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Sample records for serotonin transporter 5-htt

  1. A polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene affects fear-related behaviors of adult domestic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, E Tobias; Kjaer, Joergen B; Lüders, Carolin; van, Loc Phi

    2017-07-14

    The neural serotonin (5-HT)/serotonin transporter (5-HTT) system is involved in the regulation of physiological processes and emotional states. In humans, the short (S) allele in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, which decreases 5-HTT expression, has been shown to be associated with behavioral changes including an increased level of anxiety. Also in birds a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene is described, a deletion (D) has been found to have functional consequences on growth and locomotion. Furthermore, the D-allele leads to an increased 5-HTT expression compared to the wild type (W), a feature which is linked to lower levels of fear in mammalian species. Thus, we aimed here to test whether the polymorphism in the chicken 5-HTT gene also leads to respective alternations of fear-related behaviors. We tested 268 hens of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, D/D) in two behavioral paradigms (open field, light-dark test) to assess fear-related behavior. Both tests revealed that hens possessing the D-allele showed lower levels of fear than those having the W-allele. These similar outcomes in fear-related behaviors in an avian and a mammalian species are associated with an increased 5-HTT expression. In the human 5-HTT gene, the long (L) allele is linked to such increased expression, whereas in chickens it is the D-allele. Thus, increased 5-HTT expression causing decreased fear may be a general mechanism in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) and gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Subunit beta3 (GABRB3) Gene Polymorphisms are not Associated with Autism in the IMGSA Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestrini, E.; Lai, C.; Marlow, A.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta3 (GABRB3) gene, or other genes in the 15q11-q13 region, are possibly involved in susceptibility to autism. To test this hypothesis we performed an association study on...

  3. Midbrain serotonin transporter binding potential measured with [11C]DASB is affected by serotonin transporter genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimold, M.; Bares, R.; Reischl, G.; Solbach, C.; Machulla, H.-J.; Smolka, M.N.; Mann, K.; Schumann, G.; Zimmer, A.; Wrase, J.; Hu, X.-Z.; Goldman, D.; Heinz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Homozygote carriers of two long (L) alleles of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulatory region displayed in vitro a twofold increase in 5-HTT expression compared with carriers of one or two short (S) alleles. However, in vivo imaging studies yielded contradictory results. Recently, an A > G exchange leading to differential transcriptional activation of 5-HTT mRNA in lymphobalstoid cell lines was discovered in the 5-HTT regulatory region. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that [ 11 C]DASB, a new 5-HTT ligand offers some advantages over the ligands used in previous studies in measuring 5-HTT density independent of synaptic levels of serotonin. We assessed 5-HTT binding potential (BP 2) in the midbrain of 19 healthy subjects with positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]DASB. Accounting for the hypothesized functional similarity of L G and S in driving 5-HTT transcription, we assessed whether L A L A homozygotes display increased midbrain BP 2 compared with carriers of at least one S allele. BP 2 in the midbrain was significantly increased in L A L A homozygotes compared with carriers of at least one S allele. Interestingly, the genotype effect on the midbrain was significantly different from that on the thalamus and the amygdala where no group differences were detected. This in vivo study provides further evidence that subjects homozygous for the L A allele display increased expression of 5-HTT in the midbrain, the origin of central serotonergic projections. (author)

  4. BDNF val66met association with serotonin transporter binding in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, P. M.; Ozenne, B.; Svarer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted......-carriers have increased subcortical 5-HTT binding. The small difference suggests limited statistical power may explain previously reported null effects. Our finding adds to emerging evidence that BDNF val66met contributes to differences in the human brain serotonin system, informing how variability in the 5-HTT...

  5. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Schalling Martin; Lonsdorf Tina B; Jensen Karin B; Kosek Eva; Ingvar Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expressio...

  6. Looking on the bright side of serotonin transporter gene variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Lesch, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates an association of the short (s), low-expressing variant of the repeat length polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), in the human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT, SERT, SLC6A4) with anxiety-related traits and increased risk for

  7. Acute inescapable stress alleviates fear extinction recall deficits caused by serotonin transporter abolishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Lopresto, Dora; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-07-02

    Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT -/- ) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats and wildtype controls. Surprisingly, IS experience improved fear extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats to the level of wildtype animals, while wildtypes were unaffected by this IS. Thus, whereas 5-HTT -/- rats evidently were more responsive to the stressor, the behavioral consequences presented themselves as adaptive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of Human Serotonin Transporter Expression by 5-HTTLPR in Colon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewin Tencomnao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a monoamine neurotransmitter and plays important roles in several of the human body’s systems. Known as a primary target for psychoactive drug development, the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, SERT plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function by reuptaking 5-HT. The allelic variation of 5-HTT expression is caused by functional gene promoter polymorphism with two principal variant alleles, 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR. It has been demonstrated that 5-HTTLPR is associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The functional roles of 5-HTTLPR have been reported in human choriocarcinoma (JAR, lymphoblast and raphe cells. To date, the significance of 5-HTTLPR in gastrointestinal tract-derived cells has never been elucidated. Thus, the impact of 5-HTTLPR on 5-HTT transcription was studied in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells, which were shown to express 5-HTT. We found 42-bp fragment in long (L allele as compared to short (S allele, and this allelic difference resulted in 2-fold higher transcriptional efficiency of L allele (P < 0.05 as demonstrated using a functional reporter gene assay. Nevertheless, the transcriptional effect of estrogen and glucocorticoid on 5-HTT expression via 5-HTTLPR was not found in this cell line. Our study was the first to demonstrate the molecular role of this allelic variation in gastrointestinal tract cells.

  9. The personality trait openness is related to cerebral 5-HTT levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Frøkjær, Vibe G.; Erritzøe, David

    2009-01-01

    Potentiation of serotonergic transmission increases cognitive flexibility, but can in other circumstances increase sensitivity to stressful environmental cues. The personality trait Openness to Experience reflects and is also associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. We hypothesized...... that the personality trait has an association with a biomarker of serotonergic transmission, the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (5-HTT). In 50 healthy volunteers, we tested for correlations between scores on the NEO-PI-R scale Openness to Experience and its subscales, and cerebral binding of the 5-HTT selective...... in openness scores. Thus, high scores in personality facets indicative of cognitive flexibility and openness to change are associated with lower [11C]DASB binding. Lower abundance of 5-HTT sites may result in potentiation of serotonergic signaling, which occurs during treatment with SSRIs. We speculate...

  10. Expression analysis for inverted effects of serotonin transporter inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Manabu; Okamura-Oho, Yuko; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Kondo, Shinji; Nakamura, Sakiko; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of serotonin transporter (HTT) by pharmacologically in the neonate or genetically increases risk for depression in adulthood, whereas pharmacological inhibition of HTT ameliorates symptoms in depressed patients. The differing role of HTT function during early development and in adult brain plasticity in causing or reversing depression remains an unexplained paradox. To address this we profiled the gene expression of adult Htt knockout (Htt KO) mice and HTT inhibitor-treated mice. Inverted profile changes between the two experimental conditions were seen in 30 genes. Consistent results of the upstream regulatory element search and the co-localization search of these genes indicated that the regulation may be executed by Pax5, Pax7 and Gata3, known to be involved in the survival, proliferation, and migration of serotonergic neurons in the developing brain, and these factors are supposed to keep functioning to regulate downstream genes related to serotonin system in the adult brain

  11. Impact of Institutional Care on Attachment Disorganization and Insecurity of Ukrainian Preschoolers: Protective Effect of the Long Variant of the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5HTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha; van IJzendoorn, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    Institutional care has been shown to lead to insecure and disorganized attachments and indiscriminate friendliness. Some children, however, are surprisingly resilient to the adverse environment. Here the protective role of the long variant of the serotonin receptor gene (5HTT) is explored in a small hypothesis-generating study of 37 Ukrainian…

  12. Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity - a [11C]DASB PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimold, M.; Smolka, M.N.; Zimmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 11 C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is reduced in OCD patients and correlated with OCD severity. 5-HTT availability in the thalamus and the midbrain was measured in nine drug-free OCD patients and compared with 19 healthy controls, matched for the individual combination of 5-HTT genotype, gender and smoking status. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). 5-HTT availability was significantly reduced in the thalamus and midbrain of OCD patients. Age and 5-HTT in the thalamus explained 83 % of OCD severity in patients that were drug-free for at least 1 year. This PET study confirms a central role of the serotonergic system, particularly the thalamus in the pathogenesis of obsessive compulsive disorder. (author)

  13. [The value of 5-HTT gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of male adolescence violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong

    2012-08-01

    To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.

  14. Possible association between serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and extremely violent crime in Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ding-Lieh; Hong, Chen-Jee; Shih, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, has been implicated in aggressive behavior. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which reuptakes serotonin into the nerve terminal, plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function. Previous western reports have demonstrated that the low-activity short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with aggressive behavior and associated personality traits. In the present study, we investigated this 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism in a group of Chinese males who had been convicted for extremely violent crime (n = 135) and a normal control group (n = 111). The proportion of S-allele carriers was significantly higher in the criminal group than in the controls (p = 0.006). A significant association was not demonstrated for the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse or alcohol abuse in the criminal group. Our findings demonstrate that carriage of the low-activity S allele is associated with extremely violent criminal behavior in Chinese males, and suggests that the 5-HTT may be implicated in the mechanisms underlying violent behaviors.

  15. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT)

  16. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  17. Serotonin transporter evolution and impact of polymorphic transcriptional regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeby, Karen; Larsen, Svend Ask; Olsen, Line

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary drug target in the current antidepressant therapy. A functional polymorphism in the 2nd intron of the 5HTT gene encoding the SERT has been identified and associated with susceptibility to affective disorders and treatment response to antidepressants...... in the VNTRs of all mammalian SERT genes. The number of these putative binding sites varies proportionally to the length of the VNTR. We propose that the intronic VNTR have been selectively targeted through mammalian evolution to finetune transcriptional regulation of the serotonin expression....

  18. Association between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm Carlstrom, Eva; Saetre, Peter; Rosengren, Anders

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT) is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. ...

  19. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Eva; Jensen, Karin B; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-07-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531). The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years) underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on micro-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG) as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA), p desensitization of 5-HT1 receptors have an increased analgesic response to opioids during acute pain stimuli, but may still be at increased risk of developing chronic pain conditions.

  20. Anorexigen-induced pulmonary hypertension and the serotonin (5-HT hypothesis: lessons for the future in pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnot Serge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological studies have established that fenfluramine, D-fenfluramine, and aminorex, but not other appetite suppressants, increase the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension (PH. One current hypothesis suggests that fenfluramine-like medications may act through interactions with the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] transporter (5-HTT located on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and responsible for the mitogenic action of 5-HT. Anorexigens may contribute to PH by boosting 5-HT levels in the bloodstream, directly stimulating smooth muscle cell growth, or altering 5-HTT expression. We suggest that individuals with a high basal level of 5-HTT expression related to the presence of the long 5-HTT gene promoter variant may be particularly susceptible to one or more of these potential mechanisms of appetite-suppressant-related PH.

  1. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalling Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531. The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on μ-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS. All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. Results At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA, p Conclusion This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a better analgesic effect of an opioid. The s-allele has been associated with downregulation of

  2. How the cerebral serotonin homeostasis predicts environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Kalbitzer, Urs; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging studies with positron emission tomography have revealed that the availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the human brain fluctuates over the course of the year. This effect is most pronounced in carriers of the short allele of the 5-HTT promoter region (5-HTTLPR), which...... has in several previous studies been linked to an increased risk to develop mood disorders. We argue that long-lasting fluctuations in the cerebral serotonin transmission, which is regulated via the 5-HTT, are responsible for mediating responses to environmental changes based on an assessment...... of cerebral serotonin transmission to seasonal and other forms of environmental change imparts greater behavioral flexibility, at the expense of increased vulnerability to stress. This model may explain the somewhat higher prevalence of the s-allele in some human populations dwelling at geographic latitudes...

  3. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen B. Kjaer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter ( 5 - HTT gene of Lohmann Brown (LB laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age ( p < 0.05, leading to a higher growth rate ( p < 0.05, compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens.

  4. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  5. Serotonin transporter evolution and impact of polymorphic transcriptional regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeby, Karen; Larsen, Svend Ask; Olsen, Line

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary drug target in the current antidepressant therapy. A functional polymorphism in the 2nd intron of the 5HTT gene encoding the SERT has been identified and associated with susceptibility to affective disorders and treatment response to antidepressants....... This study addresses the possible impact of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) to behavior and disease by examining the evolutionary origin and mechanisms of differential transcriptional regulation of SERT. We trace the evolutionary origin of the VNTR and show that it is present and varies...

  6. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).

  7. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelen, R.H.A. van der; Deschamps, W.; D'Annibale, C.; Peeters, D.; Wevers, R.A.; Zelena, D.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2014-01-01

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the

  8. Prior fear conditioning does not impede enhanced active avoidance in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Borghans, Bart; Hiemstra, Marlies; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-05-30

    Stressors can be actively or passively coped with, and adequate adaption of the coping response to environmental conditions can reduce their potential deleterious effects. One major factor influencing stress coping behaviour is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability. Abolishment of 5-HTT is known to impair fear extinction but facilitates acquisition of signalled active avoidance (AA), a behavioural task in which an animal learns to avoid an aversive stimulus that is predicted by a cue. Flexibility in adapting coping behaviour to the nature of the stressor shapes resilience to stress-related disorders. Therefore, we investigated the relation between 5-HTT expression and ability to adapt a learned coping response to changing environmental conditions. To this end, we first established and consolidated a cue-conditioned passive fear response in 5-HTT -/- and wildtype rats. Next, we used the conditioned stimulus (CS) to signal oncoming shocks during signalled AA training in 5-HTT -/- and wildtype rats to study their capability to acquire an active coping response to the CS following fear conditioning. Finally, we investigated the behavioural response to the CS in a novel environment and measured freezing, exploration and self-grooming, behaviours reflective of stress coping strategy. We found that fear conditioned and sham conditioned 5-HTT -/- animals acquired the signalled AA response faster than wildtypes, while prior conditioning briefly delayed AA learning similarly in both genotypes. Subsequent exposure to the CS in the novel context reduced freezing and increased locomotion in 5-HTT -/- compared to wildtype rats. This indicates that improved AA performance in 5-HTT -/- rats resulted in a weaker residual passive fear response to the CS in a novel context. Fear conditioning prior to AA training did not affect freezing upon re-encountering the CS, although it did reduce locomotion in 5-HTT -/- rats. We conclude that independent of 5-HTT signalling, prior fear

  9. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelen, R.H.A. van der; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Ghareh, H.; Och, L. van; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene x Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid

  10. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Erik; Rosen, Ingmar [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lindstroem, Mats; Bosson, Peter; Traeskman-Bendz, Lil [Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Braadvik, Bjoern; Grabowski, Martin [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  11. Environmental enrichment reduces innate anxiety with no effect on depression-like behaviour in mice lacking the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Li, Shanshan; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-08-14

    Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on affective-like behaviours and sensorimotor gating function of 5-HTT knock-out (KO) mice. Using the elevated-plus maze and the light-dark box, we found that environmental enrichment ameliorated the abnormal innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice on both tests. In contrast, environmental enrichment did not rescue the depression-like behaviour displayed by 5-HTT KO mice in the forced-swim test. Finally, measuring pre-pulse inhibition, we found no effect of genotype or treatment on sensorimotor gating. In conclusion, our data suggest that environmental enrichment specifically reduces innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice with no amelioration of the depression-like behaviour. This has implications for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ADHD and Disruptive behavior scores – associations with MAO-A and 5-HTT genes and with platelet MAO-B activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Jan-Olov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological and genetic studies suggest the importance of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems in the pathogenesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. We have, in a population-based sample, studied associations between dimensions of the ADHD/DBD phenotype and Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B activity in platelets and polymorphisms in two serotonergic genes: the Monoamine Oxidase A Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MAO-A VNTR and the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTT LPR. Methods A population-based sample of twins, with an average age of 16 years, was assessed for ADHD/DBD with a clinical interview; Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Blood was drawn from 247 subjects and analyzed for platelet MAO-B activity and polymorphisms in the MAO-A and 5-HTT genes. Results We found an association in girls between low platelet MAO-B activity and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. In girls, there was also an association between the heterozygote long/short 5-HTT LPR genotype and symptoms of conduct disorder. Furthermore the heterozygote 5-HTT LPR genotype in boys was found to be associated with symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD. In boys, hemizygosity for the short MAO-A VNTR allele was associated with disruptive behavior. Conclusion Our study suggests that the serotonin system, in addition to the dopamine system, should be further investigated when studying genetic influences on the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

  13. The study of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin in Alzheimer's disease: a new perspective in a heterogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira J.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Mutations in 3 genes mapped on chromosomes 21, 14 and 1 are related to the rare early onset forms of AD while the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene (on chromosome 19 is the major susceptibility locus for the most common late onset AD (LOAD. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is a key neurotransmitter implicated in the control of mood, sleep, appetite and a variety of traits and behaviors. Recently, a polymorphism in the transcriptional control region upstream of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT gene has been studied in several psychiatric diseases and personality traits. It has been demonstrated that the short variant(s of this 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR is associated with a different transcriptional efficiency of the 5-HTT gene promoter resulting in decreased 5-HTT expression and 5-HT uptake in lymphocytes. An increased frequency of this 5-HTTLPR short variant polymorphism in LOAD was recently reported. In addition, another common polymorphic variation in the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonin receptor genes previously analyzed in schizophrenic patients was associated with auditory and visual hallucinations in AD. These observations suggest that the involvement of the serotonin pathway might provide an explanation for some aspects of the affective symptoms commonly observed in AD patients. In summary, research on genetic polymorphisms related to AD and involved in receptors, transporter proteins and the enzymatic machinery of serotonin might enhance our understanding of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.

  14. Perceived discrimination, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region status, and the development of conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Obasi, Ezemenari; Philibert, Robert A; Kogan, Steven M; Simons, Ronald L

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations of adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and their genetic status with increases in conduct problems. Participants were 461 African American youths residing in rural Georgia (Wave 1 mean age = 15.5 years) who provided three waves of data and a saliva sample from which a polymorphism in the SCL6A4 (serotonin transporter [5-HTT]) gene polymorphism known as the 5-HTT linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) was genotyped. Data analyses using growth curve modeling indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related to the slope of conduct problems. As hypothesized, interactions between perceived discrimination and genetic status emerged for male but not female youths. Compared with those carrying two copies of the long allele variant of 5-HTTLPR, male youths carrying one or two copies of its short allele variant evinced higher rates of conduct problems over time when they perceived high levels of racial discrimination. These findings are consistent with resilience and differential susceptibility propositions stating that genes can both foster sensitivity to adverse events and confer protection from those events.

  15. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [11C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Rullmann, Michael; Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M.; Winter, Karsten; Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Drabe, Mandy; Regenthal, Ralf; Schinke, Christian; Arelin, Katrin; Lobsien, Donald; Fasshauer, Mathias; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Stumvoll, Michael; Blueher, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [ 11 C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m 2 ) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m 2 ) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BP ND ) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BP ND in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BP ND . The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  16. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [{sup 11}C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Winter, Karsten [University of Leipzig, Centre for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Drabe, Mandy [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Regenthal, Ralf [University of Leipzig, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schinke, Christian [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Stumvoll, Michael [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Collaborative Research Centre 1052 Obesity Mechanisms, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [{sup 11}C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m{sup 2}) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m{sup 2}) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BP{sub ND} in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BP{sub ND}. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  17. Inhibition of serotonin but not norepinephrine transport during development produces delayed, persistent perturbations of emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Mark S; Morelli, Emanuela; Gingrich, Jay A

    2008-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) acts as a neurotransmitter, but also modulates brain maturation during early development. The demonstrated influence of genetic variants on brain function, personality traits, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a critical importance of developmental mechanisms. However, little is known about how and when developmentally perturbed 5-HT signaling affects circuitry and resulting behavior. The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of extracellular 5-HT levels and we used pharmacologic strategies to manipulate 5-HTT function during development and determine behavioral consequences. Transient exposure to the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine, clomipramine, and citalopram from postnatal day 4 (P4) to P21 produced abnormal emotional behaviors in adult mice. Similar treatment with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor, desipramine, did not adversely affect adult behavior, suggesting that 5-HT and norepinephrine (NE) do not share the same effects on brain development. Shifting our period of treatment/testing to P90/P185 failed to mimic the effect of earlier exposure, demonstrating that 5-HT effects on adult behavior are developmentally specific. We have hypothesized that early-life perturbations of 5-HT signaling affect corticolimbic circuits that do not reach maturity until the peri-adolescent period. In support of this idea, we found that abnormal behaviors resulting from postnatal fluoxetine exposure have a post-pubescent onset and persist long after reaching adult age. A better understanding of the underlying 5-HT sensitive circuits and how they are perturbed should lead to new insights into how various genetic polymorphisms confer their risk to carriers. Furthermore, these studies should help determine whether in utero exposure to 5-HTT blocking drugs poses a risk for behavioral abnormalities in later life.

  18. Functional polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 and serotonin transporter genes, and depression and fatigue induced by interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bull, S J

    2009-12-01

    Depression and fatigue are frequent side effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment, and there is compelling evidence that the inflammatory response system (including interleukin-6, IL-6) and the serotonergic system is important in the pathophysiology of such symptoms. Functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene (rs1800795) and serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) have been identified as regulating these systems. The present study aimed to determine if these polymorphisms were associated with the development of depression and fatigue during IFN-alpha and ribavirin treatment. Ninety-eight Caucasian patients receiving pegylated IFN-alpha and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus at King\\'s College Hospital, London, and Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, participated in this prospective cohort study. Symptoms of depression and fatigue were measured before treatment and at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 24 during treatment. The \\'low IL-6\\' synthesizing genotype (CC) was associated with significantly fewer symptoms of depression (effect size = 0.7 at week 24; F = 9.4, d.f. = 436, P = 0.002). The \\'high transcription\\' serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype (LL) was also associated with significantly fewer symptoms of depression, but with a much smaller effect (effect size = 0.2 at week 24; F = 4.5, d.f. = 436, P = 0.03). Neither polymorphisms were associated with symptoms of fatigue (IL-6: F = 1.2, d.f. = 430, P = 0.2; 5-HTT: F = 0.5, d.f. = 430, P = 0.5). The smaller effects of the 5-HTT polymorphism on depression may be explained by an interaction between the genes (F = 5.0, d.f. = 434, P = 0.02): the \\'protective\\' effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was evident only in the presence of the \\'low IL-6\\' genotype (F = 5.4, d.f. = 64, P = 0.02), not in the presence of the \\'high IL-6\\' genotype (F = 2.2, d.f. = 369, P = 0.1). The association between the IL-6 polymorphism and reduced risk of depressive symptoms confirms the role

  19. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  20. Serotonin-induced down-regulation of cell surface serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signaling and enables refilling of synaptic vesicles by mediating reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) released into the synaptic cleft. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT activity and surface expression are not fully understood...

  1. [Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of 3 SNP loci in 5-HTT gene and paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jin-Feng; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao; Xing, Jia-Xin; Sun, Yi-Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the population genetic data of 3 SNP loci (rs25533, rs34388196 and rs1042173) of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene and the association with paranoid schizophrenia. Three SNP loci of 5-HTT gene were examined in 132 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 150 unrelated healthy individuals of Northern Chinese Han population by PCR-RFLP technique. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was performed using the chi-square test and the data of haplotype frequency and population genetics parameters were statistically analyzed. Among these three SNP loci, four haplotypes were obtained. There were no statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group (P > 0.05). The DP values of the 3 SNP loci were 0.276, 0.502 and 0.502. The PIC of them were 0.151, 0.281 and 0.281. The PE of them were 0.014, 0.072 and 0.072. The three SNP loci and four haplotypes of 5-HTT gene have no association with paranoid schizophrenia, while the polymorphism still have high potential application in forensic practice.

  2. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  3. Maintenance of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS in Young CFS Patients Is Associated with the 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531 A > G Genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Meyer

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S versus long (L 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12-18 years. Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS.

  4. The association study between the interaction of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms and the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors%5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素转运体基因多态性的交互作用与重性抑郁障碍临床疗效的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟亚琴; 孙宁; 王彦芳; 段慧君; 李素萍; 彭菊意; 杜巧荣; 张克让

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relevance of the interaction of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms and the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Methods The subjects comprised 246 patients according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in the fourth edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criterion for major depressive disorder(MDD).The clinical efficacy were assessed by using 17 Hamilton depression quantity (HAMD) scale after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) citalopram (20 to 60 mg/d) or paroxetine (20 to 60 mg/d) were used randomly for 1,2,4,6 weeks.Polymerase chain reaction(PCR),sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE)and DNA sequencing analysis were used to detect the genotype of 5-HTT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of VNTR and LPR and SNPs at rs2242446 and rs5569 of NET.SPSS13.0 software were used for statistical analysis.Results (1) An association between 5-HTT LPR and the efficacy of SSRIs was found after 6 weeks in these samples (P =0.023).The clinical efficiency of LL genotype was higher than SS + LS genotype(OR =2.225,OR 95% CI=1.118,4.427).(2) The interaction of 5-HTT LPR and NET rs5569 and the SSRIs antidepressant effects was statistical significance (P =0.01).Conclusion Preliminary study found that the interaction of 5-HTT LPR and NET rs5569 may be related to SSRIs antidepressant effects in China' s patients with MDD.%目的 探讨5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素转运体基因多态性的交互作用与选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂临床疗效的关联研究.方法 收集符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)重性抑郁障碍(MDD)诊断标准的患者246例,给予选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)西酞普兰(20~ 60mg/d)或帕罗西汀(20 ~ 60 mg/d),在治疗后1,2,4,6周运用17

  5. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5-HTTLPR) Predicts Utilitarian Moral Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Crowe, Samantha L.; Yu, Henry H.; Gorodetsky, Elena K.; Goldman, David; Blair, R. J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgment have been the focus of extensive recent research. Here we show that serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype predicts responses to moral dilemmas featuring foreseen harm to an innocent. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants in this study judged the acceptability of actions that would unintentionally or intentionally harm an innocent victim in order to save others' lives. An analysis of variance reveale...

  6. Characterization of bromine-76-labelled 5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine for PET studies of the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla E-mail: Lundkvis@shfj.cea.fr; Loc' h, Christian; Halldin, Christer; Bottlaender, Michel; Ottaviani, Michele; Coulon, Christine; Fuseau, Chantal; Mathis, Chester; Farde, Lars; Maziere, Bernard

    1999-07-01

    The development of suitable radioligands for brain imaging of the serotonin transporter is of great importance for the study of depression and other affective disorders. The potent and selective serotonin transporter ligand, 5-iodo-6-nitro-2-piperazinylquinoline, has been labelled with iodine-123 and used as a radioligand for single photon emission computerized tomography. To evaluate the potential of the bromine-76-labelled analogue, 5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine, as a radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET), its brain distribution and binding characteristics were examined in rats. In vivo brain distribution and ex vivo autoradiography demonstrated that [{sup 76}Br]5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine enters the brain rapidly. The regional brain distribution of [{sup 76}Br]5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine was consistent with the known distribution of serotonin transporters in the midbrain, pons, thalamus, striatum, and neocortex. Specific binding was inhibited by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. The peripheral metabolism in plasma was rapid, but more than 90% of the radioactivity in brain represented unchanged radioligand 2 h postinjection (p.i.). A preliminary PET study was also performed in a baboon. Following the intravenous injection of [{sup 76}Br]5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine in a baboon, there was a conspicuous accumulation of radioactivity in thalamus, striatum, and pons. The radioactivity in these brain regions was 1.5 times higher than in the cerebellum at 3 h and 2.5-4 times higher at 24 h. A rapid metabolism of the radioligand in plasma was observed (38% unchanged after 5 min). The results indicate that [{sup 76}Br]5-bromo-6-nitroquipazine has potential for PET imaging of the serotonin transporter.

  7. Moderation of antidepressant response by the serotonin transporter gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Uher, Rudolf; Smith, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been conflicting reports on whether the length polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We hypothesised that the pharmacogenetic effect of 5-HTTLPR...... the serotonin transporter gene were genotyped in 795 adults with moderate-to-severe depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline in the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Results: The 5-HTTLPR moderated the response to escitalopram, with long-allele carriers improving more...

  8. 5-HT2C Receptor Desensitization Moderates Anxiety in 5-HTT Deficient Mice: From Behavioral to Cellular Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cédric BP; Martin, Vincent S.; Trigo, José M.; Chevarin, Caroline; Maldonado, Rafael; Fink, Latham H.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background: Desensitization and blockade of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) have long been thought to be central in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, besides behavioral pharmacology studies, there is little in vivo data documenting antidepressant-induced 5-HT2CR desensitization in specific brain areas. Methods: Mice lacking the 5-HT reuptake carrier (5-HTT-/-) were used to model the consequences of chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition with antidepressant drugs. The effect of this mutation on 5-HT2CR was evaluated at the behavioral (social interaction, novelty-suppressed feeding, and 5-HT2CR–induced hypolocomotion tests), the neurochemical, and the cellular (RT-qPCR, mRNA editing, and c-fos–induced expression) levels. Results: Although 5-HTT-/- mice had an anxiogenic profile in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, they displayed less 5-HT2CR–mediated anxiety in response to the agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine in the social interaction test. In addition, 5-HT2CR–mediated inhibition of a stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover, measured in various brain areas, was markedly reduced in 5-HTT-/- mutants. These indices of tolerance to 5-HT2CR stimulation were associated neither with altered levels of 5-HT2CR protein and mRNA nor with changes in pre-mRNA editing in the frontal cortex. However, basal c-fos mRNA production in cells expressing 5-HT2CR was higher in 5-HTT-/- mutants, suggesting an altered basal activity of these cells following sustained 5-HT reuptake carrier inactivation. Furthermore, the increased c-fos mRNA expression in 5-HT2CR–like immune-positive cortical cells observed in wild-type mice treated acutely with the 5-HT2CR agonist RO-60,0175 was absent in 5-HTT-/- mutants. Conclusions: Such blunted responsiveness of the 5-HT2CR system, observed at the cell signaling level, probably contributes to the moderation of the anxiety phenotype in 5-HTT-/- mice. PMID:25522398

  9. Inhibition of serotonin transporters disrupts the enhancement of fear memory extinction by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew B; Norrholm, Seth D; Khoury, Lara M; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rauch, Sheila A M; Reiff, Collin M; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population. We aimed to inform clinical research by providing a translational model of MDMA's effect, and elucidating monoaminergic mechanisms through which MDMA enhances fear extinction. We explored the importance of monoamine transporters targeted by MDMA to fear memory extinction, as measured by reductions in conditioned freezing and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in mice. Mice were treated with selective inhibitors of individual monoamine transporters prior to combined MDMA treatment and fear extinction training. MDMA enhanced the lasting extinction of FPS. Acute and chronic treatment with a 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor blocked MDMA's effect on fear memory extinction. Acute inhibition of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters had no effect. 5-HT release alone did not enhance extinction. Blockade of MDMA's effect by 5-HTT inhibition also downregulated 5-HT 2A -mediated behavior, and 5-HT 2A antagonism disrupted MDMA's effect on extinction. We validate enhancement of fear memory extinction by MDMA in a translational behavioral model, and reveal the importance of 5-HTT and 5-HT 2A receptors to this effect. These observations support future clinical research of MDMA as an adjunct to exposure therapy, and provide important pharmacological considerations for clinical use in a population frequently treated with 5-HTT inhibitors.

  10. Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms modify the association between paroxetine serotonin transporter occupancy and clinical response in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Ooteman, Wendy; Booij, Jan; Michel, Martin C.; Moeton, Martina; Baas, Frank; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In major depressive disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors target the serotonin transporter (SERT). Their response rates (30-50%) are modified by SERT promotor polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between SERT occupancy and response, and whether

  11. Unifying Concept of Serotonin Transporter-associated Currents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Klaus; Uzelac, Zeljko; Gesmonde, Joan; Bulling, Simon; Stockner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) uptake by the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is driven by ion gradients. The stoichiometry of transported 5-HT and ions is predicted to result in electroneutral charge movement. However, hSERT mediates a current when challenged with 5-HT. This discrepancy can be accounted for by an uncoupled ion flux. Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis of the uncoupled currents and its relation to the conformational cycle of hSERT. Our observations support the conclusion that the conducting state underlying the uncoupled ion flux is in equilibrium with an inward facing state of the transporter with K+ bound. We identified conditions associated with accumulation of the transporter in inward facing conformations. Manipulations that increased the abundance of inward facing states resulted in enhanced steady-state currents. We present a comprehensive kinetic model of the transport cycle, which recapitulates salient features of the recorded currents. This study provides a framework for exploring transporter-associated currents. PMID:22072712

  12. Unifying concept of serotonin transporter-associated currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Klaus; Uzelac, Zeljko; Gesmonde, Joan; Bulling, Simon; Stockner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) uptake by the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is driven by ion gradients. The stoichiometry of transported 5-HT and ions is predicted to result in electroneutral charge movement. However, hSERT mediates a current when challenged with 5-HT. This discrepancy can be accounted for by an uncoupled ion flux. Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis of the uncoupled currents and its relation to the conformational cycle of hSERT. Our observations support the conclusion that the conducting state underlying the uncoupled ion flux is in equilibrium with an inward facing state of the transporter with K+ bound. We identified conditions associated with accumulation of the transporter in inward facing conformations. Manipulations that increased the abundance of inward facing states resulted in enhanced steady-state currents. We present a comprehensive kinetic model of the transport cycle, which recapitulates salient features of the recorded currents. This study provides a framework for exploring transporter-associated currents.

  13. SEP-225289 serotonin and dopamine transporter occupancy: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Lichenstein, Sarah; Schaefer, Karen; Dunn, Judith; Marshall, Randall; Organisak, Lisa; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Robertson, Brigitte; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2011-07-01

    SEP-225289 is a novel compound that, based on in vitro potencies for transporter function, potentially inhibits reuptake at dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters. An open-label PET study was conducted during the development of SEP-225289 to investigate its dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancy. Different single doses of SEP-225289 were administered to healthy volunteers in 3 cohorts: 8 mg (n = 7), 12 mg (n = 5), and 16 mg (n = 7). PET was performed before and approximately 24 h after oral administration of SEP-225289, to assess occupancy at trough levels. Dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies were estimated from PET using (11)C-N-(3-iodoprop-2E-enyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-methylphenyl)nortropane ((11)C-PE2I) and (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine ((11)C-DASB), respectively. Plasma concentration of SEP-225289 was assessed before ligand injection, and subjects were monitored for adverse events. Average dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies increased with increasing doses of SEP-225289. Mean dopamine and serotonin transporter occupancies were 33% ± 11% and 2% ± 13%, respectively, for 8 mg; 44% ± 4% and 9% ± 10%, respectively, for 12 mg; and 49% ± 7% and 14% ± 15%, respectively, for 16 mg. On the basis of the relationship between occupancy and plasma concentration, dopamine transporter IC(50) (the plasma concentration of drug at 50% occupancy) was determined (4.5 ng/mL) and maximum dopamine transporter occupancy was extrapolated (85%); however, low serotonin transporter occupancy prevented similar serotonin transporter calculations. No serious adverse events were reported. At the doses evaluated, occupancy of the dopamine transporter was significantly higher than that of the serotonin transporter, despite similar in vitro potencies, confirming that, in addition to in vitro assays, PET occupancy studies can be instrumental to the drug development process by informing early decisions about

  14. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na + , Cl - and K + to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na + . Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na + and Cl - , the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na + binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl - . Cl - enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na + . At concentrations in the range of its K M for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na + -independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both [ 3 H]imipramine binding and [ 3 H]serotonin transport

  15. Association between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Carlström Eva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. In this study, we wanted to elucidate whether SLC6A4 variations is involved in attempted suicide among patients with schizophrenia in a Scandinavian case–control sample. Methods Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia from three Scandinavian samples were assessed for presence or absence of suicide attempts, based on record reviews and interview data. Seven SLC6A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 837 schizophrenia patients and 1,473 control individuals. Association analyses and statistical evaluations were performed with the program UNPHASED (version 3.0.9. Results We observed an allele association between the SNP rs16965628, located in intron one of SLC6A4, and attempted suicide (adjusted p-value 0.01, among patients with schizophrenia. No association was found to a diagnosis of schizophrenia, when patients were compared to healthy control individuals. Conclusion The gene SLC6A4 appears to be involved in suicidal ideation among patients with schizophrenia. Independent replication is needed before more firm conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence.

  17. Intracellular loop 5 is important for the transport mechanism and molecular pharmacology of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Saida; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of transport proteins called the neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. The specialized members of this family transport different neurotransmitters across the cell membrane, thereby regulating signaling between neurons. Most of these transporters...

  18. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  19. Serotonin Transporter Gene 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism as a Protective Factor Against the Progression of Post-Stroke Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Guo, Yi; Yang, Dong; Yang, Tiansong; Meng, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the 5-HTT and BDNF genes are shown to affect their function at the molecular and serum level. Prior work has tried to correlate the polymorphisms with post-stroke depression (PSD), the results nevertheless remain indefinitive. A plausible reason accounting for the uncertainty relates to the small sample of each published trial. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive meta-analysis in order to evaluate the effects of 5-HTT and BDNF polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, STin2 VNTR, 5-HTR2a 102 T/C, Val66Met) on genetic risk of PSD. Human case-control trials were identified by computer-assisted and manual searches. The article search was performed until October 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed effects meta-analysis to measure the effects 5-HTT and BDNF polymorphisms exerted on PSD. We also performed test of heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis to examine the reliability and stability of combined effects. 5-HTTLPR was clearly associated with genetic risk of PSD. The association seemed to be more pronounced in the homozygous model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.23-0.51, P(Q-test) = 0.63). Both the heterozygous model and the recessive model showed 50% decreased risk of PSD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.37-0.67, P(Q-test) = 0.91; OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36-0.70, P(Q-test) = 0.43, respectively). Such significant association was also detected for Caucasian and Asian. These results were reliable and stable based on related analyses. Taken together, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the 5-HTT gene seems to protect against the occurrence of PSD. Small sample size for the polymorphisms within 5-HTT and BDNF genes may have caused underestimated associations, and a larger study is required to further assess the relations.

  20. Genetic contributions of the serotonin transporter to social learning of fear and economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G; Pana, Simona; Vulturar, Romana; Heilman, Renata M; Szekely, Raluca; Druğa, Bogdan; Dragoş, Nicolae; Miu, Andrei C

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates emotional and cognitive functions such as fear conditioning (FC) and decision making. This study investigated the effects of a functional polymorphism in the regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) of the human 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) gene on observational FC, risk taking and susceptibility to framing in decision making under uncertainty, as well as multidimensional anxiety and autonomic control of the heart in healthy volunteers. The present results indicate that in comparison to the homozygotes for the long (l) version of 5-HTTLPR, the carriers of the short (s) version display enhanced observational FC, reduced financial risk taking and increased susceptibility to framing in economic decision making. We also found that s-carriers have increased trait anxiety due to threat in social evaluation, and ambiguous threat perception. In addition, s-carriers also show reduced autonomic control over the heart, and a pattern of reduced vagal tone and increased sympathetic activity in comparison to l-homozygotes. This is the first genetic study that identifies the association of a functional polymorphism in a key neurotransmitter-related gene with complex social-emotional and cognitive processes. The present set of results suggests an endophenotype of anxiety disorders, characterized by enhanced social learning of fear, impaired decision making and dysfunctional autonomic activity.

  1. Serotonin transporter bi- and triallelic genotypes and their relationship with anxiety and academic performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapoğlu, Mustafa; Sahin-Calapoğlu, Nilufer; Karaçöp, Ataman; Soyöz, Mustafa; Elyıldırım, Umit Y; Avşaroğlu, Selahattin

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that variation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5- HTTLPR) is associated with anxiety-related traits. Academic outcomes are also more closely related to trait anxiety. This preliminary study aimed to explore the association between academic performance and levels of anxiety with respect to the bi- and triallelic classification of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the 5-HTT gene in teacher candidates. In our study, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Selection Examination for Professional Posts in Public Organizations (KPSS) and 5-HTTLPR genotypes were used to investigate a group of 94 healthy teacher candidates. Higher anxiety scores were significantly associated with the S'S' genotype. There was no direct, statistically significant association between academic performance and genotypic groups regarding bi- and triallelic classification. However, the students who have L'L' or LL genotypes had the lowest levels of trait anxiety and the poorest academic performance. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between academic performance and anxiety levels. These findings support the idea that S and L(G) alleles are associated with anxiety-related traits, and that the S'S' genotype may be a good indicator for anxiety-related traits in a sample from the Turkish population. A specific degree of anxiety is considered to be a motivation for learning and high academic performance. However, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the 5-HTT gene may be one of the genetic factors affecting academic performance in connection with anxiety levels. Implications for incorporating anxiety management training in the educational process in terms of both environmental and individual factors will have a very important role in improving effective strategies for student personality services, as well as for development and planning. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...

  3. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Joseph Bienvenu, O.; Grados, Marco A.; Reti, Irving M.; Eaton, William W.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the

  5. Deletion of the serotonin transporter in rats disturbs serotonin homeostasis without impairing liver regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.; Punt, C.J.A.; Homberg, J.R.; Toussaint, M.J.; Kisjes, R.; Korporaal, S.J.; Akkerman, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; Bruin, A. de

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter is implicated in the uptake of the vasoconstrictor serotonin from the circulation into the platelets, where 95% of all blood serotonin is stored and released in response to vascular injury. In vivo studies indicated that platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver

  6. Deletion of the serotonin transporter in rats disturbs serotonin homeostasis without impairing liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.; Punt, C.; Homberg, J.R.; Toussaint, M.J.; Kisjes, R.; Korporaal, S.J.; Akkerman, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; de Bruin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter is implicated in the uptake of the vasoconstrictor serotonin from the circulation into the platelets, where 95% of all blood serotonin is stored and released in response to vascular injury. In vivo studies indicated that platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver

  7. Mutational scanning of the human serotonin transporter reveals fast translocating serotonin transporter mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Larsen, Mads B; Johnsen, Laust B

    2004-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of sodium-chloride-dependent transporters responsible for uptake of amino acids and biogenic amines from the extracellular space. SERT represents a major pharmacological target in the treatment of several clinical conditions, including depressi...

  8. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT 1A , 5-HT 1B , 5-HT 2A , and 5-HT 4 ) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain. We present a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET)- and magnetic resonance imaging-based human brain atlas of important serotonin receptors and the transporter. The regional PET-derived binding measures correlate strongly with the corresponding autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein

  9. Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR genotype and childhood trauma are associated with individual differences in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Stoltenberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531, the experience of childhood trauma and decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in 391 (64.5% female healthy Caucasian adults. Homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR L allele was associated with riskier decision making in the first block of 20 trials (i.e. decision making under ambiguity, p = .004. In addition, mean IGT performance was significantly worse in blocks 3-5 (i.e. decision making under risk, p≤ .05 for those participants who reported experiencing higher levels of childhood trauma. Our findings add to the growing evidence that genetic variation in the 5-HT system is associated with individual differences in decision making under ambiguity; and we report that the experience of childhood trauma is associated with relatively poor decision making under risk.

  10. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  11. Impaired fear extinction in serotonin transporter knockout rats is associated with increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, L.; Guo, Hang-Yuan; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; van Heerikhuize, J.J.; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: One potential risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves the low activity (short; s) allelic variant of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), possibly due to reduced prefrontal control over the amygdala. Evidence shows that DNA

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of 125I 2-aminophenylthio-5-iodo-N,N-dimethyl benzylamine for Exploration of Serotonin Transporter Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palakas, S.; Vercouillie, J; Emond, P.; Guilloteau, D

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Serotonin transporter (T-5-HT) plays an important roles in the control of serotoninergic neurotransmission in both amplitude and interaction period. The imbalance in serotoninergic neurotransmission leads to neuropsychiatric symptom such as depression and in neuro degenerative diseases, Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. In the present study, the [125 I ] 2-aminophenylthio-5-iodo-N,N-dimethyl benzylamine, a derivative of the 2-[[2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl]thio]-5-iodo phenylamine (ADAM) was synthesized with iodine atom transferred from aniline ring of ADAM to the N,N-dimethyl benzylamine ring by chemical synthesis. The I-125 labeling efficiency was 60%. It is expected that this will be useful for serotonin transporter exploration

  13. A nonlinear relationship between cerebral serotonin transporter and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding: an in vivo molecular imaging study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is involved in the regulation of physiological functions such as mood, sleep, memory, and appetite. Within the serotonin transmitter system, both the postsynaptically located serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and the presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) are sensitive...... tomography. Within each individual, a regional intercorrelation for the various brain regions was seen with both markers, most notably for 5-HT2A receptor binding. An inverted U-shaped relationship between the 5-HT2A receptor and the SERT binding was identified. The observed regional intercorrelation...

  14. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B.; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  15. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D. van der; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.B.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  16. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  17. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  18. Interaction of antidepressants with the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Andersen, Jacob; Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) are sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters responsible for reuptake of released serotonin and norepinephrine, respectively, into nerve terminals in the brain. A wide range of inhibitors of SERT and NET are used...

  19. Synthesis, radiolabeling and baboon SPECT imaging of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3'-[123I]iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross; Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K.; Tamagnan, Gilles D.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3'-[ 123 I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, ). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [ 123 I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo

  20. A novel serotonin transporter ligand: (5-Iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Z.-P.; Choi, S.-R.; Hou, Catherine; Mu Mu; Kung, M.-P. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu; Acton, Paul D.; Kung, Hank F

    2000-02-01

    The serotonin transporters (SERT) are the primary binding sites for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, commonly used antidepressants such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine. Imaging of SERT with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in humans would provide a useful tool for understanding how alterations of this system are related to depressive illnesses and other psychiatric disorders. In this article the synthesis and characterization of [{sup 125}I]ODAM [(5-iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol, 9)] as an imaging agent in the evaluation of central nervous system SERT are reported. A new reaction scheme was developed for the preparation of compound 9, ODAM, and the corresponding tri-n-butyltin derivative 10. Upon reacting 10 with hydrogen peroxide and sodium[{sup 125}I]iodide, the radiolabeled [{sup 125}I]9 was obtained in good yield (94% yield, radiochemical purity >95%). In an initial binding study using cortical membrane homogenates of rat brain, ODAM displayed a good binding affinity with a value of K{sub i}=2.8{+-}0.88 nM. Using LLC-PK{sub 1} cells specifically expressing the individual transporter (i.e. dopamine [DAT], norepinephrine [NET], and SERT, respectively), ODAM showed a strong inhibition on SERT (K{sub i}=0.12{+-}0.02 nM). Inhibition constants for the other two transporters were lower (K{sub i}=3.9{+-}0.7 {mu}M and 20.0 {+-} 1.9 nM for DAT and NET, respectively). Initial biodistribution study in rats after an intravenous (IV) injection of [{sup 125}I]ODAM showed a rapid brain uptake and washout (2.03, 1.49, 0.79, 0.27, and 0.07% dose/organ at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, respectively). The hypothalamus region where the serotonin neurons are located exhibited a high specific uptake. Ratios of hypothalamus-cerebellum/cerebellum based on percent dose per gram of these two regions showed values of 0.35, 0.86, 0.86, 0.63, and 0.34 at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, post-IV injection

  1. A novel serotonin transporter ligand: (5-Iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Z.-P.; Choi, S.-R.; Hou, Catherine; Mu Mu; Kung, M.-P.; Acton, Paul D.; Kung, Hank F.

    2000-01-01

    The serotonin transporters (SERT) are the primary binding sites for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, commonly used antidepressants such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine. Imaging of SERT with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in humans would provide a useful tool for understanding how alterations of this system are related to depressive illnesses and other psychiatric disorders. In this article the synthesis and characterization of [ 125 I]ODAM [(5-iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol, 9)] as an imaging agent in the evaluation of central nervous system SERT are reported. A new reaction scheme was developed for the preparation of compound 9, ODAM, and the corresponding tri-n-butyltin derivative 10. Upon reacting 10 with hydrogen peroxide and sodium[ 125 I]iodide, the radiolabeled [ 125 I]9 was obtained in good yield (94% yield, radiochemical purity >95%). In an initial binding study using cortical membrane homogenates of rat brain, ODAM displayed a good binding affinity with a value of K i =2.8±0.88 nM. Using LLC-PK 1 cells specifically expressing the individual transporter (i.e. dopamine [DAT], norepinephrine [NET], and SERT, respectively), ODAM showed a strong inhibition on SERT (K i =0.12±0.02 nM). Inhibition constants for the other two transporters were lower (K i =3.9±0.7 μM and 20.0 ± 1.9 nM for DAT and NET, respectively). Initial biodistribution study in rats after an intravenous (IV) injection of [ 125 I]ODAM showed a rapid brain uptake and washout (2.03, 1.49, 0.79, 0.27, and 0.07% dose/organ at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, respectively). The hypothalamus region where the serotonin neurons are located exhibited a high specific uptake. Ratios of hypothalamus-cerebellum/cerebellum based on percent dose per gram of these two regions showed values of 0.35, 0.86, 0.86, 0.63, and 0.34 at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, post-IV injection, respectively. The specific uptake in hypothalamus

  2. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [123I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic; Plisson, Christophe; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Seibyl, John P.; Goodman, Mark M.; Tamagnan, Gilles D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [ 123 I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [ 123 I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [ 123 I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [ 123 I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes ( 123 I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  3. Novel procedure for genotyping of the human serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)--a region with a high level of allele diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik B; Werge, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    determination. After having developed a 5-HTTLPR genotyping assay, we examined all samples of DNA in two separate rounds of analyses and found complete agreement between the results from these two rounds. CONCLUSION: On the basis of simultaneous analysis of tandem repeat size variation and variation of single......BACKGROUND: The serotonin transporter, the target of a group of antidepressant drugs, is involved in the regulation of the availability and reuptake of serotonin. A variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene, designated 5-HTTLPR, affects...... for detailed genotyping of 5-HTTLPR based upon simultaneous analysis of tandem repeat size variation and single nucleotide variations. METHODS: We elaborated a list of all known 5-HTTLPR alleles to provide an overview of the allele repertoire at this polymorphic locus. Fragments of 5-HTTLPR were PCR...

  4. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, Rene [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Schulze, Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Raedler, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Mikecz, Pal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Reimold, Matthias [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brenner, Winfried [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Clausen, Malte [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schloss, Patrick [Biochemical Laboratory, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim (Germany); Buchert, Ralph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: buchert@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [{sup 11C}] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [{sup 3}H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V {sub max} of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K {sub M}. Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [{sup 11}C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin.

  5. Inhibition of serotonin transport by (+)McN5652 is noncompetitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, Rene; Schulze, Oliver; Raedler, Thomas; Mikecz, Pal; Reimold, Matthias; Brenner, Winfried; Clausen, Malte; Schloss, Patrick; Buchert, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Imaging of the serotonergic innervation of the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand [ 11C ] (+)McN5652 might be affected by serotonin in the synaptic cleft if there is relevant interaction between [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. The aim of the present study therefore was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction of [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 and serotonin at the SERT. Methods: In vitro saturation analyses of [ 3 H]serotonin uptake into HEK293 cells stably expressing the human SERT were performed in the absence and presence of unlabelled (+)McN5652. Data were evaluated assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results: Unlabelled (+)McN5652 significantly reduced the maximal rate of serotonin transport V max of SERT without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant K M . Conclusions: This finding indicates that (+)McN5652 inhibits serotonin transport through the SERT in a noncompetitive manner. This might suggest that [ 11 C] (+)McN5652 PET is not significantly affected by endogenous serotonin

  6. Polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in major depressive disorder patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Muhamad Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) is a potential susceptibility locus in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. However, data from Malaysia is lacking. The present study aimed to determine the association between the homozygous short variant of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with major depressive disorder. This is a candidate gene case-control association study. The sample consists of 55 major depressive disorder probands and 66 controls. They were Malaysian descents and were unrelated. The Axis I diagnosis was determined using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). The control group comprised healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorders. Participants' blood was sent to the Institute Medical Research for genotyping. The present study failed to detect an association between 5-HTTLPR ss genotype with major depressive disorder (χ(2)  = 3.67, d.f. = 1, P = 0.055, odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-1.94). Sub-analysis revealed that the frequency of l allele in healthy controls was higher (78.0%) than that of Caucasian and East Asian population. However, in view of the small sample size this study may be prone to type II error (and type I error). This preliminary study suggests that the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR did not appear to be a risk factor for increasing susceptibility to major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The serotonin transporter and early life stress : Translational perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Danielle J; Buwalda, Bauke; Zee, van der Eddy; de Boer, Sietse F; Olivier, Jocelien D A

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human

  8. Effect of plasma membrane fluidity on serotonin transport by endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, E.R.; Edwards, D.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of plasma membrane fluidity of lung endothelial cells on serotonin transport, porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were incubated for 3 h with either 0.1 mM cholesterol hemisuccinate, 0.1 mM cis-vaccenic acid, or vehicle (control), after which plasma membrane fluidity and serotinin transport were measured. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure fluidity in the plasma membrane. Serotonin uptake was calculated from the disappearance of [ 14 C]-serotonin from the culture medium. Cholesterol decreased fluidity in the subpolar head group and central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and decreased serotonin transport, whereas cis-vaccenic acid increased fluidity in the central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and also increased serotonin transport. Cis-vaccenic acid had no effect of fluidity in the subpolar head group region of the plasma membrane. These results provide evidence that the physical state of the central and midacyl chains within the pulmonary artery endothelial cell plasma membrane lipid bilayer modulates transmembrane transport of serotonin by these cells

  9. Brain serotonin and dopamine transporter bindings in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Futatsubashi, Masami; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Sugihara, Genichi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Suda, Shiro; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by repetitive and/or obsessive interests and behavior and by deficits in sociability and communication. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown. To determine the occurrence of changes in the binding of serotonin and dopamine transporters, which are highly selective markers for their respective neuronal systems. Using positron emission tomography, we measured the binding of brain serotonin and dopamine transporters in each individual with the radioligands carbon 11 ((11)C)-labeled trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(11)C]WIN-35,428), respectively. Statistical parametric mapping was used for between-subject analysis and within-subject correlation analysis with respect to clinical variables. Participants recruited from the community. Twenty men (age range, 18-26 years; mean [SD] IQ, 99.3 [18.1]) with autism and 20 age- and IQ-matched control subjects. Serotonin transporter binding was significantly lower throughout the brain in autistic individuals compared with controls (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly higher in the orbitofrontal cortex of the autistic group (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly inversely correlated with serotonin transporter binding (r = -0.61; P = .004). The brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in both serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding. The present findings indicate that the gross abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems may underpin the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism. Our sample was not characteristic or representative of a typical sample of adults with autism in the community.

  10. Effects of ageing on serotonin transporters in healthy females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Tammela, L.; Karhunen, L.; Uusitupa, M.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ageing on brain serotonin transporters was evaluated in 19 healthy female volunteers (age range 22-74 years) using single-photon emission tomography and [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The study subjects were scanned 0.3, 3, 6 and 23 h after injection of 185 MBq of [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The ratio of the distribution volume for tracer in the midbrain to that in the cerebellum minus 1 was used as an index for serotonin transporter binding. An age-related decline of 2% per decade (r=-0.47; P 123 I] nor-β-CIT binding in the serotonin transporter-rich area is much less than that in dopamine transporters in the striatum (6% per decade). (orig.)

  11. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  12. Coaction of Stress and Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Predicting Aggression at the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Christopher C.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Lind, Penelope A.; Najman, Jake M.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that serotonin functioning affects stress reactivity and vulnerability to aggression, research on serotonin gene-stress interactions (G x E) in the development of aggression remains limited. The present study investigated variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the…

  13. Depression, osteoporosis, serotonin and cell membrane viscosity between biology and philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielli Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the relationship between biology and culture, we believe that depression, understood as a cultural and existential phenomenon, has clear markers in molecular biology. We begin from an existential analysis of depression constituting the human condition and then shift to analysis of biological data confirming, according to our judgment, its original (ontological structure. In this way philosophy is involved at the anthropological level, in as much as it detects the underlying meanings of depression in the original biological-cultural horizon of human life. Considering the integration of knowledge it is the task of molecular biology to identify the aforementioned markers, to which the existential aspects of depression are linked to. In particular, recent works show the existence of a link between serotonin and osteoporosis as a result of a modified expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene. Moreover, it is believed that the hereditary or acquired involvement of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2 or 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT is responsible for the reduced concentration of serotonin in the central nervous system, causing depression and affective disorders. This work studies the depression-osteoporosis relationship, with the aim of focusing on depressive disorders that concern the quantitative dynamic of platelet membrane viscosity and interactome cytoskeleton modifications (in particular Tubulin and Gsα protein as a possible condition of the involvement of the serotonin axis (gut, brain and platelet, not only in depression but also in connection with osteoporosis.

  14. Synthesis, radiolabeling and baboon SPECT imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross [Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Mailman Research Center McLean Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: gtamagnan@indd.org

    2008-01-15

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, ). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [{sup 123}I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo.

  15. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine...

  16. Interactive Effects of the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on College Student Drinking and Drug Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covault, J.; Tennen, H.; Armeli, S.; Conner, T.S.; Herman, A.I.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Kranzler, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Background - A common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with heavy drinking in college students. We examined this polymorphism as it interacted with negative life events to predict drinking and drug use in college students. Methods - Daily

  17. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremans, Kathelijne; Goethals, Ingeborg; De Vos, Filip; Dobbeleir, A.; Ham, Hamphrey; Van Bree, Henri; Heeringen, Cees van; Audenaert, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [ 123 I]-β-CIT and [ 123 I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models

  18. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Bean, Stephanie E; Anderson, Lindsay M; Devaney, Joseph M; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2013-04-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SL(G) carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to L(A)L(A) carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function.

  19. Hippocampal volume and serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahdidan, Jamila; Foldager, Leslie; Rosenberg, Raben

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study was to replicate a previous finding in major depressive disorder (MDD) of association between reduced hippocampal volume and the long variant of the di- and triallelic serotonin transporter polymorphism in SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q11.2. Secondarily, we...... that we aimed to replicate, and no significant associations with the serotonin transporter polymorphism were found. Conclusions: The present quantitative and morphometric MRI study was not able to replicate the previous finding of association between reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients...... and the serotonin transporter polymorphism....

  20. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  1. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, R.; Uher, R.; Huezo-Diaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    , and several polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been genotyped including the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Stressful life events were shown to predict a significantly better response to escitalopram but had no effect on response to nortriptyline...

  2. Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR): effects of neutral and undefined conditions on amygdala activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N; Braus, Dieter F; Wrase, Jana; Beck, Anne; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Schumann, Gunter; Büchel, Christian; Hariri, Ahmad R; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2007-04-15

    A polymorphism of the human serotonin transporter gene (SCL6A4) has been associated with serotonin transporter expression and with processing of aversive stimuli in the amygdala. Functional imaging studies show that during the presentation of aversive versus neutral cues, healthy carriers of the short (s) allele showed stronger amygdala activation than long (l) carriers. However, a recent report suggested that this interaction is driven by amygdala deactivation during presentation of neutral stimuli in s carriers. Functional MRI was used to assess amygdala activation during the presentation of a fixation cross or affectively aversive or neutral visual stimuli in 29 healthy men. Amygdala activation was increased in s carriers during undefined states such as the presentation of a fixation cross compared with emotionally neutral conditions. This finding suggests that s carriers show stronger amygdala reactivity to stimuli and contexts that are relatively uncertain, which we propose are stressful.

  3. A current view of serotonin transporters [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. De Felice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporters (SERTs are largely recognized for one aspect of their function—to transport serotonin back into the presynaptic terminal after its release. Another aspect of their function, however, may be to generate currents large enough to have physiological consequences. The standard model for electrogenic transport is the alternating access model, in which serotonin is transported with a fixed ratio of co-transported ions resulting in net charge per cycle. The alternating access model, however, cannot account for all the observed currents through SERT or other monoamine transporters.  Furthermore, SERT agonists like ecstasy or antagonists like fluoxetine generate or suppress currents that the standard model cannot support.  Here we survey evidence for a channel mode of transport in which transmitters and ions move through a pore. Available structures for dopamine and serotonin transporters, however, provide no evidence for a pore conformation, raising questions of whether the proposed channel mode actually exists or whether the structural data are perhaps missing a transient open state.

  4. Adaptations in pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor function and cocaine supersensitivity in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R; De Boer, Sietse F; Raasø, Halfdan S; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Verheul, Mark; Ronken, Eric; Cools, Alexander R; Ellenbroek, Bart A; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; De Vries, Taco J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: While individual differences in vulnerability to psychostimulants have been largely attributed to dopaminergic neurotransmission, the role of serotonin is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the rewarding and motivational properties of cocaine in the serotonin transporter knockout

  5. Amphetamine Action at the Cocaine- and Antidepressant-Sensitive Serotonin Transporter Is Modulated by αCaMKII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R; Hofmaier, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is terminated by reuptake of extracellular serotonin (5-HT) by the high-affinity serotonin transporter (SERT). Selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine or escitalopram inhibit SERT and are currently the principal treatment for depression and anx...... and efflux at monoamine transporters are asymmetric processes that can be targeted separately. Ultimately, this may provide a molecular mechanism for putative drug developments to treat amphetamine addiction....

  6. Possibility of Predicting Serotonin Transporter Occupancy From the In Vitro Inhibition Constant for Serotonin Transporter, the Clinically Relevant Plasma Concentration of Unbound Drugs, and Their Profiles for Substrates of Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Masahiro; Chiba, Koji; Watanabe, Takao; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Accurate prediction of target occupancy facilitates central nervous system drug development. In this review, we discuss the predictability of serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy in human brain estimated from in vitro K i values for human SERT and plasma concentrations of unbound drug (C u,plasma ), as well as the impact of drug transporters in the blood-brain barrier. First, the geometric means of in vitro K i values were compared with the means of in vivo K i values (K i,u,plasma ) which were calculated as C u,plasma values at 50% occupancy of SERT obtained from previous clinical positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies for 6 selective serotonin transporter reuptake inhibitors and 3 serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The in vitro K i values for 7 drugs were comparable to their in vivo K i,u,plasma values within 3-fold difference. SERT occupancy was overestimated for 5 drugs (P-glycoprotein substrates) and underestimated for 2 drugs (presumably uptake transporter substrates, although no evidence exists as yet). In conclusion, prediction of human SERT occupancy from in vitro K i values and C u,plasma was successful for drugs that are not transporter substrates and will become possible in future even for transporter substrates, once the transporter activities will be accurately estimated from in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, Kathelijne [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goethals, Ingeborg [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vos, Filip [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dobbeleir, A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bree, Henri [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heeringen, Cees van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium) and Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: kurt.audenaert@ugent.be

    2006-10-15

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [{sup 123}I]-{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models.

  8. 5-HTTLPR modulates the recognition accuracy and exploration of emotional facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eBoll

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individual genetic differences in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR have been associated with variations in the sensitivity to social and emotional cues as well as altered amygdala reactivity to facial expressions of emotion. Amygdala activation has further been shown to trigger gaze changes towards diagnostically relevant facial features. The current study examined whether altered socio-emotional reactivity in variants of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism reflects individual differences in attending to diagnostic features of facial expressions. For this purpose, visual exploration of emotional facial expressions was compared between a low (n=39 and a high (n=40 5-HTT expressing group of healthy human volunteers in an eye tracking paradigm. Emotional faces were presented while manipulating the initial fixation such that saccadic changes towards the eyes and towards the mouth could be identified. We found that the low versus the high 5-HTT group demonstrated greater accuracy with regard to emotion classifications, particularly when faces were presented for a longer duration. No group differences in gaze orientation towards diagnostic facial features could be observed. However, participants in the low 5-HTT group exhibited more and faster fixation changes for certain emotions when faces were presented for a longer duration and overall face fixation times were reduced for this genotype group. These results suggest that the 5-HTT gene influences social perception by modulating the general vigilance to social cues rather than selectively affecting the pre-attentive detection of diagnostic facial features.

  9. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin transporter in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey M; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-08-15

    Several lines of evidence implicate abnormal serotonergic function in suicidal behavior and completed suicide, including low serotonin transporter binding in postmortem studies of completed suicide. We have also reported low in vivo serotonin transporter binding in major depressive disorder (MDD) during a major depressive episode using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]McN5652. We quantified regional brain serotonin transporter binding in vivo in depressed suicide attempters, depressed nonattempters, and healthy controls using PET and a superior radiotracer, [(11)C]DASB. Fifty-one subjects with DSM-IV current MDD, 15 of whom were past suicide attempters, and 32 healthy control subjects underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]DASB to quantify in vivo regional brain serotonin transporter binding. Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions and plasma free-fraction were acquired to improve quantification. Depressed suicide attempters had lower serotonin transporter binding in midbrain compared with depressed nonattempters (p = .031) and control subjects (p = .0093). There was no difference in serotonin transporter binding comparing all depressed subjects with healthy control subjects considering six a priori regions of interest simultaneously (p = .41). Low midbrain serotonin transporter binding appears to be related to the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior rather than of major depressive disorder. This is consistent with postmortem work showing low midbrain serotonin transporter binding capacity in depressed suicides and may partially explain discrepant in vivo findings quantifying serotonin transporter in depression. Future studies should investigate midbrain serotonin transporter binding as a predictor of suicidal behavior in MDD and determine the cause of low binding. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. HTT-DB: horizontally transferred transposable elements database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Bruno Reis; Carvalho, Evelise Leis; Silva, Alexandre Freitas; Duarte Silva, Luiz Fernando; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; Ortiz, Mauro Freitas; Wallau, Gabriel Luz

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal transfer of transposable (HTT) elements among eukaryotes was discovered in the mid-1980s. As then, >300 new cases have been described. New findings about HTT are revealing the evolutionary impact of this phenomenon on host genomes. In order to provide an up to date, interactive and expandable database for such events, we developed the HTT-DB database. HTT-DB allows easy access to most of HTT cases reported along with rich information about each case. Moreover, it allows the user to generate tables and graphs based on searches using Transposable elements and/or host species classification and export them in several formats. This database is freely available on the web at http://lpa.saogabriel.unipampa.edu.br:8080/httdatabase. HTT-DB was developed based on Java and MySQL with all major browsers supported. Tools and software packages used are free for personal or non-profit projects. bdotto82@gmail.com or gabriel.wallau@gmail.com. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Effects of Serotonin in Immune Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Nadine; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] plays an important role in many organs as a peripheral hormone. Most of the body’s serotonin is circulating in the bloodstream, transported by blood platelets and is released upon activation. The functions of serotonin are mediated by members of the 7 known mammalian serotonin receptor subtype classes (15 known subtypes), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and by covalent binding of serotonin to different effector proteins. Almost all immune cells express...

  12. A dualistic conformational response to substrate binding in the human serotonin transporter reveals a high affinity state for serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across...... the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes...

  13. Effects of [123I]ADAM, a serotonin transporter radiopharmaceutical, on pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.W.; Lin, M.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Chen, H.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Fu, Y.K.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin transport abnormalities are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. [ 123 I]ADAM ([ 123 I]-2-([2-({dimethylamino}methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-iodophenylamine) is a novel radiotracer that targets serotonin transporters. We assessed the toxicity of [ 123 I]ADAM (18.5 MBq) administered in early- and late-phases (8 and 14 day postfertilization, respectively) of pregnancy. The mortality, clinical status, and gross necropsy were measured in pregnant rats, and the fertility index was measured in rat offspring (weight, clinical observations). We found no dosing-related clinical signs. In conclusion, [ 123 I]ADAM was not toxic in an animal pregnancy model.

  14. Neuroticism Associates with Cerebral in Vivo Serotonin Transporter Binding Differently in Males and Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Miettunen, Jouko; Cannon, Dara M

    2017-01-01

    scores from 91 healthy males and 56 healthy females. We specifically tested if the association between neuroticism and serotonin transporter is different in females and males. Results: We found that neuroticism and thalamic serotonin transporter binding potentials were associated in both males......). Conclusions: The finding is in agreement with recent studies showing that the serotonergic system is involved in affective disorders differently in males and females and suggests that contribution of thalamic serotonin transporter to the risk of affective disorders depends on sex....... and females, but with opposite directionality. Higher neuroticism associated with higher serotonin transporter binding potential in males (standardized beta 0.292, P=.008), whereas in females, higher neuroticism associated with lower serotonin transporter binding potential (standardized beta -0.288, P=.014...

  15. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    of depression among participants. METHOD: We applied a case-only design, including 290 ethnically homogeneous patients suffering exclusively from first episode depression. Psychiatric mo-morbidity, personality traits and disorders and stressful life events in a six months period preceding onset of depression......BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history......A, 2A, and 2C. RESULTS: The low activity variants of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region in the serotonin transporter gene and the Met-allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met) in the gene encoding brain derived neurotrophic factor were independently associated with the presence...

  16. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias

    OpenAIRE

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Bean, Stephanie E.; Anderson, Lindsay M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief...

  17. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  18. Pre-clinical evaluation of AAV5-miHTT gene therapy of Huntington´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konstantinová, P.; Miniarikova, J.; Blits, B.; Zimmer, V.; Spoerl, A.; Southwell, A.; Hayden, M.; van Deventer, S.; Deglon, N.; Motlík, Jan; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Richard, Ch.; Petry, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Supl 2 (2015), s. 8-8 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * gene therapy * AAV5-miHTT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Serotonin Signaling Through the 5-HT1B Receptor and NADPH Oxidase 1 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Katie Y; Mair, Kirsty M; Harvey, Adam P; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M; MacLean, Margaret R

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin can induce human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (hPASMC) proliferation through reactive oxygen species (ROS), influencing the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesize that in PASMCs, serotonin induces oxidative stress through NADPH-oxidase-derived ROS generation and reduced Nrf-2 (nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2) antioxidant systems, promoting vascular injury. HPASMCs from controls and PAH patients, and PASMCs from Nox1 -/- mice, were stimulated with serotonin in the absence/presence of inhibitors of Src kinase, the 5-HT 1B receptor, and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). Markers of fibrosis were also determined. The pathophysiological significance of our findings was examined in vivo in serotonin transporter overexpressing female mice, a model of pulmonary hypertension. We confirmed thatserotonin increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in these cells. For the first time, we show that serotonin increased oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases and hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin and decreased Nrf-2 and catalase activity in hPASMCs. ROS generation was exaggerated and dependent on cellular Src-related kinase, 5-HT 1B receptor, and the serotonin transporter in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH subjects. Proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling were exaggerated in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH subjects and dependent on 5-HT 1B receptor signaling and Nox1, confirmed in PASMCs from Nox1 -/- mice. In serotonin transporter overexpressing mice, SB216641, a 5-HT 1B receptor antagonist, prevented development of pulmonary hypertension in a ROS-dependent manner. Serotonin can induce cellular Src-related kinase-regulated Nox1-induced ROS and Nrf-2 dysregulation, contributing to increased post-translational oxidative modification of proteins and activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways in hPASMCs, associated with mitogenic responses. 5-HT 1B receptors contribute to

  20. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  1. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter introduces a new site for N-linked glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Nygaard; Plenge, Per; Bay, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is responsible for reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) from the synaptic cleft and is target for antidepressant medicine. Differential hSERT activity caused by genetic polymorphisms is believed to affect the risk of developing depression and, moreover, to affect t...

  2. Interaction between serotonin transporter and serotonin receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-07-11

    Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism's heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n=120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n=153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan's Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism.

  3. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shen

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia is designed to optimize pain relief by coadministering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action or by combining multiple pharmacologies within a single molecule. In clinical settings, combinations of monoamine reuptake inhibitors and opioid receptor agonists have been explored and one currently available analgesic, tapentadol, functions as both a µ-opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the combination of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and µ-receptor agonism achieves an optimal antinociceptive synergy. In this study, we assessed the pharmacodynamic interactions between morphine and monoamine reuptake inhibitors that possess different affinities and selectivities for norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Using the rat formalin model, in conjunction with measurements of ex vivo transporter occupancy, we show that neither the norepinephrine-selective inhibitor, esreboxetine, nor the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produce antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Atomoxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher levels of norepinephrine than serotonin transporter occupancy, exhibited robust antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Similarly, a fixed-dose combination of esreboxetine and fluoxetine which achieves comparable levels of transporter occupancy potentiated the antinociceptive response to morphine. By contrast, duloxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher serotonin than norepinephrine transporter occupancy, failed to potentiate the antinociceptive response to morphine. However, when duloxetine was coadministered with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, potentiation of the antinociceptive response to morphine was revealed. These results support the notion that inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters is required for monoamine reuptake inhibitor and opioid

  4. Purification and fluorescent labeling of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Gether, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    To establish a purification procedure for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) we expressed in Sf9 insect cells an epitope-tagged version of the transporter containing a FLAG epitope at the N-terminus and a polyhistidine tail at the C-terminus (FLAG-hSERT-12H). For purification, the transporter...

  5. Binding-Induced Fluorescence of Serotonin Transporter Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, James; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Babinchak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The binding-induced fluorescence of 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-phenyl)-1-methylpyridinium (APP(+)) and two new serotonin transporter (SERT)-binding fluorescent analogues, 1-butyl-4-[4-(1-dimethylamino)phenyl]-pyridinium bromide (BPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]-pyridinium (PPP(+)), has...

  6. Association of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region genotype with lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, M I; Kung, S; Frye, M A; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Drake, M T; Jankowski, M D; Clarke, B L

    2017-08-22

    The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) S allele is linked to pathogenesis of depression and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); depression and SSRIs are independently associated with bone loss. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR was associated with bone loss. This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients with both 5-HTTLPR analysis and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine Z-scores if age <50 years and T-scores if ⩾50 years). BMD association with 5-HTTLPR was evaluated under models with additive allele effects and dominant S allele effects using linear regression models. Patients were stratified by age (<50 and ⩾50 years) and sex. Of 3016 patients with 5-HTTLPR genotyping, 239 had BMD assessments. Among the younger patients, the S allele was associated with lower Z-scores at the hip (P=0.002, dominant S allele effects; P=0.004, additive allele effects) and spine (P=0.0006, dominant S allele effects; P=0.01, additive allele effects). In sex-stratified analyses, the association of the S allele with lower BMD in the younger patients was also significant in the subset of women (P⩽0.003 for both hip and spine BMD under the additive allele effect model). In the small group of men younger than 50 years, the S allele was marginally associated with higher spine BMD (P=0.05). BMD T-scores were not associated with 5-HTTLPR genotypes in patients 50 years or older. The 5-HTTLPR variants may modify serotonin effects on bone with sex-specific effects.

  7. Interaction between Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tzu-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B, may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism’s heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC group (n = 120 and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC group (n = 153] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Conclusion Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan’s Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism.

  8. The Mechanistic Basis for Noncompetitive Ibogaine Inhibition of Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W.; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

  9. The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-05-25

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study.

  10. Evidence for a role of transporter-mediated currents in the depletion of brain serotonin induced by serotonin transporter substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [(3)H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [(3)H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT.

  11. Brain Networks Implicated in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Martin; Ganz, Melanie; Svarer, Claus

    2017-01-01

    , patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption...... without SAD; it included the right superior frontal gyrus, brainstem, globus pallidus (bilaterally) and the left hippocampus. Across seasons, female S' carriers without SAD showed nominally higher 5-HTT levels in these regions compared to female S' carriers with SAD, but the group difference was only...... winter compared to female S' carriers without SAD. Limitations: The study is preliminary and limited by small sample size in the SAD group (N = 6). Conclusions: These findings provide novel exploratory evidence for a wintertime state-dependent difference in 5-HTT levels that may leave SAD females...

  12. Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on an Improved HTT Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bin; Tang, Guiji; Tian, Tian; Zhou, Chong

    2018-04-14

    When rolling bearing failure occurs, vibration signals generally contain different signal components, such as impulsive fault feature signals, background noise and harmonic interference signals. One of the most challenging aspects of rolling bearing fault diagnosis is how to inhibit noise and harmonic interference signals, while enhancing impulsive fault feature signals. This paper presents a novel bearing fault diagnosis method, namely an improved Hilbert time-time (IHTT) transform, by combining a Hilbert time-time (HTT) transform with principal component analysis (PCA). Firstly, the HTT transform was performed on vibration signals to derive a HTT transform matrix. Then, PCA was employed to de-noise the HTT transform matrix in order to improve the robustness of the HTT transform. Finally, the diagonal time series of the de-noised HTT transform matrix was extracted as the enhanced impulsive fault feature signal and the contained fault characteristic information was identified through further analyses of amplitude and envelope spectrums. Both simulated and experimental analyses validated the superiority of the presented method for detecting bearing failures.

  13. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  14. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  15. Serotonin receptor 3A polymorphism c.-42C > T is associated with severe dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobbee Diederick E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between anxiety and depression related traits and dyspepsia may reflect a common genetic predisposition. Furthermore, genetic factors may contribute to the risk of having increased visceral sensitivity, which has been implicated in dyspeptic symptom generation. Serotonin (5-HT modulates visceral sensitivity by its action on 5-HT3 receptors. Interestingly, a functional polymorphism in HTR3A, encoding the 5-HT3 receptor A subunit, has been reported to be associated with depression and anxiety related traits. A functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT, which terminates serotonergic signalling, was also found associated with these psychiatric comorbidities and increased visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome, which coexistence is associated with higher dyspeptic symptom severity. We investigated the association between these functional polymorphisms and dyspeptic symptom severity. Methods Data from 592 unrelated, Caucasian, primary care patients with dyspepsia participating in a randomised clinical trial comparing step-up and step-down antacid drug treatment (The DIAMOND trial were analysed. Patients were genotyped for HTR3A c.-42C > T SNP and the 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5-HTT promoter (5-HTTLPR. Intensity of 8 dyspeptic symptoms at baseline was assessed using a validated questionnaire (0 = none; 6 = very severe. Sum score ≥20 was defined severe dyspepsia. Results HTR3A c.-42T allele carriers were more prevalent in patients with severe dyspepsia (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06-2.20. This association appeared to be stronger in females (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25-3.39 and patients homozygous for the long (L variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.01-3.94. Females with 5-HTTLPR LL genotype showed the strongest association (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.37-8.90. Conclusions The HTR3A c.-42T allele is associated with severe dyspeptic symptoms. The stronger association among

  16. High familial risk for mood disorder is associated with low dorsolateral prefrontal cortex serotonin transporter binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2009-01-01

    at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32......Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects.......4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding...

  17. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhizhen; Chen, T.-B.; Miller, Patricia J.; Dean, Dennis; Tang, Y.S.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [ 3 H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [ 3 H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [ 11 C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K d =0.20±0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B max ) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66±8 fmol/mg protein using [ 3 H]-DASB, similar to the B max value obtained using the reference radioligand [ 3 H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83±22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [ 3 H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K i values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [ 11 C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates

  18. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B.; Madsen, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding...... between summer and winter (Psex-(P = 0.02) and genotype-(P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom...

  19. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  1. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  2. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  3. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K Watson

    Full Text Available Serotonin signaling influences social behavior in both human and nonhuman primates. In humans, variation upstream of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has recently been shown to influence both behavioral measures of social anxiety and amygdala response to social threats. Here we show that length polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR predict social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, a species in which 5-HTTLPR variation is analogous to that of humans.In contrast to monkeys with two copies of the long allele (L/L, monkeys with one copy of the short allele of this gene (S/L spent less time gazing at face than non-face images, less time looking in the eye region of faces, and had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of a high versus low status male macaques. Moreover, in a novel primed gambling task, presentation of photos of high status male macaques promoted risk-aversion in S/L monkeys but promoted risk-seeking in L/L monkeys. Finally, as measured by a "pay-per-view" task, S/L monkeys required juice payment to view photos of high status males, whereas L/L monkeys sacrificed fluid to see the same photos.These data indicate that genetic variation in serotonin function contributes to social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in humans and rhesus macaques alike.

  4. Estrous cycle modulation of extracellular serotonin in mediobasal hypothalamus: role of the serotonin transporter and terminal autoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswood, S; Truitt, W; Hotema, M; Caldarola-Pastuszka, M; Uphouse, L

    1999-06-12

    In vivo microdialysis was used to examine extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of male and female Fischer (CDF-344) rats. Females from the stages of diestrus, proestrus, and estrus were used. Additionally, ovariectomized rats, primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus progesterone were examined. Extracellular 5-HT in the MBH varied with stage of the estrous cycle and with the light/dark cycle. Proestrous females had the highest microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT during the light portion of the light/dark cycle and lowest concentrations during the dark portion of the cycle. Diestrous females had the highest levels during the dark portion of the cycle, while males and estrous females showed little change between light and dark portions of the cycle. In ovariectomized rats, there was no effect of 2.5 microg or 25 microg estradiol benzoate (s.c.) on extracellular 5-HT; but the addition of 500 microg progesterone, 48 h after estrogen priming, reduced microdialysate 5-HT near the threshold for detection. In intact females and in males, reverse perfusion with 3 microM fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or 2 microM methiothepin, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, increased microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT. Estrous females and males showed nearly a 4-fold increase in microdialysate 5-HT in response to fluoxetine while smaller responses were seen in diestrous and proestrous rats. In contrast, proestrous rats showed the largest response to methiothepin. Estrous females showed a delayed response to methiothepin, but there was no methiothepin-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in males. These findings are discussed in reference to the suggestion that extracellular 5-HT in the MBH is regulated in a manner that is gender and estrous cycle dependent. The 5-HT terminal autoreceptor may exert a greater role in proestrous females; the serotonin transporter appears to play a more active

  5. Genetic variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Katie Ann; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Bruce, Aynsley

    2012-01-01

    +/+ mice in all brain regions. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls, 5-HTT OE mice had increased 5-HT4 binding density across all brain regions, except amygdala (118-164% of WT) and this difference between genotypes was reduced by the 5-HTT inhibitor, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg twice daily, 3 d...

  6. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    areas typically affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology, as well as in sensory and motor areas, striatum and thalamus that are relatively spared in Alzheimer's disease. The reduction of the serotonin transporter in mild cognitive impairment was greater than grey matter atrophy or reductions in regional cerebral blood flow compared to controls. Lower cortical serotonin transporters were associated with worse performance on tests of auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. The serotonin system may represent an important target for prevention and treatment of MCI, particularly the post-synaptic receptors (5-HT4 and 5-HT6), which may not be as severely affected as presynaptic aspects of the serotonin system, as indicated by the observation of lower serotonin transporters in MCI relative to healthy controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of intracellular regions in the human serotonin transporter for phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system, synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin are mainly controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT), and drugs used in the treatment of various psychiatric diseases have SERT as primary target. SERT is a phosphoprotein that undergoes phosphorylation....../dephosphorylation during transporter regulation by multiple pathways. In particular, activation and/or inhibition of kinases including PKC, PKG, p38MAPK, and CaMKII modulate SERT function and trafficking. The molecular mechanisms by which kinase activity is linked to SERT regulation are poorly understood, including...

  8. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  9. Recognition of Scared Faces and the Serotonin Transporter Gene in Young Children: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Eszter; Herba, Catherine M.; Arp, Pascal P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hudziak, James J.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research highlights the significance of a functional polymorphism located in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene in emotional behaviour. This study examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on emotion processing in a large number of healthy preschoolers. Methods: The 5-HTTLPR genotype was…

  10. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A......)) receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in 5-HT(2A) receptor or SERT binding were found between the val/val and met carriers, nor were blood BDNF values associated with SERT binding or 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. In conclusion, val66met...... BDNF polymorphism status is not associated with changes in the serotonergic system. Moreover, BDNF levels in blood do not correlate with either 5-HT(2A) or SERT binding....

  11. 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM): an improved serotonin transporter ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Shunichi; Choi, S.-R.; Hou, Catherine; Mu Mu; Kung, M.-P.; Acton, Paul D.; Siciliano, Michael; Kung, Hank F.

    2000-01-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERT) are target-sites for commonly used antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and so on. Imaging of these sites in the living human brain may provide an important tool to evaluate the mechanisms of action as well as to monitor the treatment of depressed patients. Synthesis and characterization of an improved SERT imaging agent, ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine)(7) was achieved. The new compound, ADAM(7), displayed an extremely potent binding affinity toward SERT (K i =0.013 nM, in membrane preparations of LLC-PK 1 -cloned cell lines expressing the specific monoamine transporter). ADAM(7) also showed more than 1,000-fold selectivity for SERT over norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine transporter (DAT) (K i =699 and 840 nM, for NET and DAT, respectively). The radiolabeled compound [ 125 I]ADAM(7) showed an excellent brain uptake in rats (1.41% dose at 2 min post intravenous [IV] injection), and consistently displayed the highest uptake (between 60-240 min post IV injection) in hypothalamus, a region with the highest density of SERT. The specific uptake of [ 125 I]ADAM(7) in the hypothalamus exhibited the highest target-to-nontarget ratio ([hypothalamus - cerebellum]/cerebellum was 3.97 at 120 min post IV injection). The preliminary imaging study of [ 123 I]ADAM in the brain of a baboon by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 180-240 min post IV injection indicated a specific uptake in midbrain region rich in SERT. These data suggest that the new ligand [ 123 I]ADAM(7) may be useful for SPECT imaging of SERT binding sites in the human brain

  12. The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and acute tryptophan depletion both increase impulsivity in men

    OpenAIRE

    Walderhaug, Espen; Herman, Aryeh Isaac; Magnusson, Andres; Morgan, Michael John; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2010-01-01

    Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is implicated in impulsive behavior. We studied the triallelic system of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and acute manipulation of serotonin together to further delineate the mechanisms by which serotonergic neurotransmission affects impulsivity. Fifty-two healthy participants (38 men and 14 women) underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group experiment. Impulsive ...

  13. Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Alexander; Young, Theresa; Stastny, Juergen

    2004-08-01

    Serotonin systems appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Consequently, ongoing research determines whether serotonin related genes account for the very robust differential behavioral and neural mechanisms that discriminate patients with depression from healthy controls. Serotonin type 1(A) receptors and the serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, and recent genetic research in animals and humans has implicated both in depression. Preclinical studies have utilized a variety of animal models that have been used to explain pathophysiological mechanisms in humans, although it is not clear at all whether these models constitute relevant models for depression in humans. However, data from preclinical studies can generate hypotheses that are tested in humans by combining genetic data with behavioral and physiological challenge paradigms and neuroimaging. These studies will enhance our understanding about combined influences from multiple interacting genes, as well as from environmental factors on brain circuits and their function, and about how these mechanisms may contribute to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain’s functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  15. [THE INFLUENCE OF SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER AND MONOAMINE OXIDASE A GENES POLYMORPHISM ON PSYCHO-EMOTION AND KARYOLOGICAL STABILITY OF ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaev, V N; Nechaeva, M S; Korneeva, O S; Cherenkov, D A

    2015-11-01

    The influence of polymorphism of the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes, associated with man's aggressiveness on the psycho-emotional state and karyological status of single combat athletes. It was revealed that the carriers of less active ("short"), monoamine oxidase A gene variant have a high motivation to succeed and less rigidity and frustrated, compared to the carriers of more active ("long") version of the gene. Heterozygote carriers of less active ("short") variant of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTL had more physical aggression, guilt and were less frustrated compared with carriers of two long alleles. It has been revealed the association of studied genes with the karyological status of athletes. So fighters who are carriers of the short and long alleles of the serotonin transporter gene had more cells with nuclear abnormalities in the buccal epithelium than single combat athletes which both alleles were long.

  16. Serotonin transporter genotype, salivary cortisol, neuroticism and life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cortisol alone or in interaction with other risk factors (familial risk, the serotonin transporter genotype, neuroticism and life events (LEs)) predicts onset of psychiatric disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk. MATRIAL AND METHODS: In a high-risk study...

  17. Review article: the many potential roles of intestinal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signalling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M D; Tekin, I; Vrana, K E; Mawe, G M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of every major gut-related function. Recent investigations also suggest that 5-HT can influence the development and severity of inflammation within the gut, particularly in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the roles that the intestinal serotonin signalling system plays in gut function, with a specific focus on IBD. We reviewed manuscripts from 1952 to 2017 that investigated and discussed roles for 5-HT signalling in gastrointestinal function and IBD, as well as the influence of inflammation on 5-HT signalling elements within the gut. Inflammation appears to affect every major element of intestinal 5-HT signalling, including 5-HT synthesis, release, receptor expression and reuptake capacity. Importantly, many studies (most utilising animal models) also demonstrate that modulation of selective serotonergic receptors (via agonism of 5-HT 4 R and antagonism of 5-HT 3 R) or 5-HT signal termination (via serotonin reuptake inhibitors) can alter the likelihood and severity of intestinal inflammation and/or its complicating symptoms. However, there are few human studies that have studied these relationships in a targeted manner. Insights discussed in this review have strong potential to lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to improve the management of IBD and other related disorders. Specifically, strategies that focus on modifying the activity of selective serotonin receptors and reuptake transporters in the gut could be effective for controlling disease activity and/or its associated symptoms. Further studies in humans are required, however, to more completely understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the roles of 5-HT in this setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Central serotonin and dopamine transporters in overeating, obesity and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to study cerebral serotonin transporters (SERT) in the diencephalon and striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) in humans in different metabolic conditions (i.e. lean, obese and insulin resistant state) in relation to feeding behavior and to investigate the early

  19. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  20. Alteration of the platelet serotonin transporter in romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, D; Akiskal, H S; Rossi, A; Cassano, G B

    1999-05-01

    The evolutionary consequences of love are so important that there must be some long-established biological process regulating it. Recent findings suggest that the serotonin (5-HT) transporter might be linked to both neuroticism and sexual behaviour as well as to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The similarities between an overvalued idea, such as that typical of subjects in the early phase of a love relationship, and obsession, prompted us to explore the possibility that the two conditions might share alterations at the level of the 5-HT transporter. Twenty subjects who had recently (within the previous 6 months) fallen in love, 20 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 normal controls, were included in the study. The 5-HT transporter was evaluated with the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par) to platelet membranes. The results showed that the density of 3H-Par binding sites was significantly lower in subjects who had recently fallen in love and in OCD patients than in controls. The main finding of the present study is that subjects who were in the early romantic phase of a love relationship were not different from OCD patients in terms of the density of the platelet 5-HT transporter, which proved to be significantly lower than in the normal controls. This would suggest common neurochemical changes involving the 5-HT system, linked to psychological dimensions shared by the two conditions, perhaps at an ideational level.

  1. 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM): an improved serotonin transporter ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Shunichi; Choi, S.-R.; Hou, Catherine; Mu Mu; Kung, M.-P.; Acton, Paul D.; Siciliano, Michael; Kung, Hank F. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2000-04-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERT) are target-sites for commonly used antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and so on. Imaging of these sites in the living human brain may provide an important tool to evaluate the mechanisms of action as well as to monitor the treatment of depressed patients. Synthesis and characterization of an improved SERT imaging agent, ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine)(7) was achieved. The new compound, ADAM(7), displayed an extremely potent binding affinity toward SERT (K{sub i}=0.013 nM, in membrane preparations of LLC-PK{sub 1}-cloned cell lines expressing the specific monoamine transporter). ADAM(7) also showed more than 1,000-fold selectivity for SERT over norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine transporter (DAT) (K{sub i}=699 and 840 nM, for NET and DAT, respectively). The radiolabeled compound [{sup 125}I]ADAM(7) showed an excellent brain uptake in rats (1.41% dose at 2 min post intravenous [IV] injection), and consistently displayed the highest uptake (between 60-240 min post IV injection) in hypothalamus, a region with the highest density of SERT. The specific uptake of [{sup 125}I]ADAM(7) in the hypothalamus exhibited the highest target-to-nontarget ratio ([hypothalamus - cerebellum]/cerebellum was 3.97 at 120 min post IV injection). The preliminary imaging study of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the brain of a baboon by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 180-240 min post IV injection indicated a specific uptake in midbrain region rich in SERT. These data suggest that the new ligand [{sup 123}I]ADAM(7) may be useful for SPECT imaging of SERT binding sites in the human brain.

  2. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and childhood adversity are associated with the personality trait openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Guban, Peter; Wang, Mei; Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of human personality. 5-HTTLPR has also been found to interact with stressful life events to increase risk of psychopathology. In the present study, by taking into account stressful life events in the form of childhood adversity, we examined the association between 5-HTTLPR and FFM traits using an adult Swedish cohort (N = 3112). We found that 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with openness (to experience). Specifically, homozygote carriers of the short allele had lower levels of openness compared to carriers of the long allele. In addition, childhood adversity was found to influence openness. These findings support a previously reported association of 5-HTTLPR with openness in a younger cohort and may provide insights into the neurobiological basis of human personality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of the 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism with psychiatric disorders: review of psychopathology and pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenna GA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available George A Kenna1, Nick Roder-Hanna2, Lorenzo Leggio3, William H Zywiak4, James Clifford5, Steven Edwards3, John A Kenna6, Jessica Shoaff1, Robert M Swift11Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence; 2College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston; 3Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence; 4Butler Hospital, Providence, RI; 5Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; 6College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USAAbstract: Serotonin (5-HT regulates important biological and psychological processes including mood, and may be associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders. An association between psychopathology and genes that regulate 5-HT neurotransmission is a robust area of research. Identification of the genes responsible for the predisposition, development, and pharmacological response of various psychiatric disorders is crucial to the advancement of our understanding of their underlying neurobiology. This review highlights research investigating 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR polymorphism, because studies investigating the impact of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism have demonstrated significant associations with many psychiatric disorders. Decreased transcriptional activity of the S allele (“risk allele” may be associated with a heightened amygdala response leading to anxiety-related personality traits, major depressive disorder, suicide attempts, and bipolar disorder. By contrast, increased transcriptional activity of the L allele is considered protective for depression but is also associated with completed suicide, nicotine dependence, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For some disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, the research suggests that treatment

  4. The serotonin transporter undergoes constitutive internalization and is primarily sorted to late endosomes and lysosomal degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of surface resident...... SERT, two functional epitope tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N-terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope...

  5. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  6. Radioimmunoassays for serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.A.; Puizillout, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays for serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were developed. High titer antibodies, having a well-defined high specificity, have been raised by coupling the side-chain of both molecules to human serum albumin. Serotonin is first converted into N-hemisuccinate, and then treated like 5-HIAA, namely, conjugated with HSA for the immunogen. Synthesis of 125 I iodinated analogues was performed by coupling 5-HIAA or N-succinyl serotonin to glycyltyrosine, without any contact between both molecules and the oxidizing reagents. Chemical conversions of biological samples (by succinylation for 5-HT and amidation for 5-HIAA) were carried out. This critical step makes the antigen molecules resemble the immunogen more closely, thus allowing an appreciable gain in specificity and sensitivity. These assays allow the rapid determination of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in small amounts of tissue, blood, cerebral spinal fluid or perfusate without any purification, with a sensitivity threshold of 50 pg

  7. Iodine-123 labelled nor-β-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Reneman, L.; De Bruin, K.; Van Royen, E.A.; Janssen, A.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-β-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT resulted in high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas with high densities of serotonin (hypothalamus) and dopamine transporters (striatum), although the binding was less pronounced in the hypothalamus. While binding of [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT in the hypothalamus was blocked significantly by fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin transporter blocker) but not by GBR12,909 (a selective dopamine transporter blocker), the opposite was observed in the striatum. The results of this study indicate that [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT, although not being a selective radioligand, binds specifically to serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus in vivo and thus suggest that [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT promises to be a suitable radioligand for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in humans. (orig.)

  8. Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijman Isaäc J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-/- rat and the behaviorally and genetically divergent Brown Norway rat, and performed a QTL analysis. Results In a cohort of >150 intercross SERT-/- and control (SERT+/+ rats we characterized 12 traits that were previously associated with SERT deficiency, including activity, exploratory pattern, cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Using 325 genetic markers, 10 SERT-/--specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs for parameters related to activity and exploratory pattern (Chr.1,9,11,14, and cocaine-induced anxiety and locomotor activity (Chr.5,8 were identified. No significant QTLs were found for fat parameters. Using in silico approaches we explored potential causal genes within modifier QTL regions and found interesting candidates, amongst others, the 5-HT1D receptor (Chr. 5, dopamine D2 receptor (Chr. 8, cannabinoid receptor 2 (Chr. 5, and genes involved in fetal development and plasticity (across chromosomes. Conclusions We anticipate that the SERT-/--specific QTLs may lead to the identification of new modulators of serotonergic signaling, which may be targets for pharmacogenetic and therapeutic approaches.

  9. Negative social acts and pain: evidence of a workplace bullying and 5-HTT genotype interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Daniel Pitz; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle; Gjerstad, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Objectives Long-term exposure to systematic negative acts at work, usually labeled workplace bullying, is a prevalent problem at many workplaces. The adverse effects of such exposure may range from psychological symptoms, such as depression and anxiety to somatic ailments like cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints. In this study, we examined the relationships among exposure to negative acts, genetic variability in the 5-HTT gene SLC6A4 and pain. Methods The study was based on a nationally representative survey of 987 Norwegian employees drawn from the Norwegian Central Employee Register by Statistics Norway. Exposure to bullying in the workplace was measured with the 9-item version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire - Revised (NAQ-R) inventory. Pain was rated using an 11-point (0-10) numeric rating scale (NRS). Genotyping with regard to SLC6A4 was carried out using a combination of gel-electrophoresis and TaqMan assay. Results The data revealed a significant interaction between exposure to negative acts and the SLC6A4 genotype with regard to pain (linear regression with 5000 resamples; age, sex, tobacco use and education were included as covariates). The relationship between negative acts and pain intensity was significantly stronger for subjects with the LALA genotype than for subjects with the SLA/LALG/SLG genotype. No significant difference between subjects with the LALA genotype and SS genotype was observed. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the relationship between bullying and pain was modified by the 5-HTT genotype, ie, genetic variation in SLC6A4. The association between negative acts and health among vulnerable individuals appeared more potent than previously reported.

  10. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  11. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat : A selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J. R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B. M. G.; Mul, J. D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O. F. M.; Cools, A. R.; Ronken, E; Cremers, Thomas; Schoffelmeere, A. N. M.; Ellenbroeik, B. A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  12. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat: a selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B.M.; Mul, J.D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O.F.; Cools, A.R.; Ronken, E.; Cremers, T.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  13. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated midbrain serotonin transporter availability in mixed mania: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuikka Jyrki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results obtained from brain imaging studies indicate that serotonin transporter (SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT densities are altered in major depression. However, no such studies have been published on current mania or hypomania. Case presentation In this single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT study with [123I]nor-β-CIT we present a case with simultaneous symptoms of major depression and hypomania. She had an elevated serotonin transporter availability (SERT in the midbrain and elevated dopamine transporter availability (DAT in the striatum, which normalised in a one-year follow-up period during which she received eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on SERT and DAT associated with mania. In our case the availability of both SERT in the midbrain and DAT in the striatum were elevated at baseline and declined during psychotherapy, while the SERT and DAT of the depressed controls increased during psychotherapy. Symptoms of hypomania in the case were alleviated during psychotherapy. Clinical recovery was also reflected in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores.

  15. Use of anti-depressants and the risk of fracture of the hip or femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, M W M; Pouwels, S; Samson, M M; van Staa, T P; Thio, B; Cooper, C; Leufkens, H G M; Egberts, A C G; Verhaar, H J J; de Vries, F

    2009-10-01

    Anti-depressants are used largely, but have serious side effects. We show that both selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) increase the risk of hip/femur fracture and that this risk is time related and depends on the degree of serotonin transporter inhibition. This should be considered when prescribing anti-depressants to patients. Anti-depressants are known to have serious side effects. We examined the association between the use of anti-depressants and the risk of hip/femur fractures with a special focus on the relation with the degree of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) inhibition and the duration of use. A case-control study was conducted within the Dutch PHARMO-RLS database. Cases (n = 6,763) were adult patients with a first hip/femur fracture during the study period. For each case, four controls (n = 26341) were matched by age, gender and geographic region. The risk of hip/femur fracture increased with current use of SSRIs (adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.94-2.84]) and TCAs (ORadj 1.76 [95% CI 1.45-2.15]). The risk of hip/femur fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use. The risk of hip/femur fracture increased as the degree of 5-HTT inhibition of all anti-depressants increased from OR(adj) 1.64 [95% CI 1.14-2.35] for drugs with low 5-HTT inhibition to OR(adj) 2.31 [95% CI 1.94-2.76] for those with high 5-HTT inhibiting properties. Current use of both SSRIs and TCAs increase hip/femur fracture risk. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways and the relation with the underlying pathophysiology. Until then, the elevated fracture risk should be considered when prescribing anti-depressants.

  16. Iodine-123 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Reneman, L.; De Bruin, K.; Van Royen, E.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, A.G.M. [Amersham Cygne and Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT resulted in high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas with high densities of serotonin (hypothalamus) and dopamine transporters (striatum), although the binding was less pronounced in the hypothalamus. While binding of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT in the hypothalamus was blocked significantly by fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin transporter blocker) but not by GBR12,909 (a selective dopamine transporter blocker), the opposite was observed in the striatum. The results of this study indicate that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT, although not being a selective radioligand, binds specifically to serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus in vivo and thus suggest that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT promises to be a suitable radioligand for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in humans. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  17. No link of serotonin 2C receptor editing to serotonin transporter genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyddon, R.; Cuppen, E.; Haroutunian, V.; Siever, L.J.; Dracheva, S.

    2010-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process, which has the potential to alter the function of encoded proteins. In particular, serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2cR) mRNA editing can produce 24 protein isoforms of varying functionality. Rodent studies have shown that 5-HT2cR editing is dynamically

  18. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), which belongs to a family of       sodium/chloride-dependent transporters, is the major pharmacological       target in the treatment of several clinical disorders, including       depression and anxiety. In the present study we show that the dissociation......       rate, of [3H]S-citalopram from human SERT, is retarded by the presence of       serotonin, as well as by several antidepressants, when present in the       dissociation buffer. Dissociation of [3H]S-citalopram from SERT is most       potently inhibited by S-citalopram followed by R......-citalopram, sertraline,       serotonin and paroxetine. EC50 values for S- and R-citalopram are 3.6 +/-       0.4 microm and 19.4 +/- 2.3 microm, respectively. Fluoxetine, venlafaxine       and duloxetine have no significant effect on the dissociation of       [3H]S-citalopram. Allosteric modulation of dissociation...

  19. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of nor-β-CIT: a potential radioligand for visualisation of the serotonin transporter in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, K.A.; Halldin, C.; Hall, H.; Lundkvist, C.; Ginovart, N.; Swahn, C.G.; Farde, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiolabelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (β-CIT) has been used in clinical studies for the imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-β-CIT) is a des-methyl analogue of β-CIT, which in vitro has tenfold higher affinity (IC 50 =0.36 nM) to the serotonin transporter than β-CIT (IC 50 =4.2 nM). Nor-β-CIT may thus be a useful radioligand for imaging of the serotonin transporter. In the present study iodine-125 and carbon-11 labelled nor-β-CIT were prepared for in vitro autoradiographic studies on post-mortem human brain cryosections and for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Cynomolgus monkeys. Whole hemisphere autoradiography with [ 125 I[nor-β-CIT demonstrated high binding in the striatum, the thalamus and cortical regions of the human brain. Addition of a high concentration (1 μM) of citalopram inhibited binding in the thalamus and the neocortex, but not in the striatum. In PET studies with [ 11 C[nor-β-CIT there was rapid uptake of radioactivity in the monkey brain (6% of injected dose at 15 min) and high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex. Thalamus to cerebellum and cortex to cerebellum ratios were 2.5 and 1.8 at 60 min, respectively. The ratios obtained with [ 11 C[nor-β-CIT were 20%-40% higher than those previously obtained with [ 11 C[β-CIT. Radioactivity in the thalamus and the neocortex but not in the striatum was displaceable with citalopram (5 mg/kg). In conclusion, nor-β-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in the primate brain in vitro and in vivo and has potential for PET and SPET imaging of the serotonin transporter in human brain. (orig.). With 4 figs

  20. Interaction of child maltreatment and 5-HTT polymorphisms: suicidal ideation among children from low-SES backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Sturge-Apple, Melissa; Toth, Sheree L

    2010-06-01

    To investigate whether genotypic variation of the serotonin transporter gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) moderates the effect of maltreatment on suicidal ideation in school-aged children. Eight hundred and fifty low-income children (478 maltreated; 372 non-maltreated) provided DNA samples and self-reported depressive and suicidal symptoms. Genotypes of 5-HTTLPR (s/s or s/l vs. l/l) were determined by fragment analyses. Higher suicidal ideation was found among maltreated than non-maltreated children; the groups did not differ in 5-HTTLPR genotype frequencies. Children with one to two maltreatment subtypes and s/s or s/l genotypes had higher suicidal ideation than those with the l/l genotype; suicidal ideation did not differ in non-maltreated children or children with three to four maltreatment subtypes based on 5-HTTLPR variation. The results were applicable to emotionally maltreated/neglected and to physically/sexually abused children. Gene-environment interaction was not found for depressive symptoms. The protective effect of the 5-HTTLPR l/l genotype on suicidal ideation was limited to maltreated children experiencing fewer subtypes.

  1. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Human Serotonin Transporter: A Role in the Transporter Stability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) regulates serotoninergic neurotransmission by clearing 5-HT released into the synaptic space. Phosphorylation of SERT on serine and threonine mediates SERT regulation. Whether tyrosine phosphorylation regulates SERT is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine-phosphorylation of SERT regulates 5-HT transport. In support of this, alkali-resistant 32P-labeled SERT was found in rat platelets, and Src-tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo [3,4,d]pyrimidine (PP2) decreased platelet SERT function and expression. In human placental trophoblast cells expressing SERT, PP2 reduced transporter function, expression, and stability. Although siRNA silencing of Src expression decreased SERT function and expression, coexpression of Src resulted in PP2-sensitive increases in SERT function and expression. PP2 treatment markedly decreased SERT protein stability. Compared with WT-SERT, SERT tyrosine mutants Y47F and Y142F exhibited reduced 5-HT transport despite their higher total and cell surface expression levels. Moreover, Src-coexpression increased total and cell surface expression of Y47F and Y142F SERT mutants without affecting their 5-HT transport capacity. It is noteworthy that Y47F and Y142F mutants exhibited higher protein stability compared with WT-SERT. However, similar to WT-SERT, PP2 treatment decreased the stability of Y47F and Y142F mutants. Furthermore, compared with WT-SERT, Y47F and Y142F mutants exhibited lower basal tyrosine phosphorylation and no further enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation in response to Src coexpression. These results provide the first evidence that SERT tyrosine phosphorylation supports transporter protein stability and 5HT transport. PMID:21992875

  2. Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease presenting as a severe infantile hypotonic parkinsonian disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jessie C; Wilson, Callum; Cunningham, Vicki; Glamuzina, Emma; Prosser, Debra O; Love, Donald R; Burgess, Trent; Taylor, Juliet; Swan, Brendan; Hill, Rosamund; Robertson, Stephen P; Snell, Russell G; Lehnert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two male siblings from a consanguineous union presented in early infancy with marked truncal hypotonia, a general paucity of movement, extrapyramidal signs and cognitive delay. By mid-childhood they had made little developmental progress and remained severely hypotonic and bradykinetic. They developed epilepsy and had problems with autonomic dysfunction and oculogyric crises. They had a number of orthopaedic problems secondary to their hypotonia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitters were initially normal, apart from mildly elevated 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and the children did not respond favourably to a trial of levodopa-carbidopa. The youngest died from respiratory complications at 10 years of age. Repeat CSF neurotransmitters in the older sibling at eight years of age showed slightly low homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation homozygous in both children in the monoamine transporter gene SLC18A2 (p.Pro237His), resulting in brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease. This is the second family to be described with a mutation in this gene. Treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexole in the surviving child resulted in mild improvements in alertness, communication, and eye movements. This case supports the identification of the causal mutation in the original case, expands the clinical phenotype of brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and confirms that pramipexole treatment may lead to symptomatic improvement in affected individuals.

  3. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), which belongs to a family of       sodium/chloride-dependent transporters, is the major pharmacological       target in the treatment of several clinical disorders, including       depression and anxiety. In the present study we show that the dissociation       r...

  4. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a bovine serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, O V; Kristensen, A S; Rudnick, G

    1999-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a member of a highly homologous family of sodium/chloride dependent neurotransmitter transporters responsible for reuptake of biogenic amines from the extracellular fluid. SERT constitutes the pharmacological target of several clinically important antidepressan......-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was mainly unchanged. RT-PCR amplification of RNA from different tissues demonstrated expression of SERT in placenta, brain stem, bone marrow, kidney, lung, heart, adrenal gland, liver, parathyroid gland, thyroid gland, small intestine and pancreas....

  5. Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Smyke, Anna T; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-02-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly created high-quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype and intervention group, where the slope for short-short (S/S) individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the long allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, S/S children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the S/S genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the long allele. These findings, within a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility.

  6. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), and their interaction were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least 1 copy of the l allele. These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship.

  7. The serotonin transporter 5-HTTPR polymorphism is associated with current and lifetime depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Hare, L; Camarena, B; Glahn, D; Dassori, A; Medina, R; Contreras, S; Ramirez, M; Armas, R; Munoz, R; Mendoza, R; Raventos, H; Ontiveros, A; Nicolini, H; Palmer, R; Escamilla, M

    2009-02-01

    Variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter region has been shown to influence depression in persons who have been exposed to a number of stressful life events. We evaluated whether genetic variation in 5-HTTLPR, influences current depression, lifetime history of depression and quantitative measures of depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders. This is an association study of a genetic variant with quantitative and categorical definitions of depression conducted in the southwest US, Mexico and Costa Rica. We analyzed 260 subjects with a history of psychosis, from a sample of 129 families. We found that persons carrying at least one short allele had a statistically significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (P depression during the course of their illness.

  8. Serotonin transporter is not required for the development of severe pulmonary hypertension in the Sugen hypoxia rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Kroeze, Yvet; Middelman, Anthonieke; de Man, Frances S.; de Jong, Helma; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; de Korte, Chris; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Homberg, Judith; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2015-01-01

    Increased serotonin serum levels have been proposed to play a key role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by regulating vessel tone and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. An intact serotonin system, which critically depends on a normal function of the serotonin transporter (SERT), is

  9. [Role of Serotonin Transporter Gene in Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, Sandra; Camarena-Medellin, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The serotoninergic system has been implicated in mood and appetite regulation, and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a commonly studied candidate gene for eating disorders. However, most studies have focused on a single polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in SLC6A4. We present the studies published on the association between eating disorders (ED) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Search of databases: MEDLINE, ISI, and PubMed for SLC6A4 and ED. From a review of 37 original articles, it was suggested that carriers of S allele is a risk factor for eating disorders, especially for AN. However, BN did not show any association. Also, BMI, impulsivity, anxiety, depression, and age of onset have been associated with S allele in ED patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. The 5-HTTLPR variant in the serotonin transporter gene modifies degeneration of brain regions important for emotion in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Yokoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter length polymorphism (5-HTTLPR short allele (5-HTTLPR-s has been associated with differential susceptibility for anxiety and depression in multiple psychiatric disorders. 5-HTTLPR-s modifies the serotonergic systems that support emotion and behavioral regulation by reducing gene expression, which slows the reuptake of serotonin, and is associated with distinct morphological and functional effects. Serotonergic systems are also shown to be dysfunctional in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, a disease characterized by marked socioemotional dysfunction. However, studies of 5-HTTLPR-s effects in bvFTD have been inconsistent. Our objective was to investigate the patterns of gray matter volume by 5-HTTLPR-s genotype in both healthy older controls and bvFTD patients. We performed voxel-based morphometry of 179 cognitively normal older adults and 24 bvFTD cases to determine brain changes associated with dose (0/1/2 of 5-HTTLPR-s allele. 5-HTTLPR-s frequency did not differ between controls and bvFTD. We found a significant interaction effect whereby carrying more 5-HTTLPR-s alleles in bvFTD was associated with smaller volume in left inferior frontal gyrus (T = 4.86, PFWE = 0.03 and larger volume in right temporal lobe (T = 5.01, PFWE = 0.01. These results suggest that the 5-HTTLPR-s allele differentially influences brain morphology in bvFTD. We propose that patients with bvFTD and 5-HTTLPR-s have altered volumes in regions that support socioemotional behavior, which may be a developmental or disease-related compensation for altered serotonergic activity.

  11. 5-Chloro-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine: a new serotonin transporter ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Shunichi; Choi, Seok-Rye; Kung, Mei-Ping; Kung, Hank F.

    2007-01-01

    Two novel ligands with 4' substitution on the Phenyl Ring B of biphenylthiol, 5-chloro-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine (7) and 2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-methoxyphenylthio)-5-iodobenzenamine (8), were prepared and tested as potential serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agents. The new ligands displayed extremely high binding affinities to SERT (K i =0.22±0.09 and 0.11±0.04 nM, respectively), with very low binding affinities to dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (K i >1000 nM). The corresponding [ 125 I]7 and [ 125 I]8 were successfully prepared from tri-n-butyltin derivatives. They showed good brain uptakes and prolonged retention after intravenous injection in rats (brain uptake was 1.77% and 0.98% dose/g for [ 125 I]7, and 0.92% and 0.29% dose/g for [ 125 I]8, at 2 and 120 min, respectively). Significantly, [ 125 I]7 showed excellent uptake and prolonged retention in the hypothalamus, where SERT concentration was highest. The hypothalamus/cerebellum (HY/CB) ratios (target/background ratios) were 4.24, 7.10, 8.24 and 12.6 at 2, 4, 6 and 12 h, respectively. The HY/CB ratios for [ 125 I]8 were 3.97, 5.57 and 5.06 at 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. Adding the 4'-iodo group to the Phenyl Ring B of Compound (7) appeared to reduce the rate of clearance from the brain, and kinetics favored uptake and retention in the hypothalamus. The localization of [ 125 I]7 in the hypothalamus region in the rat brain could be blocked by pretreatment with (+)McN5652, escitalopram and ADAM (2), which are all selective SERT ligands (at 2 mg/kg iv, 5 min pretreatment). Ex vivo autoradiograms of rat brain sections (at 4 h after intravenous injection of [ 125 I]7) showed intense labeling in regions of the brain known to have high SERT density. The excellent selective uptake and retention in the hypothalamus region suggest that [ 123 I]7 is a potential lead compound for developing new imaging agents targeting SERT-binding sites with single

  12. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  13. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nitai P., E-mail: nitai_sinp@yahoo.com [Biomedical Genomics Centre, PG Polyclinic Building, 5, Suburbun Hospital Road, Kolkata 700020 (India)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  14. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Oathes

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531 to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G carriers showed less activity than their L(A/L(A counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations.

  15. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  16. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of nor-{beta}-CIT: a potential radioligand for visualisation of the serotonin transporter in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, K.A. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Kuopio University Hospital, Clinical Physiology, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Halldin, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Hall, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundkvist, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Ginovart, N. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, C.G. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Farde, L. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-10

    Radiolabelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) has been used in clinical studies for the imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT) is a des-methyl analogue of {beta}-CIT, which in vitro has tenfold higher affinity (IC{sub 50}=0.36 nM) to the serotonin transporter than {beta}-CIT (IC{sub 50}=4.2 nM). Nor-{beta}-CIT may thus be a useful radioligand for imaging of the serotonin transporter. In the present study iodine-125 and carbon-11 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT were prepared for in vitro autoradiographic studies on post-mortem human brain cryosections and for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Cynomolgus monkeys. Whole hemisphere autoradiography with [{sup 125}I]nor-{beta}-CIT demonstrated high binding in the striatum, the thalamus and cortical regions of the human brain. Addition of a high concentration (1 {mu}M) of citalopram inhibited binding in the thalamus and the neocortex, but not in the striatum. In PET studies with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT there was rapid uptake of radioactivity in the monkey brain (6% of injected dose at 15 min) and high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex. Thalamus to cerebellum and cortex to cerebellum ratios were 2.5 and 1.8 at 60 min, respectively. The ratios obtained with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT were 20%-40% higher than those previously obtained with [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT. Radioactivity in the thalamus and the neocortex but not in the striatum was displaceable with citalopram (5 mg/kg). In conclusion, nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in the primate brain in vitro and in vivo and has potential for PET and SPET imaging of the serotonin transporter in human brain. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  17. Attachment and Temperament Revisited: Infant Distress, Attachment Disorganization, and the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E; Bureau, Jean-François; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    This study's aim was to evaluate whether infant disorganized attachment and infant proneness to distress exhibited differential relations to infant genetic factors as indexed by the serotonin transporter polymorphism. The role of the short allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in enhancing sensitivity to fearful and negative affect has been well-established (Canli & Lesch, 2007). In the current study, we used this known property of the short allele to provide a test of an important postulate of attachment theory, namely that infant attachment security or disorganization is not a function of the infant's proneness to distress. Participants were 39 parents and infants assessed between 12 and 18 months in the Strange Situation procedure. Genotype categories for the 5-HTTLPR (and rs25531) were created by both the original and the reclassified grouping system; infant proneness to distress was assessed directly in the Strange Situation Procedure. We also assessed maternal behavior at 18 months to evaluate whether any observed genetic effect indicated a passive effect through the mother. Consistent with previous findings, the 5-HTTLPR short allele was significantly related to the infant's wariness and distress, but was not related to attachment security or attachment disorganization. In addition, maternal disrupted interaction with the infant was not related to infant genotype or infant distress. Results support the concept that infant proneness to distress is associated with serotonergic factors while infant attachment security or disorganization is not a function of either 5-HTTLPR or behaviorally rated proneness to distress.

  18. Association of Polymorphisms of Serotonin Transporter (5HTTLPR) and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes with Criminal Behavior in Russian Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshchakova, Valentina A.; Bakhtiari, Yalda; Kulikov, Alexander V.; Gusev, Sergey I.; Trofimova, Marina V.; Fedorenko, Olga Yu.; Mikhalitskaya, Ekaterina V.; Popova, Nina K.; Bokhan, Nikolay A.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Wilffert, Bob; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses. Methods Male Russian prisoners who were convicted for murder (n = 117) or theft (n = 77) were genotyped for variants of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, or type 2C (5-HT2C) receptor genes and compared with general-population male controls (n = 161). Prisoners were psychologically phenotyped using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results No differences were found between murderers and thieves either concerning genotypes or concerning psychological measures. Comparison of polymorphism distribution between groups of prisoners and controls revealed highly significant associations of 5HTTLPR and 5-HTR2C (rs6318) gene polymorphisms with being convicted for criminal behavior. Conclusions The lack of biological differences between the 2 groups of prisoners indicates that the studied 5HT-related genes do not differentiate between the types of crimes committed. PMID:29621775

  19. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with intrusion and avoidance symptoms of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luobing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ping; Luo, Shu; Zhang, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China. A cross-sectional design with gene-environment interaction (G × E) approach was adopted. Participants were 1131 survivors who experienced 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was genotyped with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in ABI 3730xl genetic Analyzer. Although there was no significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and traumatic exposure on total PTSD symptoms, respondents with the LL genotype of 5-HTTLPR who were highly exposed to the earthquake experienced lower intrusion and avoidance symptoms than those with the S-allele carriers. The findings suggest that the 5-HTTLPR may have an important impact on the development of PTSD and add to the extant knowledge on understanding and treating of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  20. Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and receptor genes: susceptibility to substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman AI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aryeh I Herman, Kornelia N BaloghDepartment of Psychiatry, VA Connecticut Healthcare/Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] is an important neurotransmitter implicated in regulating substance-use disorder (SUD acquisition, maintenance, and recovery. During the past several years, an abundance of research has begun discovering and describing specific 5-HT genetic polymorphisms associated with SUDs. Genetic variations in the 5-HT system, such as SLC6A4, HTR1B, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR3 (HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D, and HTR3E, likely play a role contributing to SUD patient heterogeneity. The 5-HT transporter-linked polymorphic region S allele, located in SLC6A4, has now been modestly associated with alcohol dependence in two large meta-analyses. Additional 5-HT genes may also play a role but have not been extensively investigated. A limited number of SUD treatment studies have included 5-HT gene variation as moderating treatment outcomes, but the results have been equivocal. Future research on 5-HT addiction genetics should adopt whole-genome sequencing technology, utilize large study samples, and collect data from multiple ethnic groups. Together, these methods will build on the work already conducted with the aim of utilizing 5-HT genetics in SUD treatment settings.Keywords: serotonin, genetic, substance dependence, addiction, alcohol, drug

  1. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Methods Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), as well as their interaction, were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Results 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least one copy of the l allele. Discussion These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship. PMID:25933228

  2. Variation in the serotonin transporter gene modulates selective attention to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinsky, Roman; Reuter, Martin; Küpper, Yvonne; Schmitz, Anja; Kozyra, Eva; Alexander, Nina; Hennig, Jürgen

    2008-08-01

    The 5-HTTLPR is an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Prior research has revealed associations between the short-allele variant of this polymorphism, enhanced self-reported negative emotionality, and hypersensitivity of fear relevant neural circuits. In a sample of 50 healthy women we examined the role of 5-HTTLPR for cognitive-affective processing of phylogenetical fear-relevant stimuli (spiders) in a dot probe task. In contrast to homozygote long-allele carriers (ll), participants carrying at least 1 short allele (ss and sl) selectively shifted attention toward pictures of spiders, when these were presented for a duration of 2,000 ms. These results argue for an involvement of 5-HTTLPR in cognitive processing of threatening stimuli and thus, underpin its general role for individual differences in negative affect.

  3. A role for the serotonin reuptake transporter in the brain and intestinal features of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kara Gross

    2017-10-01

    Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure. The potential therapeutic value of 5-HT 4 modulation in the subsequent treatment of these conditions is also addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A serotonin transporter gene polymorphism predicts peripartum depressive symptoms in an at-risk psychiatric cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Elisabeth B; Newport, D Jeffrey; Zach, Elizabeth B; Smith, Alicia K; Deveau, Todd C; Altshuler, Lori L; Cohen, Lee S; Stowe, Zachary N; Cubells, Joseph F

    2010-07-01

    Peripartum major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with potential detrimental consequences for both mother and child. Despite its enormous health care relevance, data regarding genetic predictors of peripartum depression are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of the serotonin-transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype with peripartum MDD in an at-risk population. Two hundred and seventy four women with a prior history of MDD were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and serially evaluated in late pregnancy (gestational weeks 31-40), early post-partum (week 1-8) and late post-partum (week 9-24) for diagnosis of a current major depressive episode (MDE) and depressive symptom severity. 5-HTTLPR S-allele carrier status predicted the occurrence of a MDE in the early post-partum period only (OR=5.13, p=0.017). This association persisted despite continued antidepressant treatment. The 5-HTTLPR genotype may be a clinically relevant predictor of early post-partum depression in an at-risk population. Peripartum major depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with potential detrimental consequences for both mother and child. Despite its enormous health care relevance, data regarding genetic predictors of peripartum depression are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of the serotonin-transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype with peripartum MDD in an at-risk population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Escitalopram, an antidepressant with an allosteric effect at the serotonin transporter--a review of current understanding of its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huailing; Haddjeri, Nasser; Sánchez, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Escitalopram is a widely used antidepressant for the treatment of patients with major depression. It is the pure S-enantiomer of racemic citalopram. Several clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that escitalopram is quantitatively more efficacious than many other antidepressants with a faster onset of action. This paper reviews current knowledge about the mechanism of action of escitalopram. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin transporter (SERT), which is responsible for serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) reuptake at the terminals and cell bodies of serotonergic neurons. Escitalopram and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors bind with high affinity to the 5-HT binding site (orthosteric site) on the transporter. This leads to antidepressant effects by increasing extracellular 5-HT levels which enhance 5-HT neurotransmission. SERT also has one or more allosteric sites, binding to which modulates activity at the orthosteric binding site but does not directly affect 5-HT reuptake by the transporter. In vitro studies have shown that through allosteric binding, escitalopram decreases its own dissociation rate from the orthosteric site on the SERT. R-citalopram, the nontherapeutic enantiomer in citalopram, is also an allosteric modulator of SERT but can inhibit the actions of escitalopram by interfering negatively with its binding. Both nonclinical studies and some clinical investigations have demonstrated the cellular, neurochemical, neuroadaptive, and neuroplastic changes induced by escitalopram with acute and chronic administration. The findings from binding, neurochemical, and neurophysiological studies may provide a mechanistic rationale for the clinical difference observed with escitalopram compared to other antidepressant therapies.

  6. Changes of Serotonin (5-HT), 5-HT2A Receptor, and 5-HT Transporter in the Sprague-Dawley Rats of Depression,Myocardial Infarction and Myocardial Infarction Co-exist with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Yan Liu; Yah-Ping Ren; Wan-Lin Wei; Guo-Xiang Tian; Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:To evaluate whether serotonin (5-HT),5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR),and 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) are associated with different disease states of depression,myocardial infarction (MI) and MI co-exist with depression in Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods:After established the animal model of four groups include control,depression,MI and MI with depression,we measured 5-HT,5-HT2AR and SERT from serum and platelet lysate.Results:The serum concentration of 5-HT in depression rats decreased significantly compared with the control group (303.25 ± 9.99 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.000),while that in MI group increased (381.78 ± 14.17 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.000).However,the depression + MI group had no change compared with control group (360.62 ± 11.40 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.036).The changes of the platelet concentration of 5-HT in the depression,MI,and depression + MI group were different from that of serum.The levels of 5-HT in above three groups were lower than that in the control group (380.40 ± 17.90,387.75 ± 22.28,246.40 ± 18.99 vs.500.29 ± 20.91;P =0.000).The platelet lysate concentration of 5-HT2AR increased in depression group,MI group,and depression + MI group compared with the control group (370.75 ± 14.75,393.47 ± 15.73,446.66 ± 18.86 vs.273.66 ± 16.90;P =0.000).The serum and platelet concentration of SERT in the depression group,MI group and depression + MI group were all increased compared with the control group (527.51 ± 28.32,602.02 ± 23.32,734.76 ± 29.59 vs.490.56 ± 16.90;P =0.047,P =0.000,P =0.000 in each and 906.38 ± 51.84,897.33 ± 60.34,1030.17 ± 58.73 vs.708.62 ± 51.15;P =0.000 in each).Conclusions:The concentration of 5-HT2AR in platelet lysate and SERT in serum and platelet may be involved in the pathway of MI with depression.Further studies should examine whether elevated 5-HT2AR and SERT may contribute to the biomarker in MI patients with depression.

  7. Immunodetection of the serotonin transporter protein is a more valid marker for serotonergic fibers than serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Brask, Dorthe; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2006-01-01

    Tracking serotonergic pathways in the brain through immunodetection of serotonin has widely been used for the anatomical characterization of the serotonergic system. Immunostaining for serotonin is also frequently applied for the visualization of individual serotonin containing fibers...... and quantification of serotonin positive fibers has been widely used to detect changes in the serotonergic innervation. However, particularly in conditions with enhanced serotonin metabolism the detection level of serotonin may lead to an underestimation of the true number of serotonergic fibers. The serotonin...... immunostained for serotonin and SERT protein and colocalization was quantified in several brain areas by confocal microscopy. In comparison with untreated rats, MAO inhibitor treated rats had a significantly higher number (almost 200% increase) of serotonin immunopositive fibers whereas no difference...

  8. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Grados, Marco A.; Reti, Irving M.; Eaton, William W.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. Methods 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using nonparametric tests and regression models. Results The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. Conclusion This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. PMID:21450307

  9. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino......)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile), using an ethylamino linker. The resulting rhodamine-labeled ligand 8 inhibited [3H]5-HT uptake in COS-7 cells (Ki = 225 nM) with similar potency to the tropane-based JHC 1-064 (1), but with higher specificity towards the SERT relative...

  10. Cognitive function is related to fronto-striatal serotonin transporter levels--a brain PET study in young healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Erritzøe, David Frederik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter...

  11. Serotonin transporters in dopamine transporter imaging: a head-to-head comparison of dopamine transporter SPECT radioligands 123I-FP-CIT and 123I-PE2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Holm-Hansen, Signe; Thomsen, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Current SPECT radioligands available for in vivo imaging of the dopamine transporter (DAT) also show affinity for monoamine transporters other than DAT, especially the serotonin transporter (SERT). The effect of this lack of selectivity for in vivo imaging is unknown. In this study, we compared...

  12. Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Yang, Lichuan; Fan, Xiaona; Lü, Longbao; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene influences ERP old/new effects during recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert S; Medrano, Paolo; Boyle, Kaitlin; Smolen, Andrew; Curran, Tim; Nyhus, Erika

    2015-11-01

    Recognition memory is defined as the ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus and has been associated with spatially and temporally distinct event-related potentials (ERPs). Allelic variations of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have recently been shown to impact memory performance. Common variants of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) of the SLC6A4 gene result in long (l) and short (s) allelic variants with carriers of the s allele having lowered transcriptional efficiency. Thus, the current study examines the effects polymorphisms of the SLC6A4 gene have on performance and ERP amplitudes commonly associated with recognition memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic, and behavioral data were collected from sixty participants as they performed an item and source memory recognition task. In both tasks, participants studied and encoded 200 words, which were then mixed with 200 new words during retrieval. Participants were monitored with EEG during the retrieval portion of each memory task. EEG electrodes were grouped into four ROIs, left anterior superior, right anterior superior, left posterior superior, and right posterior superior. ERP mean amplitudes during hits in the item and source memory task were compared to correctly recognizing new items (correct rejections). Results show that s-carriers have decreased mean hit amplitudes in both the right anterior superior ROI 1000-1500ms post stimulus during the source memory task and the left anterior superior ROI 300-500ms post stimulus during the item memory task. These results suggest that individual differences due to genetic variation of the serotonin transporter gene influences recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antidepressant Specificity of Serotonin Transporter Suggested by Three LeuT-SSRI Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhen, J; Karpowich, N; Law, C; Reith, M; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    Sertraline and fluoxetine are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are widely prescribed to treat depression. They exert their effects by inhibiting the presynaptic plasma membrane serotonin transporter (SERT). All SSRIs possess halogen atoms at specific positions, which are key determinants for the drugs' specificity for SERT. For the SERT protein, however, the structural basis of its specificity for SSRIs is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial SERT homolog, in complex with sertraline, R-fluoxetine or S-fluoxetine. The SSRI halogens all bind to exactly the same pocket within LeuT. Mutation at this halogen-binding pocket (HBP) in SERT markedly reduces the transporter's affinity for SSRIs but not for tricyclic antidepressants. Conversely, when the only nonconserved HBP residue in both norepinephrine and dopamine transporters is mutated into that found in SERT, their affinities for all the three SSRIs increase uniformly. Thus, the specificity of SERT for SSRIs is dependent largely on interaction of the drug halogens with the protein's HBP.

  15. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowski, Marta; Dennis, Brittany; Clayden, Robert C; ElSheikh, Wala; Rangarajan, Sumathy; DeJesus, Jane; Samaan, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB); however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. PMID:24235834

  16. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and brain function during emotional distraction from cognitive processing in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonin signaling may predict differences in brain circuitry involved in emotion processing and deficits associated with PTSD. In healthy individuals, common functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 have been shown to modulate amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC activity in response to salient emotional stimuli. Similar patterns of differential neural responses to emotional stimuli have been demonstrated in PTSD but genetic factors influencing these activations have yet to be examined. Methods We investigated whether SLC6A4 promoter polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and several downstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs modulated activity of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion in post-9/11 veterans with PTSD. We used functional MRI to examine neural activity in a PTSD group (n = 22 and a trauma-exposed control group (n = 20 in response to trauma-related images presented as task-irrelevant distractors during the active maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory task. Regions of interest were derived by contrasting activation for the most distracting and least distracting conditions across participants. Results In patients with PTSD, when compared to trauma-exposed controls, rs16965628 (associated with serotonin transporter gene expression modulated task-related ventrolateral PFC activation and 5-HTTLPR tended to modulate left amygdala activation. Subsequent to combat-related trauma, these SLC6A4 polymorphisms may bias serotonin signaling and the neural circuitry mediating cognitive control of emotion in patients with PTSD. Conclusions The SLC6A4 SNP rs16965628 and 5-HTTLPR are associated with a bias in neural responses to traumatic reminders and cognitive control of emotions in patients with PTSD. Functional MRI may help identify

  17. Serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism affects detection of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koizumi

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR affects the recognition of facial expressions and attention to them. However, the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and the perceptual detection of others' facial expressions, the process which takes place prior to emotional labeling (i.e., recognition, is not clear. To examine whether the perceptual detection of emotional facial expressions is influenced by the allelic variation (short/long of 5-HTTLPR, happy and sad facial expressions were presented at weak and mid intensities (25% and 50%. Ninety-eight participants, genotyped for 5-HTTLPR, judged whether emotion in images of faces was present. Participants with short alleles showed higher sensitivity (d' to happy than to sad expressions, while participants with long allele(s showed no such positivity advantage. This effect of 5-HTTLPR was found at different facial expression intensities among males and females. The results suggest that at the perceptual stage, a short allele enhances the processing of positive facial expressions rather than that of negative facial expressions.

  18. Emotional voice processing: investigating the role of genetic variation in the serotonin transporter across development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Grossmann

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively respond to emotional information carried in the human voice plays a pivotal role for social interactions. We examined how genetic factors, especially the serotonin transporter genetic variation (5-HTTLPR, affect the neurodynamics of emotional voice processing in infants and adults by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The results revealed that infants distinguish between emotions during an early perceptual processing stage, whereas adults recognize and evaluate the meaning of emotions during later semantic processing stages. While infants do discriminate between emotions, only in adults was genetic variation associated with neurophysiological differences in how positive and negative emotions are processed in the brain. This suggests that genetic association with neurocognitive functions emerges during development, emphasizing the role that variation in serotonin plays in the maturation of brain systems involved in emotion recognition.

  19. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Samuels, Jack F; Riddle, Mark A; Joseph Bienvenu, O; Grados, Marco A; Reti, Irving M; Eaton, William W; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using non-parametric tests and regression models. The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Nijman, I.J.; Kuijpers, S.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain

  1. Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin ''transporter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.M.; Rehavi, M.; Skolnick, P.; Ballenger, J.C.; Goodwin, F.K.

    1981-01-01

    The high-affinity tritiated (3H) imipramine binding sites are functionally (and perhaps structurally) associated with the presynaptic neuronal and platelet uptake sites for serotonin. Since there is an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of a series of antidepressants in displacing 3H-imipramine from binding sites in human brain and platelet, we have examined the binding of 3H-imipramine to platelets from 14 depressed patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant decrease in the number of 3H-imipramine binding sites, with no significant change in the apparent affinity constants, was observed in platelets from the depressed patients compared with the controls. These results, coupled with previous studies showing a significant decrease in the maximal uptake of serotonin in platelets from depressed patients, suggest that an inherited or acquired deficiency of the serotonin transport protein or proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression

  2. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality: response style as a new endophenotype for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieger, Thomas; Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is an extensively-investigated genetic marker of anxiety related personality traits (neuroticism and harm avoidance) and affective disorders, effect sizes in meta-analyses are small, if present at all, and all available primary studies to date lack mandatory statistical power. Moreover, questionnaire data is prone to confounding by variables such as social desirability. Therefore, extreme response style (ERS) is suggested as a new approach to elucidate the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and negative emotionality, as it is more implicit and of high reliability. N = 1075 healthy subjects were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and a flanking polymorphism (rs25531) and filled out the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Temperament Character Inventory. As dependent variable the number of extreme responses across all items was calculated. Using the common genotype or the triallelic approach (including rs25531) the meta-analytic findings could not be replicated. However, there was a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and extreme response style. Carriers of the L-allele or the L'-allele, respectively, had a significantly higher number of extreme responses than homozygous SS carriers across all items of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. This finding could be replicated in an alternative personality questionnaire (Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales, ANPS). There is a long tradition in psychological assessment indicating that ERS is an implicit measure of personality. Given the positive findings of the present study, ERS qualifies as a promising endophenotype in future genetic association studies on personality and affective disorders.

  3. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yan; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hua-Hong; Li, Jun-Xia; Li, Yi-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT 4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times) between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT 4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05) and increased 5-HT 4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05). Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 , days 36-42), tegaserod (1 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 , day 43), or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT 4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01) but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654). These results indicate that both the 5-HT 4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level

  5. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05 and increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05. Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg-1·day-1, days 36-42, tegaserod (1 mg·kg-1·day-1, day 43, or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01 but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654. These results indicate that both the 5-HT4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level.

  6. Adolescent Loneliness and the Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR and Parental Support: A Replication Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette W M Spithoven

    Full Text Available Gene-by-environment interaction (GxEs studies have gained popularity over the last decade, but the robustness of such observed interactions has been questioned. The current study contributes to this debate by replicating the only study on the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR and perceived parental support on adolescents' peer-related loneliness. A total of 1,111 adolescents (51% boys with an average age of 13.70 years (SD = 0.93 participated and three annual waves of data were collected. At baseline, adolescent-reported parental support and peer-related loneliness were assessed and genetic information was collected. Assessment of peer-related loneliness was repeated at Waves 2 and 3. Using a cohort-sequential design, a Latent Growth Curve Model was estimated. Overall, a slight increase of loneliness over time was found. However, the development of loneliness over time was found to be different for boys and girls: girls' levels of loneliness increased over time, whereas boys' levels of loneliness decreased. Parental support was inversely related to baseline levels of loneliness, but unrelated to change of loneliness over time. We were unable to replicate the main effect of 5-HTTLPR or the 5-HTTLPR x Support interaction effect. In the Discussion, we examine the implications of our non-replication.

  7. Effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and history of major depression on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Redei, Eva E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Adam, Emma K

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a key memory deficit in major depressive disorder (MDD). Much research has examined cognitive mechanisms underlying OGM, but little work has investigated potential neurobiological influences. There is preliminary evidence that a genetic serotonergic vulnerability coupled with depressive symptoms may be associated with other memory impairments, and experimental research suggests a role for serotonin in OGM. We investigated whether a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was associated with OGM in interaction with a lifetime history of MDD in 370 young adults in a longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. There was a significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and lifetime history of MDD in predicting OGM. Among S allele homozygotes, MDD history was associated with greater OGM, whereas no significant relationship between MDD history and OGM emerged among L carriers. Furthermore, there was evidence that a greater number of S alleles were associated with greater memory specificity in individuals without a history of MDD. Implications for understanding cognitive and biological risk for depression are discussed.

  8. 5-Chloro-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine: a new serotonin transporter ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Choi, Seok-Rye [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Mei-Ping [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Two novel ligands with 4' substitution on the Phenyl Ring B of biphenylthiol, 5-chloro-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine (7) and 2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-methoxyphenylthio)-5-iodobenzenamine (8), were prepared and tested as potential serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agents. The new ligands displayed extremely high binding affinities to SERT (K {sub i}=0.22{+-}0.09 and 0.11{+-}0.04 nM, respectively), with very low binding affinities to dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (K {sub i}>1000 nM). The corresponding [{sup 125}I]7 and [{sup 125}I]8 were successfully prepared from tri-n-butyltin derivatives. They showed good brain uptakes and prolonged retention after intravenous injection in rats (brain uptake was 1.77% and 0.98% dose/g for [{sup 125}I]7, and 0.92% and 0.29% dose/g for [{sup 125}I]8, at 2 and 120 min, respectively). Significantly, [{sup 125}I]7 showed excellent uptake and prolonged retention in the hypothalamus, where SERT concentration was highest. The hypothalamus/cerebellum (HY/CB) ratios (target/background ratios) were 4.24, 7.10, 8.24 and 12.6 at 2, 4, 6 and 12 h, respectively. The HY/CB ratios for [{sup 125}I]8 were 3.97, 5.57 and 5.06 at 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. Adding the 4'-iodo group to the Phenyl Ring B of Compound (7) appeared to reduce the rate of clearance from the brain, and kinetics favored uptake and retention in the hypothalamus. The localization of [{sup 125}I]7 in the hypothalamus region in the rat brain could be blocked by pretreatment with (+)McN5652, escitalopram and ADAM (2), which are all selective SERT ligands (at 2 mg/kg iv, 5 min pretreatment). Ex vivo autoradiograms of rat brain sections (at 4 h after intravenous injection of [{sup 125}I]7) showed intense labeling in regions of the brain known to have high SERT density. The excellent selective uptake and retention in the hypothalamus region suggest that [{sup 123}I]7 is a potential lead compound for

  9. A SNP in the HTT promoter alters NF-κB binding and is a bidirectional genetic modifier of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečanović, Kristina; Nørremølle, Anne; Neal, Scott J; Kay, Chris; Collins, Jennifer A; Arenillas, David; Lilja, Tobias; Gaudenzi, Giulia; Manoharan, Shiana; Doty, Crystal N; Beck, Jessalyn; Lahiri, Nayana; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Warby, Simon C; Connolly, Colúm; De Souza, Rebecca A G; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hermanson, Ola; Langbehn, Douglas R; Hayden, Michael R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Leavitt, Blair R

    2015-06-01

    Cis-regulatory variants that alter gene expression can modify disease expressivity, but none have previously been identified in Huntington disease (HD). Here we provide in vivo evidence in HD patients that cis-regulatory variants in the HTT promoter are bidirectional modifiers of HD age of onset. HTT promoter analysis identified a NF-κB binding site that regulates HTT promoter transcriptional activity. A non-coding SNP, rs13102260:G > A, in this binding site impaired NF-κB binding and reduced HTT transcriptional activity and HTT protein expression. The presence of the rs13102260 minor (A) variant on the HD disease allele was associated with delayed age of onset in familial cases, whereas the presence of the rs13102260 (A) variant on the wild-type HTT allele was associated with earlier age of onset in HD patients in an extreme case-based cohort. Our findings suggest a previously unknown mechanism linking allele-specific effects of rs13102260 on HTT expression to HD age of onset and have implications for HTT silencing treatments that are currently in development.

  10. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  11. Substrate and Inhibitor-Specific Conformational Changes in the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Voltage-Clamp Fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderhielm, Pella C; Andersen, Jacob; Munro, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    of TM6, Ala419 in the interface between TM8 and extracellular loop (EL) 4, and Leu481 in EL5. The reporter positions were used for time-resolved measurement of conformational changes during 5-HT transport and binding of cocaine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and escitalopram...... changes overall, which included movements within or around TM1b, EL4, and EL5. Taken together, our data lead us to suggest that competitive inhibitors stabilize hSERT in a state that is different from the apo outward-open conformation as well as inward-facing conformations....

  12. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  13. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  14. Preclinical pharmacological study on I-ADAM as a serotonin transporter ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunying; Lu Chunxiong; Jiang Quanfu; Zou Meifen; Chen Zhengping; Wang Songpei; Li Xiaomin; Zhang Tongxing; Zhu Junqing; Lin Xiangtong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the new ligand: I-2-( (22( (dimethylamino) methyl) phenyl) thio)-5- iodophenylamine (ADAM) as a serotonin imaging agent. Methods: Biological evaluations were performed in rats and mice. Results: Biodistribution studies in rats showed that the initial uptake of 131 I-ADAM in the brain was high (1.087%ID/organ at 2 min postinjection), and consistently displayed the highest binding (between 60-240 min postinjection) in hypothalamus, a region with the highest density of serotonin transporter (SERT). The specific binding [(TPCB)-1] of 131 I-ADAM in hypothalamus was 2.94, 3.03 and 3.09 at 60, 120 and 240 min postinjection, respectively. The (TPCB)-1 was significantly blocked by pretreatment with Paroxetine, which is known as a serotonin site reuptake inhibitor, while another nonselective competing drug, Ketanserin, showed no blocking effect. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high 131 I-ADAM uptake in hypothalamus, the ratio of hypothalamus/cerebellum was significantly reduced from 7.94 ± 0.39 to 1.30 ± 0.56 by pretreatment with Paroxetine at 60 min postinjection. Blood clearance kinetics was studied in rats, and the initial half-life of 13.79 min and late half-life of 357.14 min were obtained. The kinetic equation was: C=3.6147·e -0.0725t + 1.0413 e -0.0028t . The thyroid uptake was 0.009 and 1.421% ID/organ at 2 min and 120 min postinjection, respectively, suggesting that in vivo deiodination maybe the major route of metabolism. Toxicity trial showed that the dose per kilogram administered to mice was 1000 times greater than that to human beings, assuming a body-weight of 50 kg. Conclusion: These data suggest that 131 I-ADAM may be useful for SPECT imaging of SERT binding sits in the brain. (authors)

  15. Peripheral serotonin regulates maternal calcium trafficking in mammary epithelial cells during lactation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Laporta

    Full Text Available Lactation is characterized by massive transcellular flux of calcium, from the basolateral side of the mammary alveolar epithelium (blood into the ductal lumen (milk. Regulation of calcium transport during lactation is critical for maternal and neonatal health. The monoamine serotonin (5-HT is synthesized by the mammary gland and functions as a homeostatic regulation of lactation. Genetic ablation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in non-neuronal serotonin synthesis, causes a deficiency in circulating serotonin. As a consequence maternal calcium concentrations decrease, mammary epithelial cell morphology is altered, and cell proliferation is decreased during lactation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin deficiency decreases the expression and disrupts the normal localization of calcium transporters located in the apical (PMCA2 and basolateral (CaSR, ORAI-1 membranes of the lactating mammary gland. In addition, serotonin deficiency decreases the mRNA expression of calcium transporters located in intracellular compartments (SERCA2, SPCA1 and 2. Mammary expression of serotonin receptor isoform 2b and its downstream pathways (PLCβ3, PKC and MAP-ERK1/2 are also decreased by serotonin deficiency, which might explain the numerous phenotypic alterations described above. In most cases, addition of exogenous 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan to the Tph1 deficient mice rescued the phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that serotonin is necessary for proper mammary gland structure and function, to regulate blood and mammary epithelial cell transport of calcium during lactation. These findings can be applicable to the treatment of lactation-induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows and can have profound implications in humans, given the wide-spread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Computational approaches for the study of serotonin and its membrane transporter SERT: implications for drug design in neurological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratuangdejkul, J; Schneider, B; Launay, J-M; Kellermann, O; Manivet, P

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a monoamine neurotransmitter of the central nervous and peripheral systems (CNS), plays a critical role in a wide variety of physiological and behavioral processes. In the serotonergic system, deregulation of the tightly controlled extracellular concentration of 5-HT appears to be at the origin of a host of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. A key step that regulates 5-HT external level is the re-uptake of 5-HT into cells by the 5-HT transporter (SERT), which is besides the target of numerous drugs interacting with the serotonergic system. Therapeutic strategies have mainly focused on the development of compounds that block the activity of SERT, for instance reuptake inhibitors (e.g. tricyclics, "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and in the past, specific substrate-type releasers (e.g. amphetamine and cocaine derivatives). Today, generation of new drugs targetting SERT with enhanced selectivity and reduced toxicity is one of the most challenging tasks in drug design. In this context, studies aiming at characterizing the physicochemical properties of 5-HT as well as the biological active conformation of SERT are a prerequisite to the design of new leads. However, the absence of a high-resolution 3D-structure for SERT has hampered the design of new transporter inhibitors. Using computational approaches, numerous efforts were made to shed light on the structure of 5-HT and its transporter. In this review, we compared several in silico methods dedicated to the modeling of 5-HT and SERT with an emphasis on i) quantum chemistry for study of 5-HT conformation and ii) ligand-based (QSAR and pharmacophore models) and transporter-based (homology models) approaches for studying SERT molecule. In addition, we discuss some methodological aspects of the computational work in connection with the construction of putative but reliable 3D structural models of SERT that may help to predict the mechanisms of neurotransmitter transport.

  17. An extension of hypotheses regarding rapid-acting, treatment-refractory, and conventional antidepressant activity of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2012-06-01

    It was previously hypothesized that dextromethorphan (DM) and dextrorphan (DX) may possess antidepressant properties, including rapid and conventional onsets of action and utility in treatment-refractory depression, based on pharmacodynamic similarities to ketamine. These similarities included sigma-1 (σ(1)) agonist and NMDA antagonist properties, calcium channel blockade, muscarinic binding, serotonin transporter (5HTT) inhibition, and μ receptor potentiation. Here, six specific hypotheses are developed in light of additional mechanisms and evidence. Comparable potencies to ketamine for DM and DX are detailed for σ(1) (DX>DM>ketamine), NMDA PCP site (DX>ketamine>DM), and muscarinic (DX>ketamine>DM) receptors, 5HTT (DM>DX≫ketamine), and NMDA antagonist potentiation of μ receptor stimulation (DM>ketamine). Rapid acting antidepressant properties of DM include NMDA high-affinity site, NMDR-2A, and functional NMDR-2B receptor antagonism, σ(1) stimulation, putative mTOR activation (by σ(1) stimulation, μ potentiation, and 5HTT inhibition), putative AMPA receptor trafficking (by mTOR activation, PCP antagonism, σ(1) stimulation, μ potentiation, and 5HTT inhibition), and dendritogenesis, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival by NMDA antagonism and σ(1) and mTOR signaling. Those for dextrorphan include NMDA high-affinity site and NMDR-2A antagonism, σ(1) stimulation, putative mTOR activation (by σ(1) stimulation and ß adrenoreceptor stimulation), putative AMPA receptor trafficking (by mTOR activation, PCP antagonism, σ(1) stimulation, ß stimulation, and μ antagonism), and dendritogenesis, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival by NMDA antagonism and σ(1) and mTOR signaling. Conventional antidepressant properties for dextromethorphan and dextrorphan include 5HTT and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, σ(1) stimulation, NMDA and PCP antagonism, and possible serotonin 5HT1b/d receptor stimulation. Additional properties for

  18. A gene-environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Baumann, Katarina; Jacob, Florian; Prechtl, Julian; Wittlich, Maike; Herrmann, Martin J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G x E) factors with respect to personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic candidate genes (coding for the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; the serotonin autoreceptor, HTR1A; and the enzyme which synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH2) with the burden of life events (#LE) in two independent samples consisting of 183 patients suffering from personality disorders and 123 patients suffering from adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). Simple analyses ignoring possible G x E interactions revealed no evidence for associations of either #LE or of the considered polymorphisms in 5-HTT and TPH2. Only the G allele of HTR1A rs6295 seemed to increase the risk of emotional-dramatic cluster B personality disorders (p = 0.019, in the personality disorder sample) and to decrease the risk of anxious-fearful cluster C personality disorders (p = 0.016, in the aADHD sample). We extended the initial simple model by taking a G x E interaction term into account, since this approach may better fit the data indicating that the effect of a gene is modified by stressful life events or, vice versa, that stressful life events only have an effect in the presence of a susceptibility genotype. By doing so, we observed nominal evidence for G x E effects as well as main effects of 5-HTT-LPR and the TPH2 SNP rs4570625 on the occurrence of personality disorders. Further replication studies, however, are necessary to validate the apparent complexity of G x E interactions in disorders of human personality.

  19. Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmer, Arnauld; Quentin, Emily; Diaz, Silvina L; Guiard, Bruno P; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Doly, Stéphane; Banas, Sophie M; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Moutkine, Imane; Muzerelle, Aude; Tchenio, Anna; Roumier, Anne; Mameli, Manuel; Maroteaux, Luc

    2018-06-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity. By ex vivo electrophysiological recordings, we report that stimulation by the 5-HT 2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, increased the firing frequency of serotonin Pet1-positive neurons. Viral overexpression of 5-HT 2B receptors in these neurons increased their excitability. Furthermore, in vivo 5-HT 2B -receptor stimulation by BW723C86 counteracted 5-HT 1A autoreceptor-dependent reduction in firing rate and hypothermic response in wild-type mice. By a conditional genetic ablation that eliminates 5-HT 2B receptor expression specifically and exclusively from Pet1-positive serotonin neurons (Htr2b 5-HTKO mice), we demonstrated that behavioral and sensitizing effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine), as well as acute behavioral and chronic neurogenic effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, require 5-HT 2B receptor expression in serotonergic neurons. In Htr2b 5-HTKO mice, dorsal raphe serotonin neurons displayed a lower firing frequency compared to control Htr2b lox/lox mice as assessed by in vivo extracellular recordings and a stronger hypothermic effect of 5-HT 1A -autoreceptor stimulation was observed. The increase in head-twitch response to DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) further confirmed the lower serotonergic tone resulting from the absence of 5-HT 2B receptors in serotonin neurons. Together, these observations indicate that the 5-HT 2B receptor acts as a direct positive modulator of serotonin Pet1

  20. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited...... knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined...

  1. Structure-activity relationships for serotonin transporter and dopamine receptor selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Davies, Paul; Turner, Joseph V

    2009-05-01

    Antipsychotic medications have a diverse pharmacology with affinity for serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic, histaminergic and cholinergic receptors. Their clinical use now also includes the treatment of mood disorders, thought to be mediated by serotonergic receptor activity. The aim of our study was to characterise the molecular properties of antipsychotic agents, and to develop a model that would indicate molecular specificity for the dopamine (D(2)) receptor and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained on a dataset of 47 ligands categorically assigned antidepressant or antipsychotic utility. The structure of each compound was encoded with 63 calculated molecular descriptors. ANN parameters including hidden neurons and input descriptors were optimised based on sensitivity analyses, with optimum models containing between four and 14 descriptors. Predicted binding preferences were in excellent agreement with clinical antipsychotic or antidepressant utility. Validated models were further tested by use of an external prediction set of five drugs with unknown mechanism of action. The SAR models developed revealed the importance of simple molecular characteristics for differential binding to the D(2) receptor and the 5-HT transporter. These included molecular size and shape, solubility parameters, hydrogen donating potential, electrostatic parameters, stereochemistry and presence of nitrogen. The developed models and techniques employed are expected to be useful in the rational design of future therapeutic agents.

  2. Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction of antidepressant drugs with serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Bang-Andersen, Benny

    2009-01-01

    The biogenic monoamine transporters are integral membrane proteins that perform active transport of extracellular dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants, as well as addictive substances such as cocaine...... and amphetamine. Seminal advances in the understanding of the structure and function of this transporter family have recently been accomplished by structural studies of a bacterial transporter, as well as medicinal chemistry and pharmacological studies of mammalian transporters. This feature article focuses...

  3. Associations between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and heat pain perception in adults with chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The triallelic serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with alterations in thermal pain perception. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception and the triallelic 5-HTTLPR in a large cohort of adults with chronic pain. Methods The cohort included 277 adults with chronic pain who met inclusion criteria, and were consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from March 2009 through March 2010. Individuals were genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR (including rs25531) and categorized as high, intermediate, or low expressors of the serotonin transporter. Standardized measures of HP perception were obtained using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. Results The distribution of the high, intermediate, and low expressing genotypes was 61 (22%), 149 (54%) and 67 (24%), respectively. The Hardy-Weinberg P-value was 0.204 which indicated no departure from equilibrium. A significant effect of genotype was observed for values of HP threshold (P = 0.029). Individual group comparisons showed that values of HP threshold were significantly greater in the intermediate compared to the high expressing group (P = 0.009) but not the low expressing group (P > 0.1). In a multiple variable linear regression model, the intermediate group (P = 0.034) and male sex (P = 0.021) were associated with significantly greater values of HP 0.5, but no significant genotype-by-sex interaction effect was observed. Conclusions In this study that involved adults with chronic pain, the intermediate triallelic 5-HTTLPR expressing group, but not the low expressing group, was associated with greater HP thresholds compared to the high expressing group. PMID:23895108

  4. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D'Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling.......To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling....

  5. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  6. Ethanol self-administration in serotonin transporter knockout mice: unconstrained demand and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Daws, L C

    2013-10-01

    Low serotonin function is associated with alcoholism, leading to speculation that increasing serotonin function could decrease ethanol consumption. Mice with one or two deletions of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene have increased extracellular serotonin. To examine the relationship between SERT genotype and motivation for alcohol, we compared ethanol self-administration in mice with zero (knockout, KO), one (HET) or two copies (WT) of the SERT gene. All three genotypes learned to self-administer ethanol. The SSRI, fluvoxamine, decreased responding for ethanol in the HET and WT, but not the KO mice. When tested under a progressive ratio schedule, KO mice had lower breakpoints than HET or WT. As work requirements were increased across sessions, behavioral economic analysis of ethanol self-administration indicated that the decreased breakpoint in KO as compared to HET or WT mice was a result of lower levels of unconstrained demand, rather than differences in elasticity, i.e. the proportional decreases in ethanol earned with increasing work requirements were similar across genotypes. The difference in unconstrained demand was unlikely to result from motor or general motivational factors, as both WT and KO mice responded at high levels for a 50% condensed milk solution. As elasticity is hypothesized to measure essential value, these results indicate that KO value ethanol similarly to WT or HET mice despite having lower break points for ethanol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. The Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janne Kærgård; Kraglund, Kristian Lundsgaard; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-01-01

    may influence platelet activity, as they result in different levels of transporters and thereby different levels of serotonin in platelets. SERT gene polymorphisms have thus been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. A similar association may exist between SERT gene polymorphisms...... and stroke. However, to our knowledge, this potential association has not previously been studied. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the SERT gene and the risk of ischemic stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case...

  8. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT. Binding kinetics in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecke, T; Asenbaum, S; Frassine, H; Podreka, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Neurologische Klinik; Kornhuber, J [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany); Angelberger, P [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies in non-human primates have previously shown that the cocaine derivative [[sup 123]I]-2-[beta]-carbomethoxy-3-[beta]-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane ([[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT) labels dopamine transporters in the striatum and serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus-midbrain area. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 2 patients with Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects striatal activity increased slowly to reach peak values at about 20 hours post injection. In the hypothalamus-midbrain area peak activities were observed at about 4 hours with a slow decrease thereafter. Low activity was observed in cortical and cerebellar areas. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was about 4 after 5 hours and 9 after 20 hours. In 2 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease striatal activity was markedly decreased while the activity in hypothalamus-midbrain areas was only diminished. Uptake into cortical and cerebellar areas appeared to be unchanged in Parkinson's disease. Consequently, in Parkinson's disease the striatal to cerebellar ratio was decreased to values around 2.5 after 20 hours. These preliminary methodological studies suggest that [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT is a useful SPECT ligand for studying dopamine and possibly also serotonin transporters in the living human brain.

  9. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Serotonin and the regulation of calcium transport in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L L

    2017-12-01

    The mammary gland regulates maternal metabolism during lactation. Numerous factors within the tissue send signals to shift nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Serotonin is a monoamine that has been well documented to regulate several aspects of lactation among species. Maintenance of maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation is a highly evolved process that is elegantly regulated by the interaction of the mammary gland with the bone, gut, and kidney tissues. It is well documented that dietary calcium is insufficient to maintain maternal calcium concentrations during lactation, and mammals must rely on bone resorption to maintain normocalcemia. Our recent work focused on the ability of the mammary gland to function as an accessory parathyroid gland during lactation. It was demonstrated that serotonin acts to stimulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland during lactation. The main role of mammary-derived PTHrP during mammalian lactation is to stimulate bone resorption to maintain maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation. In addition to regulating PTHrP, it was shown that serotonin appears to directly affect calcium transporters and pumps in the mammary gland. Our current working hypothesis regarding the control of calcium during lactation is as follows: serotonin directly stimulates PTHrP production in the mammary gland through interaction with the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Simultaneously, serotonin directly increases calcium movement into the mammary gland and, subsequently, milk. These 2 direct actions of serotonin combine to induce a transient maternal hypocalcemia required to further stimulate PTHrP production and calcium mobilization from bone. Through these 2 routes, serotonin is able to improve maternal calcium concentrations. Furthermore, we have shown that Holstein and Jersey cows appear to regulate calcium in different manners and also respond differently to serotonergic stimulation of the calcium

  10. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2014-12-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to psychosocial stress than L-allele homozygotes. This study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the effects of stress on ADHD in a multisite prospective ADHD cohort study. 5-HTTLPR genotype, as well as the number of stressful life events in the past 5 years and ongoing long-term difficulties, was determined in 671 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy controls (57.4% male, average age 17.3 years). Linear mixed models, accounting for family relatedness, were applied to investigate the effects of genotype, experienced stress, and their interaction on ADHD severity at time point T2, while controlling for ADHD severity at T1 (mean follow-up time 5.9 years) and for comorbid internalizing problems at T2. The interaction between genotype and stress significantly predicted ADHD severity at T2 (p = .006), which was driven by the effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity (p = .004). Probing of the interaction effect made clear that S-allele carriers had a significantly more positive correlation between stress and ADHD severity than L-allele homozygotes. The results show that the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress is a mechanism involved particularly in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension of ADHD, and that this is independent of comorbid internalizing problems. Further research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this interaction effect is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using…

  12. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples...... and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals...... with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may...

  13. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  14. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  15. A serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), drinking-to-cope motivation, and negative life events among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli, Stephen; Conner, Tamlin S; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard; Kranzler, Henry R

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to examine whether a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene was related to college students' reports of relief drinking (drinking-to-cope motives) and whether it moderated the associations between negative life events and drinking to cope. We examined reward drinking (drinking-to-enhance motives) as a comparison and to see whether these effects varied across gender. Using an Internet-based survey, college students (N = 360; 192 women) self-reported on drinking motives and negative life events for up to 4 years. Study participants provided saliva for genotyping the triallelic (LA vs LG or S) variants of 5-HTTLPR. Among men, individuals with two risk alleles (LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed lower drinking-to-cope motives. Among women, individuals with one risk allele (either LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed stronger drinking-to-enhance motives. The association between yearly changes in negative life events and drinking-to-cope motives varied across 5-HTTLPR genotype and gender and was strongest in the positive direction for women with the LA/LA variant. Our findings are not consistent with prior speculation that stronger positive associations between life stress and alcohol use among individuals with the LG or S allele are the result of increased use of alcohol as a method for coping with stress. The importance of examining gender differences in the relations between 5-HTTLPR, substance use, and related constructs is also noted.

  16. FlipADAM: a potential new SPECT imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Julie L.; Deutsch, Eric C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain is a useful tool for examining normal physiological functions and disease states involving the serotonergic system. The goal of this study was to develop an improved SPECT radiotracer with faster kinetics than the current leading SPECT tracer, [{sup 123}I]ADAM, for selective SERT imaging. Methods: The in vitro binding affinities of (2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine) (FlipADAM) (1c), were determined using Hampshire pig kidney cells stably overexpressing the serotonin, norepinephrine (NET) or dopamine transporter (DAT). Localization of [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) was evaluated through biodistribution and autoradiography in male Sprague Dawley rats, and the specificity of binding was assessed by injecting selective SERT or NET inhibitors prior to [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c). Results: FlipADAM (1c) displayed a high binding affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.0 nM) and good selectivity over NET and DAT binding (43-fold and 257-fold, respectively). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) successfully penetrated the blood brain barrier, as evidenced by the brain uptake at 2 min (1.75% dose/g). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM(1c) also had a good target to non-target (hypothalamus/cerebellum) ratio of 3.35 at 60 min post-injection. In autoradiography studies, [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) showed selective localization in SERT-rich brain regions such as the thalamic nuclei, amygdala, dorsal raphe nuclei and other areas. Conclusion: [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) exhibited faster clearance from the brain and time to binding equilibrium when compared to [{sup 125}I]2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)-5-iodophenylamine [{sup 125}I]ADAM (1b) and a higher target to non-target ratio when compared to [{sup 125}I]5-iodo-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)benzyl alcohol [{sup 125}I]IDAM (1a). Therefore, [{sup 123}I]FlipADAM (1c) may be an improved

  17. TrpC5 Mediates Acute Leptin and Serotonin Effects via Pomc Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying acute leptin and serotonin 2C receptor-induced hypophagia remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc-specific loss of transient receptor potential cation 5 (TrpC5 subunits is sufficient to decrease energy expenditure and increase food intake resulting in elevated body weight. Deficiency of Trpc5 subunits in Pomc neurons is also sufficient to block the anorexigenic effects of leptin and serotonin 2C receptor (Ht2Cr agonists. The loss of acute anorexigenic effects of these receptors is concomitant with a blunted electrophysiological response to both leptin and Ht2Cr agonists in arcuate Pomc neurons. We also demonstrate that the Ht2Cr agonist lorcaserin-induced improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance are blocked by TrpC5 deficiency in Pomc neurons. Together, our results link TrpC5 subunits in the brain with leptin- and serotonin 2C receptor-dependent changes in neuronal activity, as well as energy balance, feeding behavior, and glucose metabolism.

  18. Effect of the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Yan; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Hua-Hong; Li, Jun-Xia; Li, Yi-Xuan [Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-27

    Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times) between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT{sub 4} receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05) and increased 5-HT{sub 4} receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05). Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, days 36-42), tegaserod (1 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, day 43), or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT{sub 4} receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01) but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654). These results indicate that both the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT

  19. Self-esteem in remitted patients with mood disorders is not associated with the dopamine receptor D4 and the serotonin transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, A; Macciardi, F; Di Bella, D; Catalano, M; Smeraldi, E

    1998-08-17

    Disturbances of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Associations have been reported between markers of the two neurotransmitter systems and the presence of illness or severity of depressive episodes, but no attention has been focused on the periods of remission. The present report focuses on a possible association of self-esteem in remitted mood disorder patients with the functional polymorphism located in the upstream regulatory region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Inpatients (N=162) affected by bipolar (n=103) and unipolar (n=59) disorder (DSM III-R) were assessed by the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Rosenberg, 1965) and were typed for DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR (n=58 subjects) variants at the third exon using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Neither DRD4 nor 5-HTTLPR variants were associated with SES scores, and consideration of possible stratification effects such as sex and psychiatric diagnosis did not reveal any association either. The serotonin transporter and dopamine receptor D4 genes do not, therefore, influence self-esteem in remitted mood disorder subjects.

  20. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…

  1. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates subgenual response to fearful faces using an incidental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth J P; Dolan, Raymond J; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) on regional responses to emotional faces in the amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), while subjects performed a gender discrimination task. Although we found no evidence for greater amygdala reactivity or reduced amygdala-sgACC coupling in short variant 5-HTTLPR homozygotes (s/s), we observed an interaction between genotype and emotion in sgACC. Only long variant homozygotes (la/la) exhibited subgenual deactivation to fearful versus neutral faces, whereas the effect in s/s subjects was in the other direction. This absence of subgenual deactivation in s/s subjects parallels a recent finding in depressed subjects [Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., et al. Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 932-943, 2009]. Taken together, the findings suggest that subgenual cingulate activity may play an important role in regulating the impact of aversive stimuli, potentially conferring greater resilience to the effects of aversive stimuli in la/la subjects. Using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we explored the effects of genotype on effective connectivity and emotion-specific changes in coupling across a network of regions implicated in social processing. Viewing fearful faces enhanced bidirectional excitatory coupling between the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, and increased the inhibitory influence of the amygdala over the sgACC, although this modulation of coupling did not differ between the genotype groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of sgACC and serotonin in moderating responses to aversive stimuli [Dayan, P., & Huys, Q. J., Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood. PLoS Comput Biol, 4, e4, 2008; Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, S., Mahurin, R. K., Jerabek, P. A., et

  2. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadkowski M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marta Sadkowski,1,* Brittany Dennis,2–4,* Robert C Clayden,2 Wala ElSheikh,5 Sumathy Rangarajan,5 Jane DeJesus,5 Zainab Samaan3–6 1Arts and Sciences Program, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 4Population Genomics Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 5Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 6Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB; however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. Keywords: serotonin, suicide, genetic

  3. Disruption of Transient Serotonin Accumulation by Non-Serotonin-Producing Neurons Impairs Cortical Map Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms that alter serotonin transporter SERT expression and functionality increase the risks for autism and psychiatric traits. Here, we investigate how SERT controls serotonin signaling in developing CNS in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in specific sets of glutamatergic neurons and uptakes extrasynaptic serotonin during perinatal CNS development. We show that SERT expression in glutamatergic thalamocortical axons (TCAs dictates sensory map architecture. Knockout of SERT in TCAs causes lasting alterations in TCA patterning, spatial organizations of cortical neurons, and dendritic arborization in sensory cortex. Pharmacological reduction of serotonin synthesis during the first postnatal week rescues sensory maps in SERTGluΔ mice. Furthermore, knockdown of SERT expression in serotonin-producing neurons does not impair barrel maps. We propose that spatiotemporal SERT expression in non-serotonin-producing neurons represents a determinant in early life genetic programming of cortical circuits. Perturbing this SERT function could be involved in the origin of sensory and cognitive deficits associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Irvine, CA; Saigal, Neil [Fresno, CA; Saigal, legal representative, Harsh

    2012-09-25

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably .sup.18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with .sup.18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    society (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008). More than 98% of ... smoking addiction (Li 2006). It is well ... neurotransmitter transporter (SLC6) family (Saier 1999). ..... gested that the effects of genotype and treatment may vary.

  6. The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and acute tryptophan depletion both increase impulsivity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walderhaug, Espen; Herman, Aryeh Isaac; Magnusson, Andres; Morgan, Michael John; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2010-04-12

    Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is implicated in impulsive behavior. We studied the triallelic system of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and acute manipulation of serotonin together to further delineate the mechanisms by which serotonergic neurotransmission affects impulsivity. Fifty-two healthy participants (38 men and 14 women) underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group experiment. Impulsive response style was measured on two versions of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), and calculated using signal detection theory. We observed a dose-dependent effect for the short (S') allele of the 5-HTTLPR on impulsive response style. Individuals who had the S'/S' genotype were more impulsive than individuals with the L/S' genotype. Participants with the L/S' genotype were more impulsive than those with the L/L genotype. ATD increased impulsivity in men, and decreased impulsivity in women. These data demonstrate for the first time that reduced serotonergic tone as a result of either 5-HTTLPR genotype, or experimental ATD, are both independently and additively, associated with elevated impulsive response style in Caucasian men. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Janet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been linked to a wide variety of behaviors including feeding and body-weight regulation, social hierarchies, aggression and suicidality, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcoholism, anxiety, and affective disorders. Full understanding of serotonergic systems in the central nervous system involves genomics, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and behavior. Though associations have been found between functions at these different levels, in most cases the causal mechanisms are unknown. The scientific issues are daunting but important for human health because of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other pharmacological agents to treat disorders in the serotonergic signaling system. Methods We construct a mathematical model of serotonin synthesis, release, and reuptake in a single serotonergic neuron terminal. The model includes the effects of autoreceptors, the transport of tryptophan into the terminal, and the metabolism of serotonin, as well as the dependence of release on the firing rate. The model is based on real physiology determined experimentally and is compared to experimental data. Results We compare the variations in serotonin and dopamine synthesis due to meals and find that dopamine synthesis is insensitive to the availability of tyrosine but serotonin synthesis is sensitive to the availability of tryptophan. We conduct in silico experiments on the clearance of extracellular serotonin, normally and in the presence of fluoxetine, and compare to experimental data. We study the effects of various polymorphisms in the genes for the serotonin transporter and for tryptophan hydroxylase on synthesis, release, and reuptake. We find that, because of the homeostatic feedback mechanisms of the autoreceptors, the polymorphisms have smaller effects than one expects. We compute the expected steady concentrations of serotonin transporter knockout mice and compare to

  8. cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα associates with the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter and dictates rapid modulation of serotonin uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Jennifer A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Na+/Cl--dependent serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT transporter (SERT is a critical element in neuronal 5-HT signaling, being responsible for the efficient elimination of 5-HT after release. SERTs are not only targets for exogenous addictive and therapeutic agents but also can be modulated by endogenous, receptor-linked signaling pathways. We have shown that neuronal A3 adenosine receptor activation leads to enhanced presynaptic 5-HT transport in vitro and an increased rate of SERT-mediated 5-HT clearance in vivo. SERT stimulation by A3 adenosine receptors derives from an elevation of cGMP and subsequent activation of both cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. PKG activators such as 8-Br-cGMP are known to lead to transporter phosphorylation, though how this modification supports SERT regulation is unclear. Results In this report, we explore the kinase isoform specificity underlying the rapid stimulation of SERT activity by PKG activators. Using immortalized, rat serotonergic raphe neurons (RN46A previously shown to support 8-Br-cGMP stimulation of SERT surface trafficking, we document expression of PKGI, and to a lower extent, PKGII. Quantitative analysis of staining profiles using permeabilized or nonpermeabilized conditions reveals that SERT colocalizes with PKGI in both intracellular and cell surface domains of RN46A cell bodies, and exhibits a more restricted, intracellular pattern of colocalization in neuritic processes. In the same cells, SERT demonstrates a lack of colocalization with PKGII in either intracellular or surface membranes. In keeping with the ability of the membrane permeant kinase inhibitor DT-2 to block 8-Br-cGMP stimulation of SERT, we found that DT-2 treatment eliminated cGMP-dependent kinase activity in PKGI-immunoreactive extracts resolved by liquid chromatography. Similarly, treatment of SERT-transfected HeLa cells with small interfering RNAs targeting

  9. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), and ...

  10. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Latorre

    Full Text Available TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.

  11. Serotonin transporter (SERT gene polymorphism in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Özkaya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence of about 2% in persons older than 65 years of age. Neurodegenerative process in PD is not restricted to the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra but also affects serotoninergic neurons. It has been shown that PD brains with Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra also had Lewy bodies in the raphe nuclei. The re-uptake of 5HT released into the synaptic cleft is mediated by the 5HT transporter (SERT. The SERT gene has been mapped to the chromosome of 17q11.1-q12 and has two main polymorphisms: intron two VNTR polymorphism and promoter region 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. Objective: In this study we investigated whether two polymorphic regions in the serotonin transporter gene are associated with PD. Material and Method: After obtaining informed consent, blood samples were collected from 76 patients and 54 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes using standard methods. The SERT gene genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results: Based on the intron 2 VNTR polymorphism of SERT gene, the distribution of 12/12, 12/10 and 10/10 genotypes were found as, 56.6 %, 35.5 %, 7.9 % in patients whereas this genotype distribution in control group was 40.7 %, 46.3 % and 13 %, respectively. According to 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, the distribution of L/L, L/S and S/S genotypes were found as 27.6 % 51.3 % and 21.1 % in patients whereas this genotype distribution in control group was 33.4 %, 50.0 % and 16.6 %, respectively. Despite the fact that the genotype distribution of SERT gene polymorphism in patients and control group seemed to be different from each other, this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: This finding suggests that polymorphisms within the SERT gene do not play a major role in PD susceptibility in the Turkish population.

  12. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, Henricus G.; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of

  13. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of

  14. Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Ruth; Rocha, Luisa; Castillo, Carlos; Meneses, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH). METH is well known to produce effects on the monoamine systems but it is unclear how METH affects SERT and memory. Here the effects of METH and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) on autoshaping and novel object recognition (NOR) were investigated. Notably, both memory tasks recruit different behavioral, neural and cognitive demand. In autoshaping task a dose-response curve for METH was determined. METH (1.0mg/kg) impaired short-term memory (STM; lasting less of 90min) in NOR and impaired both STM and long-term memory (LTM; lasting 24 and 48h) in autoshaping, indicating that METH had long-lasting effects in the latter task. A comparative autoradiography study of the relationship between the binding pattern of SERT in autoshaping new untrained vs. trained treated (METH, FLX, or both) animals was made. Considering that hemispheric dominance is important for LTM, hence right vs. left hemisphere of the brain was compared. Results showed that trained animals decreased cortical SERT binding relative to untrained ones. In untrained and trained treated animals with the amnesic dose (1.0mg/kg) of METH SERT binding in several areas including hippocampus and cortex decreased, more remarkably in the trained animals. In contrast, FLX improved memory, increased SERT binding, prevented the METH amnesic effect and re-established the SERT binding. In general, memory and amnesia seemed to make SERT more vulnerable to drugs effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfro Gisele G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder (PD. Methods This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies with unrelated individuals of any ethnic origin examining the role of the 5-HTTLPR in PD according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD. Articles published in any language between January 1996 and April 2007 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, PsychInfo, Lilacs and ISI. Two separate analyses were performed: an analysis by alleles and a stratified analysis separating studies by the quality of control groups. Asymptotic DerSimonian and Laird's Q test were used to assess heterogeneity. Results of individual studies were combined using the fixed effect model with respective 95% confidence intervals. Results Nineteen potential articles were identified, and 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. No statistically significant association between 5-HTTLPR and PD was found, OR = 0.91 (CI95% 0.80 to 1.03, p = 0.14. Three sub-analyses divided by ethnicity, control group quality and Agoraphobia comorbidity also failed to find any significant association. No evidence of heterogeneity was found between studies in the analyses. Conclusion Results from this systematic review do not provide evidence to support an association between 5-HTTLPR and PD. However, more studies are needed in different ethnic populations in order to evaluate a possible minor effect.

  16. Normal and mutant HTT interact to affect clinical severity and progression in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, N A; Jurgens, C K; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT). We aimed to assess whether interaction between CAG repeat sizes in the mutant and normal allele could affect disease severity and progression. METHODS: Using...... with less severe symptoms and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing CAG repeat size in normal HTT diminishes the association between mutant CAG repeat size and disease severity and progression in Huntington disease. The underlying mechanism may involve interaction of the polyglutamine domains of normal...

  17. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  18. Serotonin-related gene expression in female monkeys with individual sensitivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, C L; Streicher, J M; Mirkes, S J; Sanchez, R L; Reddy, A P; Cameron, J L

    2005-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. In this study, the expression of four genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in monkeys previously categorized as highly stress resistant (n=3; normal menstrual cyclicity through two stress cycles), medium stress resistant (n=5; ovulatory in the first stress cycle but anovulatory in the second stress cycle), or low stress resistant (i.e. stress-sensitive; n=4; anovulatory as soon as stress is initiated). In situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis was used to measure mRNAs coding for SERT (serotonin transporter), 5HT1A autoreceptor, MAO-A and MAO-B (monoamine oxidases) at six levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software. In addition, serotonin neurons were immunostained and counted at three levels of the DRN. Finally, each animal was genotyped for the serotonin transporter long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR). Stress sensitive animals had lower expression of SERT mRNA in the caudal region of the DRN (PMAO-A mRNA signal in the stress-sensitive group (PMAO-A OD was positively correlated with progesterone from a pre-stress control cycle (PMAO-B mRNA exhibited a similar downward trend in the stress-sensitive group. MAO-B OD also correlated with control cycle progesterone (PMAO-A) or exhibited a lower trend (5HT1A, MAO-B) in the stress sensitive animals, which probably reflects the lower number of serotonin neurons present.

  19. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  20. Epigenetic and epistatic interactions between serotonin transporter and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genetic polymorphism: insights in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignácio, Z M; Réus, G Z; Abelaira, H M; Quevedo, J

    2014-09-05

    Epidemiological studies have shown significant results in the interaction between the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT in mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The latest research has provided convincing evidence that gene transcription of these molecules is a target for epigenetic changes, triggered by stressful stimuli that starts in early childhood and continues throughout life, which are subsequently translated into structural and functional phenotypes culminating in depressive disorders. The short variants of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF-Met are seen as forms which are predisposed to epigenetic aberrations, which leads individuals to a susceptibility to environmental adversities, especially when subjected to stress in early life. Moreover, the polymorphic variants also feature epistatic interactions in directing the functional mechanisms elicited by stress and underlying the onset of depressive disorders. Also emphasized are works which show some mediators between stress and epigenetic changes of the 5-HTT and BDNF genes, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which is a cellular transcription factor. Both the HPA axis and CREB are also involved in epistatic interactions between polymorphic variants of 5-HTTLPR and Val66Met. This review highlights some research studying changes in the epigenetic patterns intrinsic to genes of 5-HTT and BDNF, which are related to lifelong environmental adversities, which in turn increases the risks of developing MDD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts task-evoked and resting-state activities of the amygdala in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufang; Zou, Qihong; Li, Jun; Li, Jin; Wang, Deyi; Yan, Chaogan; Dong, Qi; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the amygdala of carriers of the short allele (s) of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR) have a larger response to negative emotional stimuli and higher spontaneous activity during the resting state than non-carriers. However, recent studies have suggested that the effects of 5-HTTLPR may be specific to different ethnic groups. Few studies have been conducted to address this issue. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted on thirty-eight healthy Han Chinese subjects (l/l group, n = 19; s/s group, n = 19) during the resting state and during an emotional processing task. Compared with the s/s group, the l/l group showed significantly increased regional homogeneity or local synchronization in the right amygdala during the resting state (|t|>2.028, pemotional processing task. 5-HTTLPR can alter the spontaneous activity of the amygdala in Han Chinese. However, the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala both in task state and resting state in Asian population was no similar with Caucasians. They suggest that the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala may be modulated by ethnic differences.

  2. Altered expression and modulation of activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molteni, R.; Calabrese, F.; Maj, P.F.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Racagni, G.; Ellenbroek, A.A.; Riva, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    A gene variant in the human serotonin transporter (SERT) can increase the vulnerability to mood disorders. SERT knockout animals show similarities to the human condition and represent an important tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pathologic condition in humans. Along this line of

  3. Triptans, serotonin agonists, and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have suggested that fatal serotonin syndrome (SS) is possible with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and triptans: this warning affects millions of patients as these drugs are frequently given simultaneously. SS is a complex topic about which there is much misinformation. The misconception that 5-HT1A receptors can cause serious SS is still widely perpetuated, despite quality evidence that it is activation of the 5-HT2A receptor that is required for serious SS. This review considers SS involving serotonin agonists: ergotamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, bromocriptine, and buspirone, as well as triptans, and reviews the experimental foundation underpinning the latest understanding of SS. It is concluded that there is neither significant clinical evidence, nor theoretical reason, to entertain speculation about serious SS from triptans and SSRIs. The misunderstandings about SS exhibited by the FDA, and shared by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (in relation to methylene blue), are an important issue with wide ramifications.

  4. Serotonin transporter occupancy by escitalopram and citalopram in the non-human primate brain: a [(11)C]MADAM PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Halldin, Christer; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Farde, Lars

    2015-11-01

    A number of serotonin receptor positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands have been shown to be sensitive to changes in extracellular serotonin concentration, in a generalization of the well-known dopamine competition model. High doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) decrease serotonin receptor availability in monkey brain, consistent with increased serotonin concentrations. However, two recent studies on healthy human subjects, using a single, lower and clinically relevant SSRI dose, showed increased cortical serotonin receptor radioligand binding, suggesting potential decreases in serotonin concentration in projection regions when initiating treatment. The cross-species differential SSRI effect may be partly explained by serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy in monkey brain being higher than is clinically relevant. We here determine SERT occupancy after single doses of escitalopram or citalopram by conducting PET measurements with [(11)C]MADAM in monkeys. Relationships between dose, plasma concentration and SERT occupancy were estimated by one-site binding analyses. Binding affinity was expressed as dose (ID50) or plasma concentration (K i) where 50 % SERT occupancy was achieved. Estimated ID50 and K i values were 0.020 mg/kg and 9.6 nmol/L for escitalopram and 0.059 mg/kg and 9.7 nmol/L for citalopram, respectively. Obtained K i values are comparable to values reported in humans. Escitalopram or citalopram doses nearly saturated SERT in previous monkey studies which examined serotonin sensitivity of receptor radioligands. PET-measured cross-species differential effects of SSRI on cortical serotonin concentration may thus be related to SSRI dose. Future monkey studies using SSRI doses inducing clinically relevant SERT occupancy may further illuminate the delayed onset of SSRI therapeutic effects.

  5. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and myocardial infarction: Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumeron, Frédéric; Betoulle, Dina; Nicaud, Viviane; Evans, Alun; Kee, Frank; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Arveiler, Dominique; Luc, Gérald; Cambien, François

    2002-06-25

    Depression is a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce this risk. The site of action is the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), which is expressed in brain and blood cells. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene has been described. This polymorphism may be associated with the risk of MI. The SLC6A4 polymorphism has been investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 671 male patients with MI and in 688 controls from the Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) multicentric study. Percentages for LL, LS, and SS genotypes were 35.5%, 45.4%, and 19.1%, respectively, for cases versus 28.1%, 49.1%, and 22.8%, respectively, for controls. S allele frequency was 41.8% and 47.4% for cases and controls, respectively. After adjustment for age and center by using multivariable logistic regression, the odds ratio for MI associated with the LL genotype was 1.40 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.76, P=0.0047). The LL genotype of the SLC6A4 polymorphism is associated with a higher risk of MI. This could be attributable to the effect of the polymorphism on serotonin-mediated platelet activation or smooth muscle cell proliferation or on other risk factors, such as depression or response to stress.

  6. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 123I-mZIENT: a novel ligand for imaging serotonin transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, Alice; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Champion, Sue; Tamagnan, Gilles; Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.; Hadley, Donald M.; Pimlott, Sally L.

    2012-01-01

    123 I-labelled mZIENT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane) has been developed as a radioligand for the serotonin transporter. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess its whole-body biodistribution in humans and estimate dosimetry. Three healthy controls and three patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy for depression were included (two men, four women, age range 41-56 years). Whole-body imaging, brain SPECT imaging and blood and urine sampling were performed. Whole-body images were analysed using regions of interest (ROIs), time-activity curves were derived using compartmental analysis and dosimetry estimated using OLINDA software. Brain ROI analysis was performed to obtain specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum. Initial high uptake in the lungs decreased in later images. Lower uptake was seen in the brain, liver and intestines. Excretion was primarily through the urinary system. The effective dose was estimated to be of the order of 0.03 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the lower large intestine wall. Uptake in the brain was consistent with the known SERT distribution with higher specific-to-nonspecific binding in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum in healthy controls compared with patients receiving SSRI therapy. 123 I-mZIENT may be a promising radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporters in humans with acceptable dosimetry. (orig.)

  7. Memory function and serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism in ecstasy (MDMA) users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, T.; de Win, Maartje M.; Booij, Jan; Schmand, Ben; van den Brink, Wim; Bakker, Onno

    2006-01-01

    Although 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) has been shown to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in animals and possibly humans, little is known about the long-term consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxic lesions on functions in which 5-HT is involved, such as cognitive

  8. Polymorphisms of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis influence the cortisol awakening response as well as self-perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Tempel, Ting; Larra, Mauro F; Winnikes, Ulrike; Tempel, Tobias; DeRijk, Roel H; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Meyer, Jobst; Schote, Andrea B

    2016-09-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a crucial endocrine system for coping with stress. A reliable and stable marker for the basal state of that system is the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We examined the influence of variants of four relevant candidate genes; the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (MR), the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and the gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on CAR and self-perceived stress in 217 healthy subjects. We found that polymorphisms of GR influenced both, the basal state of the HPA axis as well as self-perceived stress. MR only associated with self-perceived stress and 5-HTT only with CAR. BDNF did not affected any of the investigated indices. In summary, we suggest that GR variants together with the CAR and supplemented with self reports on perceived stress might be useful indicators for the basal HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral serotonin transporter binding is inversely related to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, D; Frokjaer, V G; Haahr, M T

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is a health threat of increasing concern and understanding the neurobiology behind obesity is instrumental to the development of effective treatment regimes. Serotonergic neurotransmission is critically involved in eating behaviour; cerebral level of serotonin (5-HT...

  10. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  11. Face and emotion expression processing and the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs22531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O

    2016-06-01

    Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of central serotonin (5-HT) levels and dysfunction in serotonergic transmission are implicated in a variety of human CNS disorders. The mechanisms behind these serotonergic deficits have been widely studied using rodent models, but only to a limited extent in larger animal models. The pig...... is increasingly used as an experimental animal model especially in neuroscience research. Here, we present an approach for serotonin depletion in the pig brain. Central serotonin depletion in Danish Landrace pigs was achieved following 4 days treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA). On day 5, tissue...... average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT₄ receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  13. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of central serotonin (5-HT) levels and dysfunction in serotonergic transmission are implicated in a variety of human CNS disorders. The mechanisms behind these serotonergic deficits have been widely studied using rodent models, but only to a limited extent in larger animal models. The pig...... is increasingly used as an experimental animal model especially in neuroscience research. Here, we present an approach for serotonin depletion in the pig brain. Central serotonin depletion in Danish Landrace pigs was achieved following 4 days treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA). On day 5, tissue...... average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT4 receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  14. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  15. Serotonin mediation of early memory formation via 5HT2B receptor-induced glycogenolysis in the day-old chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Elizabeth Gibbs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of serotonin on memory formation in the chick revealed an action on at least two 5HT receptors. Serotonin injected intracerebrally produced a biphasic effect on memory consolidation with enhancement at low doses and inhibition at higher doses. The non-selective 5HT receptor antagonist methiothepin and the selective 5HT2B/C receptor antagonist SB221284 both inhibited memory, suggesting actions of serotonin on at least 2 different receptor subtypes. The 5HT2B/C and astrocyte-specific 5-HT receptor agonists, fluoxetine and paroxetine, enhanced memory and the effect was attributed to glycogenolysis. Inhibition of glycogenolysis with a low dose of DAB prevented both serotonin and fluoxetine from enhancing memory during short-term memory but not during intermediate memory. The role of serotonin on the 5HT2B/C receptor appears to involve glycogen breakdown in astrocytes during short-term memory, whereas other published evidence attributes the second period of glycogenolysis to noradrenaline.

  16. Association of central serotonin transporter availability and body mass index in healthy Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Swen; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Zientek, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT...... are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects. METHODS: 127 subjects of the ENC DAT database (58 females, age 52 ± 18 years, range 20-83, BMI 25.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), range 18.2-41.1) were...... associated in the thalamus, but not in the midbrain. In the ROI-analysis, the interaction between gender and BMI showed a trend with higher correlation coefficient for men in the midbrain albeit not significant (0.033SBRm(2)/kg, p=0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The data are in agreement with previous PET findings...

  17. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  19. Serotonin/dopamine interactions in a hyperactive mouse: reduced serotonin receptor 1B activity reverses effects of dopamine transporter knockout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scott Hall

    Full Text Available Knockout (KO mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics.

  20. The Role of Serotonin Transporter in Human Lung Development and in Neonatal Lung Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. C. Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Failure of the vascular pulmonary remodeling at birth often manifests as pulmonary hypertension (PHT and is associated with a variety of neonatal lung disorders including a uniformly fatal developmental disorder known as alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV. Serum serotonin regulation has been linked to pulmonary vascular function and disease, and serotonin transporter (SERT is thought to be one of the key regulators in these processes. We sought to find evidence of a role that SERT plays in the neonatal respiratory adaptation process and in the pathomechanism of ACD/MPV. Methods. We used histology and immunohistochemistry to determine the timetable of SERT protein expression in normal human fetal and postnatal lungs and in cases of newborn and childhood PHT of varied etiology. In addition, we tested for a SERT gene promoter defect in ACD/MPV patients. Results. We found that SERT protein expression begins at 30 weeks of gestation, increases to term, and stays high postnatally. ACD/MPV patients had diminished SERT expression without SERT promoter alteration. Conclusion. We concluded that SERT/serotonin pathway is crucial in the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling/adaptation at birth and plays a key role in the pathobiology of ACD/MPV.

  1. Biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 123}I-mZIENT: a novel ligand for imaging serotonin transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Alice [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Krishnadas, Rajeev [University of Glasgow, Sackler Institute of Psychobiological Research, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Champion, Sue [University of Glasgow, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tamagnan, Gilles [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States); Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hadley, Donald M. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Neuro-Radiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Pimlott, Sally L. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled mZIENT (2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane) has been developed as a radioligand for the serotonin transporter. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess its whole-body biodistribution in humans and estimate dosimetry. Three healthy controls and three patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy for depression were included (two men, four women, age range 41-56 years). Whole-body imaging, brain SPECT imaging and blood and urine sampling were performed. Whole-body images were analysed using regions of interest (ROIs), time-activity curves were derived using compartmental analysis and dosimetry estimated using OLINDA software. Brain ROI analysis was performed to obtain specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum. Initial high uptake in the lungs decreased in later images. Lower uptake was seen in the brain, liver and intestines. Excretion was primarily through the urinary system. The effective dose was estimated to be of the order of 0.03 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the lower large intestine wall. Uptake in the brain was consistent with the known SERT distribution with higher specific-to-nonspecific binding in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum in healthy controls compared with patients receiving SSRI therapy. {sup 123}I-mZIENT may be a promising radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporters in humans with acceptable dosimetry. (orig.)

  2. Design and synthesis of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter targeting potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogen, Hiroshi; Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio

    2002-10-03

    Highly efficient acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT) dual inhibitors, (S)-4 and (R)-13 were designed and synthesized on the basis of the hypothetical model of AChE active site. Both compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against AChE and SERT. [structure: see text

  3. Heart valve cardiomyocytes of mouse embryos express the serotonin transporter SERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, Luigi Michele; Spina, Anna; Lo Muto, Roberta; Santoro, Dionea; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Avallone, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Multiple evidence demonstrate a role for serotonin and its transporter SERT in heart valve development and disease. By utilizing a Cre/loxP system driven by SERT gene expression, we recently demonstrated a regionally restricted distribution of SERT-expressing cells in developing mouse heart. In order to characterize the cell types exhibiting SERT expression within the mouse heart valves at early developmental stages, in this study we performed immunohistochemistry for Islet1 (Isl1) and connexin-43 (Cx-43) on heart sections from SERT Cre/+ ;ROSA26R embryos previously stained with X-gal. We observed the co-localization of LacZ staining with Isl1 labelling in the outflow tract, the right ventricle and the conal region of E11.5 mouse heart. Cx-43 labelled cells co-localized with LacZ stained cells in the forming atrioventricular valves. These results demonstrate the cardiomyocyte phenotype of SERT-expressing cells in heart valves of the developing mouse heart, thus suggesting an active role of SERT in early heart valve development.

  4. Association of a serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with body mass index categories but not type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Meza-Espinoza, Juan P.; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Acosta-González, Rosa I.; Gonzales, Enrique; Nair, Saraswathy; Durán-González, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic system has been hypothesized to contribute to the biological susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body-mass index (BMI) categories. We investigate a possible association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (L and S alleles) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) with the development of T2DM and/or higher BMI by analyzing a sample of 138 individuals diagnosed with T2DM and 172 unrelated controls from the Mexican general population. In the total sample genotypes were distributed according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and S allele frequency was 0.58. There was no statistical association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the development of T2DM in this Mexican population sample (p = 0.12). Nevertheless, logistic regression analysis of the L allele and increased BMI disclosed an association, after adjusting for age, sex and T2DM (p = 0.02, OR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.079–2.808). PMID:23055796

  5. Serotonin 5HT1A receptor availability and pathological crying after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Andersen, G; Gjedde, A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-stroke depression and pathological crying (PC) implicate an imbalance of serotonergic neurotransmission. We claim that PC follows serotonin depletion that raises the binding potential (p(B)) of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which is reversible...... by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We PET scanned patients with acute stroke and PC and age-matched control subjects. Maps of receptor availability were generated from the images of eight cortical regions and raphe nuclei. RESULTS: The maps showed highest...

  6. In Vivo Investigation of Escitalopram’s Allosteric Site on the Serotonin Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karen E.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Escitalopram is a commonly prescribed antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Clinical evidence and mapping of the serotonin transporter (SERT) identified that escitalopram, in addition to its binding to a primary uptake-blocking site, is capable of binding to the SERT via an allosteric site that is hypothesized to alter escitalopram’s kinetics at the SERT. The studies reported here examined the in vivo role of the SERT allosteric site in escitalopram action. A knockin mouse model that possesses an allosteric-null SERT was developed. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the knockin protein was expressed at a lower density than endogenous mouse SERT (approximately 10–30% of endogenous mouse SERT), but the knockin mice are a viable tool to study the allosteric site. Microdialysis studies in the ventral hippocampus found no measurable decrease in extracellular serotonin response after local escitalopram challenge in mice without the allosteric site compared to mice with the site (p = 0.297). In marble burying assays there was a modest effect of the absence of the allosteric site, with a larger systemic dose of escitalopram (10-fold) necessary for the same effect as in mice with intact SERT (p = 0.023). However, there was no effect of the allosteric site in the tail suspension test. Together these data suggest that there may be a regional specificity in the role of the allosteric site. The lack of a robust effect overall suggests that the role of the allosteric site for escitalopram on the SERT may not produce meaningful in vivo effects. PMID:26621784

  7. Serotonin receptor, SERT mRNA and correlations with symptoms in males with alcohol dependence and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P M; Cruz, D A; Olukotun, D Y; Delgado, P L

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that abnormalities in components of the serotonin (5HT) system in the prefrontal cortex are associated with suicide in alcohol-dependent subjects. Second, we assessed the relationship of lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms with prefrontal cortex 5-HT measures. Tissue was obtained from Brodmann's areas (BA) 9 and 24 in postmortem samples of individuals who were alcohol dependent with suicide (n = 5), alcohol dependent without suicide (n = 9) and normal controls (n = 5). Serotonin receptor (5HT) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNA were measured. Interviews with next of kin estimated lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms in the last week of life. Serotonin receptor 1A (5HT1A) mRNA in BA 9 was elevated in the alcohol dependence without suicide group compared with controls. In the alcohol dependence with suicide group, anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased BA 24 SERT mRNA and depressive symptoms with BA 9 5HT1A mRNA expression. In the alcohol dependent only group impulsivity is correlated with increased BA 9, and BA 24 serotonin receptor 2A mRNA. Our data suggest region-specific change, rather than global serotonin blunting is involved in alcohol dependence and suicide. It also suggests that symptoms are differentially influenced by prefrontal cortex serotonin receptor mRNA levels. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Yunli; Huang, Xu; Lin, Xingfeng; Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  9. Serotonin: Is it a marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired metabolic function in liver cirrhosis and slow uptake and storage of serotonin by the platelets is a sequelae of kinetic change of serotonin transport mechanisms or abnormal serotonin release from dense granules of activated platelets is a condition defined as ''platelet exhaustion'', contributes to elevated plasma ...

  10. NEIGHBORHOOD CRIME AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION AND EPIGENETIC MEDIATOIN OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121

  11. Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrogating the Molecular Basis for Substrate Recognition in Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters with High-Affinity Substrate-Based Bivalent Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Kristensen, Trine N. Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    insight into substrate recognition in SERT and DAT. An optimized bivalent ligand comprising two serotonin moieties binds SERT with 3,800-fold increased affinity compared to that of serotonin, suggesting that the human transporters have two distinct substrate binding sites. We show that the bivalent...... ligands are inhibitors of SERT and an experimentally validated docking model suggests that the bivalent compounds bind with one substrate moiety in the central binding site (the S1 site), whereas the other substrate moiety binds in a distinct binding site (the S2 site). A systematic study of nonconserved...

  13. Potential of [11C]DASB for measuring endogenous serotonin with PET: binding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundquist, Pinelopi; Wilking, Helena; Hoeglund, A. Urban; Sandell, Johan; Bergstroem, Mats; Hartvig, Per; Langstroem, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter radioligand [ 11 C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile, or [ 11 C]DASB, was examined in order to assess its potential for measuring fluctuations in endogenous serotonin concentrations with positron emission tomography. Binding characteristics of [ 11 C]DASB and the propensity for serotonin to displace the tracer were explored in rat brain homogenates. Experiments showed that serotonin displaced [ 11 C]DASB in vitro. Ex vivo experiments performed after tranylcypromine injection (3 or 15 mg/kg) showed a dose-dependent trend in radioactivity uptake and suggested that serotonin may compete with [ 11 C]DASB for transporter binding

  14. Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of sulphur-substituted alpha-alkyl phenethylamines as a new class of anticancer agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Keating, John J.; Butler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine...

  15. The recovery of 5-HT transporter and 5-HT immunoreactivity in injured rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhashi, Yasuo; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2009-09-01

    Experimental spinal cord injury. To determine the role of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT transporter in recovery from spinal cord injury. We examined 5-HT and 5-HT transporter of spinal cord immunohistologically and assessed locomotor recovery after extradural compression at the thoracic (T8) spinal cord in 21 rats. Eighteen rats had laminectomy and spinal cord injury, while the remaining three rats received laminectomy only. All rats were evaluated every other day for 4 weeks, using a 0-14 point scale open field test. Extradural compression markedly reduced mean hindlimbs scores from 14 to 1.5 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- standard error of mean). The rats recovered apparently normal walking by 4 weeks. The animals were perfused with fixative 1-3 days, 1, 2 and 4 weeks (three rats in each) after a spinal cord injury. The 5-HT transporter immunohistological study revealed a marked reduction of 5-HT transporter-containing terminals by 1 day after injury. By 4 weeks after injury, 5-HT transporter immunoreactive terminals returned to the control level. The 5-HT immunohistological study revealed a reduction of 5-HT-containing terminals by 1 week after injury. By 4 weeks after injury, 5-HT immunoreactive fibers and terminals returned to the control level. We estimated the recovery of 5-HT transporter and 5-HT neural elements in lumbosacral ventral horn by ranking 5-HT transporter and 5-HT staining intensity and counting 5-HT and 5-HT transporter terminals. The return of 5-HT transporter and 5-HT immunoreactivity of the lumbosacral ventral horn correlated with locomotor recovery, while 5-HT transporter showed closer relationship with locomotor recovery than 5-HT. The presence of 5-HT transporter indicates that the 5-HT fibers certainly function. This study shows that return of the function of 5-HT fibers predict the time course and extent of locomotory recovery after thoracic spinal cord injury.

  16. Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, A L; Melichar, J M; Brown, D J; Gunn, R N; Reynolds, A; Jones, T; Nutt, D J

    1997-01-01

    We describe the use of 11CRTI-55 and the Multiple Objects Coincidences Counter (MOCC) to detect in-vivo binding to peripheral serotonin reuptake sites (left chest comprising platelet and lung serotonin reuptake sites) in man. Displacement and preloading experiments with clomipramine and venlafaxine in two healthy volunteers demonstrated that 11CRTI-55 binding is decreased in a dose-dependent fashion by both these drugs which bind to the serotonin transporter. In addition parallel data from the total head curve (representing 11CRTI-55 binding to central serotonin and dopamine (DA) reuptake sites) suggest that prior blockade of the serotonin transporter may be a useful strategy to maximize radioactive counts in the head when measuring the DA transporter. The MOCC is likely to be useful to determine sequential indices of relative serotonin reuptake blockade in patients on treatment.

  17. A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Boutwell, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

  18. Comparison between subjects with long- and short-allele carriers in the BOLD signal within amygdala during emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Emotional tasks may result in a strong blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala in 5- HTTLRP short-allele. Reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala connectivity in short-allele provides a potential mechanistic account for the observed increase in amygdala activity. In our study, fearful and threatening facial expressions were presented to two groups of 12 subjects with long- and short-allele carriers. The BOLD signals of the left amygdala of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the model parameters to elucidate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism. Our results showed a positive BOLD signal in the left amygdala for short-allele individuals, and a negative BOLD signal in the same region for long-allele individuals. This is due to the fact that short-allele is associated with lower availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and this leads to an increase of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the cACC-amygdala synapse.

  19. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V.; Bogodvid, Tatiana K.; Deryabina, Irina B.; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Tagirova, Roza R.; Vinarskaya, Aliya K.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the “neurotoxic” analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  20. Lack of association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and smoking among Polish population: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassem Ewa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the genetic determinants of tobacco smoking might help in developing more effective cessation therapies, tailored to smokers' genotype. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has been linked to vulnerability to smoking and ability to quit. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with smoking behavior in Caucasians from Northern Poland and to investigate other risk factors for tobacco smoking. Methods 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined in 149 ever smokers (66 females; mean age 53.0 years and 158 gender and ethnicity matched never smoking controls (79 females; mean age 45.0 years to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with ever smoking status. Analysis of smokers was performed to evaluate the role of 5-HTTLPR in the age of starting regular smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily, pack-years, FTND score, duration of smoking, and the mean length of the longest abstinence on quitting. Genotype was classified according to the presence or absence of the short (S allele vs. the long (L allele of 5-HTTLPR (i.e., S/S + S/L vs. L/L. Logistic regression analysis was also used to evaluate correlation between ever smoking and several selected variables. Results We found no significant differences in the rates of S allele carriers in ever smokers and never smokers, and no relationship was observed between any quantitative measures of smoking and the polymorphism. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant association between the older age (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.33–6.99 and alcohol dependence (OR = 10.23; 95% CI: 2.09–50.18 and smoking. Conclusion 5-HTTLPR seems to be not a major factor determining cigarette smoking in Poles. Probably, the risk of smoking results from a large number of genes, each contributing a small part of the overall risk, while numerous non-genetic factors might strongly influence these

  1. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  2. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  3. Design and synthesis of 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (citalopram) analogues as novel probes for the serotonin transporter S1 and S2 binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banala, Ashwini K; Zhang, Peng; Plenge, Per

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary target for antidepressant drugs. The existence of a high affinity primary orthosteric binding site (S1) and a low affinity secondary site (S2) has been described, and their relation to antidepressant pharmacology has been debated. Herein, structural...

  4. Lifelong disturbance of serotonin transporter functioning results in fear learning deficits : Reversal by blockade of CRF1 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Baas, Johanna M P; Millan, Mark J; Groenink, Lucianne

    2015-01-01

    The inability to associate aversive events with relevant cues (i.e. fear learning) may lead to maladaptive anxiety. To further study the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in fear learning, classical fear conditioning was studied in SERT knockout rats (SERT(-/-)) using fear potentiation of the

  5. Oxytocin and Serotonin Brain Mechanisms in the Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Arthur; Richard, Nathalie; Jazayeri, Mina; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurélien; Fieux, Sylvain; Zimmer, Luc; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela

    2017-07-12

    Oxytocin (OT) is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between OT and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET scan in humans, we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) function is modified after intranasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear. To understand this interaction, we tested 3 male macaque monkeys using both [ 11 C]DASB and [ 18 F]MPPF, two PET radiotracers, marking the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT 1A R, respectively. Oxytocin (1 IU in 20 μl of ACSF) or placebo was injected into the brain lateral ventricle 45 min before scans. Additionally, we performed postmortem autoradiography. Compared with placebo, OT significantly reduced [ 11 C]DASB binding potential in right amygdala, insula, and hippocampus, whereas [ 18 F]MPPF binding potential increased in right amygdala and insula. Autoradiography revealed that [ 11 C]DASB was sensitive to physiological levels of 5-HT modification, and that OT does not act directly on the 5-HT 1A R. Our results show that oxytocin administration in nonhuman primates influences serotoninergic neurotransmission via at least two ways: (1) by provoking a release of serotonin in key limbic regions; and (2) by increasing the availability of 5-HT 1A R receptors in the same limbic areas. Because these two molecules are important for social behavior, our study sheds light on the specific nature of their interaction, therefore helping to develop new mechanisms-based therapies for psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Social behavior is largely controlled by brain neuromodulators, such as oxytocin and serotonin. While these are currently targeted in the context of psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, a new promising pharmaceutical

  6. Brain serotonin content regulates the manifestation of tramadol-induced seizures in rats: disparity between tramadol-induced seizure and serotonin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Funao, Tomoharu; Suehiro, Koichi; Takahashi, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol-induced seizures might be pathologically associated with serotonin syndrome. Here, the authors investigated the relationship between serotonin and the seizure-inducing potential of tramadol. Two groups of rats received pretreatment to modulate brain levels of serotonin and one group was treated as a sham control (n = 6 per group). Serotonin modulation groups received either para-chlorophenylalanine or benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin, dopamine, and histamine levels in the posterior hypothalamus were then measured by microdialysis, while simultaneously infusing tramadol until seizure onset. In another experiment, seizure threshold with tramadol was investigated in rats intracerebroventricularly administered with either a serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide) or saline (n = 6). Pretreatment significantly affected seizure threshold and serotonin fluctuations. The threshold was lowered in para-chlorophenylalanine group and raised in benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group (The mean ± SEM amount of tramadol needed to induce seizures; sham: 43.1 ± 4.2 mg/kg, para-chlorophenylalanine: 23.2 ± 2.8 mg/kg, benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan: 59.4 ± 16.5 mg/kg). Levels of serotonin at baseline, and their augmentation with tramadol infusion, were less in the para-chlorophenylalanine group and greater in the benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group. Furthermore, seizure thresholds were negatively correlated with serotonin levels (correlation coefficient; 0.71, P seizure threshold (P seizures, and that serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with seizure thresholds. Moreover, serotonin receptor antagonism precipitated seizure manifestation, indicating that tramadol-induced seizures are distinct from serotonin syndrome.

  7. Interactions between Serotonin Transporter Gene Haplotypes and Quality of Mothers' Parenting Predict the Development of Children's Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Gaertner, Bridget; Stover, Daryn A.; Verrelli, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    The LPR and STin2 polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were combined into haplotypes that, together with quality of maternal parenting, were used to predict initial levels and linear change in children's (N = 138) noncompliance and aggression from age 18-54 months. Quality of mothers' parenting behavior was observed when…

  8. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism may be associated with functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takayuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although familial clustering of functional dyspepsia (FD has been reported, the role of genetics in the susceptibility to FD is still not well understood. In the present study, the association between serotonin transporter (SERT gene (SLC6A4 polymorphism and FD was explored. Methods Subjects were divided into either a postprandial distress syndrome (PDS group or an epigastric pain syndrome (EPS group according to the Rome III criteria. The healthy controls were those who had visited a hospital for an annual health check-up. The presence of the SLC6A4 promoter polymorphism, 5-hydroxytryptamin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, was then evaluated, and logistic regression analysis was used to test all variables. Results The 5-HTTLPR genotype distribution was 448 SS, 174 SL, and 24 LL in controls and 30 SS, 20 SL, and 3 LL in FD subjects. No significant correlation was found between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and FD. When the genotypes and subtypes of FD were exploratory evaluated, the SL genotype was significantly associated with PDS [odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI; 1.16-4.32, P = 0.034 after Bonferroni correction] compared to the SS genotype adjusted for sex and age. Comparison of the SS genotype with the SL/LL genotype also showed a significant association of genotype with PDS (OR = 2.32, 95% CI; 1.23-4.37, P = 0.009. Conclusion The present results suggest that 5-HTTLPR L allele may influence the susceptibility to PDS.

  9. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I-H.; Huang, W.-S.; Yeh, C.-B.; Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H.; Liu, J.-C.; Ma, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [ 123 I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [ 123 I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and [ 123 I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  10. Life satisfaction in the new country: a multilevel longitudinal analysis of effects of culture and 5-HTT allele frequency distribution in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Emiko S; Kent, Stephen; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction of migrants to Australia from 17 countries, assessed at 4-5 months, 16-17 months and 3½ years after arrival, was analyzed with a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. The results indicated that migrants were more satisfied, if the national average life satisfaction was higher in their country of origin, after adjustment for individual-level income, age, and sex and a linear temporal trend. Simultaneously, the migrants were also happier if people in their country of origin had a higher frequency of 5-HTT long allele, a genotype known to be associated with resilience under life stresses. These two relationships were independent, suggesting that both culture and gene matter in international transitions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Novel and high affinity fluorescent ligands for the serotonin transporter based on (s)-citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vivek; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Billesbølle, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    Novel rhodamine-labeled ligands, based on (S)-citalopram, were synthesized and evaluated for uptake inhibition at the human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters (hSERT, hDAT, and hNET, respectively) and for binding at SERT, in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Compound 14 demons...... demonstrated high affinity binding and selectivity for SERT (K i = 3 nM). Visualization of SERT, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, validated compound 14 as a novel tool for studying SERT expression and distribution in living cells....

  12. Serotonin-1A receptor imaging in recurrent depression: replication and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevets, Wayne C.; Thase, Michael E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Price, Julie; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.; Mathis, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) function appears to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD) based on physiological responses to 5-HT 1A R agonists in vivo and to 5-HT 1A R binding in brain tissues postmortem or antemortem. We have previously assessed 5-HT 1A R binding potential (BP) in depression using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635, and we have demonstrated reduced 5-HT 1A R BP in the mesiotemporal cortex (MTC) and raphe in depressives with primary recurrent familial mood disorders (n=12) versus controls (n=8) [Drevets WC, Frank E, Price JC, Kupfer DJ, Holt D, Greer PJ, Huang Y, Gautier C, Mathis C. PET imaging of serotonin 1A receptor binding in depression. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46(10):1375-87]. These findings were replicated by some, but not other, studies performed in depressed samples that were more generally selected using criteria for MDD. In the current study, we attempted to replicate our previous findings in an independent sample of subjects selected according to the criteria for primary recurrent depression applied in our prior study. Methods: Using PET and [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635, 5-HT 1A R BP was assessed in 16 depressed subjects and 8 healthy controls. Results: Mean 5-HT 1A R BP was reduced by 26% in the MTC (P 1A R binding were similar to those found postmortem in 5-HT 1A R mRNA concentrations in the hippocampus in MDD [Lopez JF, Chalmers DT, Little KY, Watson SJ. Regulation of serotonin 1A, glucocorticoid, and mineralocorticoid receptor in rat and human hippocampus: implications for neurobiology of depression. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43:547-73] and in 5-HT 1A R-binding capacity in the raphe in depressed suicide victims [Arango V, Underwood MD, Boldrini M, Tamir H, Kassir SA, Hsiung S, Chen JJ, Mann JJ. Serotonin 1A receptors, serotonin transporter binding and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the brainstem of depressed suicide victims. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;25(6):892-903]. There

  13. Early-life stress induces persistent alterationsin 5-HT1Areceptor and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the adultrat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Bravo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life experience plays a major role in the stress response throughout life. Neonatal maternal separation (MS is an animal model of depression with an altered serotonergic response. We hypothesize that this alteration may be caused by differences in 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter (SERT mRNA expression in brain areas involved in the control of emotions, memory and fear as well as in regions controlling the central serotonergic tone.To test this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MS for 3h daily during post-natal days 2-12. As control, age matched rats were not separated (NS from their dams. When animals reached adulthood (11-13 weeks brain was extracted and mRNA expression of 5-HT1A receptor in amygdala, hippocampus and dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN and SERT in the DRN was analyzed through in-situ hybridisation.Densitometric analysis revealed that MS increased 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala, and reduced its expression in the DRN, but no changes were observed in the hippocampus in comparison to NS controls. Also, MS reduced SERT mRNA expression in the DRN when compared to NS rats.These results suggest that early-life stress induces persistent changes in 5-HT1A receptor and SERT mRNA expression in key brain regions involved in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. The reduction in SERT mRNA indicates an alteration that is in line with clinical findings such as polymorphic variants in individuals with higher risk of depression. These data may help to understand how early-life stress contributes to the development of mood disorders in adulthood.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of I-125/I-123-labelled analogues of citalopram and escitalopram as potential radioligands for imaging of the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Elfving, Betina; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel radioligands for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-2) and S-[I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-(S)-2) were synthesized in a ...... of the radioligand in imaging cortical SERT distribution in vivo. These data suggest that the iodine-labelled derivatives of citalopram and escitalopram are not superior to another SPECT tracer for the SERT, namely [I-123] ADAM....

  15. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Culture–gene coevolution of individualism–collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2010-01-01

    Culture–gene coevolutionary theory posits that cultural values have evolved, are adaptive and influence the social and physical environments under which genetic selection operates. Here, we examined the association between cultural values of individualism–collectivism and allelic frequency of the serotonin transporter functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) as well as the role this culture–gene association may play in explaining global variability in prevalence of pathogens and affective disorders. We found evidence that collectivistic cultures were significantly more likely to comprise individuals carrying the short (S) allele of the 5-HTTLPR across 29 nations. Results further show that historical pathogen prevalence predicts cultural variability in individualism–collectivism owing to genetic selection of the S allele. Additionally, cultural values and frequency of S allele carriers negatively predict global prevalence of anxiety and mood disorder. Finally, mediation analyses further indicate that increased frequency of S allele carriers predicted decreased anxiety and mood disorder prevalence owing to increased collectivistic cultural values. Taken together, our findings suggest culture–gene coevolution between allelic frequency of 5-HTTLPR and cultural values of individualism–collectivism and support the notion that cultural values buffer genetically susceptible populations from increased prevalence of affective disorders. Implications of the current findings for understanding culture–gene coevolution of human brain and behaviour as well as how this coevolutionary process may contribute to global variation in pathogen prevalence and epidemiology of affective disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are discussed. PMID:19864286

  17. Culture-gene coevolution of individualism-collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2010-02-22

    Culture-gene coevolutionary theory posits that cultural values have evolved, are adaptive and influence the social and physical environments under which genetic selection operates. Here, we examined the association between cultural values of individualism-collectivism and allelic frequency of the serotonin transporter functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) as well as the role this culture-gene association may play in explaining global variability in prevalence of pathogens and affective disorders. We found evidence that collectivistic cultures were significantly more likely to comprise individuals carrying the short (S) allele of the 5-HTTLPR across 29 nations. Results further show that historical pathogen prevalence predicts cultural variability in individualism-collectivism owing to genetic selection of the S allele. Additionally, cultural values and frequency of S allele carriers negatively predict global prevalence of anxiety and mood disorder. Finally, mediation analyses further indicate that increased frequency of S allele carriers predicted decreased anxiety and mood disorder prevalence owing to increased collectivistic cultural values. Taken together, our findings suggest culture-gene coevolution between allelic frequency of 5-HTTLPR and cultural values of individualism-collectivism and support the notion that cultural values buffer genetically susceptible populations from increased prevalence of affective disorders. Implications of the current findings for understanding culture-gene coevolution of human brain and behaviour as well as how this coevolutionary process may contribute to global variation in pathogen prevalence and epidemiology of affective disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are discussed.

  18. An improved synthesis of 4-[18F]-ADAM, a potent serotonin transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-Y.; Huang, W.-S.; Chu, T.-C.; Shiue, C.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    An improved synthesis of N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[ 18 F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[ 18 F]-ADAM, 2) as a potent serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent is described. Molecular orbital (MO) calculation predicts that N,N-dimethyl-2- (2-nitro-4-trimethylammoniumtrifluoromethanesulfonylphenylthio)benzamide (8) is probably a better precursor than N,N-dimethyl-2-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)benzylamine (1) for preparing 2. Radioligand 2 was synthesized by the reaction of either precursor 1 or precursor 8 with K[ 18 F]/K 2.2.2 at 120 deg. C followed by reduction with BH 3 at 80 deg. C. The radiochemical yield (EOB) of 2 synthesized from precursor 1 and 8 was 5.7±2.4% (n=6) and 14.8±4.0% (n=5), respectively, in a synthesis time of 120 min from EOB. The specific activity of 2 was 3 Ci/μmol or 111 GBq/μmol (EOB). Thus, this new synthetic method has significantly improved the radiochemical yield of 4-[ 18 F]-ADAM and makes this radioligand more accessible to PET Centers without a cyclotron.

  19. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  20. Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Nazir

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT, is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005. This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE syntaxin 3 (STX3 and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

  1. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  2. Comparison of the performance of different DFT methods in the calculations of the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter which plays an important role in treating acute or clinical stress. The comparative performance of different density functional theory (DFT) methods at various basis sets in predicting the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin was reported. The calculation results of different methods including mPW1PW91, HCTH, SVWN, PBEPBE, B3PW91 and B3LYP with various basis sets including LANL2DZ, SDD, LANL2MB, 6-31G, 6-311++G and 6-311+G* were compared with the experimental data. It is remarkable that the SVWN/6-311++G and SVWN/6-311+G* levels afford the best quality to predict the structure of serotonin. The results also indicate that PBEPBE/LANL2DZ level show better performance in the vibration spectra prediction of serotonin than other DFT methods.

  3. An AOP analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are found in measureable quantities within the aquatic environment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are one class of pharmaceutical compound that has received a lot of attention. Consistent with most PPCPs, the pharmacokinetics and physiological impacts of SSRI treatment have been well-studied in small mammals and humans and this, combined with the evolutionary conservation of the serotonergic system across vertebrates, allows for the read-across of known SSRI effects in mammals to potential SSRI impacts on aquatic organisms. Using an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, this review examines the similarities and differences between the mammalian and teleost fish SSRI target, the serotonin transporter (SERT; SLC6A4), and the downstream impacts of elevated extracellular serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), the consequence of SERT inhibition, on organ systems and physiological processes within teleost fish. This review also intends to reveal potentially understudied endpoints for SSRI toxicity based on what is known to be controlled by 5-HT in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo imaging of cerebral serotonin transporter and serotonin(2A) receptor binding in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Frøkjær, Vibe; Holst, Klaus K

    2011-01-01

    Both hallucinogens and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") have direct agonistic effects on postsynaptic serotonin(2A) receptors, the key site for hallucinogenic actions. In addition, MDMA is a potent releaser and reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin.......Both hallucinogens and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") have direct agonistic effects on postsynaptic serotonin(2A) receptors, the key site for hallucinogenic actions. In addition, MDMA is a potent releaser and reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin....

  5. Kinetics of the membrane current mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijt, H.C.; Plomp, J.J.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    1. Ionic currents mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors were studied in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115, using suction pipettes for intracellular perfusion and voltage clamp recording. The dependence of the kinetics of the membrane current on serotonin concentration was investigated. 2. At

  6. β-CIT SPECT demonstrates reduced availability of serotonin transporters in patients with fatal familial insomnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeppel, S.; Kovacs, G.G.; Pirker, W.; Bruecke, T.; Almer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare hereditary human prion disease with unique clinical features including progressive sleep impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The serotonergic system is considered to be involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In this study we demonstrate a reduced availability of serotonin transporters of 57 % and 73 % respectively in a thalamus-hypothalamus region of two FFI patients examined with β-CIT SPECT as compared to age-expected control values. (author)

  7. Am5-HT7: molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first serotonin receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Jana; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in the regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioural processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, of which 13 subtypes have been characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated a cDNA from the honeybee Apis mellifera (Am5-ht7) sharing high similarity to members of the 5-HT(7) receptor family. Expression of the Am5-HT(7) receptor in HEK293 cells results in an increase in basal cAMP levels, suggesting that Am5-HT(7) is expressed as a constitutively active receptor. Serotonin application to Am5-ht7-transfected cells elevates cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 1.1-1.8 nm). The Am5-HT(7) receptor is also activated by 5-carboxamidotryptamine, whereas methiothepin acts as an inverse agonist. Receptor expression has been investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and western blotting experiments. Receptor mRNA is expressed in the perikarya of various brain neuropils, including intrinsic mushroom body neurons, and in peripheral organs. This study marks the first comprehensive characterization of a serotonin receptor in the honeybee and should facilitate further analysis of the role(s) of the receptor in mediating the various central and peripheral effects of 5-HT.

  8. In Vivo Imaging of Cerebral Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin(2A) Receptor Binding in 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") and Hallucinogen Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Holst, Klaus K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Both hallucinogens and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine( MDMA or "ecstasy") have direct agonistic effects on postsynaptic serotonin(2A) receptors, the key site for hallucinogenic actions. In addition, MDMA is a potent releaser and reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin.Objective: ......Context: Both hallucinogens and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine( MDMA or "ecstasy") have direct agonistic effects on postsynaptic serotonin(2A) receptors, the key site for hallucinogenic actions. In addition, MDMA is a potent releaser and reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin...

  9. Different serotonin receptor types participate in 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced gonadotropins and prolactin release in the female infantile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1996-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can be classified into at least three, possibly up to seven, classes of receptors. They comprise the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 classes, the "uncloned' 5-HT4 receptor and the recombinant receptors 5-ht5, 5-ht6 and 5-ht7. We investigated the role of different serotonin receptor types in a neuroendocrine response to the activation of the serotonergic system. Female immature rats were chosen as an experimental model as it has been shown that during the 3rd week of life, and not at later developmental stages, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) induces gonadotropin release in females and not in males. Besides, at this age, serotonin releases prolactin in both sexes. 5-HTP (50 mg/kg) released prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as expected. Ketanserin (5-HT2A antagonist) and methysergide (5-HT2C antagonist) blocked 5-HTP-induced prolactin release, but did not block the LH or FSH responses. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) did not modify prolactin response to 5-HTP, whereas it blocked 5-HTP-induced LH and FSH release. Propranolol (5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic antagonist) blocked prolactin, LH and FSH release induced by 5-HTP. The 5-HT2C agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine dihydrochloride released prolactin, without modifying LH or FSH release. Methyl-quipazine and phenylbiguanide (5-HT3 agonists) increased both LH and FSH levels, without altering prolactin secretion. The present experiments indicate that serotonin acting at the 5-HT3 receptor mediates LH and FSH release in infantile female rats, whereas 5-HT2C or 2A receptor types participate in the release of prolactin at this age. 5-HT1 receptor type may be involved in the release of the three hormones, though a beta-adrenergic component of the response cannot be discarded.

  10. Reduced function of the serotonin transporter is associated with decreased expression of BDNF in rodents as well as in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molteni, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Calabrese, F.; Macchi, F.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Racagni, G.; Ellenbroek, A.A.; Gennarelli, M.; Riva, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to depression under serotonin transporter (SERT) dysfunction, we analyzed the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in neuronal plasticity, which is implicated in the

  11. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  12. An Open-Label Pilot Study of Combined Augmentation With Creatine Monohydrate and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor- or Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kious, Brent M; Sabic, Hana; Sung, Young-Hoon; Kondo, Douglas G; Renshaw, Perry

    2017-10-01

    Many women with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond inadequately to standard treatments. Augmentation of conventional antidepressants with creatine monohydrate and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could correct deficits in serotonin production and brain bioenergetics associated with depression in women, yielding synergistic benefit. We describe an open-label study of 5-HTP and creatine augmentation in women with MDD who had failed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Fifteen women who were adequately adherent to an SSRI or SNRI and currently experiencing MDD, with a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of 16 or higher, were treated with 5 g of creatine monohydrate daily and 100 mg of 5-HTP twice daily for 8 weeks, with 4 weeks of posttreatment follow-up. The primary outcome was change in mean HAM-D scores. Mean HAM-D scores declined from 18.9 (SD, 2.5) at pretreatment visits to 7.5 (SD, 4.4) (P creatine and 5-HTP may represent an effective augmentation strategy for women with SSRI- or SNRI-resistant depression. Given the limitations of this small, open-label trial, future study in randomized, placebo-controlled trials is warranted.

  13. [3]tetrahydrotrazodone binding. Association with serotonin binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, D.A.; Taylor, D.P.; Enna, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    High (17 nM) and low (603 nM) affinity binding sites for [ 3 ]tetrahydrotrazodone ([ 3 ] THT), a biologically active analogue of trazodone, have been identified in rat brain membranes. The substrate specificity, concentration, and subcellular and regional distributions of these sites suggest that they may represent a component of the serotonin transmitter system. Pharmacological analysis of [ 3 ]THT binding, coupled with brain lesion and drug treatment experiments, revealed that, unlike other antidepressants, [ 3 ] THT does not attach to either a biogenic amine transporter or serotonin binding sites. Rather, it would appear that [ 3 ]THT may be an antagonist ligand for the serotonin binding site. This probe may prove of value in defining the mechanism of action of trazodone and in further characterizing serotonin receptors

  14. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na(+ ion release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Koldsø

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions and substrates are still largely unknown. Structural knowledge of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT is much awaited for understanding the mechanistic details of substrate translocation and binding of antidepressants and drugs of abuse. The publication of the crystal structure of the homologous leucine transporter has resulted in homology models of the monoamine transporters. Here we present extended molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally supported homology model of hSERT with and without the natural substrate yielding a total of more than 1.5 µs of simulation of the protein dimer. The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central substrate binding site becomes fully exposed to the cytoplasm leaving both the Na(+-ion in the Na2-site and the substrate in direct contact with the cytoplasm through water interactions. The simulations reveal how sodium is released and show indications of early events of substrate transport. The notion that ion dissociation from the Na2-site drives translocation is supported by experimental studies of a Na2-site mutant. Transmembrane helices (TMs 1 and 6 are identified as the helices involved in the largest movements during transport.

  15. Action potential-independent and pharmacologically unique vesicular serotonin release from dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Lesley A.; Cavolo, Samantha L.; Commons, Kathryn G.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin released within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) induces feedback inhibition of serotonin neuron activity and consequently regulates mood-controlling serotonin release throughout the forebrain. Serotonin packaged in vesicles is released in response to action potentials by the serotonin neuron soma and terminals, but the potential for release by dendrites is unknown. Here three-photon (3P) microscopy imaging of endogenous serotonin in living rat brain slice, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy detection of VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) establish the presence of vesicular serotonin within DR dendrites. Furthermore, activation of glutamate receptors is shown to induce vesicular serotonin release from dendrites. However, unlike release from the soma and terminals, dendritic serotonin release is independent of action potentials, relies on L-type Ca2+ channels, is induced preferentially by NMDA, and displays distinct sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant fluoxetine. The unique control of dendritic serotonin release has important implications for DR physiology and the antidepressant action of SSRIs, dihydropyridines and NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:23136413

  16. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  17. The unexpected effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences during adolescence on anxiety and aggression and their modulation by genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neele eMeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior while the phase of adolescence has mainly been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with

  18. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz-Benjaminsen, Melanie; Feng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4...... with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human...... brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system...

  19. Pharmacological Characterization of H05, a Novel Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor with Moderate 5-HT2A Antagonist Activity for the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqing; Wei, Yaqin; Guo, Qiang; Zhao, Song; Liu, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Ting; Liu, Yani; Qiu, Yinli; Hou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guisen; Wang, KeWei

    2018-06-01

    Multitarget antidepressants selectively inhibiting monoaminergic transporters and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A receptor have demonstrated higher efficacy and fewer side effects than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In the present study, we synthesized a series of novel 3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-4-yloxy)-3-arylpropyl amine derivatives, among which compound H05 was identified as a lead, exhibiting potent inhibitory effects on both serotonin ( K i = 4.81 nM) and norepinephrine (NE) ( K i = 6.72 nM) transporters and moderate 5-HT 2A antagonist activity (IC 50 = 60.37 nM). H05 was able to dose-dependently reduce the immobility duration in mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test, with the minimal effective doses lower than those of duloxetine, and showed no stimulatory effect on locomotor activity. The administration of H05 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, by mouth) significantly shortened the immobility time of adrenocorticotropin-treated rats that serve as a model of treatment-resistant depression, whereas imipramine (30 mg/kg, by mouth) and duloxetine (30 mg/kg, by mouth) showed no obvious effects. Chronic treatment with H05 reversed the depressive-like behaviors in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress and a mouse model of corticosterone-induced depression. Microdialysis analysis revealed that the administration of H05 at either 10 or 20 mg/kg increased the release of 5-HT and NE from the frontal cortex. The pharmacokinetic (PK) and brain penetration analyses suggest that H05 has favorable PK properties with good blood-brain penetration ability. Therefore, it can be concluded that H05, a novel serotonin and NE reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT 2A antagonist activity, possesses efficacious activity in the preclinical models of depression and treatment-resistant depression, and it may warrant further evaluation for clinical development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Iodine-123 labelled nor-beta-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R. J.; Reneman, L.; de Bruin, K.; Janssen, A. G.; van Royen, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-4-iodophenylnortropane (nor-beta-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [123I]nor-beta-CIT resulted in high

  1. Environmental stress affects DNA methylation of a CpG rich promoter region of serotonin transporter gene in a nurse cohort.

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    Jukka S Alasaari

    Full Text Available Shift-working nurses are exposed to a stressful work environment, which puts them at an increased risk for burnout and depression. We explored the effect of environmental stress on serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 promoter methylation among nurses from high and low work stress environments.Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the methylation status of five CpG residues of a CpG-rich region in the promoter of SLC6A4 by comparing female shift working nurses from a high work stress environment (n = 24 to low work stress environment (n = 25. We also analyzed the association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism at 5' end of SLC6A4. Work stress was assessed by the Karasek's Model and possible signs of burnout or depression were measured by the Maslach Burnout Index General Survey and Beck Depression Index. Methylation levels were assessed by bisulfite sequencing of DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Restriction enzyme treatment followed by standard PCR was used to identify 5-HTTLPR genotypes.We found that nurses in the high stress environment had significantly lower promoter methylation levels at all five CpG residues compared to nurses in the low stress environment (p<0.01. There was no significant interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype and work stress with methylation (p = 0.58. In unadjusted (bivariate analysis, burnout was not significantly associated to methylation levels. However, when mutually adjusted for both, burnout and work stress were significant contributors (p = 0.038 and p<0.0001 respectively to methylation levels.Our findings show that environmental stress is concurrent with decreased methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter. This may lead to increased transcriptional activity of the gene, increased reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts, and termination of the activity of serotonin. This could present a possible coping mechanism for environmental stress in humans that could eventually increase risk for disturbed functional

  2. Serotonin transporter protects the placental cells against apoptosis in caspase 3-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Coedy; Fahmi, Tariq; Cooper, Anthonya; Savenka, Alena V; Lupashin, Vladimir V; Roberts, Drucilla J; Maroteaux, Luc; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Kilic, Fusun

    2017-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its specific transporter, SERT play important roles in pregnancy. Using placentas dissected from 18d gestational SERT-knock out (KO), peripheral 5-HT (TPH1)-KO, and wild-type (WT) mice, we explored the role of 5-HT and SERT in placental functions in detail. An abnormal thick band of fibrosis and necrosis under the giant cell layer in SERT-KO placentas appeared only moderately in TPH1-KO and minimally present in WT placentas. The majority of the changes were located at the junctional zone of the placentas in SERT. The etiology of these findings was tested with TUNEL assays. The placentas from SERT-KO and TPH1-KO showed 49- and 8-fold increase in TUNEL-positive cells without a concurrent change in the DNA repair or cell proliferation compared to WT placentas. While the proliferation rate in the embryos of TPH1-KO mice was 16-fold lower than the rate in gestational age matched embryos of WT or SERT-KO mice. These findings highlight an important role of continuous 5-HT signaling on trophoblast cell viability. SERT may contribute to protecting trophoblast cells against cell death via terminating the 5-HT signaling which changes cell death ratio in trophoblast as well as proliferation rate in embryos. However, the cell death in SERT-KO placentas is in caspase 3-independent pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association of serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and cerebral activity to visual presentation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurijoki, Salla; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Niskanen, Eini; Carlson, Synnöve; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko M; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Karhunen, Leila

    2008-07-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed links between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive and behavioural processes. Serotonin is a classical neurotransmitter of central nervous system, and it is connected to the control of appetite and satiety. In this study, the relationship between the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene and the activity in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a brain area activated by visual food stimuli was explored. Thirty subjects underwent serial fMRI studies and provided DNA for genetic analyses. Subjects homozygous for the long allele exhibited greater left PCC activity in the comparison food > non-food compared with individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the short allele. The association between genotype and activation was linear, the subjects with two copies of the long allele variant having the strongest activation. These results demonstrate the possible genetically driven variation in the response of the left PCC to visual presentation of food in humans.

  4. Differences in serotonin transporter binding affinity in patients with major depressive disorder and night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, J D; Amsterdam, J; Newberg, A; Allison, K C; Wintering, N; Stunkard, A J

    2009-03-01

    We examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding affinity using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and night eating syndrome (NES). There are similarities between MDD and NES in affective symptoms, appetite disturbance, nighttime awakenings, and, particularly, response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Six non-depressed patients with NES and seven patients with MDD underwent SPECT brain imaging with 123I-ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical agent selective for SERT sites. Uptake ratios of 123I-ADAM SERT binding were obtained for the midbrain, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe regions compared to the cerebellum reference region. Patients with NES had significantly greater SERT uptake ratios (effect size range 0.64-0.84) in the midbrain, right temporal lobe, and left temporal lobe regions than those with MDD whom we had previously studied. Pathophysiological differences in SERT uptake between patients with NES and MDD suggest these are distinct clinical syndromes.

  5. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  6. Cronobacter sakazakii infection alters serotonin transporter and improved fear memory retention in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram eSivamaruthi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that Cronobacter sakazakii infection cause septicemia, necrotizingenterocolitis (NEC and meningitis. In the present study, we tested whether the C. sakazakii infection alter the learning and memory through serotonin transporter (SERT. To investigate the possible effect on SERT, on postnatal day (PND-15, wistar rat pups were administered with single dose of C. sakazakii culture (Infected group: IF; 107 CFU or 100μL of Luria-Bertani broth (LB; Medium Control: MC or without any treatment (Naïve control: NC. All the individuals were subjected to passive avoidance test on PND-30 to test their fear memory. We show that single dose of C. sakazakii infection improved fear memory retention. Subsequently, we show that C. sakazakii infection induced the activation of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3 and heat-shock proteins-90 (Hsp-90. On the other hand, level of serotonin (5-HT and SERT protein was down-regulated. Furthermore, we show that C. sakazakii infection up-regulate microRNA (miR-16 expression. The observed results highlight that C. sakazakii infections was responsible for improved fear memory retention and may have reduced the level of SERT protein, which is possibly associated with the interaction of up-regulated Hsp-90 with SERT protein or miR-16 with SERT mRNA. Taken together, observed results suggest that C. sakazakkii infection alter the fear memory possibly through SERT. Hence, this model may be effective to test the C. sakazakii infection induced changes in synaptic plasticity through SERT and effect of other pharmacological agents against pathogen induced memory disorder.

  7. Serum and ascitic fluid serotonin levels and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid urine excretion in the liver of cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Stepien, A; Pawlowicz, M; Wachowska-Kelly, P; Chojnacki, J

    2013-01-01

    The excess and deficit of serotonin can be the cause of somatic and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serotonin levels in blood and ascitic fluid as well as excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The study included 75 alcoholic cirrhotic patients divided into 3 groups (HE1, HE2, HE3), 25 patients each, with grade 1, 2 and 3 of hepatic encephalopathy according to West-Haven classification. The control group (C) included 25 clinically healthy volunteers. Venous blood and ascitic fluid were collected in fasting. On the same day a 24-hour urine collection was performed. Immunoenzymatic method was used to determine the serotonin level in serum and ascitic fluid, and 5-HIAA in urine (IBL-RE-59121, RE-59131). In the control group, mean serum serotonin level (ng/ml) was 155.5 ± 38.1 and in the 3 study groups: HE1 - 175.2 ± 32.4 (NS), HE2 - 137.2 ± 28.6 (NS), HE3 - 108.3 ± 46.3 (pencephalopathy. In patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy serotonin concentration in blood is decreased which can affect some clinical manifestation of this disease.

  8. Genetic loading on human loving styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Brondino, Natascia; Pesenti, Sara; Re, Simona; Geroldi, Diego

    2007-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin could play a role in human romantic bonding. However, no data on the genetic basis of human romantic love are currently available. To address this issue, we looked for associations between markers in neurotransmitter genes (the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTT; the serotonin receptor 2A, 5HT2A; the dopamine D2 receptor gene, DRD2; and the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4) and the six styles of love as conceptualized by Lee (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and Agape). A total of 350 healthy young adults (165 males and 185 females, mean age: 24.1+/-3.9 years, range 18-32 years) filled the 24-item Love Attitudes Scale (LAS) and were genotyped for the following six polymorphic markers: the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the 5HT2A T102C and C516T polymorphisms, the DRD2 TaqI A and TaqI B variants, and the DRD4 exon 3 VNTR polymorphism. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the DRD2 TaqI A genotypes and "Eros" (a loving style characterized by a tendency to develop intense emotional experiences based on the physical attraction to the partner), as well as between the C516T 5HT2A polymorphism and "Mania" (a possessive and dependent romantic attachment, characterized by self-defeating emotions). These associations were present in both sexes and remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders. Our data provide the first evidence of a possible genetic loading on human loving styles.

  9. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 μM serotonin with increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 μM. At a concentration of 1 μM, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was ≅ 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors

  10. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  11. The external gate of the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters requires a basic/acidic amino acid pair for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) translocation and the induction of substrate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealover, Natalie R; Felts, Bruce; Kuntz, Charles P; Jarrard, Rachel E; Hockerman, Gregory H; Lamb, Patrick W; Barker, Eric L; Henry, L Keith

    2016-11-15

    The substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), is a widely used drug of abuse that induces non-exocytotic release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine through their cognate transporters as well as blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the same transporters. The resulting dramatic increase in volume transmission and signal duration of neurotransmitters leads to psychotropic, stimulant, and entactogenic effects. The mechanism by which amphetamines drive reverse transport of the monoamines remains largely enigmatic, however, promising outcomes for the therapeutic utility of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder and the long-time use of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic-directed amphetamines in treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy increases the importance of understanding this phenomenon. Previously, we identified functional differences between the human and Drosophila melanogaster serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT, respectively) revealing that MDMA is an effective substrate for hSERT but not dSERT even though serotonin is a potent substrate for both transporters. Chimeric dSERT/hSERT transporters revealed that the molecular components necessary for recognition of MDMA as a substrate was linked to regions of the protein flanking transmembrane domains (TM) V through IX. Here, we performed species-scanning mutagenesis of hSERT, dSERT and C. elegans SERT (ceSERT) along with biochemical and electrophysiological analysis and identified a single amino acid in TM10 (Glu394, hSERT; Asn484, dSERT, Asp517, ceSERT) that is primarily responsible for the differences in MDMA recognition. Our findings reveal that an acidic residue is necessary at this position for MDMA recognition as a substrate and serotonin releaser. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  13. Combinatorial support vector machines approach for virtual screening of selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Ma, X H; Qin, C; Jia, J; Jiang, Y Y; Tan, C Y; Chen, Y Z

    2012-02-01

    Selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance antidepressant efficacy. Their discovery can be facilitated by multiple methods, including in silico ones. In this study, we developed and tested an in silico method, combinatorial support vector machines (COMBI-SVMs), for virtual screening (VS) multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors of seven target pairs (serotonin transporter paired with noradrenaline transporter, H(3) receptor, 5-HT(1A) receptor, 5-HT(1B) receptor, 5-HT(2C) receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and neurokinin 1 receptor respectively) from large compound libraries. COMBI-SVMs trained with 917-1951 individual target inhibitors correctly identified 22-83.3% (majority >31.1%) of the 6-216 dual inhibitors collected from literature as independent testing sets. COMBI-SVMs showed moderate to good target selectivity in misclassifying as dual inhibitors 2.2-29.8% (majority virtual hits correlate with the reported effects of their predicted targets. COMBI-SVM is potentially useful for searching selective multi-target agents without explicit knowledge of these agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT Neurons Results in Rapid Degeneration of the 5-HT System and Early Postnatal Lethality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudok, J.J.; Groffen, A.J.A.; Toonen, R.F.G.; Verhage, M.

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT)

  15. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a new PET ligand for the serotonin transporter: [{sup 11}C]5-bromo-2-[2-(dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)]phenylamine ([{sup 11}C]DAPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yiyun E-mail: hh285@columbia.edu; Hwang, D.-R.; Zhu Zhihong; Bae, S.-A.; Guo Ningning; Sudo, Yasuhiko; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Laruelle, Marc

    2002-10-01

    A new PET radioligand for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [{sup 11}C]-5-bromo-2-[2-(dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)]phenylamine ([{sup 11}C]DAPA (10), was synthesized and evaluated in vivo in rats and baboons. [{sup 11}C]DAPA (10) was prepared from its monomethylamino precursor 8 by reaction with high specific activity [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. Radiochemical yield was 24{+-}5% based on [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide at end of bombardment (EOB, n=10) and specific activity was 1553{+-}939 Ci/mmol at end of synthesis (EOS, n=10). Binding assays indicated that [{sup 11}C]DAPA displays high affinity (Ki 1.49{+-}0.28 nM for hSERT) and good selectivity for the SERT in vitro. Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that [{sup 11}C]DAPA enters into the brain readily and localizes in brain regions known to contain high concentrations of SERT, such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, frontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, such binding in SERT-rich regions of the brain are blocked by pretreatment with either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram and by the cold compound itself, demonstrating that [{sup 11}C]DAPA binding in the rat brain is saturable and specific to SERT. Imaging experiments in baboons indicated that [{sup 11}C]DAPA binding is consistent with the known distribution of SERT in the baboon brain, with highest levels of radioactivity detected in the midbrain and thalamus, intermediate levels in the hippocampus and striatum, and lower levels in the cortical regions. Pretreatment of the baboon with citalopram 10 min before radioactivity injection blocked the binding of [{sup 11}C]DAPA in all brain regions that contain SERT. Kinetic analysis revealed that, in all brain regions examined, [{sup 11}C]DAPA specific to nonspecific distribution volume ratios (V{sub 3}'') are higher than [{sup 11}C](+)-McN 5652 and similar to [{sup 11}C]DASB. In summary, [{sup 11}C]DAPA appears to be a promising radioligand suitable for the visualization of SERT

  16. INFLUENCE OF A SEROTONIN-RICH AND DOPAMINE-RICH DIET ON PLATELET SEROTONIN CONTENT AND URINARY-EXCRETION OF BIOGENIC-AMINES AND THEIR METABOLITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; SCHELLINGS, AMJ; MEIBORG, G; HOPPENBROUWERS, CJM; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, we reevaluated the 24-h influence of a serotonin- and dopamine-rich diet on platelet serotonin and serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and major catecholamine metabolites in the urine of 15 healthy adults. Although

  17. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  18. Chronic blockade or constitutive deletion of the serotonin transporter reduces operant responding for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Amy Cecilia; Hussain, Ali J; Hen, René; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2007-11-01

    The therapeutic effects of chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are well documented, yet the elementary behavioral processes that are affected by such treatment have not been fully investigated. We report here the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment and genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter (SERT) on food reinforced behavior in three paradigms: the progressive ratio operant task, the concurrent choice operant task, and the Pavlovian-to-Instrumental transfer task. We consistently find that chronic pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of SERT result in similar behavioral consequences: reduced operant responding for natural reward. This is in line with previous studies reporting declines in operant responding for drugs and intracranial self-stimulation with fluoxetine treatment, suggesting that the effect of SERT blockade can be generalized to different reward types. Detailed analyses of behavioral parameters indicate that this reduction in operant responding affect both goal-directed and non-goal-directed behaviors without affecting the Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. In addition, both pharmacological and genetic manipulations reduce locomotor activity in the open field novel environment. Our data contrast with the effect of dopamine in increasing operant responding for natural reward specifically in goal-directed behaviors and in increasing Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. Serotonin and dopamine have been proposed to serve opposing functions in motivational processes. Our data suggest that their interactions do not result in simple opponency. The fact that pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of SERT have similar behavioral consequences reinforces the utility of the SERT null mice for investigation of the mechanisms underlying chronic SSRIs treatment.

  19. The Antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists Pizotifen and Cyproheptadine Inhibit Serotonin-Enhanced Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia A.; Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V. P.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  20. Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT modulates many key brain functions including those subserving sensation, emotion, reward and cognition. Efficient clearance of 5-HT after release is achieved by the antidepressant-sensitive 5-HT transporter (SERT, SLC6A4. To identify novel SERT regulators, we pursued a proteomic analysis of mouse midbrain SERT complexes, evaluating findings in the context of prior studies that established a SERT-linked transcriptome. Remarkably, both efforts converged on a relationship of SERT with the synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin 2 (NLGN2, a postsynaptic partner for presynaptic neurexins, and a protein well known to organize inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Western blots of midbrain reciprocal immunoprecipitations confirmed SERT/NLGN2 associations, and also extended to other NLGN2 associated proteins (e.g. -neurexin (NRXN, gephyrin. Midbrain SERT/NLGN2 interactions were found to be Ca2+-independent, supporting cis versus trans-synaptic interactions, and were absent in hippocampal preparations, consistent with interactions arising in somatodendritic compartments. Dual color in situ hybridization confirmed co-expression of Tph2 and Nlgn2 mRNA in the dorsal raphe, with immunocytochemical studies confirming SERT:NLGN2 co-localization in raphe cell bodies but not axons. Consistent with correlative mRNA expression studies, loss of NLGN2 expression in Nlgn2 null mice produced significant reductions in midbrain and hippocampal SERT expression and function. Additionally, dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons from Nlgn2 null mice exhibit reduced excitability, a loss of GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, and increased 5-HT1A autoreceptor sensitivity. Finally, Nlgn2 null mice display significant changes in behaviors known to be responsive to SERT and/or 5-HT receptor manipulations. We discuss our findings in relation to the possible coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation afforded by somatodendritic SERT:NLGN2

  1. Association study of serotonin transporter SLC6A4 gene with Chinese Han irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common clinical gastrointestinal dysfunction disorders. 5-sertonon (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a very important neurotransmitter, which is involved in gastrointestinal motion and sensation. Solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 gene encode serotonin transporter (SERT which function is to rapidly reuptake the most of 5-HT. Therefore, it is needed to explore the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms and IBS. METHODS: 119 patients and 238 healthy controls were administrated to detect the SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms including 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs and three selected tag Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs rs1042173, rs3794808, rs2020936 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and TaqMan® SNP Genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant difference for 5-HTTLPR between IBS and control groups (X2 = 106.168, P<0.0001. In control group, genotypes were mainly L/L (58.4%, however, the genotypes in IBS were S/S (37.8%. The significant difference was shown in D-IBS subjects when compared to the controls (X(2 = 50.850, P<0.0001 for 5-HTTLPR. For STin2 VNTR, rs1042173, rs3794808, and rs2020936 polymorphisms, there were no any significant differences between IBS and control groups. There were no statistical significantly haplotypes for 5-HTTLPR, VNTRs and the three SNPs between IBS and controls. CONCLUSION: The S allele in 5-HTTLPR was a susceptible allele with Chinese Han IBS, but other associations of VNTRs, three selected Tag SNPs and positive haplotype with IBS were not found. It is indicated that much research are needed to study the relationship between other polymorphisms in SLC6A4 gene and IBS.

  2. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Gustav R; Fisher, Patrick M; Dyssegaard, Agnete

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin signalling is considered critical for an appropriate and dynamic adaptation to stress. Previously, we have shown that prefrontal serotonin transporter (SERT) binding is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (Frokjaer et al., 2013), which is an index of hypotha...

  3. Interplay between the key proteins of serotonin system in SSRI antidepressants efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Kalueff, Allan V; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Popova, Nina K

    2018-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and most used antidepressant drugs. Acting by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SSRIs display a typical 3-4-week delay in their therapeutic effects, with nearly 40% of depressed patients remaining treatment-resistant. Recent evidence suggests complex interplay between 5-HT receptors and key proteins of 5-HT metabolism in molecular mechanisms of such delay and resistance to SSRIs. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interplay between 5-HT receptors in the delay of therapeutic effect of SSRIs, and the interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter in the SSRI resistance. Specifically, it discusses: (1) the data on the association between antidepressant drug efficacy and genetically defined characteristics of key proteins in the 5-HT signaling (TPH2, MAOA, SERT and 5-HT 1A receptor), (2) the effect of dimerization of 5-HT 7 and 5-HT 1A receptors on the internalization and functioning of 5-HT 1A presynaptic receptors, (3) the role of Tph2 deficiency in the resistance to SSRIs treatment. We shift the emphasis from individual proteins to their interactions in explaining antidepressant action of SSRI. Expert opinion: These interactions should be considered when developing more effective antidepressant drugs as well as for predicting and improving the efficacy of antidepressant therapies.

  4. Acute tryptophan depletion dose dependently impairs object memory in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Deen, P M T; Cools, A R; Ellenbroek, B A; Blokland, A

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) transiently lowers central serotonin levels and can induce depressive mood states and cognitive defects. Previous studies have shown that ATD impairs object recognition in rats. OBJECTIVES: As individual differences exist in central serotonin

  5. Serotonin-1A receptor imaging in recurrent depression: replication and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevets, Wayne C. [Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, MINH Molecular Imaging Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States)], E-mail: drevetsw@mail.nih.gov; Thase, Michael E. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine and Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Moses-Kolko, Eydie L. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Price, Julie [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Mathis, Chester [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 19213 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    }R-binding capacity in the raphe in depressed suicide victims [Arango V, Underwood MD, Boldrini M, Tamir H, Kassir SA, Hsiung S, Chen JJ, Mann JJ. Serotonin 1A receptors, serotonin transporter binding and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the brainstem of depressed suicide victims. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;25(6):892-903]. There exists disagreement within the literature, however, regarding the presence and direction of 5-HT{sub 1A}R-binding abnormalities in depression, which may be explained in some cases by differences in anatomical location (e.g., [Stockmeier CA, Shapiro LA, Dilley GE, Kolli TN, Friedman L, Rajkowska G. Increase in serotonin-1A autoreceptors in the midbrain of suicide victims with major depression - postmortem evidence for decreased serotonin activity. J Neurosci 1998;18(18):7394-401]) and in other cases by pathophysiological heterogeneity within MDD (e.g., some depressives hypersecrete cortisol, which would be expected to down-regulate 5-HT{sub 1A}R expression [Lopez JF, Chalmers DT, Little KY, Watson SJ. Regulation of serotonin 1A, glucocorticoid, and mineralocorticoid receptor in rat and human hippocampus: implications for neurobiology of depression. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43:547-73]). Antidepressant drug treatment does not alter these abnormalities in 5-HT{sub 1A}R binding [Sargent PA, Kjaer KH, Bench CJ, Rabiner EA, Messa C, Meyer J, Gunn RN, Grasby PM, Cowen PJ. Brain serotonin{sub 1A} receptor binding measured by positron emission tomography with [{sup 11}C]WAY-100635: effects of depression and antidepressant treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57(2):174-80; Moses-Kolko EL, Price JC, Thase ME, Meltzer CC, Kupfer DJ, Mathis CA, Bogers WD, Berman SR, Houck PR, Schneider TN, Drevets WC. Measurement of 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in depressed adults before and after antidepressant drug treatment using positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]WAY-100635. Synapse 2007;61(7):523-30] but may compensate for blunted 5-HT{sub 1A}R function by increasing post

  6. [3H]WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, [ 3 H]-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ([ 3 H]WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for [ 3 H] WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at [ 3 H]WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and [ 3 H] lysergic acid diethylamide ([ 3 H]LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5 mM MgSO4, the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of [ 3 H]LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for [ 3 H] LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that [ 3 H]WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by [ 3 H]LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for [ 3 H]WB4101 but compete for multiple [ 3 H]LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that [ 3 H]WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas [ 3 H] LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding

  7. Thermal balneotherapy induces changes of the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Catena Dell'Osso, Mario; Consoli, Giorgio; Picchetti, Michela; Carlini, Marina; Massimetti, Gabriele; Provenzano, Serafina; Galassi, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Although the beneficial effects of balneotherapy have been recognized since a long time, a few information is available on the biological mechanisms underlying them and the subjective feelings of increased well-being and mood. The links between the serotonin (5-HT) system and mood prompted us to investigate the 5-HT platelet transporter (SERT), which is considered a reliable, peripheral marker of the same structure present in presynaptic neurons, in 20 healthy volunteers before (t0) and 30 min after (t1) thermal balneotherapy with ozonized water of Montecatini spa, as compared with a similar group who underwent a bath in non-mineral water. The SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of (3)H-paroxetine ((3)H-Par) to platelet membranes. Equilibrium-saturation binding data, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (Kd), were obtained by means of the Scatchard analysis. The results showed that, while Bmax values did not change in both groups, the Kd values decreased significantly at t1 only in those subjects who bathed in ozonized water. The results of this study, while showing a decrease of the dissociation constant (Kd) which is the inverse of affinity constant, of (3)H-Par binding to SERT in all subjects after balneotherapy and not in those bathing in normal water, suggest that SERT modifications may be related to a specific effect of ozonized water and, perhaps, also to the increased sense of well-being.

  8. Pre-gestational stress reduces the ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT and the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in the brain of foetal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yuejun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found that stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an increased incidence of behavioural disorders in offspring. However, few studies have investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and the serotonergic system as a consequence of pregestational stress. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-gestational stress on HPA axis activity in maternal rats and their foetuses and examined whether changes in HPA axis activity of maternal rats produced functional changes in the serotonergic system in the brain of foetuses. Results We used the behavioural tests to assess the model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS in maternal rats. We found the activity in the open field and sucrose consumption was lower for rats with CUS than for the controls. Body weight but not brain weight was higher for control foetuses than those from the CUS group. Serum corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels were significantly higher for mothers with CUS before pregnancy and their foetuses than for the controls. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT were higher in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of foetuses in the CUS group than in the controls, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA levels were lower in the hippocampus in foetuses in the CUS group than in the control group. Levels of 5-HIAA in the hypothalamus did not differ between foetuses in the CUS group and in the control group. The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT was significantly lower for foetuses in the CUS group than in the control group. Levels of 5-HT1A receptor were significantly lower in the foetal hippocampus in the CUS group than in the control group, with no significant difference in the hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin transporter (SERT were lower in both the foetal hippocampus and foetal hypothalamus in the CUS group than in the control group. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that pre-gestational stress alters HPA

  9. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  10. An improved synthesis of 4-[{sup 18}F]-ADAM, a potent serotonin transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.-Y. [PET Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital 325 Section 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Thising Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [PET Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital 325 Section 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, T.-C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Thising Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shiue, C.-Y. [PET Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital 325 Section 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: shiue@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

    2009-06-15

    An improved synthesis of N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[{sup 18}F]-ADAM, 2) as a potent serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent is described. Molecular orbital (MO) calculation predicts that N,N-dimethyl-2- (2-nitro-4-trimethylammoniumtrifluoromethanesulfonylphenylthio)benzamide (8) is probably a better precursor than N,N-dimethyl-2-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)benzylamine (1) for preparing 2. Radioligand 2 was synthesized by the reaction of either precursor 1 or precursor 8 with K[{sup 18}F]/K{sub 2.2.2} at 120 deg. C followed by reduction with BH{sub 3} at 80 deg. C. The radiochemical yield (EOB) of 2 synthesized from precursor 1 and 8 was 5.7{+-}2.4% (n=6) and 14.8{+-}4.0% (n=5), respectively, in a synthesis time of 120 min from EOB. The specific activity of 2 was 3 Ci/{mu}mol or 111 GBq/{mu}mol (EOB). Thus, this new synthetic method has significantly improved the radiochemical yield of 4-[{sup 18}F]-ADAM and makes this radioligand more accessible to PET Centers without a cyclotron.

  11. 17β-Estradiol augments antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in ovariectomized rats: Neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Weam W; Safar, Marwa M; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Agha, Azza M

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy. Ovariectomized animals were treated chronically with escitalopram (10mg/kg/day, i.p) alone or with four doses of 17β-estradiol (40μg/kg, s.c) given prior to the behavioral tests. Co-administration of 17β-estradiol improved escitalopram-induced antidepressant effect in forced swimming test verified as more prominent decrease in the immobility time without opposing its memory enhancing effect in Morris water maze. 17β-estradiol augmented the modulatory effects of escitalopram on the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin reuptake transporter as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha without altering its effects on the gene expressions of serotonin receptor 1A, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or acetylcholinestearase content. This combined therapy afforded synergistic protective effects on the brain histopathological architecture, particularly, the hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of 17β-estradiol was abolished by pretreatment with estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen (10mg/kg, p.o). In conclusion, 17β-estradiol-induced antidepressant effect was confined to intracellular estrogen receptors activation. Moreover, 17β-estradiol enhanced escitalopram's efficiency in ameliorating menopausal-like depression, via exerting synergistic neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects, without impeding escitalopram-mediated cognitive

  12. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems ("DRD4", "DRD2", "COMT", "5-HTT", "OXTR") on attachment security and disorganization.…

  13. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naozumi eAraragi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert -/- and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2 -/- mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2 -/- mice and Sert -/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2 -/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert -/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, neurons from both Tph2 -/- and Sert -/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  14. Human fear acquisition deficits in relation to genetic variants of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 and the serotonin transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Heitland

    Full Text Available The ability to identify predictors of aversive events allows organisms to appropriately respond to these events, and failure to acquire these fear contingencies can lead to maladaptive contextual anxiety. Recently, preclinical studies demonstrated that the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin systems are interactively involved in adaptive fear acquisition. Here, 150 healthy medication-free human subjects completed a cue and context fear conditioning procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex (FPS was measured to assess both uninstructed fear acquisition and instructed fear expression. All participants were genotyped for polymorphisms located within regulatory regions of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 - rs878886 and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR. These polymorphisms have previously been linked to panic disorder and anxious symptomology and personality, respectively. G-allele carriers of CRHR1 (rs878886 showed no acquisition of fear conditioned responses (FPS to the threat cue in the uninstructed phase, whereas fear acquisition was present in C/C homozygotes. Moreover, carrying the risk alleles of both rs878886 (G-allele and 5HTTLPR (short allele was associated with increased FPS to the threat context during this phase. After explicit instructions regarding the threat contingency were given, the cue FPS and context FPS normalized in all genotype groups. The present results indicate that genetic variability in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, especially in interaction with the 5HTTLPR, is involved in the acquisition of fear in humans. This translates prior animal findings to the human realm.

  15. Decreased frontal serotonin 5-HT2a receptor binding index in deliberate self-harm patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, K.; Laere, K. van; Dierckx, R.A.; Dumont, F.; Slegers, G.; Mertens, J.; Heeringen, C. van

    2001-01-01

    Studies of serotonin metabolites in body fluids in attempted suicide patients and of post-mortem brain tissue of suicide victims have demonstrated the involvement of the serotonergic neurotransmission system in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour. Recently developed neuroimaging techniques offer the unique possibility of investigating in vivo the functional characteristics of this system. In this study the 5-HT 2a receptor population of patients who had recently attempted suicide was studied by means of the highly specific radio-iodinated 5-HT 2a receptor antagonist 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] -5-iodo-2-methox ybenzamide or 123 I-5-I-R91150. Nine patients who had recently (1-7 days) attempted suicide and 12 age-matched healthy controls received an intravenous injection of 185 MBq 123 I-5-I-R91150 and were scanned with high-resolution brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Stereotactic realigned images were analysed semi-quantitatively using predefined volumes of interest. Serotonin binding capacity was expressed as the ratio of specific to non-specific activity. The cerebellum was used as a measure of non-specific activity. An age-dependent 5-HT 2a binding index was found, in agreement with previous literature. Deliberate self-harm patients had a significantly reduced mean frontal binding index after correction for age (P=0.002) when compared with controls. The reduction was more pronounced among deliberate self-injury patients (DSI) (P 2a serotonin receptor system in attempted suicide patients who are free of drugs influencing the serotonergic system shows in vivo evidence of a decreased frontal binding index of the 5-HT 2a receptor, indicating a decrease in the number and/or in the binding affinity of 5-HT 2a receptors. (orig.)

  16. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted

  17. Cholinesterase catalyzed hydrolysis of O-acyl derivatives of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaeva, G.F.; Suvorov, N.N.; Ginodman, L.N.; Antonov, V.K.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Bioorganicheskoj Khimii)

    1977-01-01

    Hydrolysis of O acyl serotonin derivatives containing the residues of monocarbon dicarbon and amino acids under the effect of horse serum butyryl cholinesterase and bull erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase has been studied. It has been established, that acetylcholinesterase hydrolizes O acetylserotonin only; butyrylcholinesterase hydrolizes all the compounds investigated, except for 5,5'-terephthaloildioxytriptamine. The kinetic parameters of hydrolysis were determined. O acyl serotonin derivatives turned out good substrates of butylrylcholinesterase; serotonin and 5.5'-terephtaloildioxytriptamine are effective competitine inhibitors of the enzyme. Estimating of resistance of O acyl serotonin derivatines to blood cholinesterase effect under physiological conditions shows that the compounds investigated with the exception of 5,5'-terephthaloildioxytriptamine must be quickly hydrolyzed under butyrylcholinesterase action. 5,5'-terephthaloildioxytriptamine is suggested as a radioprotective preparation with the prolonged effect, which agrees with the biological test results

  18. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin 2A receptor gene polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Padmajeya Sujitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Schizophrenia, the debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder, is known to be heritable, involving complex genetic mechanisms. Several chromosomal regions associated with schizophrenia have been identified during the past; putative gene (s in question, to be called the global signature for the pathophysiology of the disease, however, seems to evade us. The results obtained from the several population-wise association-non association studies have been diverse. w0 e therefore, undertook the present study on Tamil speaking population in south India to examine the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the serotonin receptor gene (5HT2A and the occurrence of the disease. Methods: Blood samples collected from 266 cases and 272 controls were subjected to genotyping (PCR amplification of candidate SNPs, RFLP and sequencing. The data on the SNPs were subjected to statistical analysis for assessing the gene frequencies in both the cases and the controls. Results: The study revealed significant association between the genotypic frequencies of the serotonin receptor polymorphism and schizophrenia. SNP analysis revealed that the frequencies of GG (30%, rs6311 and CC genotypes (32%, rs6313, were higher in patients (P<0.05 than in controls. The study also showed presence of G and C alleles in patients. s0 ignificant levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD were found to exist between the genotype frequencies of rs6311 and rs6313. Interpretation & conclusions: This study indicated an association between the SNPs (rs6311 and rs6313 of the serotonin receptor 5HT2A and schizophrenia. HapMap analysis revealed that in its genotype distribution, the Tamil speaking population was different from several other populations across the world, signifying the importance of such ethnicity-based studies to improve our understanding of this complex disease.

  19. APRESS: apical regulatory super system, serotonin, and dopamine interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are known to exist in two separate states: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being "meaningless."Methods: A large database of monoamine transporter response to amino acid precursor administration variations with clinical outcomes was accumulated. In the process, a new organic cation transporter (OCT model has been published, and OCT functional status determination along with amino acid precursor manipulation methods have been invented and refined.Results: Methodology was developed whereby manipulation of the OCT, in the competitive inhibition state, is carried out in a predictable manner. This, in turn, has disproved the long-held assertion that the monoamine competitive inhibition state is functionally meaningless.Conclusion: The most significant aspect of this paper is the documentation of newly recognized relationships between serotonin and dopamine. When transport of serotonin and dopamine are both in the competitive inhibition state, manipulation of the concentrations of one will lead to predictable changes in concentrations of the other. From a functional standpoint, processes regulated and controlled by changes to only serotonin can now be controlled by changes to dopamine, and vice versa, in a predictable manner.Keywords: catecholamine, monoamine, competitive inhibition state

  20. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

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    Jocelien D. A. Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR and adverse early life stressing (ELS events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/− show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (maladaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1 stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2 effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3 few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not

  1. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwing, Danielle J.; Buwalda, Bauke; van der Zee, Eddy A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/−) show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (mal)adaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1) stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2) effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3) few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not exclude the

  2. Regulation of Pituitary Beta Endorphin Release: Role of Serotonin Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    endogenous) may be related to pain and its transmission in the nervous system. Areas known to have a large number of opiate receptors both in primates and...serotonin meta- bolite 5-hydroxytrvptamine; serotonin 5-hydroxtryptophan; serotonin precursor intra- cerebro -ventricular administration intermediate lobe

  3. Variations in the serotonin-transporter gene are associated with attention bias patterns to positive and negative emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Gorodetsky, Elena; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-03-01

    Both attention biases to threat and a serotonin-transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) have been linked to heightened neural activation to threat and the emergence of anxiety. The short allele of 5-HTTLPR may act via its effect on neurotransmitter availability, while attention biases shape broad patterns of cognitive processing. We examined individual differences in attention bias to emotion faces as a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype. Adolescents (N=117) were classified for presumed SLC6A4 expression based on 5-HTTLPR-low (SS, SL(G), or L(G)L(G)), intermediate (SL(A) or L(A)L(G)), or high (L(A)L(A)). Participants completed the dot-probe task, measuring attention biases toward or away from angry and happy faces. Biases for angry faces increased with the genotype-predicted neurotransmission levels (low>intermediate>high). The reverse pattern was evident for happy faces. The data indicate a linear relation between 5-HTTLPR allelic status and attention biases to emotion, demonstrating a genetic mechanism for biased attention using ecologically valid stimuli that target socioemotional adaptation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiedl, O.; Pappa, E.; Konradssson-Geuken, A.; Ogren, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models.

  5. Discovery of Indazoles as Potent, Orally Active Dual Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists and Serotonin Transporter Inhibitors for the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Huang, Hong; Conlon, David A; Davis, Carl D; Hanumegowda, Umesh M; Hou, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Yi; Hu, Joanna; Krause, Rudolph; Li, Yu-Wen; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Raybon, Joseph; Rosner, Thorsten; Sun, Jung-Hui; Taber, Matthew T; Taylor, Sarah J; Wong, Michael K; Zhang, Huiping; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Gillman, Kevin W

    2016-12-21

    Combination studies of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in preclinical models of depression. Such a combination may offer important advantages over the current standard of care. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of an indazole-based chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors to overcome issues of ion channel blockade. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 9, an analogue that demonstrated favorable oral bioavailability, excellent brain uptake, and robust in vivo efficacy in a validated depression model. Over the course of this work, a novel heterocycle-directed asymmetric hydrogenation was developed to facilitate installation of the key stereogenic center.

  6. [Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S

    1988-01-01

    In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.

  7. A PET imaging agent with fast kinetics: synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 11}C]2-[2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio]-5-fluorophenylamine ([{sup 11}C]AFA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yiyun E-mail: hh285@columbia.edu; Narendran, Raj; Bae, Sung-A; Erritzoe, David; Guo Ningning; Zhu Zhihong; Hwang, D.-R.; Laruelle, Marc

    2004-08-01

    A new serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand, [{sup 11}C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)]-5-fluorophenylamine (10, [{sup 11}C]AFA), was synthesized and evaluated as a candidate PET radioligand in pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies. As a PET radioligand, AFA (8) can be labeled with either C-11 or F-18. In vitro, AFA displayed high affinity for SERT (K{sub i} 1.46{+-}0.15 nM) and lower affinity for norepinephrine transporter (NET, K{sub i} 141.7{+-}47.4 nM) or dopamine transporter (DAT, K{sub i} >10,000 nM). [{sup 11}C]AFA (10) was prepared from its monomethylamino precursor 9 by reaction with high specific activity [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. Radiochemical yield was 43{+-}20% based on [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide at end of bombardment (EOB, n = 10) and specific activity was 2,129 {+-} 1,369 Ci/mmol at end of synthesis (EOS, n = 10). Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that [{sup 11}C]AFA accumulated in brain regions known to contain high concentrations of SERT. Binding in SERT-rich brain regions was reduced significantly by pretreatment with either the cold compound 8 or with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, but not by the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine, thus underlining its in vivo binding selectivity and specificity for SERT. Imaging experiments in baboons demonstrated that the uptake pattern of [{sup 11}C]AFA in the baboon brain is consistent with the known distribution of SERT, with highest activity levels in the midbrain and thalamus, followed by striatum, hippocampus, and cortical regions. Activity levels in the baboon brain peaked at 15-40 min after radioligand injection, indicating a fast uptake kinetics for [{sup 11}C]AFA. Pretreatment of the baboon with citalopram (4 mg/kg) significantly reduced the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]AFA in all SERT-containing brain regions. Kinetic analysis revealed that the regional equilibrium specific to non-specific partition coefficients (V{sub 3}&apos

  8. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  9. Differences in the dynamics of serotonin reuptake transporter occupancy may explain superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Sacher, Julia; Klein, Nikolas; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Attarbaschi-Steiner, Trawat; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Spindelegger, Christoph; Asenbaum, Susanne; Holik, Alexander; Dudczak, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Escitalopram the S-enantiomer of the racemate citalopram, is clinically more effective than citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, the precise mechanism by which escitalopram achieves superiority over citalopram is yet to be determined. It has been hypothesized that the therapeutically inactive R-enantiomer competes with the serotonin-enhancing S-enantiomer at a low-affinity allosteric site on serotonin reuptake transporters (SERTs), and reduces the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer at the primary, high-affinity serotonin-binding site. This study summarizes the results of two recent single-photon emission computerized tomography studies measuring SERT occupancy in citalopram-treated and escitalopram-treated healthy volunteers, after a single dose and multiple doses (i.e. under steady-state conditions). The single-dose study showed no attenuating effect of R-citalopram. After multiple dosing, however, SERT occupancy was significantly reduced in the presence of R-citalopram. Under steady-state conditions, R-enantiomer concentrations were greater than for the S-enantiomer because of slower clearance of R-citalopram. A pooled analysis suggests that build-up of the R-enantiomer after repeated citalopram dosing may lead to increased inhibition of S-enantiomer occupancy of SERT. This review adds to the growing body of evidence regarding differences in the dynamics of SERT occupancy, that is, molecular mechanisms underlying the often-observed superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram compared with citalopram in major depressive disorder.

  10. Characterization of the 5-HT1A receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and involvement of serotonin in phototactic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Balfanz, Sabine; Scheiner, Ricarda; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Serotonin plays a key role in modulating various physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes and deuterostomes. The vast majority of serotonin receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a cDNA from the honeybee (Am5-ht1A) sharing high similarity with members of the 5-HT(1) receptor class. Activation of Am5-HT(1A) by serotonin inhibited the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 16.9 nM). Am5-HT(1A) was highly expressed in brain regions known to be involved in visual information processing. Using in vivo pharmacology, we could demonstrate that Am5-HT(1A) receptor ligands had a strong impact on the phototactic behavior of individual bees. The data presented here mark the first comprehensive study-from gene to behavior-of a 5-HT(1A) receptor in the honeybee, paving the way for the eventual elucidation of additional roles of this receptor subtype in the physiology and behavior of this social insect.

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić-Mujanović Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most of the known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, beneficial or harmful, are associated with the inhibitory action of the serotonin reuptake transporter. This mechanism is present not only in neurons, but also in other cells such as platelets. Serotoninergic mechanism seems to have an important role in hemostasis, which has long been underestimated. Abnormal activation may lead to a prothrombotic state in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. On one hand there may be an increased risk of bleeding, and on the other hand reduction in thrombotic risk may be possible. Serotonin is critical to maintain a platelet haemostatic function, such as platelet aggregation. Evidences from the studies support the hypothesis that antidepressants with a relevant blockade of action of serotonin reuptake mechanism may increase the risk of bleeding, which can occur anywhere in the body. Epidemiological evidences are, however, the most robust for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It is estimated that this bleeding can occur in 1 in 100 to 1 in 1.000 patient-years of exposure to the high-affinity selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, with very old patients at the highest risk. The increased risk may be of particular relevance when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are taken simultaneously with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, low dose of aspirin or warfarin.

  12. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  13. Disentangling the effects of serotonin on risk perception: S-carriers of 5-HTTLPR are primarily concerned with the magnitude of the outcomes, not the uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millroth, Philip; Juslin, Peter; Eriksson, Elias; Agren, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Serotonin signaling is vital for reward processing, and hence, also for decision-making. The serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been connected to decision making, suggesting that short-allele carriers (s) are more risk averse than long-allele homozygotes (ll). However, previous research has not identified if this occurs because s-carriers (i) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcomes or (ii) are more sensitive to the magnitude of the outcomes. This issue was disentangled using a willingness-to-pay task, where the participants evaluated prospects involving certain gains, uncertain gains, and ambiguous gains. The results clearly favored the hypothesis that s-carriers react more to the magnitude of the outcomes. Self-reported measures of everyday risk-taking behavior also favored this hypothesis. We discuss how these results are in line with recent research on the serotonergic impact on reward processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Association of serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 & receptor (5HTR1A, 5HTR2A polymorphisms with response to treatment with escitalopram in patients with major depressive disorder : A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Genetic factors have potential of predicting response to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. In this study, an attempt was made to find an association between response to escitalopram in patients with MDD, and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 and receptor (5HTR1A, 5HTR2A polymorphisms. Methods: Fifty five patients diagnosed as suffering from MDD, were selected for the study. The patients were treated with escitalopram over a period of 6-8 wk. Severity of depression, response to treatment and side effects were assessed using standardised instruments. Genetic variations from HTR1A (rs6295, HTR2A (rs6311 and rs6313 and SLC6A4 (44 base-pair insertion/deletion at 5-HTTLPR were genotyped. The genetic data of the responders and non-responders were compared to assess the role of genetic variants in therapeutic outcome. Results: Thirty six (65.5% patients responded to treatment, and 19 (34.5% had complete remission. No association was observed for genotype and allelic frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among remitter/non-remitter and responder/non-responder groups, and six most common side-effects, except memory loss which was significantly associated with rs6311 ( p0 =0.03. Interpretation & conclusions: No significant association was found between the SNPs analysed and response to escitalopram in patients with MDD though a significant association was seen between the side effect of memory loss and rs6311. Studies with larger sample are required to find out genetic basis of antidepressant response in Indian patients.

  15. Does prenatal valproate interact with a genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter?A rat study on anxiety and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Ellenbroek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Given that VPA significantly impacts on the serotonergic system, and serotonin has strong biochemical and genetic links to ASD, we aimed to investigate the interaction between genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter and prenatal valproate administration. More specifically, we exposed both wildtype (SERT+/+ rats and rats heterozygous for the serotonin transporter deletion (SERT+/- to a single injection of 400 mg/kg VPA at gestational day (GD 12. The offspring, in adulthood, was assessed in four different tests: Elevated Plus Maze and Novelty Suppressed Feeding as measures for anxiety and prepulse inhibition (PPI and latent inhibition as measures for cognition and information processing. The results show that prenatal VPA significantly increased anxiety in both paradigm, reduced PPI and reduced conditioning in the latent inhibition paradigm. However, we failed to find a significant gene – environment interaction. We propose that this may be related to the timing of the VPA injection and suggest that whereas GD12 might be optimal for affecting normal rat, rats with a genetically compromised serotonergic system may be more sensitive to VPA at earlier time points during gestation. Overall our data are the first to investigate gene * environmental interactions in a genetic rat model for ASD suggest that timing may be of crucial importance to the long-term outcome.

  16. Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Ridgewell, Anna; Ashwin, Chris

    2009-05-22

    Humans differ in terms of biased attention for emotional stimuli and these biases can confer differential resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders. Selective processing of positive emotional information, for example, is associated with enhanced sociability and well-being while a bias for negative material is associated with neuroticism and anxiety. A tendency to selectively avoid negative material might also be associated with mental health and well-being. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these cognitive phenotypes are currently unknown. Here we show for the first time that allelic variation in the promotor region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is associated with differential biases for positive and negative affective pictures. Individuals homozygous for the long allele (LL) showed a marked bias to selectively process positive affective material alongside selective avoidance of negative affective material. This potentially protective pattern was absent among individuals carrying the short allele (S or SL). Thus, allelic variation on a common genetic polymorphism was associated with the tendency to selectively process positive or negative information. The current study is important in demonstrating a genotype-related alteration in a well-established processing bias, which is a known risk factor in determining both resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders.

  17. Allosteric Binding in the Serotonin Transporter - Pharmacology, Structure, Function and Potential Use as a Novel Drug Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Claus J.; Sanchez, Connie; Plenge, Per

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an important drug target and the majority of currently used antidepressants are potent inhibitors of SERT, binding primarily to the substrate binding site. However, even though the existence of an allosteric modulator site was realized more than 30 years ago......, the research into this mechanism is still in its early days. The current knowledge about the allosteric site with respect to pharmacology, structure and function, and pharmacological tool compounds, is reviewed and a perspective is given on its potential as a drug target....

  18. The SPECT tracer [123I]ADAM binds selectively to serotonin transporters: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy young men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giessen, Elsmarieke van de; Booij, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The tracer 123 I-2-([2-({dimethylamino}methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-iodophenylamine ([ 123 I]ADAM) has been developed to image serotonin transporters (SERTs) with SPECT. Preclinical studies have shown that [ 123 I]ADAM binds selectively to SERTs. Moreover, initial human studies have shown that [ 123 I]ADAM binding could be blocked by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, in humans it has not been proven that [ 123 I]ADAM binds selectively to SERTs. We examined the in vivo availability of SERTs in 12 healthy young volunteers 5 h after bolus injection of [ 123 I]ADAM. To evaluate the selectivity of binding, four participants were pretreated (double-blinded design) with placebo, four with paroxetine (20 mg) and four with the dopamine/norepinephrine blocker methylphenidate (20 mg). SPECT studies were performed on a brain-dedicated system (Neurofocus), and the SPECT images were coregistered with individual MR scans of the brain. ADAM binding in SERT-rich brain areas and cerebellar cortex (representing non-specific binding) was assessed by drawing regions of interest (ROIs) on the individual MR images. Specific to non-specific ratios were used as the outcome measure. We found that specific to non-specific ratios were statistically significantly lower in paroxetine-pretreated participants than in placebo- or methylphenidate-pretreated participants. No such difference was found between groups pretreated with placebo or methylphenidate. Our preliminary findings suggest that [ 123 I]ADAM binds selectively to SERTs in human brain. (orig.)

  19. Antidepressant activity: contribution of brain microdialysis in knock-out mice to the understanding of BDNF/5-HT transporter/5-HT autoreceptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain M Gardier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Why antidepressants vary in terms of efficacy is currently unclear. Despite the leadership of Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of depression, the precise neurobiological mechanisms involved in their therapeutic action are poorly understood. A better knowledge of molecular interactions between monoaminergic system, pre- and post-synaptic partners, brain neuronal circuits and regions involved may help to overcome limitations of current treatments and to identify new therapeutic targets. Intracerebral in vivo microdialysis (ICM already provided important information about the brain mechanism of action of antidepressants first in anesthetized rats in the early 90s, and since then in conscious wild-type or knockout mice. The principle of ICM is based on the balance between release of neurotransmitters (e.g., monoamines, and re-uptake by selective transporters (e.g., SERT for serotonin 5-HT. Complementary to electrophysiology, this technique reflects presynaptic monoamines release and intrasynaptic events corresponding to ≈ 80% of whole brain tissue content. The inhibitory role of serotonergic autoreceptors infers that they limit somatodendritic and nerve terminal 5-HT release. It has been proposed that activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor sub-types limit the antidepressant-like activity of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI. This hypothesis is based partially on results obtained in ICM experiments performed in naïve, non-stressed Rodents. The present review will first remind the principle and methodology of ICM performed in mice. The crucial need of developing animal models that display anxiety and depression-like behaviors, neurochemical and brain morphological phenotypes reminiscent of these mood disorders in Human, will be underlined. Recently developed genetic mouse models have been generated to independently manipulate 5-HT1A auto and hetero-receptors and ICM helped to clarify the role of the

  20. Serotonin transporter polymorphism modifies the association between depressive symptoms and sleep onset latency complaint in elderly people: results from the 'InveCe.Ab' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Letizia; Davin, Annalisa; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have documented the involvement of the central nervous system serotonin in promoting wakefulness. There are few and conflicting results over whether there is an actual association between bearing the short allele of serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and worse sleep quality. This study examined whether sleep onset latency complaint is associated with the 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene promoter and whether this polymorphism influences the relationship between sleep onset latency complaint and depressive symptoms in elderly people. A total of 1321 community-dwelling individuals aged 70-74 years were interviewed for sleep onset latency complaint and for sleep medication consumption. Participants' genomic DNA was typed for 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale Short form and general medical comorbidity was assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The presence of a past history of depression was recorded. The S' allele of the 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was associated with sleep onset latency complaint. This association was maintained after adjusting for depressive symptoms, sex, age, history of depression and medical comorbidity. After stratification for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531, only in S'S' individuals high depressive symptoms were actually associated with sleep onset latency complaint. These data indicate that the low-expressing 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism is an independent risk factor for sleep onset latency disturbance. Furthermore, the 5-HTTLPR genotype influences the association between depressive symptoms and sleep onset latency complaint. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. I. Serotonin-1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Palacios, M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-1 (5-HT 1 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with [ 3 H]serotonin (5-[ 3 H]HT), 8-hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino- 3 H]tetralin (8-OH-[ 3 H]DPAT), [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]mesulergine, and the densities quantified by microdensitometry with the aid of a computer-assisted image-analysis system. Competition experiments for 5-[ 3 H]HT binding by several serotonin-1 agonists led to the identification of brain areas enriched in each one of the three subtypes of 5-HT 1 recognition sites already described. The existence of these 'selective' areas allowed a detailed pharmacological characterization of these sites to be made in a more precise manner than has been attained in membrane-binding studies. Very high concentrations of 5-HT 1 receptors were localized in the choroid plexus, lateroseptal nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, dentate gyrus, dorsal subiculum, olivary pretectal nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular and external layer of the entorhinal cortex. The distribution of 5-HT 1 receptors reported here is discussed in correlation with the distribution of serotoninergic neurons and fibers, the related anatomical pathways and the effects which appear to be mediated by these sites. (Auth.)

  2. Serotonin transporter density in binge eating disorder and pathological gambling: A PET study with [11C]MADAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Parkkola, Riitta; Alho, Hannu; Arponen, Eveliina; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [ 11 C]MADAM. Both region-of-interest and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were performed. Patients with BED showed increased SERT binding in the parieto-occipital cortical regions compared to both PG and healthy controls, with parallel decreases in binding in the nucleus accumbens, inferior temporal gyrus and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. No differences between PG patients and controls were observed. None of the subjects were on SSRI medications at the time of imaging, and there were no differences in the level of depression between PG and BED patients. The results highlight differences in brain SERT binding between individuals with BED and PG and provide further evidence of different neurobiological underpinnings in behavioral addictions that are unrelated to the co-existing mood disorder. The results aid in the conceptualization of behavioral addictions by characterizing the underlying serotonin changes and provide a framework for additional studies to examine syndrome-specific pharmaceutical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu406 is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. PMID:25903124

  4. Dm5-HT2B: Pharmacological Characterization of the Fifth Serotonin Receptor Subtype of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Blenau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals. In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a total of five genes have been identified coding for 5-HT receptors. From this family of proteins, four have been pharmacologically examined in greater detail, so far. While Dm5-HT1A, Dm5-HT1B, and Dm5-HT7 couple to cAMP signaling cascades, the Dm5-HT2A receptor leads to Ca2+ signaling in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Based on sequence similarity to homologous genes in other insects, a fifth D. melanogaster gene was uncovered coding for a Dm5-HT2B receptor. Knowledge about this receptor’s pharmacological properties is very limited. This is quite surprising because Dm5-HT2B has been attributed to distinct physiological functions based on genetic interference with its gene expression. Mutations were described reducing the response of the larval heart to 5-HT, and specific knockdown of Dm5-HT2B mRNA in hemocytes resulted in a higher susceptibility of the flies to bacterial infection. To gain deeper understanding of Dm5-HT2B’s pharmacology, we evaluated the receptor’s response to a series of established 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists in a functional cell-based assay. Metoclopramide and mianserin were identified as two potent antagonists that may allow pharmacological interference with Dm5-HT2B signaling in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Dm5-HT2B: Pharmacological Characterization of the Fifth Serotonin Receptor Subtype of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Daniel, Stöppler; Balfanz, Sabine; Thamm, Markus; Baumann, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster , a total of five genes have been identified coding for 5-HT receptors. From this family of proteins, four have been pharmacologically examined in greater detail, so far. While Dm5-HT 1A , Dm5-HT 1B , and Dm5-HT 7 couple to cAMP signaling cascades, the Dm5-HT 2A receptor leads to Ca 2+ signaling in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Based on sequence similarity to homologous genes in other insects, a fifth D. melanogaster gene was uncovered coding for a Dm5-HT 2B receptor. Knowledge about this receptor's pharmacological properties is very limited. This is quite surprising because Dm5-HT 2B has been attributed to distinct physiological functions based on genetic interference with its gene expression. Mutations were described reducing the response of the larval heart to 5-HT, and specific knockdown of Dm5-HT 2B mRNA in hemocytes resulted in a higher susceptibility of the flies to bacterial infection. To gain deeper understanding of Dm5-HT 2B 's pharmacology, we evaluated the receptor's response to a series of established 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists in a functional cell-based assay. Metoclopramide and mianserin were identified as two potent antagonists that may allow pharmacological interference with Dm5-HT 2B signaling in vitro and in vivo .

  6. In vivo binding of 125I-LSD to serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, P.R.; Scheffel, U.; Frost, J.J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-LSD (2-[ 125 I]-lysergic acid diethylamide) was studied in various mouse brain regions following intravenous injection of the radioligand. The high specific activity of 125 I-LSD enabled the injection of low mass doses (14ng/kg), which are well below the threshold for induction of any known physiological effect of the probe. The highest levels of 125 I-LSD binding were found in the frontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, extra-frontal cortex and striatum while the lowest level was found in the cerebellum. Binding was saturable in the frontal cortex but increased linearly in the cerebellum with increasing doses of 125 I-LSD. Serotonergic compounds potently inhibited 125 I-LSD binding in cortical regions, olfactory tubercles, and hypothalamus but had no effect in the cerebellum. Dopaminergic compounds caused partial inhibition of binding in the striatum while adrenergic compounds were inactive. From these studies the authors conclude that 125 I-LSD labels serotonin 5-HT 2 receptor sites in cortical regions with no indication that other receptor sites are labeled. In the olfactory tubercles and hypothalamus, 125 I-LSD labeling occurs predominantly or entirely at serotonic 5-HT 2 sites. In the striatum, 125 I-LSD labels approximately equal proportions of serotonergic and dopaminergic sites. These data indicate that 125 I-LSD labels serotonin receptors in vivo and suggests that appropriate derivatives of 2I-LSD may prove useful for tomographic imaging of serotonin 5-HT 2 receptors in the mammalian cortex

  7. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 μg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 μg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  8. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 µg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 µg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  9. Relationships between Serotonin Transporter Binding in the Raphe Nuclei, Basal Ganglia, and Hippocampus with Clinical Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia : A [C]DASB Positron Emission Tomography Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marenka; Vállez García, David; de Jong, Bauke M; Zoons, Evelien; Booij, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A; Willemsen, Antoon T; de Vries, Erik F; Bartels, Anna L; Tijssen, Marina A

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Alterations of the central serotonergic system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this molecular imaging study, we assessed whether altered presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding contributes to the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia (CD), concerning both

  10. Serotonin Transporter Gene ("SLC6A4") Methylation Associates with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay and 3-month-old Temperament in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay are early adverse stressful experiences, which may result in an altered temperamental profile. The serotonin transporter gene ("SLC6A4"), which has been linked to infant temperament, is susceptible to epigenetic regulation associated with early stressful experience. This study…

  11. Studies on the influence of the interval after blood withdrawal and different storage temperatures on the uptake and kinetics of 14C-serotonin in human thrombocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, U.

    1978-07-01

    The active in-vitro uptake of 14 C-serotonin in human thrombocytes was investigated in dependence of the interval after blood withdrawal (10-130 min) and the storage temperature of the platelet-rich plasma (4 0 , 22 0 , 37 0 C) for different incubation periods (2, 5, 10 minutes at 37 0 C). The kinetic study of 14 C serotonin uptake showed a constant affinity to the thrombocyte serotonin transport system for all experimental conditions while the maximum reaction rate was clearly affected. One exception was the value determined after 130 minutes of storage time and a storage temperature of 37 0 C for a 14 C serotonin concentration of 10 -5 M which showed a reduced affinity. (orig./AJ) [de

  12. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  13. Epidermal growth factor upregulates serotonin transporter and its association with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiu-Fang; Zhou, Wei-Mei; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xue-Liang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2014-10-07

    To investigate the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in visceral hypersensitivity and its effect on the serotonin transporter (SERT). A rat model for visceral hypersensitivity was established by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid in 10-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The visceral sensitivity was assessed by observing the abdominal withdrawal reflex and recording electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the EGF levels in plasma and colonic tissues. SERT mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR while protein level was determined by Western blot. The correlation between EGF and SERT levels in colon tissues was analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis. SERT function was examined by tritiated serotonin (5-HT) uptake experiments. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were used to examine the EGF regulatory effect on SERT expression and function via the EGF receptor (EGFR). EGF levels were significantly lower in the rats with visceral hypersensitivity as measured in plasma (2.639 ± 0.107 ng/mL vs 4.066 ± 0.573 ng/mL, P < 0.01) and in colonic tissue (3.244 ± 0.135 ng/100 mg vs 3.582 ± 0.197 ng/100 mg colon tissue, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Moreover, the EGF levels were positively correlated with SERT levels (r = 0.820, P < 0.01). EGF displayed dose- and time-dependent increased SERT gene expressions in IEC-6 cells. An EGFR kinase inhibitor inhibited the effect of EGF on SERT gene upregulation. SERT activity was enhanced following treatment with EGF (592.908 ± 31.515 fmol/min per milligram vs 316.789 ± 85.652 fmol/min per milligram protein, P < 0.05) and blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor in IEC-6 cells (590.274 ± 25.954 fmol/min per milligram vs 367.834 ± 120.307 fmol/min per milligram protein, P < 0.05). A decrease in EGF levels may contribute to the formation of visceral hypersensitivity through downregulation of SERT

  14. Serotonin induces peripheral antinociception via the opioidergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Danielle Aguiar; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Navarro, Larissa Caldeira; Souza, Tâmara Cristina; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE 2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model. The selective antagonists for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, clocinnamox clocinnamox (40 μg), naltrindole (60 μg) and nor-binaltorfimina (200 μg), respectively, inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin. Additionally, bestatin (400 μg), an inhibitor of enkephalinases that degrade peptides opioids, enhanced the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin (low dose of 62.5 ng). These results suggest that serotonin possibly induce peripheral antinociception through the release of endogenous opioid peptides, possible from immune cells or keratinocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. One-step preparation of [18F]FPBM for PET imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Zehui; Zhu, Lin; Choi, Seok Rye; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERT) in the brain play an important role in normal brain function. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, etc., specifically target SERT binding in the brain. Development of SERT imaging agents may be useful for studying the function of SERT by in vivo imaging. A one-step preparation of [ 18 F]FPBM, 2-(2′-(dimethylamino)methyl)-4′-(3-([ 18 F]fluoropropoxy)phenylthio) benzenamine, for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of SERT binding in the brain was achieved. An active OTs intermediate, 9, was reacted with [ 18 F]F − /K 222 to produce [ 18 F]FPBM in one step and in high radiochemical yield. This labeling reaction was evaluated and optimized under different temperatures, bases, solvents, and varying amounts of precursor 9. The radiolabeling reaction led to the desired [ 18 F]FPBM in one step and the crude product was purified by HPLC purification to give no-carrier-added [ 18 F]FPBM (radiochemical yield, 24–33%, decay corrected; radiochemical purity > 99%). PET imaging studies in normal monkeys (n = 4) showed fast, pronounced uptakes in the midbrain and thalamus, regions known to be rich in SERT binding sites. A displacement experiment with escitalopram (5 mg/kg iv injection at 30 min after [ 18 F]FPBM injection) showed a rapid and complete reversal of SERT binding, suggesting that binding by [ 18 F]FPBM was highly specific and reversible. A one-step radiolabeling method coupled with HPLC purification for preparation of [ 18 F]FPBM was developed. Imaging studies suggest that it is feasible to use this method to prepare [ 18 F]FPBM for in vivo PET imaging of SERT binding in the brain.

  16. Non-conventional features of peripheral serotonin signalling - the gut and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Stephanie N; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin was first discovered in the gut, and its conventional actions as an intercellular signalling molecule in the intrinsic and extrinsic enteric reflexes are well recognized, as are a number of serotonin signalling pharmacotherapeutic targets for treatment of nausea, diarrhoea or constipation. The latest discoveries have greatly broadened our understanding of non-conventional actions of peripheral serotonin within the gastrointestinal tract and in a number of other tissues. For example, it is now clear that bacteria within the lumen of the bowel influence serotonin synthesis and release by enterochromaffin cells. Also, serotonin can act both as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling molecule in the intestinal mucosa via activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT 7 or 5-HT 4 receptors, respectively). For decades, serotonin receptors have been known to exist in a variety of tissues other than the gut, but studies have now provided strong evidence for physiological roles of serotonin in several important processes, including haematopoiesis, metabolic homeostasis and bone metabolism. Furthermore, evidence for serotonin synthesis in peripheral tissues outside of the gut is emerging. In this Review, we expand the discussion beyond gastrointestinal functions to highlight the roles of peripheral serotonin in colitis, haematopoiesis, energy and bone metabolism, and how serotonin is influenced by the gut microbiota.

  17. The expression and role of serotonin receptor 5HTR2A in canine osteoblasts and an osteosarcoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracha, Shay; Viall, Austin; Goodall, Cheri; Stang, Bernadette; Ruaux, Craig; Seguin, Bernard; Chappell, Patrick E

    2013-12-12

    The significance of the serotonergic system in bone physiology and, more specifically, the importance of the five hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5HTR2A) in normal osteoblast proliferation have been previously described; however the role of serotonin in osteosarcoma remains unclear. Particularly, the expression and function of 5HTR2A in canine osteosarcoma has not yet been studied, thus we sought to determine if this indoleamine modulates cellular proliferation in vitro. Using real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses, we explored receptor expression and signaling differences between non-neoplastic canine osteoblasts (CnOb) and an osteosarcoma cell line (COS). To elucidate specific serotonergic signaling pathways triggered by 5HTR2A, we performed immunoblots for ERK and CREB. Finally, we compared cell viability and the induction of apoptosis in the presence 5HTR2A agonists and antagonists. 5HTR2A was overexpressed in the malignant cell line in comparison to normal cells. In CnOb cells, ERK phosphorylation (ERK-P) decreased in response to both serotonin and a specific 5HTR2A antagonist, ritanserin. In contrast, ERK-P abundance increased in COS cells following either treatment. While endogenous CREB was undetectable in CnOb, CREB was observed constitutively in COS, with expression and exhibited increased CREB phosphorylation following escalating concentrations of ritanserin. To determine the influence of 5HTR2A signaling on cell viability we challenged cells with ritanserin and serotonin. Our findings confirmed that serotonin treatment promoted cell viability in malignant cells but not in normal osteoblasts. Conversely, ritanserin reduced cell viability in both the normal and osteosarcoma cells. Further, ritanserin induced apoptosis in COS at the same concentrations associated with decreased cell viability. These findings confirm the existence of a functional 5HTR2A in a canine osteosarcoma cell line. Results indicate that intracellular

  18. The influence of serotonin on fear learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.

  19. Decreased frontal serotonin 5-HT{sub 2a} receptor binding index in deliberate self-harm patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Laere, K. van; Dierckx, R.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Dumont, F.; Slegers, G. [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Mertens, J. [VUB-Cyclotron, Brussels (Belgium); Heeringen, C. van [Dept. of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2001-02-01

    Studies of serotonin metabolites in body fluids in attempted suicide patients and of post-mortem brain tissue of suicide victims have demonstrated the involvement of the serotonergic neurotransmission system in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour. Recently developed neuroimaging techniques offer the unique possibility of investigating in vivo the functional characteristics of this system. In this study the 5-HT{sub 2a} receptor population of patients who had recently attempted suicide was studied by means of the highly specific radio-iodinated 5-HT{sub 2a} receptor antagonist 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide or {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150. Nine patients who had recently (1-7 days) attempted suicide and 12 age-matched healthy controls received an intravenous injection of 185 MBq {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150 and were scanned with high-resolution brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Stereotactic realigned images were analysed semi-quantitatively using predefined volumes of interest. Serotonin binding capacity was expressed as the ratio of specific to non-specific activity. The cerebellum was used as a measure of non-specific activity. An age-dependent 5-HT{sub 2a} binding index was found, in agreement with previous literature. Deliberate self-harm patients had a significantly reduced mean frontal binding index after correction for age (P=0.002) when compared with controls. The reduction was more pronounced among deliberate self-injury patients (DSI) (P<0.001) than among deliberate self-poisoning patients (DSP). Frontal binding index was significantly lower in DSI patients than in DSP suicide attempters (P<0.001). It is concluded that brain SPET of the 5-HT{sub 2a} serotonin receptor system in attempted suicide patients who are free of drugs influencing the serotonergic system shows in vivo evidence of a decreased frontal binding index of the 5-HT{sub 2a} receptor, indicating a decrease in the number and/or in

  20. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu(406) is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Modulation of the platelet serotonin transporter by thermal balneotherapy: a study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, S; Marazziti, D; Consoli, G; Picchetti, M; Catena-Dell'Osso, M; Galassi, A

    2012-05-01

    Although the beneficial effects of balneotherapy have been recognized since a long time, a few information is available on the biological mechanisms underlying them and the subjective feelings of increased well-being and mood. The links between the serotonin (5-HT) system and mood prompted us to investigate the 5-HT platelet transporter (SERT), which is considered a reliable, peripheral marker of the same structure present in presynaptic neurons, in 30 healthy volunteers before (t0) and 30 minutes after (t1) thermal balneotherapy with ozonized water, as compared with a similar group who underwent a bath in non-mineral water. MATERIALS AN METHODS: The SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par) to platelet membranes. Equilibrium-saturation binding data, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (Kd), were obtained by means of the Scatchard analysis. The results showed that, while Bmax values did not change in both groups, the Kd values decreased significantly at t1 only in those subjects who bathed in ozonized water. The results of this study, while showing a decrease of the dissociation constant (Kd) which is the inverse of affinity constant, of 3H-Par binding to SERT in all subjects after balneotherapy and not in those bathing in normal water, suggest that SERT modifications may be related to a specific effect of ozonized water and, perhaps, also to the increased sense of well-being.

  2. Reversibility of ecstasy-induced reduction in serotonin transporter availability in polydrug ecstasy users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Ralph; Wilke, Florian; Nebeling, Bruno; Clausen, Malte; Thomasius, Rainer; Petersen, Kay; Obrocki, Jost; Wartberg, Lutz; Zapletalova, Pavlina

    2006-01-01

    Animal data suggest that the synthetic drug ecstasy may damage brain serotonin neurons. Previously we reported protracted reductions in the availability of the serotonin transporter (SERT), an index of integrity of the axon terminals of brain serotonergic neurons, in SERT-rich brain regions in current human ecstasy users. Comparison of current ecstasy users and former ecstasy users yielded some evidence that this reduction might be reversible. However, participant selection effects could not be ruled out. Therefore, follow-up examinations were performed in these subjects to test the following a priori hypothesis in a prospective longitudinal design that eliminates participant selection effects to a large extent: availability of the SERT increases towards normal levels when ecstasy use is stopped, and remains unchanged or is further decreased if use is continued. Two follow-up positron emission tomography measurements using the SERT ligand [ 11 C](+)McN5652 were completed by 15 current and nine former ecstasy users. All subjects used illicit drugs other than ecstasy, too. The time interval between repeated measurements was about 1 year. The time course of the availability of the SERT was analysed in the following SERT-rich regions: mesencephalon, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Current ecstasy users showed a consistent increase in the availability of the SERT in the mesencephalon during the study (Friedman test: p=0.010), which most likely was caused by a decrease in the intensity of ecstasy consumption (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.725, p=0.002). Former ecstasy users showed a consistent increase in SERT availability in the thalamus (Friedman test: p=0.006). Ecstasy-induced protracted alterations in the availability of the SERT might be reversible. (orig.)

  3. Reversibility of ecstasy-induced reduction in serotonin transporter availability in polydrug ecstasy users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Ralph; Wilke, Florian; Nebeling, Bruno; Clausen, Malte [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Thomasius, Rainer; Petersen, Kay; Obrocki, Jost; Wartberg, Lutz; Zapletalova, Pavlina [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Departments of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    Animal data suggest that the synthetic drug ecstasy may damage brain serotonin neurons. Previously we reported protracted reductions in the availability of the serotonin transporter (SERT), an index of integrity of the axon terminals of brain serotonergic neurons, in SERT-rich brain regions in current human ecstasy users. Comparison of current ecstasy users and former ecstasy users yielded some evidence that this reduction might be reversible. However, participant selection effects could not be ruled out. Therefore, follow-up examinations were performed in these subjects to test the following a priori hypothesis in a prospective longitudinal design that eliminates participant selection effects to a large extent: availability of the SERT increases towards normal levels when ecstasy use is stopped, and remains unchanged or is further decreased if use is continued. Two follow-up positron emission tomography measurements using the SERT ligand [{sup 11}C](+)McN5652 were completed by 15 current and nine former ecstasy users. All subjects used illicit drugs other than ecstasy, too. The time interval between repeated measurements was about 1 year. The time course of the availability of the SERT was analysed in the following SERT-rich regions: mesencephalon, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Current ecstasy users showed a consistent increase in the availability of the SERT in the mesencephalon during the study (Friedman test: p=0.010), which most likely was caused by a decrease in the intensity of ecstasy consumption (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.725, p=0.002). Former ecstasy users showed a consistent increase in SERT availability in the thalamus (Friedman test: p=0.006). Ecstasy-induced protracted alterations in the availability of the SERT might be reversible. (orig.)

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked promoter region polymorphism on susceptibility to lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Premature ejaculation (PE has been reported as the most common male sexual dysfunction with global prevalence rates estimated at approximately 30%. The neurobiogenesis of ejaculation is very complex and involves the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT system. Recently, genetic polymorphisms located on SLC6A4 gene codifying for 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, the major regulator of serotonic neurotransmission, have been linked with the pathogenesis and risk of PE. Apparently studies of this type of polymorphism in PE have show conflicting results. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed that are available in relation with 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the risk of lifelong PE (LPE in men to clarify this relationship. We searched Pubmed and Embase (last search updated on Aug 2012 using 'premature ejaculation', 'polymorphism or variant', 'genotype', 'ejaculatory function', and 'rapid ejaculation' as keywords and reference lists of studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. These studies involved the total number of 481 LPE men and 466 health control men subjects. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. RESULTS: In the overall analysis, significant associations between LPE risk and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were found (L-allele vs. S-allele OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79-0.95, P = 0.002; LL vs. SS: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68-0.95, P = 0.009; LS vs. SS: OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97, P = 0.012 and LL+LS vs. SS: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95, P = 0.002. Moreover, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, similar significant associations were detected. The Egger's test did not reveal presence of a publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations demonstrate that 5-HTTLPR (L>S polymorphism might protect men against LPE risk. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should

  5. Brain dopamine and serotonin transporter binding are associated with visual attention bias for food in lean men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K. E.; Roefs, A.; Elbers, D. C. E.; Fliers, E.; Booij, J.; Serlie, M. J.; La Fleur, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, the striatal dopamine (DA) system and the (hypo)thalamic serotonin (5-HT) system are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. In lean humans, little is known about the relationship between these brain neurotransmitter systems and feeding. We studied the relationship between

  6. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; van der Spek, J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are

  7. The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christopher L.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Studies of whole blood serotonin levels in ASD and in a large founder population indicate greater heritability than for the disorder itself and suggest an association with recurrence risk. Emerging data from both neuroimaging and postmortem samples also indicate changes in the brain serotonin system in ASD. Genetic linkage and association studies of both whole blood serotonin levels and of ASD risk point to the chromosomal region containing the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene in males but not in females. In ASD families with evidence of linkage to this region, multiple rare SERT amino acid variants lead to a convergent increase in serotonin uptake in cell models. A knock-in mouse model of one of these variants, SERT Gly56Ala, recapitulates the hyperserotonemia biomarker and shows increased brain serotonin clearance, increased serotonin receptor sensitivity, and altered social, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Data from other rodent models also suggest an important role for the serotonin system in social behavior, in cognitive flexibility, and in sensory development. Recent work indicates that reciprocal interactions between serotonin and other systems, such as oxytocin, may be particularly important for social behavior. Collectively, these data point to the serotonin system as a prime candidate for treatment development in a subgroup of children defined by a robust, heritable biomarker. PMID:26577932

  8. Pharmacological and genetic interventions in serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptors to alter drug abuse and dependence processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filip, Malgorzata; Spampinato, Umberto; McCreary, Andrew C.; Przegalinski, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    The present review provides an overview on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)(2C) receptors and their relationship to drug dependence. We have focused our discussion on the impact of 5-HT2C receptors on the effects of different classes of addictive drugs, illustrated by reference to data using

  9. Psychological distress following marital separation interacts with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene to predict cardiac vagal control in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmo, Karen; Sbarra, David A; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Moreno, Francisco A

    2015-06-01

    Marital separation is linked to negative mental and physical health; however, the strength of this link may vary across people. This study examined changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), used to assess cardiac vagal control, in recently separated adults (N = 79; M time since separation = 3.5 months). When reflecting on the separation, self-reported psychological distress following the separation interacted with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs25531, to predict RSA. Among people reporting emotional difficulties after the separation, those who were homozygous for the short allele had lower RSA levels while reflecting on their relationship than other genotypes. The findings, although limited by the relatively small sample size, are discussed in terms of how higher-sensitivity genotypes may interact with psychological responses to stress to alter physiology. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, J.; Waarde, A. van

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT 1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT 1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl- 11 C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl- 11 C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[ 18 F]MPPF and [ 11 C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT 1A receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  11. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on