (G-336-1a as well as two E. coli isolates (G-336-2, G-268-2. All but G-268-2 harbored the blaVIM-1 gene. Salmonella isolates R3 and G-336-1 were closely related although derived from two different farms. All three blaVIM-1-encoding isolates possessed identical plasmids and the blaVIM-1- containing transposon showed mobility at least in vitro. In isolate G-268-2, the AmpC beta-lactamase gene blaCMY-2 but no known carbapenemase gene was identified. However, a transfer of the phenotypic resistance was possible. Furthermore, G-268-2 contained the mcr-1 gene, combining phenotypical carbapenem- as well as colistin resistance in one isolate. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been found in three out of 45 investigated chicken flocks. This finding is alarming and emphasizes the importance of intervention strategies to contain the environmental spread of resistant bacteria in animals and humans.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and chickens (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Smet, Annemieke; Ludwig, Carolin; Stephan, Bernd; De Graef, Evelyne; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-07-16

    Using the agar dilution method, antimicrobial susceptibility to human-use antibiotics was determined among Belgian faecal Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and broiler chickens. Both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical breakpoints were applied for interpretation of the results. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were examined for the presence of genes encoding CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CMY β-lactamases. All isolates with decreased quinolone susceptibility were screened for plasmid-borne genes qnr, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr. In all, 368 Salmonella isolates were recovered from pigs and 452 from chickens. Clinical resistance to ciprofloxacin was absent in isolates of both host species, and was 1.9 and 13.1% to cefotaxime in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to cefotaxime amounted to 2.2 and 0.7%, whereas for ciprofloxacin this was 3.0 and 23.0% in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin decreased susceptibility was limited to few serovars, mainly Paratyphi B. Multidrug resistance was markedly higher for pig isolates (39.7%) than for chicken isolates (17.3%). Sixty-six cefotaxime-resistant isolates, 59 from chickens and 7 from pigs, were phenotypically determined as ESBL/AmpC producers; predominantly Paratyphi B and Typhimurium serovars. BlaCTX-M (mostly blaCTXM-1, but also blaCTXM-2 and blaCTXM-9) and blaTEM-52 were the predominant ESBL genes. Only few isolates expressed SHV-12 or an AmpC enzyme (CMY-2). Isolates of four serovars carried qnr genes: Brandenburg and Llandof from pigs, both qnrS; Indiana and Paratyphi B from chickens with qnrB and qnrA. The latter isolate carried blaCTX-M-9 and was the only strain with a plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene among the ESBL/AmpC producers. This Salmonella survey confirms that the ESBL/AmpC producers are particularly prevalent in chickens (12.8%), and much less in pigs (1.9%). A link between plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes and ESBLs/AmpC was uncommon. Copyright

  2. Expression and characterization of an iron-regulated hemin-binding protein, HbpA, from Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Velineni, Sridhar; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Sritharan, Manjula

    2007-09-01

    In an earlier study, based on the ferric enterobactin receptor FepA of Escherichia coli, we identified and modeled a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor protein (LB191) from the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai. Based on in silico analysis, we hypothesized that this protein was an iron-dependent hemin-binding protein. In this study, we provide experimental evidence to prove that this protein, termed HbpA (hemin-binding protein A), is indeed an iron-regulated hemin-binding protein. We cloned and expressed the full-length 81-kDa recombinant rHbpA protein and a truncated 55-kDa protein from L. interrogans serovar Lai, both of which bind hemin-agarose. Assay of hemin-associated peroxidase activity and spectrofluorimetric analysis provided confirmatory evidence of hemin binding by HbpA. Immunofluorescence studies by confocal microscopy and the microscopic agglutination test demonstrated the surface localization and the iron-regulated expression of HbpA in L. interrogans. Southern blot analysis confirmed our earlier observation that the hbpA gene was present only in some of the pathogenic serovars and was absent in Leptospira biflexa. Hemin-agarose affinity studies showed another hemin-binding protein with a molecular mass of approximately 44 kDa, whose expression was independent of iron levels. This protein was seen in several serovars, including nonpathogenic L. biflexa. Sequence analysis and immunoreactivity with specific antibodies showed this protein to be LipL41.

  3. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  4. Molecular characterization of the first leptospires isolated from goats in Brazil

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    Walter Lilenbaum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Leptospira sp. isolates were obtained by the first time from goats in Brazil and characterized by sequencing rrs, rpoB and secY genes, PFGE and typing with monoclonal antibodies. Both isolates are identical and belong to Leptospira santarosai. Analysis of the rrs and the rpoB genes sequences revealed 100% identity between the goat isolates and the Bananal reference strain. When secY sequences of the two isolates were compared to each other, it was observed that they had identical sequences. However, when compared to that of the Bananal reference strain, there were 15 mismatches along the 549 bp secY sequence. In conclusion, molecular methods are increasingly useful for the characterization of leptospires and allowed to identify those isolates of caprine origin as closely related but not identical to serovar Bananal, and constitute a new type named Carioca.

  5. Improving resolution of public health surveillance for human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection: 3 years of prospective multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA

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    Sintchenko Vitali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone unrecognised, as well as sources of sporadic and outbreak cases. This paper describes the dynamics of human STM infection in a prospective study of STM MLVA typing for public health surveillance. Methods During a three-year period between August 2007 and September 2010 all confirmed STM isolates were fingerprinted using MLVA as part of the New South Wales (NSW state public health surveillance program. Results A total of 4,920 STM isolates were typed and a subset of 4,377 human isolates was included in the analysis. The STM spectrum was dominated by a small number of phage types, including DT170 (44.6% of all isolates, DT135 (13.9%, DT9 (10.8%, DT44 (4.5% and DT126 (4.5%. There was a difference in the discriminatory power of MLVA types within endemic phage types: Simpson's index of diversity ranged from 0.109 and 0.113 for DTs 9 and 135 to 0.172 and 0.269 for DTs 170 and 44, respectively. 66 distinct STM clusters were observed ranging in size from 5 to 180 cases and in duration from 4 weeks to 25 weeks. 43 clusters had novel MLVA types and 23 represented recurrences of previously recorded MLVA types. The diversity of the STM population remained relatively constant over time. The gradual increase in the number of STM cases during the study was not related to significant changes in the number of clusters or their size. 667 different MLVA types or patterns were observed. Conclusions Prospective MLVA typing of STM allows the detection of community outbreaks and demonstrates the sustained level of STM diversity that accompanies the increasing incidence of human STM infections. The monitoring of novel and persistent MLVA types offers a new benchmark for STM surveillance. A part of this study was presented at the MEEGID

  6. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  7. Respiratory hydrogen use by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is essential for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R J; Olczak, A; Maier, S; Soni, S; Gunn, J

    2004-11-01

    Based on available annotated gene sequence information, the enteric pathogen salmonella, like other enteric bacteria, contains three putative membrane-associated H2-using hydrogenase enzymes. These enzymes split molecular H2, releasing low-potential electrons that are used to reduce quinone or heme-containing components of the respiratory chain. Here we show that each of the three distinct membrane-associated hydrogenases of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is coupled to a respiratory pathway that uses oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Cells grown in a blood-based medium expressed four times the amount of hydrogenase (H2 oxidation) activity that cells grown on Luria Bertani medium did. Cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline consumed 2 mol of H2 per mol of O2 used in the H2-O2 respiratory pathway, and the activity was inhibited by the respiration inhibitor cyanide. Molecular hydrogen levels averaging over 40 microM were measured in organs (i.e., livers and spleens) of live mice, and levels within the intestinal tract (the presumed origin of the gas) were four times greater than this. The half-saturation affinity of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium for H2 is only 2.1 microM, so it is expected that H2-utilizing hydrogenase enzymes are saturated with the reducing substrate in vivo. All three hydrogenase enzymes contribute to the virulence of the bacterium in a typhoid fever-mouse model, based on results from strains with mutations in each of the three hydrogenase genes. The introduced mutations are nonpolar, and growth of the mutant strains was like that of the parent strain. The combined removal of all three hydrogenases resulted in a strain that is avirulent and (in contrast to the parent strain) one that is unable to invade liver or spleen tissue. The introduction of one of the hydrogenase genes into the triple mutant strain on a low-copy-number plasmid resulted in a strain that was able to both oxidize H2 and cause morbidity in mice within 11

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics of participation in the opportunistic German cervical cancer screening programme: results from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, David; Becker, Nikolaus; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nimptsch, Katharina; Linseisen, Jakob

    2009-04-01

    To analyse participation in the German cervical cancer screening programme by socio-demographic characteristics. In the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort study 13,612 women aged 35-65 years were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Follow-up questionnaires were used to analyse participation in cervical cancer screening. Subjects were categorised according to age (birth cohort), education, vocational training, employment status, marital status and household size. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and participation in cervical cancer screening were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Females of the oldest and middle birth cohort were less likely to be screened compared to the youngest birth cohort. Less-educated women and those with a low-level secondary school degree had a decreased likelihood of undergoing screening in comparison to better educated women. Married women and women living in households with four or more persons were more likely to participate in the screening programme than single women or women living alone. Employment status did not modify participation in cervical cancer screening. Knowledge on the characteristics of women with a lower attendance to cervical cancer screening could be used to improve the effectiveness of the current (opportunistic) programme by dedicated health promotion programmes. However, an organized screening programme with written invitation of all eligible women would be the preferred option.

  9. La Biblioteca de la Universidad de Heidelberg y su colección temática especializada de Historia del Arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effinger, Maria

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca de la Universidad de Heidelberg participa en el sistema nacional cooperativo de adquisición de libros financiado por la Asociación Alemana de Investigación (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, en adelante DFG. Esta institución financia la construcción de fondos bibliográficos académicos con el doble fin de tejer una red de fuentes de información y hacer que éstas sean accesibles desde cualquier punto de la nación. Más de sesenta de las más eficientes bibliotecas universitarias alemanas participan en este sistema de cooperación. Las colecciones especializadas sed distribuyen de acuerdo con criterios académicos y regionales. La finalidad de este sistema de adquisición cooperativa es construir colecciones temáticas especializadas y comprensivas de recursos impresos y electrónicos y hacerlas accesibles de un modo fácil, pensando en el usuario. La DFG financia la adquisición de la producción completa de las obras más relevantes que se publican en el extranjero, mientras que a las bibliotecas les corresponde el pago de la literatura extranjera más común y de los documentos publicados en Alemania.

  10. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  11. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  12. Accuracy of the Heidelberg Spectralis in the alignment between near-infrared image and tomographic scan in a model eye: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barteselli, Giulio; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Viola, Francesco; Mojana, Francesca; Pellegrini, Marco; Hartmann, Kathrin I; Benatti, Eleonora; Leicht, Simon; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Weinreb, Robert N; Freeman, William R

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate temporal changes and predictors of accuracy in the alignment between simultaneous near-infrared image and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan on the Heidelberg Spectralis using a model eye. Laboratory investigation. After calibrating the device, 6 sites performed weekly testing of the alignment for 12 weeks using a model eye. The maximum error was compared with multiple variables to evaluate predictors of inaccurate alignment. Variables included the number of weekly scanned patients, total number of OCT scans and B-scans performed, room temperature and its variation, and working time of the scanning laser. A 4-week extension study was subsequently performed to analyze short-term changes in the alignment. The average maximum error in the alignment was 15 ± 6 μm; the greatest error was 35 μm. The error increased significantly at week 1 (P = .01), specifically after the second imaging study (P alignment were temperature variation and scans per patient (P imaging study. To improve the accuracy, room temperature should be kept stable and unnecessary scans should be avoided. The alignment of the device does not need to be checked on a regular basis in the clinical setting, but it should be checked after every other patient for more precise research purposes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  14. [Impact of an Aspherical Aberration Correcting Monofocal Intraocular Lens on Patient Satisfaction for Daily Life Activities: The Heidelberg Daily Task Evaluation (DATE) Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, F T A; Son, H; Liebing, S; Tandogan, T; Auffarth, G U

    2015-08-01

    A clinical evaluation of the functional results and its impact on daily activities of an aspherical, aberration correcting intraocular lens (IOL) was undertaken. Twenty-one patients aged from 50 to 83 years underwent cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). They were evaluated 2 to 4 months after surgery for their subjective satisfaction of vision quality and its impact on performance of daily activities as well as functional results and refractive outcome. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire - the Heidelberg DATE (DAily Tasks Evaluation) questionnaire. Significant changes from pre- to postoperative results were found in refraction (p ≤ 0.03), with a mean prediction error of + 0.21 ± 0.43 D. UDVA and CDVA improved significantly (p < 0.01), with a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1 % of eyes. All patients would recommend the procedure to a relative or a friend and 93.8 % of patients reported to be satisfied with the outcome. The implantation of the aspheric IOL Tecnis ZCB00 after cataract surgery allows the restoration of visual function, providing an optimised optical quality and a high level of patient satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  16. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...... isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and resistant isolates were examined for the presence of selected resistance genes by PCR. Results: Only 48 (9.5%) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A low frequency of resistance was found...

  18. Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.

  19. Functional Analysis of the Chaperone-Usher Fimbrial Gene Clusters of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Karine; Saulnier-Bellemare, Julie; Daigle, France

    2018-01-01

    The human-specific pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. S . Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae ( stg, sth, bcf , fim, saf , sef , sta, stb, stc, std, ste , and tcf ). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all S . Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed. All S . Typhi fimbriae were better expressed in minimal broth. Each system was overexpressed and only the fimbrial gene clusters without pseudogenes demonstrated a putative major subunits of about 17 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Six of these (Fim, Saf, Sta, Stb, Std, and Tcf) also show extracellular structure by electron microscopy. The impact of fimbrial deletion in a wild-type strain or addition of each individual fimbrial system to an S . Typhi afimbrial strain were tested for interactions with host cells, biofilm formation and motility. Several fimbriae modified bacterial interactions with human cells (THP-1 and INT-407) and biofilm formation. However, only Fim fimbriae had a deleterious effect on motility when overexpressed. Overall, chaperone-usher fimbriae seem to be an important part of the balance between the different steps (motility, adhesion, host invasion and persistence) of S . Typhi pathogenesis.

  20. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Michael; Kocijancic, Dino; Rohde, Manfred; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Bueno, Emilio; Cava, Felipe; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Curtiss, Roy; Häussler, Susanne; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. PMID:27601574

  1. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  2. Attachment of Salmonella serovars and Listeria monocytogenes to stainless steel and plastic conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluz, G A; Pitchiah, S; Alvarado, C Z

    2012-08-01

    In poultry industry, cross-contamination due to processing equipment and contact surfaces is very common. This study examined the extent of bacterial attachment to 6 different types and design of conveyor belts: stainless steel-single loop, stainless steel-balance weave, polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric, acetal, polypropylene mesh top, and polypropylene. Clean conveyor belts were immersed separately in either a cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis) or Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, Brie 1, ATCC 6744) for 1 h at room temperature. Soiled conveyor chips were dipped in poultry rinses contaminated with Salmonella or Listeria cocktail and incubated at 10°C for 48 h. The polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric conveyor belt and chip exhibited a higher (Pconveyor belt attached a lower (Pconveyor belts exhibited stronger bacterial adhesion compared with stainless steel. The result suggests the importance of selecting the design and finishes of conveyor belt materials that are most resistant to bacterial attachment.

  3. Specific Monoclonal Antibody Overcomes the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium's Adaptive Mechanisms of Intramacrophage Survival and Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarmistha Devi Aribam

    Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium exploits inflammation to compete with the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Stecher

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most mucosal surfaces of the mammalian body are colonized by microbial communities ("microbiota". A high density of commensal microbiota inhabits the intestine and shields from infection ("colonization resistance". The virulence strategies allowing enteropathogenic bacteria to successfully compete with the microbiota and overcome colonization resistance are poorly understood. Here, we investigated manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by the enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm in a mouse colitis model: we found that inflammatory host responses induced by S. Tm changed microbiota composition and suppressed its growth. In contrast to wild-type S. Tm, an avirulent invGsseD mutant failing to trigger colitis was outcompeted by the microbiota. This competitive defect was reverted if inflammation was provided concomitantly by mixed infection with wild-type S. Tm or in mice (IL10(-/-, VILLIN-HA(CL4-CD8 with inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, inflammation is necessary and sufficient for overcoming colonization resistance. This reveals a new concept in infectious disease: in contrast to current thinking, inflammation is not always detrimental for the pathogen. Triggering the host's immune defence can shift the balance between the protective microbiota and the pathogen in favour of the pathogen.

  5. Salmonella enterica serovar Ohio septic arthritis and bone abscess in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Hideaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-typhi Salmonella species cause severe extra-intestinal focal infection after occult bacteremia. Although the number of cases of non-typhi salmonellosis is increasing worldwide among patients with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, infection is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. We report a case of septic arthritis and bone abscess due to a rare non-typhi Salmonella organism that developed after a prolonged asymptomatic period. Case presentation A 44-year-old Japanese immunocompetent man presented with acute-onset left knee pain and swelling. He had no history of food poisoning, and his most recent travel to an endemic area was 19 years ago. Salmonella enterica serovar Ohio was identified from samples of bone abscess and joint tissue. Arthrotomy and necrotic tissue debridement followed by intravenous ceftriaxone was successful. Conclusions Non-typhi Salmonella species only rarely cause extra-intestinal focal infections in immunocompetent patients. Our case suggests that non-typhi Salmonella species can cause severe focal infections many years after the occult bacteremia associated with food poisoning.

  6. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  7. Cloning of the Bacillus thuringiensis serovar sotto chitinase (Schi gene and characterization of its protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Fang Zhong

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase plays a positive role in the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to insect pests. We used touchdown PCR to clone the chitinase (Schi gene from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar sotto (Bt sotto chromosomal DNA. Our DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the Bt sotto Schi gene consists of an open reading frame (ORF of 2067 nucleotides with codes for the chitinase precursor. We also found that the putative promoter consensus sequences (the -35 and -10 regions of the Bt soto Schi gene are identical to those of the chiA71 gene from Bt Pakistani, the chiA74 gene from Bt kenyae and the ichi gene from Bt israelensis. The Schi chitinase precursor is 688 amino acids long with an estimated molecular mass of 75.75 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.74, and contains four domains, which are, in sequence, a signal peptide, an N-terminal catalytic domain, a fibronectin type III like domain and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain. Sequence comparison and the evolutionary relationship of the Bt sotto Schi chitinase to other chitinase and chitinase-like proteins are also discussed.

  8. Persistent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection Increases the Susceptibility of Mice to Develop Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara M. Schultz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammations are triggered by genetic and environmental components. However, it remains unclear how specific changes in the microbiota, host immunity, or pathogen exposure could promote the onset and exacerbation of these diseases. Here, we evaluated whether Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection increases the susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation in mice. Two mouse models were used to evaluate the impact of S. Typhimurium infection: the chemical induction of colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and interleukin (IL-10−/− mice, which develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. We observed that S. Typhimurium infection makes DSS-treated and IL-10−/− mice more susceptible to develop intestinal inflammation. Importantly, this increased susceptibility is associated to the ability of S. Typhimurium to persist in liver and spleen of infected mice, which depends on the virulence proteins secreted by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. Although immunization with a live attenuated vaccine resulted in a moderate reduction of the IL-10−/− mice susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation due to previous S. Typhimurium infection, it did not prevent bacterial persistence. Our results suggest that persistent S. Typhimurium infection may increase the susceptibility of mice to develop inflammation in the intestine, which could be associated with virulence proteins secreted by TTSS-2.

  9. Curcumin increases the pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in murine model.

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    Sandhya A Marathe

    Full Text Available Curcumin has gained immense importance for its vast therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Contrary to this, our study reveals that it regulates the defense pathways of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium to enhance its pathogenicity. In a murine model of typhoid fever, we observed higher bacterial load in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph node, spleen and liver, when infected with curcumin-treated Salmonella. Curcumin increased the resistance of S. Typhimurium against antimicrobial agents like antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This increased tolerance might be attributed to the up-regulation of genes involved in resistance against antimicrobial peptides--pmrD and pmrHFIJKLM and genes with antioxidant function--mntH, sodA and sitA. We implicate that iron chelation property of curcumin have a role in regulating mntH and sitA. Interestingly, we see that the curcumin-mediated modulation of pmr genes is through the PhoPQ regulatory system. Curcumin downregulates SPI1 genes, required for entry into epithelial cells and upregulates SPI2 genes required to intracellular survival. Since it is known that the SPI1 and SPI2 system can be regulated by the PhoPQ system, this common regulator could explain curcumin's mode of action. This data urges us to rethink the indiscriminate use of curcumin especially during Salmonella outbreaks.

  10. Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium BipA Exhibits Two Distinct Ribosome Binding Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLivron, M.; Robinson, V

    2008-01-01

    BipA is a highly conserved prokaryotic GTPase that functions to influence numerous cellular processes in bacteria. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, BipA has been implicated in controlling bacterial motility, modulating attachment and effacement processes, and upregulating the expression of virulence genes and is also responsible for avoidance of host defense mechanisms. In addition, BipA is thought to be involved in bacterial stress responses, such as those associated with virulence, temperature, and symbiosis. Thus, BipA is necessary for securing bacterial survival and successful invasion of the host. Steady-state kinetic analysis and pelleting assays were used to assess the GTPase and ribosome-binding properties of S. enterica BipA. Under normal bacterial growth, BipA associates with the ribosome in the GTP-bound state. However, using sucrose density gradients, we demonstrate that the association of BipA and the ribosome is altered under stress conditions in bacteria similar to those experienced during virulence. The data show that this differential binding is brought about by the presence of ppGpp, an alarmone that signals the onset of stress-related events in bacteria.

  11. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

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    Giovanni Nigro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%, aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10. Of these, 44 children (28.4% were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9% were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%, aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  12. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L'Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Giovanni; Bottone, Gabriella; Maiorani, Daniela; Trombatore, Fabiana; Falasca, Silvana; Bruno, Gianfranco

    2016-05-06

    A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L'Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region) between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L'Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%), aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10). Of these, 44 children (28.4%) were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9%) were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%), aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L'Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  13. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a new tool for rapid identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Pullorum and Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xingxing; Fu, Ying; Xu, Chenggang; Feng, Zhou; Li, Miao; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Jianmin; Liao, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Pullorum and Gallinarum represent the most common causative agents of chicken salmonellosis, which result in high mortality and morbidity throughout the world. It is difficult and laborious to discriminate these diseases based on biochemical or phenotypic methods. Herein, we report the development of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) assay for the detection and discrimination of both S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarun. The gene rfbS, which encodes a factor involved in the biosynthesis of ADP paratose in serogroup D of Salmonella, has been identified as a robust genetic marker for the identification of S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarun based on polymorphisms at positions 237 and 598. Therefore, PCR-HRM analyses were used to characterize this gene. A total of 15 reference and 33 clinical isolates of Salmonella and related Gram-negative bacteria were detected using 2 sets of primers. Our PCR-HRM assay could distinguish S. Pullorum from S. Gallinarun and other strains using the primer pair SP-237F/237R. Similarly, S. Gallinarun could be distinguished from S. Pullorum and other strains using primer set SG-598F/598R. These 2 assays showed high specificity (100%) for both S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarun; the sensitivity of these 2 assays was at least 100-fold greater than that of the allele-specific PCR assay. This present study demonstrated that HRM analysis represents a potent, simple, and economic tool for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarun. Our approach also may aid efforts for purification of Avian Salmonella disease. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections in Asia: Clinical Observations, Disease Outcome and Dominant Serovars from an Infectious Disease Hospital in Vietnam.

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    Nguyen Phu Huong Lan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS infections are now a well-described cause of morbidity and mortality in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of iNTS disease in Asia are not well documented. We retrospectively identified >100 cases of iNTS infections in an infectious disease hospital in Southern Vietnam between 2008 and 2013. Clinical records were accessed to evaluate demographic and clinical factors associated with iNTS infection and to identify risk factors associated with death. Multi-locus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all organisms. Of 102 iNTS patients, 71% were HIV-infected, >90% were adults, 71% were male and 33% reported intravenous drug use. Twenty-six/92 (28% patients with a known outcome died; HIV infection was significantly associated with death (p = 0.039. S. Enteritidis (Sequence Types (ST11 (48%, 43/89 and S. Typhimurium (ST19, 34 and 1544 (26%, 23/89 were the most commonly identified serovars; S. Typhimurium was significantly more common in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.003. Isolates from HIV-infected patients were more likely to exhibit reduced susceptibility against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than HIV-negative patients (p = 0.037. We conclude that iNTS disease is a severe infection in Vietnam with a high mortality rate. As in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV infection was a risk factor for death, with the majority of the burden in this population found in HIV-infected adult men.

  15. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

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    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolates from reptiles in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wan-Ching; Chin, Shih-Chien; Lai, Yen-Hsueh; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Pets, including reptiles, have been shown to be a source of Salmonella infection in humans. Due to increasing popularity and variety of exotic reptiles as pets in recent years, more human clinical cases of reptile-associated Salmonella infection have been identified. However, limited information is available with regard to serotypes in different reptiles (turtles, snakes, and lizards) and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in pet reptiles. The current study was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella colonization in pet reptiles. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 30.9% of 476 reptiles investigated. The isolation prevalences were 69.7% (23/33), 62.8% (27/43), and 24.3% (97/400) in snakes, lizards, and turtles, respectively. A total of 44 different Salmonella serovars were identified. Compared with S. Heron, Bredeney, Treforest, and 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Typhimurium isolates were resistant to many antimicrobials tested, and notably 61.1% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. The results indicated that raising reptiles as pets could be a possible source of Salmonella infection in humans, particularly zoonotic Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that may be resistant to antimicrobials.

  17. The use of serological titres of IgA and IgG in (early) discrimination between rectal infection with non-lymphogranuloma venereum and lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trochomotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van der Snoek (Eric); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); H.B. Thio (Bing)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether serological titres of species-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in patients with rectal chlamydial infection could discriminate between infection with serovar L2 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and infection with non-LGV serovars. Methods: A total of 39

  18. Molecular and serological characterization of Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona isolated from a human case in a Brazilian rural area

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    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an important health concern in Brazil. Currently, information on the epidemiology of the disease in the rural areas of the country is lacking. METHODS: Serological and molecular techniques were used to characterize a clinical isolate of Leptospira. RESULTS: The strain CLEP 00060, isolated from a 59-year-old man in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was identified as belonging to L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the local epidemiological knowledge of leptospirosis, prevention of the disease by vaccines, and improvements in its diagnosis.

  19. The consequences of a sudden demographic change on the seroprevalence pattern, virulence genes, identification and characterisation of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the Salmonella enterica isolated from clinically diarrhoeic humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Hassan, W M M; Mohamed, R A H

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterise integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among eight multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt. Virulotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the presence of virulence genes. Integron PCR was used to detect the presence of class 1 in the MDR strains. The associated individual resistance gene cassettes were identified using specific PCRs. The isolated serovars were Salmonella Grampian (C1; 2/5), Larose (C1; 1/5), Hato (B; 1/5) and Texas (B; 1/5). Among the Salmonella serovars, five Salmonella isolates showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and trimethoprim (100%), followed by neomycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline (80%), while the lowest resistance was recorded to colistin sulphate and ciprofloxacin in percentages of 20 and 40%, respectively. The invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD and sopB genes were detected in all isolates (100%), while the spvC and gipA genes were totally (100%) absent from all isolates. The remaining three virulence genes were diversely distributed as follows: the bcfC gene was detected in all isolates except Salmonella Hato (80%); the sodC1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian and Salmonella Texas (60%); and the sopE1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian, Hato and Texas (60%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 90% of the MDR isolates, comprising serovars Muenster, Florian, Noya, Grampian, Larose, Hato and Texas. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 45% harboured Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) either right junction or right and left junction having an A-C-S-T phenotype. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 44% harboured integron gene cassette aadA2, while 11% harboured the floR gene present in multidrug resistance flanked by two integrons of SGI1. The results of the present study indicate that

  20. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4.......0 software, Three computer libraries of PFGE DNA profiles were constructed, and their ability to recognize new DNA profiles was analyzed. The results obtained pointed out that the combination of PFGE with computerized analysis could be suitable in long-term epidemiological comparison and surveillance...

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Effect of Challenge Temperature and Solute Type on Heat Tolerance of Salmonella Serovars at Low Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Wang, P.; Pound, J.; Vandeven, M. H.; Ward, L. R.; Legan, J. D.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are reported to have an increased heat tolerance at low water activity (aw; measured by relative vapor pressure [rvp]), achieved either by drying or by incorporating solutes. Much of the published data, however, cover only a narrow treatment range and have been analyzed by assuming first-order death kinetics. In this study, the death of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 when exposed to 54 combinations of temperature (55 to 80°C) and aw (rvp 0.65 to 0.90, reduced using glucose-fructose) was investigated. The Weibull model (LogS = −btn) was used to describe microbial inactivation, and surface response models were developed to predict death rates for serovar Typhimurium at all points within the design surface. The models were evaluated with data generated by using six different Salmonella strains in place of serovar Typhimurium DT104 strain 30, two different solutes in place of glucose-fructose to reduce aw, or six low-aw foods artificially contaminated with Salmonella in place of the sugar broths. The data demonstrate that, at temperatures of ≥70°C, Salmonella cells at low aw were more heat tolerant than those at a higher aw but below 65°C the reverse was true. The same patterns were generated when sucrose (rvp 0.80 compared with 0.90) or NaCl (0.75 compared with 0.90) was used to reduce aw, but the extent of the protection afforded varied with solute type. The predictions of thermal death rates in the low-aw foods were usually fail-safe, but the few exceptions highlight the importance of validating models with specific foods that may have additional factors affecting survival. PMID:11526015

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield’s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shveta; Dada, Tanuj; Sreenivas, V; Gupta, Viney; Sihota, Ramanjit; Panda, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT) glaucoma probability score (GPS) with that of Moorfield’s regression analysis (MRA). Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k) for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 – 0.315). The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives) and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives). The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific) and 57.14 and 98% (least specific). The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific) and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific). The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08) and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44).The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs. PMID:20952832

  4. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield′s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT glaucoma probability score (GPS with that of Moorfield′s regression analysis (MRA. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 - 0.315. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives. The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific and 57.14 and 98% (least specific. The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific. The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08 and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44.The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs.

  6. Treatment of pediatric patients and young adults with particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT: establishment of workflow and initial clinical data

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    Combs Stephanie E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report on establishment of workflow and clinical results of particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Materials and methods We treated 36 pediatric patients (aged 21 or younger with particle therapy at HIT. Median age was 12 years (range 2-21 years, five patients (14% were younger than 5 years of age. Indications included pilocytic astrocytoma, parameningeal and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma, skull base and cervical chordoma, osteosarcoma and adenoid-cystic carcinoma (ACC, as well as one patient with an angiofibroma of the nasopharynx. For the treatment of small children, an anesthesia unit at HIT was established in cooperation with the Department of Anesthesiology. Results Treatment concepts depended on tumor type, staging, age of the patient, as well as availability of specific study protocols. In all patients, particle radiotherapy was well tolerated and no interruptions due to toxicity had to be undertaken. During follow-up, only mild toxicites were observed. Only one patient died of tumor progression: Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed as an individual treatment approach in a child with a skull base recurrence of the previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma. Besides this patient, tumor recurrence was observed in two additional patients. Conclusion Clinical protocols have been generated to evaluate the real potential of particle therapy, also with respect to carbon ions in distinct pediatric patient populations. The strong cooperation between the pediatric department and the department of radiation oncology enable an interdisciplinary treatment and stream-lined workflow and acceptance of the treatment for the patients and their parents.

  7. Construction of physical and genetic maps of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    We constructed the physical map of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by using three restriction endonucleases, NotI (GC[GGCCGC), SgrAI (C(A/G)[CCGG(T/G)G), and Sse8387I (CCTGCA[GG), and we analyzed the fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 25 restriction endonuclease sites and 13...... genes and/or operons were located on the map. The genome size was determined to be 1,045 kb. Neither highly transcribed chlamydia genes nor developmental cycle-specific genes were clustered on the genome....

  8. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2008-01-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on co...

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking hfq gene confers protective immunity against murine typhoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Shankar Allam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium Δhfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+ T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellbauer, Stefan; Perez Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Gao, Nina; Nguyen, Thao; Murphy, Clodagh; Edwards, Robert A; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Previously known functions include histone deacetylase inhibitor, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, ammonia sink, and chemical chaperone. Here, we show that PBA has a previously undiscovered protective role in host mucosal defense during infection. Administration of PBA to Taconic mice resulted in the increase of intestinal Lactobacillales and segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), as well as an increase of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production by intestinal cells. This effect was not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice, which are not colonized with SFB. Because previous studies showed that IL-17 plays a protective role during infection with mucosal pathogens, we hypothesized that Taconic mice treated with PBA would be more resistant to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium). By using the streptomycin-treated mouse model, we found that Taconic mice treated with PBA exhibited significantly lower S Typhimurium intestinal colonization and dissemination to the reticuloendothelial system, as well as lower levels of inflammation. The lower levels of S Typhimurium gut colonization and intestinal inflammation were not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice. Although PBA had no direct effect on bacterial replication, its administration reduced S Typhimurium epithelial cell invasion and lowered the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 in macrophage-like cells. These effects likely contributed to the better outcome of infection in PBA-treated mice. Overall, our results suggest that PBA induces changes in the microbiota and in the mucosal immune response that can be beneficial to the host during infection with S Typhimurium and possibly other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

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    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  12. Interactions of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Pectobacterium carotovorum within a Tomato Soft Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrée S; Cox, Clayton E; Desai, Prerak; Porwollik, Steffen; Chu, Weiping; de Moraes, Marcos H; McClelland, Michael; Brandl, Maria T; Teplitski, Max

    2018-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are remarkably adaptable pathogens, and this adaptability allows these bacteria to thrive in a variety of environments and hosts. The mechanisms with which these pathogens establish within a niche amid the native microbiota remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to uncover the mechanisms that enable Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 14028 to benefit from the degradation of plant tissue by a soft rot plant pathogen, Pectobacterium carotovorum The hypothesis that in the soft rot, the liberation of starch (not utilized by P. carotovorum ) makes this polymer available to Salmonella spp., thus allowing it to colonize soft rots, was tested first and proven null. To identify the functions involved in Salmonella soft rot colonization, we carried out transposon insertion sequencing coupled with the phenotypic characterization of the mutants. The data indicate that Salmonella spp. experience a metabolic shift in response to the changes in the environment brought on by Pectobacterium spp. and likely coordinated by the csrBC small regulatory RNA. While csrBC and flhD appear to be of importance in the soft rot, the global two-component system encoded by barA sirA (which controls csrBC and flhDC under laboratory conditions) does not appear to be necessary for the observed phenotype. Motility and the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids play critical roles in the growth of Salmonella spp. in the soft rot. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of produce-associated illness continue to be a food safety concern. Earlier studies demonstrated that the presence of phytopathogens on produce was a significant risk factor associated with increased Salmonella carriage on fruits and vegetables. Here, we genetically characterize some of the requirements for interactions between Salmonella and phytobacteria that allow Salmonella spp. to establish a niche within an alternate host (tomato). Pathways necessary for nucleotide synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and motility

  13. Potentiating antibiotics in drug-resistant clinical isolates via stimuli-activated superoxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Colleen M; Goodman, Samuel M; Nagy, Toni A; Levy, Max; Bhusal, Pallavi; Madinger, Nancy E; Detweiler, Corrella S; Nagpal, Prashant; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-10-01

    The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing concern to global health and is exacerbated by the lack of new antibiotics. To treat already pervasive MDR infections, new classes of antibiotics or antibiotic adjuvants are needed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role during antibacterial action; however, it is not yet understood whether ROS contribute directly to or are an outcome of bacterial lethality caused by antibiotics. We show that a light-activated nanoparticle, designed to produce tunable flux of specific ROS, superoxide, potentiates the activity of antibiotics in clinical MDR isolates of Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Despite the high degree of antibiotic resistance in these isolates, we observed a synergistic interaction between both bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics with varied mechanisms of action and our superoxide-producing nanoparticles in more than 75% of combinations. As a result of this potentiation, the effective antibiotic concentration of the clinical isolates was reduced up to 1000-fold below their respective sensitive/resistant breakpoint. Further, superoxide-generating nanoparticles in combination with ciprofloxacin reduced bacterial load in epithelial cells infected with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and increased Caenorhabditis elegans survival upon infection with S. enterica serovar Enteriditis, compared to antibiotic alone. This demonstration highlights the ability to engineer superoxide generation to potentiate antibiotic activity and combat highly drug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis from broiler carcasses in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A.; Baltić, T.; Velebit, B.; Babić, M.; Milojević, L.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Infantis isolates from poultry carcasses in Serbia. A total of 48 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance. A panel of 10 antibiotics was selected for testing. Isolates showed resistance to sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and cefotaxime (100%). However, the highest number of Salmonella Infantis isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The usage of antibiotics in food producing animals could result in antimicrobial resistance pathogenic bacteria especially Salmonella spp. in poultry, which may be transmitted to humans through the food chain and increase risk of treatment failures.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, and genomic island 1 in Salmonella isolates from Vietnam.

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    An T T Vo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic resistance and the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants from Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The susceptibility of 297 epidemiologically unrelated non-typhoid Salmonella isolates was investigated by disk diffusion assay. The isolates were screened for the presence of class 1 integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 by PCR. The potential for the transfer of resistance determinants was investigated by conjugation experiments. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamides, and tetracycline was found in 13 to 50% of the isolates. Nine distinct integron types were detected in 28% of the isolates belonging to 11 Salmonella serovars including S. Tallahassee. Gene cassettes identified were aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, bla(PSE-1, bla(OXA-30, dfrA1, dfrA12, dfrA17, and sat, as well as open reading frames with unknown functions. Most integrons were located on conjugative plasmids, which can transfer their antimicrobial resistance determinants to Escherichia coli or Salmonella Enteritidis, or with Salmonella Genomic Island 1 or its variants. The resistance gene cluster in serovar Emek identified by PCR mapping and nucleotide sequencing contained SGI1-J3 which is integrated in SGI1 at another position than the majority of SGI1. This is the second report on the insertion of SGI1 at this position. High-level resistance to fluoroquinolones was found in 3 multiresistant S. Typhimurium isolates and was associated with mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance was common among Vietnamese Salmonella isolates from different sources. Legislation to enforce a more prudent use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine should be implemented by the authorities in Vietnam.

  16. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis toxins in Asticcacaulis excentricus to control dipteran larvae of vectors of diseases

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    Óscar Enrique Guevara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes encode for a diverse group of crystal-forming proteins that exhibit insecticidal activity towards dipteran, lepidopteran and coleopteran larvae. The effectiveness of insecticides based on mosquito larvicidal B. thuringiensis strains can be enhanced by using aquatic prosthecated bacteria as alternative hosts, since they do not sink, cytoplasmic located toxins are protected f rom UV radiation and, most importantly, mosquito larvae feed on them. An Asticcacaulis excentricus reference strain was transformed with the cry1 1Aa gene from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis. Western blot and electrophoresis were used to test recombinant protein expression; Western blot revealed a 72 kDa protein corresponding to B. thuringiensis serovar. israelensis Cry1 1 Aa. These aquatic bacte­rias toxicity achieved 50% mortality at 23 ng/mL concentration in f irst instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Other bioassays indicated that recombinant A. excentricus is toxic against Aedes aegyptiand Anopheles albimanus first instar larvae. Buoyancy tests demonstrated the advantage of A. excentricus over B. thuringiensis. Key words: Asticcacaulis excentricus, Bacillus thuringiensis, prosthecated bacteria, dengue, malaria.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other sexually transmitted coinfections in subjects attending an STD outpatients clinic in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Banzola, Nicoletta; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Russo, Incoronata; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) urogenital infection and the distribution of different genotypes in a non-selected STD population of 1625 patients, evaluating presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted diseases. Each patient was bled to perform serological tests for syphilis and HIV, then urethral or endocervical swabs were obtained for the detection of CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture. DNA extracted from remnant positive swabs was amplified by omp1 Nested PCR and products were sequenced. Total prevalence of CT infection was 6.3% (103/1625), with strong differences between men and women (11.4% vs 3.9%, Pmen than in women (Pmen and women (P=0.042) and among patients with or without coinfection (P=0.035); patients infected by serovar D/Da showed the highest coinfection rate. This study can be considered a contribution in increasing knowledge on CT serovar distribution in Italy. Further studies are needed to better define molecular epidemiology of CT infection and to investigate its correlation with other STDs.

  18. Antibacterial activity of vegetal extracts against serovars of Salmonella Atividade antibacteriana de extratos vegetais sobre sorovares de Salmonella

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    Daiane Voss-Rech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available in vitro antibacterial activity of 21 hydroethanolic vegetal extracts was assessed against 20 serovars of Salmonella. Regarding the tested extracts, 85.7% of them presented antibacterial activity. The six active extracts which showed activity on the largest number of serovars and the extract of Eucalyptus sp. were submitted to the determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. Of these, six extracts showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity with MIC and MBC for Punica granatum (pomegranate from 20 and 60mg mL-1, for Eugenia jambolana (rose apple from 40 and 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry from 80 and 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove from 10 and 60mg mL-1, Psidium araca from 30 and 320mg mL-1 and Eucalyptus sp. from 40 and 160mg mL-1. Achyrocline satureioides (macela presented only bacteriostatic potential and MIC from 160mg mL-1. Caryophyllus aromaticus, Eucalyptus sp., and Psidium araca presented the best results for bactericidal activity, inhibiting, respectively, 84.2%, 42.1%, and 17.6% of Salmonella's serovars. The activity of each extract varied for different serovars; S. London presented resistance to the six extracts in MBC, while S. Pullorum was the most susceptible serovar.A atividade antibacteriana de 21 extratos hidroetanólicos vegetais foi avaliada in vitro frente a 20 sorovares de Salmonella. Dos extratos testados, 85,7% apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Os seis extratos que evidenciaram atividade sobre o maior número de sorovares e Eucalyptus sp. foram submetidos à determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM. Destes, seis extratos apresentaram atividade bacteriostática e bactericida com MIC para Punica granatum (romã a partir de 20 e 60mg mL-1, Eugenia jambolana (jambolão de 40 e 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga de 80 e 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (cravo de 10 e 60mg mL-1

  19. Contribution and significance of Heidelberg retinal tomography II in diagnostics of ocular hypertension and its conversion into primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Marković Vujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A term 'ocular hypertension' is used when IOP is found to be > 21 mmHg on two consecutive occasions, in the absence of detectable glaucomatous damage. The aim of this study was to determine the significance and contribution of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (HRT II results that show very early, subtle changes in retinal neurofibre layers (RNFL in the optic nerve head that are specific for glaucoma itself (the loss of neuroretinal rim area and an increase of Cup/Disc ratio, but are not possible to register by an ophthalmoscope. Also, when the results of the functional tests remain unchanged, that confirms the conversion of ocular hypertension into glaucoma. Methods. During a 5-year study period (2002-2007, 29 patients with ocular hypertension were examined. The frequency of control examinations, based on the presence of risk factors for glaucoma development, was 3-6 months. The examination also included IOP measurements with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT, central corneal thickness (CCT determination by pachymetry, the examination of chamber angle using indirect gonioscopy, visual field tests by computerized perimetry and also papillae nervi optici (PNO examination by using HRT II. The application of HRT II enables a great number of stereometric parameters of optic disc, the most important being the rim area and Cup/Disc (C/D ratio, which was followed during the control examination by each segment, as well as PNO in global. Results. In the examination period, three cases of conversion of ocular hypertension into a primary open-angle glaucoma were found. In the group of patients with ocular hypertension, HRT II results after six months did not show a significant increase in C/D ratio. No significant loss of rim area or rim volume was found either. In three cases of conversion, HRT II results after 3 months showed an increase of C/D ratio and also a significant loss in rim volume at first examination (0.413 comparing to the

  20. SEROPREVALENCE OF NINE LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVARS IN WILD CARNIVORES, UNGULATES, AND PRIMATES FROM A ZOO POPULATION IN A METROPOLITAN REGION OF CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.

  1. Comparison of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar hardjo in sows immunized with two commercial whole culture polivalent anti-leptospira bacterins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Bernardi, Fernanda; Camargo, Sebastião Rodrigues; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-01-01

    It was performed the comparison of the intensity and duration of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar Hardjo in swines vaccinated with two commercial anti-leptospira bacterins. Sows no reactive to 24 Leptospira sp serovars in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were divided in three groups: Group A (n=08): received two vaccine A doses with 30 days interval, Group B (n=08) two vaccine B doses with 30 days interval and Group C (n=08): control no vaccinated against leptospirosis.Blood samples were collected each 30 days during six months following the first vaccination. The sera were tested by MAT and growth inhibition test (GIT) to serovar Hardjo in order to evaluate respectively agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies. It was found that neutralizing antibodies persisted for a longer time than the agglutinating ones and that the absence of agglutinating antibodies does not means in the absence of the neutralizing. The peaks of agglutinating antibodies was obtained at least 30 days earlier than that produced by neutralizing. The duration of both kinds of antibodies measured differed between the two bacterines tested. The period for inducing neutralizing antibodies against serovar Hardjo indicated that gilts must be immunized with two doses of whole culture anti-leptospira bacterines applied 30 days each other at least 90 days before the first mating. For the maintenance of hight levels of neutralizing antibodies the revaccinations must be performed every six months after the first vaccination. PMID:24031250

  2. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2008-04-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state.

  3. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Doorn, L.J. van; Kleter, B.; Koning, M.N. de; Munckhof, H.A. van den; Morre, S.A.; Harmsel, B. ter; Weiderpass, E.; Harbers, G.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Quint, W.G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT

  4. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis DNA from Environmental Substrates and Quantification of Organisms by Using a General Internal Procedural Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Donnikov, M.; Vos, de R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares five commercially available DNA extraction methods with respect to DNA extraction efficiency of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from soil, manure, and compost and uses an Escherichia coli strain harboring a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein as a general

  5. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 ASSuT strains from two outbreaks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Ramon, Elena; Cortini, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 is recognized as an emerging monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium in many European countries. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT) is described as one of the most comm...

  6. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    ]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in order to investigate changes in the protein expression of C. trachomatis serovar A and L2 caused by treatment with IFN-gamma. In contrast to what was observed in C. trachomatis L2, our results showed that, in C. trachomatis A, down...

  7. Influence of ethanol adaptation on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis survival in acidic environments and expression of acid tolerance-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) can encounter mild ethanol stress during its life cycle. However, adaptation to a stressful condition may affect bacterial resistance to subsequent stresses. Hence, this work was undertaken to investigate the influences of ethanol adapta...

  8. Preliminary identification of secreted proteins by Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardi, L.M.P.; Portaro, F.C.; Abreu, P.A.E.; Barbosa, A.S.; Morais, Z.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This project aimed to identify secreted proteins by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm (LPF) by proteomic analyses. The strain LPF, whose virulence was maintained by passages in hamsters, were cultured in EMJH medium. The supernatants were centrifuged, dialyzed and subjected to lyophilization. Protein samples were resolved first by IEF at pH 3 to 10, immobilized pH gradient 13-cm strips. Strips were then processed for the second-dimension separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from gel spots were subjected to reduction, cysteine-alkylation, and in-gel tryptic digestion, and analyzed by LC/MS/MS spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry was also used to identify secreted proteins. In silico analyses were performed using the PSORTbV.3.0 program and SignalP server. One major obstacle to secretome studies is the difficulty to obtain extracts of secreted proteins without citoplasmatic contamination. In addition, the extraction of low concentration proteins from large volumes of culture media, which are rich in salts, BSA and other compounds, frequently interfere with most proteomics techniques. For these reasons, several experimental approaches were used to optimize the protocol applied. In spite of this fact, our analysis resulted in the identification of 200 proteins with high confidence. Only 5 of 63 secreted proteins predicted by in silico analysis were found. Other classes identified included proteins that possess signal peptide but whose cellular localization prediction is unknown or may have multiple localization sites, and proteins that lack signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via non conventional mechanisms or resulting from cytoplasmic contamination by cell lysis. Many of these are hypothetical proteins with no putative conserved domains detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify secreted proteins by

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ΔmsbB triggers exacerbated inflammation in Nod2 deficient mice.

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    Anne-Kathrin Claes

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes intestinal inflammation characterized by edema, neutrophil influx and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. A major bacterial factor inducing pro-inflammatory host responses is lipopolysaccharide (LPS. S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB possesses a modified lipid A, has reduced virulence in mice, and is being considered as a potential anti-cancer vaccine strain. The lack of a late myristoyl transferase, encoded by MsbB leads to attenuated TLR4 stimulation. However, whether other host receptor pathways are also altered remains unclear. Nod1 and Nod2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan. They play important roles in the host's immune response to enteric pathogens and in immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated how deletion of msbB affects Salmonella's interaction with Nod1 and Nod2. S. Typhimurium Δ msbB-induced inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Nod2-/- mice compared to C57Bl/6 mice. In addition, S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB maintained robust intestinal colonization in Nod2-/- mice from day 2 to day 7 p.i., whereas colonization levels significantly decreased in C57Bl/6 mice during this time. Similarly, infection of Nod1-/- and Nod1/Nod2 double-knockout mice revealed that both Nod1 and Nod2 play a protective role in S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB-induced colitis. To elucidate why S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB, but not wild-type S. Typhimurium, induced an exacerbated inflammatory response in Nod2-/- mice, we used HEK293 cells which were transiently transfected with pathogen recognition receptors. Stimulation of TLR2-transfected cells with S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB resulted in increased IL-8 production compared to wild-type S. Typhimurium. Our results indicate that S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB triggers exacerbated colitis in the absence of Nod1 and/or Nod2, which is likely due to increased TLR2 stimulation. How bacteria with "genetically detoxified" LPS

  10. Protección inducida por nanococleatos derivados de proteoliposomas de Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Tamargo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años 20 del pasado siglo, hasta el presente, en el mundo se han desarrollado y empleado vacunas de células enteras contra la leptospirosis que confieren una corta inmunidad; la mayoría no adyuvadas y dirigidas, fundamentalmente, contra los diferentes serogrupos de la especie Leptospira interrogans, contenidos en las preparaciones. Numerosos han sido los intentos realizados para lograr una formulación vacunal más pura, efectiva, de amplio espectro y duración de la protección que las bacterinas de células enteras inactivadas. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no se ha registrado ninguna vacuna con tales características. En el presente trabajo se obtuvieron antígenos de membrana externa a partir de una cepa cubana autóctona (Cepa 87, L. interrogans serovar Canicola, mediante una modificación de la tecnología para la producción de vesículas de membrana, patentada por investigadores del Instituto Finlay. Estos antígenos con estructura nanoproteoliposómica fueron formulados/adyuvados mediante diferentes estrategias, logrando cinco preparaciones con estructura coclear, que constituyen nanopartículas de aproximadamente 100 a 150 nm de largo y entre 15 a 30 nm de diámetro. Los inmunógenos se inocularon en el biomodelo Mesocrisetus aureatus, con dos dosis e intervalo de seis semanas. El reto fue realizado con 100.000 DL 50 . Los resultados demuestran que las nuevas formulaciones vacunales confieren protección frente al reto homólogo y fueron capaces de eliminar el estado de portador, lo que unido a la robustez del método de preparación, el mayor nivel de pureza, en comparación con las bacterinas, y la no necesidad del hidróxido de aluminio, las convierten en una alternativa de interés para continuar su desarrollo.

  11. Preliminary identification of secreted proteins by Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, L.M.P.; Portaro, F.C.; Abreu, P.A.E.; Barbosa, A.S. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Morais, Z.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This project aimed to identify secreted proteins by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm (LPF) by proteomic analyses. The strain LPF, whose virulence was maintained by passages in hamsters, were cultured in EMJH medium. The supernatants were centrifuged, dialyzed and subjected to lyophilization. Protein samples were resolved first by IEF at pH 3 to 10, immobilized pH gradient 13-cm strips. Strips were then processed for the second-dimension separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from gel spots were subjected to reduction, cysteine-alkylation, and in-gel tryptic digestion, and analyzed by LC/MS/MS spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry was also used to identify secreted proteins. In silico analyses were performed using the PSORTbV.3.0 program and SignalP server. One major obstacle to secretome studies is the difficulty to obtain extracts of secreted proteins without citoplasmatic contamination. In addition, the extraction of low concentration proteins from large volumes of culture media, which are rich in salts, BSA and other compounds, frequently interfere with most proteomics techniques. For these reasons, several experimental approaches were used to optimize the protocol applied. In spite of this fact, our analysis resulted in the identification of 200 proteins with high confidence. Only 5 of 63 secreted proteins predicted by in silico analysis were found. Other classes identified included proteins that possess signal peptide but whose cellular localization prediction is unknown or may have multiple localization sites, and proteins that lack signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via non conventional mechanisms or resulting from cytoplasmic contamination by cell lysis. Many of these are hypothetical proteins with no putative conserved domains detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify secreted proteins by

  12. Characterization and differential gene expression between two phenotypic phase variants in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K Patterson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 798 has previously been shown to undergo phenotypic phase variation. One of the phenotypes expresses virulence traits such as adhesion, while the other phenotype does not. Phenotypic phase variation appears to correlate with the ability of this strain to cause persistent, asymptomatic infections of swine. A new method to detect cells in either phenotypic phase was developed using Evans Blue-Uranine agar plates. Using this new assay, rates of phenotypic phase variation were obtained. The rate of phase variation from non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-4 per cell per generation while phase variation from the adhesive to the non-adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-6 per cell per generation. Two highly virulent S. Typhimurium strains, SL1344 and ATCC 14028, were also shown to undergo phase variation. However, while the rate from adhesive to non-adhesive phenotype was approximately the same as for strain 798, the non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype shift was 37-fold higher. Differential gene expression was measured using RNA-Seq. Eighty-three genes were more highly expressed by 798 cells in the adhesive phenotype compared to the non-adhesive cells. Most of the up-regulated genes were in virulence genes and in particular all genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 were up-regulated. When compared to the virulent strain SL1344, expression of the virulence genes was approximately equal to those up-regulated in the adhesive phenotype of strain 798. A comparison of invasive ability demonstrated that strain SL1344 was the most invasive followed by the adhesive phenotype of strain 798, then the non-adhesive phenotype of strain 798. The least invasive strain was ATCC 14028. The genome of strain 798 was sequenced and compared to SL1344. Both strains had very similar genome sequences and gene deletions could not readily explain differences in the rates of phase variation from non

  13. Salmonella isolated from individual reptiles and environmental samples from terraria in private households in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Veronica O; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Melin, Lennart; Boqvist, Sofia

    2014-01-24

    This study investigates Salmonella spp. isolated from privately kept reptiles and from environmental samples such as bedding materials or water from the floor of the enclosures (terraria). It also compares isolation of Salmonella using Modified Semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium or selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis-Soya (RVS) pepton broth. Cloacal swabs or swabs from the cloacal area were collected from 63 individual reptiles belonging to 14 households. All reptiles were from different terraria and from 62 of these, environmental samples were also collected. Sampling were done by the reptile owners according to written instructions and sent by mail immediately after sampling. All but three samples were analyzed within 24 h after collection. Colonies suspected for Salmonella were tested for agglutination and serotyped using the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme. The relative sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) for MSRV compared with RVS, and the agreement coefficient kappa (κ) were calculated. Salmonella was isolated from 50/63 (80%) terraria, either from the reptiles (31/63; 49%) or from bedding material (39/62; 63%). The most common subspecies was Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica followed by S. enterica subspecies diarizonae. In reptiles, the most common S. enterica subspecies enterica serovars were Java (n = 4) and Fluntern (n = 4), compared with the serovars Tennessee (n = 10) and Fluntern (n = 10) in the environmental samples. The exact same set of Salmonella subspecies and serovars were not isolated from the individual reptiles and the environmental samples from any of the households. Isolation using MSRV yielded more Salmonella isolates 61/113 (54%) than enrichment in RVS 57/125 (46%). The se was 97.9% (95% Confidence Interval 93.9-100), the sp 78.5% (95% CI 68.5-88.5) and the κ 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the tests. Salmonella can be expected to be present in environments where reptiles are

  14. Influence of Temperature and Predation on Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Expression of invA in Soil and Manure-Amended Soil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R.; Bælum, J.; Fredslund, L.; Santorum, P.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of three temperatures (5, 15, and 25°C) on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in topsoil were investigated in small microcosms by three different techniques: plate counting, invA gene quantification, and invA mRNA quantification. Differences in survival were related to the effect of protozoan predation. Tetracycline-resistant Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was inoculated into soil and manure-amended soil at 1.5 × 108 cells g soil−1. Population densities were determined by plate counting and by molecular methods and monitored for 42 days. Simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA, followed by quantitative PCR, was used to investigate invA gene levels and expression. Analysis by these three techniques showed that Salmonella serovar Typhimurium survived better at 5°C. Comparing DNA and CFU levels, significantly higher values were determined by DNA-based techniques. invA mRNA levels showed a fast decrease in activity, with no detectable mRNA after an incubation period of less than 4 days in any of the soil scenarios. A negative correlation was found between Salmonella serovar Typhimurium CFU levels and protozoan most probable numbers, and we propose the role of the predator-prey interaction as a factor to explain the die-off of the introduced strain by both culture- and DNA quantification-based methods. The results indicate that temperature, manure, and protozoan predation are important factors influencing the survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in soil. PMID:20562283

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic profile of clinical and animal multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Montes de Oca, S; Talavera-Rojas, M; Soriano-Vargas, E; Barba-León, J; Vázquez-Navarrete, J; Acosta-Dibarrat, J; Salgado-Miranda, C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a phenotypic and genotypic profile of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from food-producing animals and clinical isolates, as well as their genetic relatedness in two different States of Mexico (Jalisco and State of Mexico). A total of 243 isolates were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and related genes through a disk diffusion method and PCR respectively; we found 16 MDR isolates, all of them harbouring the bla CMY gene but not qnr genes, these isolates represent less than 10% of the collection. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a higher genotypic similitude within isolates of State of Mexico than Jalisco. A low percentage of Salmonella isolates were resistant to relevant antibiotics in human health, nevertheless, the AMR and involved genes were similar despite the different serovars and origin of the isolates. This investigation provided an insight of the current status of AMR of Salmonella isolates in two States of Mexico and pinpoint the genes involved in AMR and their epidemiological relationship, the information could help to determine an adequate therapy in human and veterinary medicine. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mauritius Linked to Consumption of Marlin Mousse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, M. I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lun, P. L. K.

    2009-01-01

    . A laboratory investigation of one sample of marlin mousse manufactured 3 days later, and the individual ingredients sampled a week after production of the contaminated batch were all negative for Salmonella. Serotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed on 12 patient isolates......We report the first outbreak of salmonellosis caused by consumption of contaminated marlin mousse. Between 29 October and 5 November 2008, at least 53 persons developed diarrheal illness, all with a history of eating marlin mousse. Salmonella spp. that did not produce gas from glucose was isolated...... from stools of 26 affected patients and blood culture from one patient. Salmonella sp. isolates with the same phenotype were isolated in three samples of marlin mousse manufactured on 27 October 2008. The constituents of the mousse were smoked marlin, raw eggs, bovine gelatin, oil, and cream...