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Sample records for serotonergic system remains

  1. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  2. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

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    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of emotionally salient events, often when both rewarding and aversive outcomes are possible. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the neural circuits regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior with an emphasis on the role of brainstem serotonergic systems in modulating...... anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...

  3. The serotonergic system and cognitive function

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    Švob Štrac Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction like memory loss, poor concentration, impaired learning and executive functions are characteristic features of both schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognition in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric patients are not completely understood. Studies have focused on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT as one of the possible cognitionrelated biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on the role of the serotonergic (5-HTergic system in cognitive function, particularly in AD and schizophrenia.

  4. Assessment of serotonergic system in formation of memory and learning

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    J. C. da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the involvement of the serotonergic system on memory formation and learning processes in healthy adults Wistar rats. Fifty-seven rats of 5 groups had one serotonergic nuclei damaged by an electric current. Electrolytic lesion was carried out using a continuous current of 2mA during two seconds by stereotactic surgery. Animals were submitted to learning and memory tests. Rats presented different responses in the memory tests depending on the serotonergic nucleus involved. Both explicit and implicit memory may be affected after lesion although some groups showed significant difference and others did not. A damage in the serotonergic nucleus was able to cause impairment in the memory of Wistar. The formation of implicit and explicit memory is impaired after injury in some serotonergic nuclei.

  5. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

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    Sadkowski, Marta; Dennis, Brittany; Clayden, Robert C; ElSheikh, Wala; Rangarajan, Sumathy; DeJesus, Jane; Samaan, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB); however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. PMID:24235834

  6. Premature ejaculation and serotonergic antidepressants-induced delayed ejaculation : the involvement of the serotonergic system

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    Waldinger, MD; Berendsen, HHG; Blok, BFM; Olivier, B; Holstege, G

    Premature ejaculation has generally been considered a psychosexual disorder with psychogenic aetiology. Although still mainly treated by behavioural therapy, in recent years double-blind studies have indicated the beneficial effects of some of the serotonergic antidepressants (SSRIs) in delaying

  7. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

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    Sadkowski M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marta Sadkowski,1,* Brittany Dennis,2–4,* Robert C Clayden,2 Wala ElSheikh,5 Sumathy Rangarajan,5 Jane DeJesus,5 Zainab Samaan3–6 1Arts and Sciences Program, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 4Population Genomics Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 5Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 6Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB; however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. Keywords: serotonin, suicide, genetic

  8. Serotonergic mechanisms in the migraine brain

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    Christensen, Marie Deen; Christensen, Casper Emil; Hougaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    role of brain serotonergic mechanisms remains a matter of controversy. Methods We systematically searched PubMed for studies investigating the serotonergic system in the migraine brain by either molecular neuroimaging or electrophysiological methods. Results The literature search resulted in 59 papers......, of which 13 were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that migraine patients have alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission. Most likely, migraine patients have a low cerebral serotonin level between attacks, which elevates during a migraine attack. Conclusion...... This review suggests that novel methods of investigating the serotonergic system in the migraine brain are warranted. Uncovering the serotonergic mechanisms in migraine pathophysiology could prove useful for the development of future migraine drugs....

  9. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

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    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  10. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

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    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

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    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  12. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

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    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  13. Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs

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    Abrams, J K; Johnson, P L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Serotonergic systems play important roles in modulating behavioral arousal, including behavioral arousal and vigilance associated with anxiety states. To further our understanding of the neural systems associated with increases in anxiety states, we investigated the effects of multiple anxiogenic...... and vigilance behaviors consistent with an increase in anxiety state. In addition, these anxiogenic drugs, excluding yohimbine, had convergent actions on an anatomically-defined subset of serotonergic neurons within the middle and caudal, dorsal subdivision of the DR. High resolution topographical analysis...... nucleus, a forebrain structure important for emotional appraisal and modulation of anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Together these findings support the hypothesis that there is a functional topographical organization in the DR and are consistent with the hypothesis that anxiogenic...

  14. Affective spectrum disorders and role of serotonergic system of the brain

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    Timotijević Ivana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective spectrum disorders include mood and anxiety disorders, whereas the term functional somatic syndromes describes disorders in which the main symptom is chronic pain, with no pathognomonic tissue damage, such as fibromyalgia, irritable colon, tension headache. Pain as a symptom is often present in patients with depression and anxiety, and similarly, depressed mood, anxiety and other psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with functional somatic syndromes. This explains attitudes that affective disorders and functional somatic syndromes should be found along the same spectrum, due to a similar neurobiochemicalmehanism and dysfunction of these CNS structures and neurotransmitter systems, which lead to similar symptoms in both groups. The symptoms of affective disorders, including somatic are associated with serotonin and serotonergic transmission in the CNS. The existence of depressive and anxiety disorders, such as fatigue, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders, depressed mood, anxiety, and functional somatic syndromes code indicate a similar mechanism of origin. Hypothesis of central neuropathic pain explains the possibility of the descending inhibitory pain mechanisms, including serotonergic and noradrenergic projections and their receptors. Central suprasegmental senzitization in nociceptive pathways, also at the level of the thalamus and the sensory cortex, trigered by an emotional stressors can cause painful symptoms in both groups of disorders. Serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways and voltage sensitive channels of their receptors are included in the mechanism. Modern psychopharmacology can no longer ignore the existence of painful symptoms in affective disorder or depressive and anxiety symptoms in functional somatic syndromes and their treatment can improve. Therapeutic effects of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants and alpha 2 delta ligands for all kinds of painful symptoms in affective disorders - serotonergic spectrum is

  15. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

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    Peiyan eWong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A. The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex, will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7-11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7-11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7-11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  16. Genetic and biochemical changes of the serotonergic system in migraine pathobiology.

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    Gasparini, Claudia Francesca; Smith, Robert Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn Robyn

    2017-12-01

    Migraine is a brain disorder characterized by a piercing headache which affects one side of the head, located mainly at the temples and in the area around the eye. Migraine imparts substantial suffering to the family in addition to the sufferer, particularly as it affects three times more women than men and is most prevalent between the ages of 25 and 45, the years of child rearing. Migraine typically occurs in individuals with a genetic predisposition and is aggravated by specific environmental triggers. Attempts to study the biochemistry of migraine began as early as the 1960s and were primarily directed at serotonin metabolism after an increase of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the main metabolite of serotonin was observed in urine of migraineurs. Genetic and biochemical studies have primarily focused on the neurotransmitter serotonin, considering receptor binding, transport and synthesis of serotonin and have investigated serotonergic mediators including enzymes, receptors as well as intermediary metabolites. These studies have been mainly assayed in blood, CSF and urine as the most accessible fluids. More recently PET imaging technology integrated with a metabolomics and a systems biology platform are being applied to study serotonergic biology. The general trend observed is that migraine patients have alterations of neurotransmitter metabolism detected in biological fluids with different biochemistry from controls, however the interpretation of the biological significance of these peripheral changes is unresolved. In this review we present the biology of the serotonergic system and metabolic routes for serotonin and discuss results of biochemical studies with regard to alterations in serotonin in brain, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, platelets, plasma and urine of migraine patients.

  17. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

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    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  18. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A reassessment of the role of serotonergic system in the control of feeding behavior

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    Medeiros Magda A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonergic system in the feeding behaviorwas appraised by electrolytic lesions in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN and administration of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 3 mg/5 mul, icv. Chronic evaluations were accomplished through 120 and 360 days in PCPA-injected and DRN-lesioned rats, respectively. Acute food intake was evaluated in fasted rats and submitted to injection of PCPA and hydroxytryptophan (LHTP, 30 mg/kg, ip. DRN-lesioned rats exhibited 22-80% increase in food intake up to sixth month, whereas the obesity was evident and sustained by whole period. In PCPA-injected rats was observed an initial increase in the food intake followed by hypophagy from 25th to 30th day and a transitory increase of body weight from 5th to 60th day. In the acute study, the LHTP reverted partially the PCPA-induced increase in food intake of fasted rats suggesting a sustained capacity of decarboxylation of precursor by serotonergic neurons. Slow restoration of the levels of food intake in DRN-lesioned rats reveals a neuroplasticity in the systems that regulate feeding behavior. A plateau on the body weight curve in lesioned rats possibly represents the establishment of a new and higher set point of energetic balance.

  20. Estrogenic mediation of serotonergic and neurotrophic systems: implications for female mood disorders.

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    Borrow, Amanda P; Cameron, Nicole M

    2014-10-03

    Clinical research has demonstrated a significant sex difference in the occurrence of depressive disorders. Beginning at pubertal onset, women report a higher incidence of depression than men. Women are also vulnerable to the development of depressive disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression. These disorders are associated with reproductive stages involving changes in gonadal hormone levels. Specifically, female depression and female affective behaviors are influenced by estradiol levels. This review argues two major mechanisms by which estrogens influence depression and depressive-like behavior: through interactions with neurotrophic factors and through an influence on the serotonergic system. In particular, estradiol increases brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels within the brain, and alters serotonergic expression in a receptor subtype-specific manner. We will take a regional approach, examining these effects of estrogens in the major brain areas implicated in depression. Finally, we will discuss the gaps in our current knowledge of the effects of estrogens on female depression, and the potential utility for estrogen receptor modulators in treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediation by the serotonergic system of U-50,488H-induced antinociception and tolerance

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    Ho, Begonia Yeeman.

    1989-01-01

    The antinociceptive action of U-50,488H, a selective {kappa}-opioid receptor agonist, was attenuated by serotonergic but not by noradrenergic receptor antagonists. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered U-50,488H was antagonized by more than two fold by i.c.v. administered pindolol, methysergide, mianserin, ketanserin, pirenperone or ICS-205,930. A similar degree of antagonism of U-50,488H (i.c.v.) was found after intrathecal (i.t.) treatments with pindolol, methysergide or ICS-205,930 but not with mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone. When U-50,488H and the antagonists were both given i.t., its antinociceptive action was attenuated by pindolol or methysergide, potentiated by mianserin, ketanserin or pirenperone and not affected by ICS-205,930. The release of serotonin was further studied directly by using a superfusion system. A naloxone reversible, concentration- and Ca{sup 2+}- dependent enhancement of release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin by U-50,488H was observed in spinal and brain tissues. Tolerance to the antinociceptive action of U-50,488H was induced in mice using slow release preparations of U-50,488H. Serotonergic receptor antagonists (pindolol or ketanserin) were co-administered with U-50,488H to test for their effects on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H.

  2. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system in fear conditioning.

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    Nasehi, Mohammad; Farrahizadeh, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested a key role for the cannabinoid system in the modulation of conditioned fear memory. Likewise, much of the literature has revealed that the serotonergic system affects Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. A high level of functional overlap between the serotonin and cannabinoid systems has also been reported. To clarify the interaction between the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT4) receptor and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the acquisition of fear memory, the effects of 5-HT4 agents, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; CB1 receptor agonist), and the combined use of these drugs on fear learning were studied in a fear conditioning task in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in both context- and tone-dependent fear conditions, suggesting impairment of the acquisition of fear memory. Pre-training, intra-hippocampal (CA1) microinjection of RS67333, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 or 0.2 µg/mouse impaired contextual and tone fear memory, respectively. A subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 µg/mouse) did not alter the ACPA response in either condition. Moreover, intra-CA1 microinjection of RS23597 as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist did not alter context-dependent fear memory acquisition, but it did impair tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. However, a subthreshold dose of the RS23597 (0.01 µg/mouse) potentiated ACPA-induced fear memory impairment in both conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the blockade of hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system modulates cannabinoid signaling induced by the activation of CB1 receptors in conditioned fear. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Hypothesis: the regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia.

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    Devereux, Diana; Ikomi-Kumm, Julie

    2013-03-01

    The regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia is a hypothesis, which proposes an inherent operative system in homo sapiens that allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated vascular system adaption to variables in partial pressure of oxygen, pH and body composition, while maintaining sufficient oxygen saturation for the immune system and ensuring protection of major organs in hypoxic and suboptimal conditions. While acknowledging the importance of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in the regulation of acid base balance, the hypothesis seeks to define the specific neuroendocrine/vascular mechanisms at work in regulating acid base balance in hypoxia and infection. The SIA (serotonin-immune-adrenergic) system is proposed as a working model, which allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated macro- and micro vascular 'fine tuning'. The neurotransmitter serotonin serves as a 'hypoxic sensor' in concert with other operators to orchestrate homeostatic balance in normal and pathological states. The SIA system finely regulates oxygen, fuel and metabolic buffering systems at local sites to ensure optimum conditions for the immune response. The SIA system is fragile and its operation may be affected by infection, stress, diet, environmental toxins and lack of exercise. The hypothesis provides new insight in the area of neuro-gastroenterology, and emphasizes the importance of diet and nutrition as a complement in the treatment of infection, as well as the normalization of intestinal flora following antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoperiodic responses of depression-like behavior, the brain serotonergic system, and peripheral metabolism in laboratory mice.

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    Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Misato; Togo, Yuki; Goda, Ryosei; Kawase, Takahiro; Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depression during specific seasons, generally winter. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD remain elusive due to a limited number of animal models with high availability and validity. Here we show that laboratory C57BL/6J mice display photoperiodic changes in depression-like behavior and brain serotonin content. C57BL/6J mice maintained under short-day conditions, as compared to those under long-day conditions, demonstrated prolonged immobility times in the forced swimming test with lower brain levels of serotonin and its precursor l-tryptophan. Furthermore, photoperiod altered multiple parameters reflective of peripheral metabolism, including the ratio of plasma l-tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids that compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier, responses of circulating glucose and insulin to glucose load, sucrose intake under restricted feeding condition, and sensitivity of the brain serotonergic system to peripherally administered glucose. These data suggest that the mechanisms underlying SAD involve the brain-peripheral tissue network, and C57BL/6J mice can serve as a powerful tool for investigating the link between seasons and mood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The anatomy of the serotonergic nervous system of an entoproct creeping-type larva and its phylogenetic implications

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    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Fuchs, Judith; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    the anatomy of the serotonergic nervous system of the creeping-type larva of Loxosomella murmanica. The apical organ is very complex and comprises six to eight centrally positioned flask cells and eight bipolar peripheral cells. In addition, a prototroch nerve ring, an anterior nerve loop, a paired buccal...... molluscs and may be diagnostic for a mollusc-entoproct clade. In addition, the larva of Loxosomella expresses a mosaic of certain neural features that are also found in other larval or adult Spiralia, e.g., a prototroch nerve ring, an anterior nerve loop, and a buccal nervous system....... ones, are found along the anterior-posterior axis. The combination of a complex larval serotonergic apical organ and (adult) tetraneury, comprising one pair of ventral and one pair of more dorsally situated lateral longitudinal nerve cords without ganglia, has so far only been reported for basal...

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic system are associated with circadian manifestations of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, G H; Bornhardt, T; Iturriaga, V; Salazar, L A

    2016-11-01

    Bruxism (BRX) is a condition of great interest for researchers and clinicians in dental and medical areas. BRX has two circadian manifestations; it can occur during sleep (sleep bruxism, SB) or during wakefulness (awake bruxism, WB). However, it can be suffered together. Recent investigations suggest that central nervous system neurotransmitters and their genes could be involved in the genesis of BRX. Serotonin is responsible for the circadian rhythm, maintaining arousal, regulating stress response, muscle tone and breathing. Thus, serotonin could be associated with BRX pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of genetic polymorphisms in the genes HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs1923884, rs4941573, rs6313, rs2770304), HTR2C (rs17260565) and SLC6A4 (rs63749047) in subjects undergoing BRX treatment. Patients included were classified according to their diagnosis in awake bruxism (61 patients), sleep bruxism (26 patients) and both (43 patients). The control group included 59 healthy patients with no signs of BRX. Data showed significant differences in allelic frequencies for the HTR2A rs2770304 polymorphism, where the C allele was associated with increased risk of SB (odds ratio = 2·13, 95% confidence interval: 1·08-4·21, P = 0·03). Our results suggest that polymorphisms in serotonergic pathways are involved in sleep bruxism. Further research is needed to clarify and increase the current understanding of BRX physiopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A role for the hippocampal serotonergic system in the pathology of schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.M.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Theories of a role for serotonin in the pathology of schizophrenia predate the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. More recently, interest in the involvement of serotonin in the disorder is primarily due to the fact that the 'atypical' neuroleptic drugs target the serotonergic system, amongst others. We have previously reported decreases in the 5-HT 2A receptors in hippocampi obtained postmortem from subjects with schizophrenia. In the same cohort of subjects we now report decreases (p 3 H]citalopram binding in the CA1 region (17.5 ± 1.4 vs. 21.7 ± 1.3 fmole/mg ETE) and methiothepin-insensitive [3H]sumatriptan binding in the CA1 (2.85 ± 0.25 vs. 3.90 ± 0.33 fmole/mg ETE), the stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare (4.11 ± 0.32 vs. 5.35 ± 0.46 fmole/mg ETE) and subiculum (3.87 ± 0.26 vs. 5.08 ± 0.39 fmole/mg ETE) from subjects with schizophrenia. No changes were found in [ 3 H]8-OHDPAT or methiothepin-sensitive [ 3 H]sumatriptan binding. These data indicate that there are regionally specific decreases in the densities of hippocampal serotonin transporter and 5-HT 1F receptors which may be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  8. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain. PMID:25761874

  9. Disruption of the Serotonergic System after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in a Rodent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Buller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying which specific neuronal phenotypes are vulnerable to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, where in the brain they are damaged, and the mechanisms that produce neuronal losses are critical to determine the anatomical substrates responsible for neurological impairments in hypoxic-ischemic brain-injured neonates. Here we describe our current work investigating how the serotonergic network in the brain is disrupted in a rodent model of preterm hypoxia-ischemia. One week after postnatal day 3 hypoxia-ischemia, losses of serotonergic raphé neurons, reductions in serotonin levels in the brain, and reduced serotonin transporter expression are evident. These changes can be prevented using two anti-inflammatory interventions; the postinsult administration of minocycline or ibuprofen. However, each drug has its own limitations and benefits for use in neonates to stem damage to the serotonergic network after hypoxia-ischemia. By understanding the fundamental mechanisms underpinning hypoxia-ischemia-induced serotonergic damage we will hopefully move closer to developing a successful clinical intervention to treat neonatal brain injury.

  10. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  11. Neuroanatomic Relationships between the GABAergic and Serotonergic Systems in the Developing Human Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Paterson, David S.; Rivera, Keith D.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Amino butyric (GABA) critically influences serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the raphé and extra-raphé of the medulla oblongata. In this study we hypothesize there are marked changes in the developmental profile of markers of the human medullary GABAergic system relative to the 5-HT system in early life. We used single- and double-label immunocytochemistry and tissue receptor autoradiography in 15 human medullae from fetal and infant cases ranging from 15 gestational weeks to 10 postnatal months, and compared our findings with an extensive 5-HT-related database in our laboratory. In the raphé obscurus, we identified two subsets of GABAergic neurons using glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) immunostaining: one comprised of small, round neurons; the other, medium, spindle-shaped neurons. In three term medullae cases, positive immunoflorescent neurons for both tryptophan hydroxylase and GAD65/67 were counted within the raphé obscurus. This revealed approximately 6% of the total neurons counted in this nucleus expressed both GAD65/67 and TPOH suggesting co-production of GABA by a subset of 5-HT neurons. The distribution of GABAA binding was ubiquitous across medullary nuclei, with highest binding in the raphé obscurus. GABAA receptor subtypes α1 and α3 were expressed by 5-HT neurons, indicating the site of interaction of GABA with 5-HT neurons. These receptor subtypes and KCC2, a major chloride transporter, were differentially expressed across early development, from mid-gestation (20wks) and thereafter. The developmental profile of GABAergic markers changed dramatically relative to the 5-HT markers. These data provide baseline information for medullary studies of human pediatric disorders, such as sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:19926534

  12. Possible Modulation of the Anexiogenic Effects of Vitex Agnus-castus by the Serotonergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Fatehi Gharehlar, Laleh; Salari, Ali-Akbar; Solati, Jalal

    2012-03-01

    There is well documented evidence for the increase in widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of physical and psychiatric symptoms and disorders within the populations. In the present study, we investigated the influence of V itex agnus-castus (vitex) on anxiety-like behaviors of rats. Elevated plus maze which is one of the methods used for testing anxiety is used in our present study. Rats were orally administrated with vitex for two week. The anxiety test was carried out after two weeks of oral administration of vitex. For evaluating interaction of vitex and serotonergic systems, rats were anaesthetized with ketamine and special cannulas were inserted stereotaxically into the third ventricle (TV) of brain. After 1 week recovery, the effects of serotonegic agents on anxiety were studied. Oral administration of vitex (100, 200, 300 mg/kg) for two weeks induced an anxiogenic-like effect which was shown through specific decreases in the percentages of open arm time (OAT %) and open arm entries (OAE %). Intra - TV infusion of 5HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (5, 10 and 25 ng/rat) increased OAT% and OAE%, indicating anxiolytic-like behavior. However, injection of 5HT1A receptor antagonist NAN190 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/rat) produced anxiogenic-like behavior. The most effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT (10 ng/rat), when co-administered with vitex (100, 200, 300 mg/kg), attenuated the anxiogenic-like effects of vitex significantly. Injection of the less effective dose of NAN190 (0.5 µg/rat), in combination with vitex (100, 200, 300 mg/kg), potentiate anxiogenic effects of vitex. These results illustrate that 5HT1A receptor is involved in the anxiogenic effects of vitex.

  13. Effects of serotonergic system on the sleeping time and EEG in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaei H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of sleep is an active nervous and biologic rhythm, which is under influence of neurotransmitters of central nervous system. In this study, the influence of serotonergic system on sleeping time have been assessed by agonist-antagonist drugs using two methods of induction and non-induction behavioral and electrophysiology. The method used for measurement of total sleeing time was Angle method. For assessment of drugs impact on brain waves, after opening two holes in frontal and temporal regions, two non-polarized silvery electrodes were fixed in above regions and was connected to physiograph and computer by linkers for waves analysis. Injection intra-ventriculary is done by stereotax apparatus. Results indicate that diazepam (2.5 mg/kg increases sleeping time in two stages of induction and non-induction (P<0.01. 5-HTP (15, 45 mg/kg increases dose-dependence sleeping time. p-CPA (150, 300 mg/kg shows biphasic influence on sleeping time. The 300 mg/kg dose of p-CPA reduces sleeping time while 150 mg/kg dose inverts sleeping time (P<0.05. Interferential affects of drugs with (5-HTP 45 mg/kg and p-CPA (300 mg/kg doses are similar to control groups. Injection of 5-HTP inverts p-CPA affect. Intra-ventriculary Injection of 5-HTP in 150 µg/kg and 300 µg/kg doses, decreases frequency of delta waves and significantly increases the frequencies of other waves but conversely, 500 µg/kg decreases it. Due to findings of this study, interferential affects of agonist-antagonist of 5-HTP, can not invert p-CPA affect. Supported by GABA affects, diazepam induces its inhibitory affect in per-synaptic and post-synaptic membrane through ascending reticular both systems and blocking stimulation of brain cortical and limbic system. Affects of two other drugs on sleeping time and brain waves are probably caused by increment of released serotonin in pre-synaptic neurons. Although their interferential affects with other neurotransmitter system should be

  14. Antidepressant-like effect of gallic acid in mice: Dual involvement of serotonergic and catecholaminergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür Devrim; Turan, Nazlı; Demir Özkay, Ümide; Öztürk, Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    This study was planned to examine the antidepressant potency of gallic acid (30 and 60mg/kg), a phenolic acid widely distributed in nature, together with its possible underlying monoaminergic mechanisms. Antidepressant-like activity was assessed using the tail suspension (TST) and the modified forced swimming tests (MFST). Locomotor activity was evaluated in an activity cage. Administration of gallic acid at 60mg/kg reduced the immobility duration of mice in both the TST and MFST without any changes in the locomotor activity. The anti-immobility effect observed in the TST was abolished with pre-treatment of p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis; 100mg/kg i.p. administered for 4-consecutive days), ketanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist; 1mg/kg i.p.), ondansetron (a 5-HT3 antagonist; 0.3mg/kg i.p.), α-methyl-para-tyrosine methyl ester (an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis; 100mg/kg i.p.), phentolamine (non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist; 5mg/kg i.p.), SCH 23390 (a dopamine D1 antagonist; 0.05mg/kg s.c.), and sulpiride (a dopamine D2/D3 antagonist; 50mg/kg i.p.). However, NAN 190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist; 0.5mg/kg i.p.) and propranolol (a non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist; 5mg/kg i.p.) pre-treatments were ineffective at reversing the antidepressant-like effects of gallic acid. The results of the present study indicate that gallic acid seems to have a dual mechanism of action by increasing not only serotonin but also catecholamine levels in synaptic clefts of the central nervous system. Further alpha adrenergic, 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT3 serotonergic, and D1, D2, and D3 dopaminergic receptors also seem to be involved in this antidepressant-like activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Localization of serotonin and ultrastructure of serotonergic neutrons in the nervous system of fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shile; Cheng Bing; Rong Yaofang

    1993-01-01

    Rabbits antisera were raised against an antigen prepared by coupling 5-HT to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using formaldehyde as a coupling reagent. The fresh adult Fasciola hepatica were fixed with 4% formaldehyde and sectioned on a cryostat. The sections were stained by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Abundant immunofluorescence specific for 5-HT was observed in ganglion cell bodies and their processes, the transverse commissure that connects two ganglia and longitudinal axes extending from the ganglia. Immuno-reactivity to 5-HT was also found in the nerve fibre innervating tegument, gut wall, the epithelium of testes or ovary, the musculature of uterus and ootype, etc. The ultrastructure of serotonergic neurons was visualized. As in other invertebrates, the serotonergic neutrons of Fasciola hepatica consisted of cell bodies, axons, synapses, herring bodies and neuromuscular junctions. The nerve cell bodies were aggregatively located in ganglia and many dispersed spherical granular vesicles were present in cytoplasm. The nerve axons branched out to the muscles forming synapses, where synaptic vesicles contained 5-HT dense-core granules were found. The distribution of 5-HT within the neurons strongly suggested that 5-HT was functioning as a neurotrasmitter in Fasciola hepatica

  16. Social isolation reduces serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus of female, but not male, mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Morningstar, Mitchell D; Sandlain, Rebecca; Wise, Bradley M; Hurley, Laura M

    2018-05-12

    Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored. Here, we assess whether 4 weeks of post-weaning individual housing alters serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus in which serotonin alters auditory-evoked activity. Individually housed male and female mice were compared to conspecifics housed socially in groups of three. Serotonergic projections were subsequently visualized with an antibody to the serotonin transporter, which labels serotonergic fibers with relatively high selectivity. Fiber densities were estimated in the three major subregions of the IC using line-scan intensity analysis. Individually housed female mice showed a significantly reduced fiber density relative to socially housed females, which was accompanied by a lower body weight in individually housed females. In contrast, social isolation did not affect serotonergic fiber density in the IC of males. This finding suggests that sensitivity of the serotonergic system to social isolation is sex-dependent, which could be due to a sex difference in the effect of isolation on psychosocial stress. Since serotonin availability depends on social context, this finding further suggests that social isolation can alter the acute social regulation of auditory processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Serotonergic System and Comorbid Personality Disorders Among Patients with First-Episode Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the association between genetic polymorphisms and personality disorders have provided inconsistent results. Using the "enriched sample method," the authors of the present study aimed to assess the association between polymorphisms in the serotonergic transmitter system and comorbid...... personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding...... the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, 2C, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were genotyped. The authors found a significant effect of the length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) on cluster B personality disorder (mainly borderline disorder), but no influence on cluster C...

  18. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  19. Why does serotonergic activity drastically decrease during REM sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Orexin receptor activation generates gamma band input to cholinergic and serotonergic arousal system neurons and drives an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent resonance in LDT and PPT cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eIshibashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculopontine (PPT tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4 - 14 Hz and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep and intracortical

  1. Comparative morphology of serotonergic-like immunoreactive elements in the central nervous system of kinorhynchs (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, María; Pardos, Fernando; Boyle, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Cycloneuralian taxa exhibit similar organ system architectures, providing informative characters of metazoan evolution, yet very few modern comparative descriptions of cellular and molecular homologies within and among those taxa are available. We immunolabeled and characterized elements of the serotonergic nervous system in the kinorhynchs Echinoderes spinifurca, Antygomonas paulae, and Zelinkaderes brightae using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescent markers targeting DNA were combined with observations of auto-fluorescent structures to guide interpretations of the internal and external anatomy in each species. Results show a common pattern of the central nervous system with a circumenteric brain divided into ring-shaped anterior and posterior neuronal somata and a central neuropil connected to a multi-stringed, longitudinal ventral nerve cord. Structural similarities and differences in the nervous systems of these species were observed and described, stressing the incomplete ring nature of the anterior region of the kinorhynch brain, the functional relationship between the brain and the movable introvert, and the number and arrangement of nerve strings and somata of the ventral nerve cord. The ventral cord ends in two ventrolateral cell bodies in E. spinifurca, and forms a terminal loop associated with a midterminal spine in A. paulae and Z. brightae. The possible functional and phylogenetic significance of these features and arrangements are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Raison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behaviour, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that 1 thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, 2 these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and 3 activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  3. Ethanol induced antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test: modulation by serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nishant S; Kannamwar, Uday; Verma, Lokesh

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation explored the modulatory role of serotonergic transmission in the acute ethanol-induced effects on immobility time in the mouse forced swim test (FST). Acute i.p. administration of ethanol (20% w/v, 2 or 2.5 g/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in FST of mice, indicating its antidepressant-like effect while lower doses of ethanol (1, 1.5 g/kg, i.p.) were devoid of any effect in the FST. The mice pre-treated with a sub-effective dose of 5-HT 2A agonist, DOI (10 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.1 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) but not with the 5-HT 2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (1.5 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) exhibited a synergistic reduction in the immobility time induced by sub-effective dose of ethanol (1.5 g/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, ethanol (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) failed to decrease the immobility time in mice, pre-treated with 5-HT 1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or ketanserin (1.5 μg/mouse, i.c.v.). In addition, pre-treatment with a 5-HT neuronal synthesis inhibitor, p-CPA (300 mg/kg, i.p. × 3 days) attenuated the anti-immobility effect ethanol (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) in mouse FST. Thus, the results of the present study points towards the essentiality of the central 5-HT transmission at the synapse for the ethanol-induced antidepressant-like effect in the FST wherein the regulatory role of the 5-HT 1A receptor or contributory role of the 5-HT 2A/2C receptor-mediated mechanism is proposed in the anti-immobility effect of acute ethanol in mouse FST.

  4. The serotonergic system and mysticism: could LSD and the nondrug-induced mystical experience share common neural mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to explore, through established scientific research and documented accounts of personal experience, the similarities between religious mystical experiences and some effects of D-lysergic diethylamide or LSD. LSD predominantly works upon the serotonergic (serotonin-using neurons) diffuse neuromodulatory system, which projects its axons to virtually all areas of the brain including the neocortex. By its normal action it modulates awareness of the environmental surroundings and filters a high proportion of this information before it can be processed, thereby only allowing the amount of information that is necessary for survival. LSD works to open this filter, and so an increased amount of somatosensory data is processed with a corresponding increase in what is deemed important. This article describes the effects and actions of LSD, and due to the similarities with the nondrug-induced mystical experience the author proposes that the two could have common modes of action upon the brain. This could lead to avenues of research into mysticism and a wealth of knowledge on consciousness and how we perceive the universe.

  5. Activation of the serotonergic system by pedaling exercise changes anterior cingulate cortex activity and improves negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmatsu, Satoko; Nakano, Hideki; Tominaga, Takanori; Terakawa, Yuzo; Murata, Takaho; Morioka, Shu

    2014-08-15

    Pedaling exercise (PE) of moderate intensity has been shown to ease anxiety and discomfort; however, little is known of the changes that occur in brain activities and in the serotonergic (5-HT) system after PE. Therefore, this study was conducted for the following reasons: (1) to localize the changes in the brain activities induced by PE using a distributed source localization algorithm, (2) to examine the changes in frontal asymmetry, as used in the Davidson model, with electroencephalography (EEG) activity, and (3) to examine the effect of PE on the 5-HT system. A 32-channel EEG was used to record before and after PE. Profile of Mood States tests indicated that there was a significant decrease in tension-anxiety and a significant increase in vigor after PE. A standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis showed a significant decrease in brain activities after PE in the alpha-2 band (10-12.5 Hz) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, a significant increase in frontal EEG asymmetry was observed after PE in the alpha-1 band (7.5-10 Hz). Urine 5-HT levels significantly increased after PE. Urine 5-HT levels positively correlated with the degree of frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha-1 band and negatively correlated with brain activity in ACC. Our results suggested that PE activates the 5-HT system and consequently induces increases in frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha-1 band and reductions of brain activity in the alpha-2 band in the ACC region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat : A selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J. R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B. M. G.; Mul, J. D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O. F. M.; Cools, A. R.; Ronken, E; Cremers, Thomas; Schoffelmeere, A. N. M.; Ellenbroeik, B. A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  7. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat: a selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B.M.; Mul, J.D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O.F.; Cools, A.R.; Ronken, E.; Cremers, T.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  8. Serotonergic neurotoxic metabolites of ecstasy identified in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas C; Duvauchelle, Christine; Ikegami, Aiko; Olsen, Christopher M; Lau, Serrine S; de la Torre, Rafael; Monks, Terrence J

    2005-04-01

    The selective serotonergic neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) depends on their systemic metabolism. We have recently shown that inhibition of brain endothelial cell gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) potentiates the neurotoxicity of both MDMA and MDA, indicating that metabolites that are substrates for this enzyme contribute to the neurotoxicity. Consistent with this view, glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of alpha-methyl dopamine (alpha-MeDA) are selective neurotoxicants. However, neurotoxic metabolites of MDMA or MDA have yet to be identified in brain. Using in vivo microdialysis coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and a high-performance liquid chromatography-coulometric electrode array system, we now show that GSH and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of N-methyl-alpha-MeDA are present in the striatum of rats administered MDMA by subcutaneous injection. Moreover, inhibition of gamma-GT with acivicin increases the concentration of GSH and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of N-methyl-alpha-MeDA in brain dialysate, and there is a direct correlation between the concentrations of metabolites in dialysate and the extent of neurotoxicity, measured by decreases in serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic (5-HIAA) levels. Importantly, the effects of acivicin are independent of MDMA-induced hyperthermia, since acivicin-mediated potentiation of MDMA neurotoxicity occurs in the context of acivicin-mediated decreases in body temperature. Finally, we have synthesized 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-N-methyl-alpha-MeDA and established that it is a relatively potent serotonergic neurotoxicant. Together, the data support the contention that MDMA-mediated serotonergic neurotoxicity is mediated by the systemic formation of GSH and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of N-methyl-alpha-MeDA (and alpha-MeDA). The mechanisms by which such metabolites access the brain and produce selective

  9. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Pavlidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an emerging model organism in stress and neurobehavioral studies. In nature, the species forms shoals, yet when kept in pairs it exhibits an agonistic and anxiety-like behavior that leads to the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anxiolytic tool to alter aggressive behavior in several vertebrates and as an antidepressant drug in humans. Pairs of male zebrafish were held overnight to develop dominant—subordinate behavior, either treated or non-treated for 2 h with fluoxetine (5 mg L−1, and allowed to interact once more for 1 h. Behavior was recorded both prior and after fluoxetine administration. At the end of the experiment, trunk and brain samples were also taken for cortisol determination and mRNA expression studies, respectively. Fluoxetine treatment significantly affected zebrafish behavior and the expression levels of several genes, by decreasing offensive aggression in dominants and by eliminating freezing in the subordinates. There was no statistically significant difference in whole-trunk cortisol concentrations between dominant and subordinate fish, while fluoxetine treatment resulted in higher (P = 0.004 cortisol concentrations in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between dominant and subordinate fish in brain mRNA expression levels of genes involved in stress axis (gr, mr, neural activity (bdnf, c-fos, and the serotonergic system (htr2b, slc6a4b. The significant decrease in the offensive and defensive aggression following fluoxetine treatment was concomitant with a reversed pattern in c-fos expression levels. Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles.

  10. Qingping Straight Sword: The Last Remaining Chinese Sword System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Berwick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following examination of classical Chinese straight sword (jian details the very rare Qingping straight sword system. The study meshes Chinese- and English-sourced research with a revealing interview (conducted by America’s senior Qingping disciples, Reza Momenan and Hon Lee with Lu Junhai—the grandmaster of this unique sword system. The author presents Qingping system as perhaps the only known, complete Chinese sword system surviving from China’s pre-Rebulican era (1911-1949.

  11. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Teissier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function.

  12. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissier, Anne; Chemiakine, Alexei; Inbar, Benjamin; Bagchi, Sneha; Ray, Russell S; Palmiter, Richard D; Dymecki, Susan M; Moore, Holly; Ansorge, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antidepressant-like effect of m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide in the mouse forced swimming test involves opioid and serotonergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, César Augusto; Souza, Ana Cristina Guerra; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2011-05-11

    Serotonergic and opioid systems have been implicated in major depression and in the action mechanism of antidepressants. The organoselenium compound m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) shows antioxidant and anxiolytic activities and is a selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A activity. The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) in female mice, employing the forced swimming test. The involvement of the serotonergic and opioid systems in the antidepressant-like effect of (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) was appraised. (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg (p.o.) exhibited antidepressant-like action in the forced swimming test. The effect of (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) (50mg/kg p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c. a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ritanserin (4 mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective 5HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist) and naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective antagonist of opioid receptors). These results suggest that (m-CF(3)-PhSe)(2) produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test and this effect seems most likely to be mediated through an interaction with serotonergic and opioid systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Zana R; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity.

  15. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana R. Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity.

  16. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees

  17. Neuronal NOS inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-imidazole augment the effects of antidepressants acting via serotonergic system in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Güner; Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Füruzan Yildiz; Komsuoğlu, F Ipek; Tanyeri, Pelin; Erden, B Faruk

    2008-10-01

    Treatment-resistant depression has necessitated new therapeutic strategies in augmenting the therapeutic actions of currently existing antidepressant drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of synergistic interaction between 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-imidazole (TRIM), a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor and conventional antidepressants of different classes in the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. TRIM decreased the immobility time at 50 mg/kg doses in the FST in rats. Treatment with a behaviourally subeffective dose of TRIM (20 mg/kg) augmented the behavioural effect of tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram and fluoxetine or selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine but failed to augment the antidepressant effect of reboxetine, a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, in this test. Therefore inhibition of NOS augments the effects of antidepressants acting on serotonergic system in the FST. Neither TRIM (10-50 mg/kg) nor other drug treatments affected the locomotor activity of animals. These findings are in agreement with the view that antidepressant effects or augmentation of these effects in the FST may be explained with inhibition of NOS activity and this may be a new approach in offering greater therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants acting via serotonergic system.

  18. Anti-Depressant-Like Effect of Kaempferitrin Isolated from Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae in Two Behavior Models in Mice: Evidence for the Involvement of the Serotonergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Cassani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae, which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as “la tristeza” (sadness or dysthymia and “el humor” (mood changes. The actions of Km were evaluated in a forced swimming test (FST and a suspension tail test (TST in mice. We explored the involvement of the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis (HPA in the antidepressant-like effect of Km. To evaluate nonspecific effects of Km on general activity, the open field test (OFT was performed. Km at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg induced an antidepressant-like effect. Sub-effective dose of Km (1 mg/kg produced a synergistic effect with imipramine (6.25 mg/kg and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg but not with desipramine (3.12 mg/kg. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, N-{2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl-1-piperazinyl}-N-(2-pyridinylcyclohexecarboxamide (WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and 8OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist, but not pindolol (10 mg/kg blocked the anti- immobility effect induced by Km. Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of Km is related to the serotonergic system, principally 5-HT1A. This effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity.

  19. Adenoviral vectors for highly selective gene expression in central serotonergic neurons reveal quantal characteristics of serotonin release in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschemacher Anja G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5 HT, serotonin is one of the key neuromodulators in mammalian brain, but many fundamental properties of serotonergic neurones and 5 HT release remain unknown. The objective of this study was to generate an adenoviral vector system for selective targeting of serotonergic neurones and apply it to study quantal characteristics of 5 HT release in the rat brain. Results We have generated adenoviral vectors which incorporate a 3.6 kb fragment of the rat tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2 gene which selectively (97% co-localisation with TPH-2 target raphe serotonergic neurones. In order to enhance the level of expression a two-step transcriptional amplification strategy was employed. This allowed direct visualization of serotonergic neurones by EGFP fluorescence. Using these vectors we have performed initial characterization of EGFP-expressing serotonergic neurones in rat organotypic brain slice cultures. Fluorescent serotonergic neurones were identified and studied using patch clamp and confocal Ca2+ imaging and had features consistent with those previously reported using post-hoc identification approaches. Fine processes of serotonergic neurones could also be visualized in un-fixed tissue and morphometric analysis suggested two putative types of axonal varicosities. We used micro-amperometry to analyse the quantal characteristics of 5 HT release and found that central 5 HT exocytosis occurs predominantly in quanta of ~28000 molecules from varicosities and ~34000 molecules from cell bodies. In addition, in somata, we observed a minority of large release events discharging on average ~800000 molecules. Conclusion For the first time quantal release of 5 HT from somato-dendritic compartments and axonal varicosities in mammalian brain has been demonstrated directly and characterised. Release from somato-dendritic and axonal compartments might have different physiological functions. Novel vectors generated in this

  20. A Single Pair of Serotonergic Neurons Counteracts Serotonergic Inhibition of Ethanol Attraction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; He, Jianzheng; Kaiser, Andrea; Gräber, Nikolas; Schläger, Laura; Ritze, Yvonne; Scholz, Henrike

    2016-01-01

    Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons. We identified four serotonergic neurons that inhibit the olfactory attraction to ethanol and two additional neurons that counteract this inhibition by strengthening olfactory information. Our results reveal that compensation can occur on the circuit level and that serotonin has a bidirectional function in modulating the innate attraction to ethanol. Given the evolutionarily conserved nature of the serotonin transporter and serotonin, the bidirectional serotonergic mechanisms delineate a basic principle for how random behavior is switched into targeted approach behavior.

  1. Interaction between harmane, a class of β-carboline alkaloids, and the CA1 serotonergic system in modulation of memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Ghadimi, Fatemeh; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-09-01

    This study set to assess the involvement of dorsal hippocampus (CA1) serotonergic system on harmane induced memory acquisition deficit. We used one trial step-down inhibitory avoidancetask to evaluate memory retention and then, open field test to evaluate locomotor activity in adult male NMRI mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) induced impairment of memory acquisition. Pre-training intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist (CP94253; 0.5 and 5ng/mouse) and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist (α-methyl 5-HT; 50ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition. Furthermore, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist (GR127935; 0.5ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (cinancerine; 5ng/mouse) improved memory acquisition. In addition, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold dose of CP94253 (0.05ng/mouse) and α-methyl 5-HT (5ng/mouse) potentiated impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of sub-threshold dose of GR127935 (0.05ng/mouse) and cinancerine (0.5ng/mouse) with the administration of harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.) weakened impairment of memory acquisition. Moreover, all above doses of drugs did not change locomotor activity. The present findings suggest that there is an interaction between harmane and the CA1 serotonergic system in modulation of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA mouse line (TPH2-tTA that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ. In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox. Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20 were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We

  3. The antidepressant-like effect of ethynyl estradiol is mediated by both serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rivera, N M; López-Rubalcava, C; Estrada-Camarena, E

    2013-10-10

    17α-Ethynyl-estradiol (EE2, a synthetic steroidal estrogen) induces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST) similar to those induced by 5-HT and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (dual antidepressants). However, the precise mechanism of action of EE2 has not been studied. In the present study, the participation of estrogen receptors (ERs) and the serotonergic and the noradrenergic presynaptic sites in the antidepressant-like action of EE2 was evaluated in the FST. The effects of the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (10 μg/rat; i.c.v.), the serotonergic and noradrenergic terminal destruction with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 200 μg/rat, i.c.v.), and N-(2-chloro-ethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4; 10mg/kg, i.p.) were studied in ovariectomized rats treated with EE2 and subjected to the FST. In addition, the participation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the antidepressant-like action of EE2 was explored using the selective α2-receptor antagonist idazoxan (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg, i.p.). EE2 induced an antidepressant-like action characterized by a decrease in immobility behavior with a concomitant increase in swimming and climbing behaviors. The ER antagonist, 5,7-DHT, DSP4, and idazoxan blocked the effects of EE2 on the immobility behavior, whereas ICI 182,780 and 5,7-DHT affected swimming behavior. The noradrenergic compound DSP4 altered climbing behavior, while Idazoxan inhibited the increase of swimming and climbing behaviors induced by EE2. Our results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of EE2 implies a complex mechanism of action on monoaminergic systems and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to a High-Fat Diet during Early Development Programs Behavior and Impairs the Central Serotonergic System in Juvenile Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Thompson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD consumption not only poses metabolic risks to offspring but also impacts brain development and mental health. Using a non-human primate model, we observed a persistent increase in anxiety in juvenile offspring exposed to a maternal HFD. Postweaning HFD consumption also increased anxiety and independently increased stereotypic behaviors. These behavioral changes were associated with modified cortisol stress response and impairments in the development of the central serotonin synthesis, with altered tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression in the dorsal and median raphe. Postweaning HFD consumption decreased serotonergic immunoreactivity in area 10 of the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to HFD consumption programs development of the brain and endocrine system, leading to behavioral impairments associated with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Also, an early nutritional intervention (consumption of the control diet at weaning was not sufficient to ameliorate many of the behavioral changes, such as increased anxiety, that were induced by maternal HFD consumption. Given the level of dietary fat consumption and maternal obesity in developed nations these findings have important implications for the mental health of future generations.

  6. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sanggenon G, Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba, in Rats: Involvement of the Serotonergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2015-01-01

    The root bark of Morus alba is commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in humans. However, the antidepressant effects of various active components from M. alba have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of M. alba, exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with sanggenon G (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with sanggenon G also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were significantly inhibited by WAY100635 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.; a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were mediated by an interaction with the serotonergic system. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  7. Differential serotonergic mediation of aggression in roosters selected for resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a primary regulating neurotransmitter involved in aggressive and impulsive behaviors in mammals. Previous studies have also demonstrated the function of serotonergic system in regulating aggression is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The serotonergic system m...

  8. Serotonergic modulation of reward and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the bulk of research on the human reward system was focused on studying the dopaminergic and opioid neurotransmitter systems. However, extending the initial data from animal studies on reward, recent pharmacological brain imaging studies on human participants bring a new line......-related processing and may also provide a neural correlated for the emotional blunting observed in the clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Given the unique profile of action of each serotonergic receptor subtype, future pharmacological studies may favor receptor...

  9. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  10. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  11. [Gradient of serotonergic innervation of internal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkova, A E

    2004-01-01

    The unidirectional synergistic effect of the vegetative nervous system departments was studied at the regulation of the activity of internal organs. It was shown that the sympathetic nerve intensification of the vagal stimulation of EMA of stomach, urinary bladder, ureters, uteruss, fallopian tubes and deferent duct is realized by means of activation of serotonergic fibrae preganglionares that transmit the activation to 5-NTS,4 serotonin receptors of intramural ganglia that, in their turn, activate 5-NT1,2 serotonin receptors of effector cells.

  12. Different Serotonergic Expression in Nevomelanocytic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi-Akbar, Clara; Ritter, Markus; Demel, Sasika; El-Nour, Husameldin; Hedblad, Mari-Anne [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Azmitia, Efrain C. [Department of Biology and Psychiatry, New York University, NY (United States); Nordlind, Klas, E-mail: klas.nordlind@karolinska.se [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden)

    2010-06-07

    The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSM), dysplastic compound nevi (DN) and benign compound nevi (BCN) were characterized with regard to their expression of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), by immunohistochemical analysis. Melanocytes in the region surrounding the tumor were found to express both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Tumor cells that immunostained positively for the different serotonergic markers were observed in the suprabasal epidermis of DN tissue and, to an even greater extent, in the case of SSM. Furthermore, some of these latter cells expressed both 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR. The level of expression of 5-HT1AR at the junctional area was lower for SSM than for DN or BCN. As the degree of atypia increased, the intensity of tumor cell staining in the dermis for 5-HT1AR and SERT declined. Vessel immunoreactivity for 5-HT2A was more intense in SSM than in BCN tissue. Round-to-dendritic cells that expressed both SERT and 5-HT1AR were seen to infiltrate into the dermal region of the tumor, this infiltration being more evident in the case of DN and SSM. These latter cells were also tryptase-positive, indicating that they are mast cells. Thus, alterations in serotonergic system may be involved in nevomelanocytic tumors and mast cells may play an important role in this connection.

  13. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons play key roles in various biological processes. However, circuit mechanisms underlying tight control of serotonergic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the organization of long-range synaptic inputs to serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN of mice with a combination of viral tracing, slice electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques. We found that DRN serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons receive largely comparable synaptic inputs from six major upstream brain areas. Upon further analysis of the fine functional circuit structures, we found both bilateral and ipsilateral patterns of topographic connectivity in the DRN for the axons from different inputs. Moreover, the upstream brain areas were found to bidirectionally control the activity of DRN serotonergic neurons by recruiting feedforward inhibition or via a push-pull mechanism. Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN.

  14. Involvement of autophagy upregulation in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Hsun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Yi; Weng, Shao-Ju; Yen, Ting-Yin; Chen, Lih-Chi; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that autophagy plays pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is an illicit drug that causes long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but the role of autophagy in MDMA-elicited serotonergic toxicity has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of autophagy to neurotoxicity in serotonergic neurons in in vitro and in vivo animal models challenged with MDMA. Here, we demonstrated that in cultured rat serotonergic neurons, MDMA exposure induced LC3B-densely stained autophagosome formation, accompanying by a decrease in neurite outgrowth. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated MDMA-induced autophagosome accumulation, and ameliorated MDMA-triggered serotonergic neurite damage and neuron death. In contrast, enhanced autophagy flux by rapamycin or impaired autophagosome clearance by bafilomycin A1 led to more autophagosome accumulation in serotonergic neurons and aggravated neurite degeneration. In addition, MDMA-induced autophagy activation in cultured serotonergic neurons might be mediated by serotonin transporter (SERT). In an in vivo animal model administered MDMA, neuroimaging showed that 3-MA protected the serotonin system against MDMA-induced downregulation of SERT evaluated by animal-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM, a SERT radioligand. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MDMA triggers upregulation of autophagy in serotonergic neurons, which appears to be detrimental to neuronal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebral markers of the serotonergic system in rat models of obesity and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Ettrup, Anders; Bueter, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and body weight are regulated by a complex system of neural and hormonal signals, of which the anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is central. In this study, rat models of obesity and weight loss intervention were compared with regard to several 5-HT......DIO as compared to pgDR rats corresponds to what is reported in overweight humans and suggests that the dysfunctions of the 5-HT system associated with overeating or propensity to become overweight are polygenically determined. Our results support that the obesity-prone rat model has high translational value...... and suggests that susceptibility to develop obesity is associated with changed 5-HT tone in the brain that may also regulate hedonic aspects of feeding....

  16. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  17. The role of the serotonergic and GABA system in translational approaches in drug discovery for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that genetic factors play an important role in anxiety disorders. In support, human genome-wide association studies have implicated several novel candidate genes. However, illumination of such genetic factors involved in anxiety disorders has not resulted in novel drugs over the past decades. A complicating factor is the heterogeneous classification of anxiety disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR and diverging operationalization of anxiety used in preclinical and clinical studies. Currently, there is an increasing focus on the gene-environment interaction in anxiety as genes do not operate in isolation and environmental factors have been found to significantly contribute to the development of anxiety disorders in at-risk individuals. Nevertheless, extensive research on gene-environment mechanisms in anxiety has not resulted in major breakthroughs in drug discovery. Modification of individual genes in rodent models has enabled the specific study of anxiety in preclinical studies. In this context, two extensively studied neurotransmitters involved in anxiety are the GABA and 5-HT system. In this review, we illustrate the complex interplay between genes and environment in anxiety processes by reviewing preclinical and clinical studies on the serotonin transporter (5-HTT, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2 receptor and GABAA receptor. Even though targets from the serotonin and GABA system have yielded drugs with known anxiolytic efficacy, the relation between the genetic background of these targets and anxiety symptoms and development of anxiety disorders is largely unknown. The aim of this review is to show the vast complexity of genetic and environmental factors in anxiety disorders. In light of the difficulty with which common genetic variants are identified in anxiety disorders, animal models with translational validity may aid in elucidating the neurobiological background of these genes

  18. Remaining Useful Lifetime Prognosis of Controlled Systems: A Case of Stochastically Deteriorating Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danh Ngoc Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the case of automatic controlled system which deteriorates during its operation because of components’ wear or deterioration. Depending on its specific closed-loop structure, the controlled system has the ability to compensate for disturbances affecting the actuators which can remain partially hidden. The deterioration modeling and the Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL estimation for such closed-loop dynamic system have not been addressed extensively. In this paper, we consider a controlled system with Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller. It is assumed that the actuator is subject to shocks that occur randomly in time. An integrated model is proposed to jointly describe the state of the controlled process and the actuator deterioration. Only the output of the controlled system is available to assess its health condition. By considering a Piecewise Deterministic Markov Process, the RUL of the system can be estimated by a two-step approach. In the first step referred as the “Diagnosis” step, the system state is estimated online from the available monitoring observations by using a particle filtering method. In the second step referred as the “Prognosis” step, the RUL is estimated as a conditional reliability by Monte Carlo simulation. To illustrate the approach, a simulated tank level control system is used.

  19. RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.A.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDERS, R.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beam dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful

  20. Neurogenin3 restricts serotonergic neuron differentiation to the hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Abel L; Di Bella, Daniela J; Goulding, Martyn; Guillemot, Francois; Lanuza, Guillermo M

    2014-11-12

    The development of the nervous system is critically dependent on the production of functionally diverse neuronal cell types at their correct locations. In the embryonic neural tube, dorsoventral signaling has emerged as a fundamental mechanism for generating neuronal diversity. In contrast, far less is known about how different neuronal cell types are organized along the rostrocaudal axis. In the developing mouse and chick neural tube, hindbrain serotonergic neurons and spinal glutamatergic V3 interneurons are produced from ventral p3 progenitors, which possess a common transcriptional identity but are confined to distinct anterior-posterior territories. In this study, we show that the expression of the transcription factor Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in the spinal cord controls the correct specification of p3-derived neurons. Gain- and loss-of-function manipulations in the chick and mouse embryo show that Neurog3 switches ventral progenitors from a serotonergic to V3 differentiation program by repressing Ascl1 in spinal p3 progenitors through a mechanism dependent on Hes proteins. In this way, Neurog3 establishes the posterior boundary of the serotonergic system by actively suppressing serotonergic specification in the spinal cord. These results explain how equivalent p3 progenitors within the hindbrain and the spinal cord produce functionally distinct neuron cell types. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415223-11$15.00/0.

  1. Serotonergic control of the developing cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, M.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis gives insights in the mechanism behind the serotonergic control of the cerebellum during postnatal development. The findings present a powerful role for serotonin in the physiology of the developing cerebellum. The effects of the serotonergic control extend both

  2. Involvement of serotonergic pathways in mediating the neuronal activity and genetic transcription of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain of systemically endotoxin-challenged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laflamme, N.; Feuvrier, E.; Richard, D.; Rivest, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 boul. Laurier, Ste-Foy Quebec (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    -releasing factor transcription and plasma corticosterone release. Indeed, lipopolysaccharide caused a selective expression of corticotropin-releasing factor primary transcript in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and this effect was significantly reduced by treatment with the serotonin inhibitor. However, basal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor messenger RNA across the brain (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, etc.) was not affected by the para-chlorophenylalanine treatment. These results suggest that the integrity of serotonin pathways plays a role in the neuronal activity triggered by the systemic endotoxin insult. The fact that serotonin depletion largely prevented activation of neurosecretory parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor gene transcription in response to immunogenic challenge provides the evidence that serotonergic system is part of the brain circuitry involved in the corticotroph axis-immune interface. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S O'Mahony; TG Dinan; PW Keeling; ASB Chua

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a symptom complex characterised by upper abdominal discomfort or pain, early satiety,motor abnormalities, abdominal bloating and nausea in the absence of organic disease. The central nervous system plays an important role in the conducting and processing of visceral signals. Alterations in brain processing of pain, perception and affective responses may be key factors in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptor systems are involved in the processing of motor,sensory and secretory activities of the gastrointestinal tract. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently regarded as the mechanism responsible for both motor alterations and abdominal pain in functional dyspepsia. Some studies suggest that there are alterations in central serotonergic and noradrenergic systems which may partially explain some of the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Alterations in the autonomic nervous system may be implicated in the motor abnormalities and increases in visceral sensitivity in these patients.Noradrenaline is the main neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system and again alterations in the functioning of this system may lead to changes in motor function. Functional dyspepsia causes considerable burden on the patient and society. The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia is not fully understood but alterations in central processing by the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems may provide plausible explanations for at least some of the symptoms and offer possible treatment targets for the future.

  4. Serotonergic neurotransmission in emotional processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Ruff; Henningsson, Susanne; Macoveanu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    ,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) induces alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission that are comparable to those observed in a depleted state. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the responsiveness of the amygdala to emotional face stimuli in recreational...... ecstasy users as a model of long-term serotonin depletion. Fourteen ecstasy users and 12 non-using controls underwent fMRI to measure the regional neural activity elicited in the amygdala by male or female faces expressing anger, disgust, fear, sadness, or no emotion. During fMRI, participants made a sex...... judgement on each face stimulus. Positron emission tomography with (11)C-DASB was additionally performed to assess serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in the brain. In the ecstasy users, SERT binding correlated negatively with amygdala activity, and accumulated lifetime intake of ecstasy tablets...

  5. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously 1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  6. Immunodetection of the serotonin transporter protein is a more valid marker for serotonergic fibers than serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Brask, Dorthe; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2006-01-01

    Tracking serotonergic pathways in the brain through immunodetection of serotonin has widely been used for the anatomical characterization of the serotonergic system. Immunostaining for serotonin is also frequently applied for the visualization of individual serotonin containing fibers...... and quantification of serotonin positive fibers has been widely used to detect changes in the serotonergic innervation. However, particularly in conditions with enhanced serotonin metabolism the detection level of serotonin may lead to an underestimation of the true number of serotonergic fibers. The serotonin...... immunostained for serotonin and SERT protein and colocalization was quantified in several brain areas by confocal microscopy. In comparison with untreated rats, MAO inhibitor treated rats had a significantly higher number (almost 200% increase) of serotonin immunopositive fibers whereas no difference...

  7. Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Human Serotonergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the serotonergic neurons located in the raphe nucleus are the unique resource of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of brain development and functions. Dysfunction of the serotonin system is present in many psychiatric disorders. Lack of in vitro functional human model limits the understanding of human central serotonergic system and its related diseases and clinical applications. Previously, we have developed a method generating human serotonergic neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. In this study, we analyzed the features of these human iPSCs-derived serotonergic neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We found that these human serotonergic neurons are sensitive to the selective neurotoxin 5, 7-Dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT in vitro. After being transplanted into newborn mice, the cells not only expressed their typical molecular markers, but also showed the migration and projection to the host’s cerebellum, hindbrain and spinal cord. The data demonstrate that these human iPSCs-derived neurons exhibit the typical features as the serotonergic neurons in the brain, which provides a solid foundation for studying on human serotonin system and its related disorders.

  8. Modulation of firing and synaptic transmission of serotonergic neurons by intrinsic G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMaejima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons project to virtually all regions of the CNS and are consequently involved in many critical physiological functions such as mood, sexual behavior, feeding, sleep/wake cycle, memory, cognition, blood pressure regulation, breathing and reproductive success. Therefore serotonin release and serotonergic neuronal activity have to be precisely controlled and modulated by interacting brain circuits to adapt to specific emotional and environmental states. We will review the current knowledge about G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels involved in the regulation of serotonergic system, how their regulation is modulating the intrinsic activity of serotonergic neurons and its transmitter release and will discuss the latest methods for controlling the modulation of serotonin release and intracellular signaling in serotonergic neurons in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Remaining life prediction of I and C cables for reliability assessment of NPP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Fernandes, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A framework for time dependent reliability prediction of I and C cables for use in PSA of NPP has been developed using stress–strength interference theory. ► The proposed methodology has been illustrated with the accelerated thermal aging data on a typical XLPE cable. ► The behavior of insulation resistance when the degradation process is linear or exponential has also been modeled. ► The reliability index or probability of failure obtained from this approach can be used in system reliability evaluation to account for cable aging for PSA of NPP. - Abstract: Instrumentation and control (I and C) cables are one of the most important components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because they provide power to safety-related equipment and also to transmit signals to and from various controllers to perform safety operations. I and C cables in NPP are subjected to a variety of aging and degradation stressors that can produce immediate degradation or aging-related mechanisms causing the degradation of cable components over time. Although, there exits several life estimation techniques, currently there is no any standard methodology or an approach toward estimating the time dependent reliability of I and C cables that can be directly used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop an approach to estimate and confirm the continued acceptable margin in cable insulation life over time subjected to aging. This paper presents a framework based on the structural reliability theory to quantify the life time of I and C cable subjecting to thermal aging. Since cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables are extensively being used in Indian NPPs, the remaining life time evaluations have been carried out for a typical XLPE cable. However, the methodology can be extended to other cables such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), etc.

  10. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  11. Serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of attentional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Vasileios; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in attentional processes are a common feature of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Huntington's disease. The use of animal models has been useful in defining various candidate neural systems thus enabling us to translate basic laboratory science to the clinic and vice-versa. In this chapter, a comparative and integrated account is provided on the neuroanatomical and neurochemical modulation of basic behavioural operations such as selective attention, vigilance, set-shifting and executive control focusing on the comparative functions of the serotonin and dopamine systems in the cognitive control exerted by the prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we have reviewed evidence emerging from several behavioural paradigms in experimental animals and humans each of which centres on a different aspect of the attentional function. These paradigms offering both human and animal variants include the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), attentional set-shifting and stop-signal reaction time task. In each case, the types of operation that are measured by the given paradigm and their neural correlates are defined. Then, the role of the ascending dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the neurochemical modulation of its behavioural output are examined, and reference is made to clinical implications for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders which exhibit deficits in these cognitive tests.

  12. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  13. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  14. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  15. Association of Protein Distribution and Gene Expression Revealed by PET and Post-Mortem Quantification in the Serotonergic System of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, A; James, G M; Philippe, C; Gryglewski, G; Bauer, A; Hienert, M; Spies, M; Kautzky, A; Vanicek, T; Hahn, A; Traub-Weidinger, T; Winkler, D; Wadsak, W; Mitterhauser, M; Hacker, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R

    2017-01-01

    Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis. Correlations indicated a strong linear relationship between gene and protein expression for both the 5-HT1A (voxel-wise rs = 0.71; region-wise rs = 0.93) and the 5-HT2A receptor (rs = 0.66; 0.75), but only a weak association for MAO-A (rs = 0.26; 0.66) and no clear correlation for SERT (rs = 0.17; 0.29). Additionally, region-wise correlations were performed using mRNA expression from the HBT, yielding comparable results (5-HT1Ars = 0.82; 5-HT2Ars = 0.88; MAO-A rs = 0.50; SERT rs = -0.01). The SERT and MAO-A appear to be regulated in a region-specific manner across the whole brain. In contrast, the serotonin-1A and -2A receptors are presumably targeted by common posttranscriptional processes similar in all brain areas suggesting the applicability of mRNA expression as surrogate parameter for density of these proteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Requirement for tyrosine phosphatase during serotonergic neuromodulation by protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarsi, S; Drapeau, P

    1997-08-01

    Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are abundant in the nervous system, where they signal cellular differentiation, mediate the responses to growth factors, and direct neurite outgrowth during development. Tyrosine phosphorylation can also alter ion channel activity, but its physiological significance remains unclear. In an identified leech mechanosensory neuron, the ubiquitous neuromodulator serotonin increases the activity of a cation channel by activating protein kinase C (PKC), resulting in membrane depolarization and modulation of the receptive field properties. We observed that the effects on isolated neurons and channels were blocked by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatases. Serotonergic stimulation of PKC thus activates a tyrosine phosphatase activity associated with the channels, which reverses their constitutive inhibition by tyrosine phosphorylation, representing a novel form of neuromodulation.

  17. A transcription factor collective defines the HSN serotonergic neuron regulatory landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Fernández, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Mora-Martínez, Carlos; Artacho, Alejandro; Jimeno-Martín, Ángela; Chirivella, Laura; Weinberg, Peter; Flames, Nuria

    2018-03-22

    Cell differentiation is controlled by individual transcription factors (TFs) that together activate a selection of enhancers in specific cell types. How these combinations of TFs identify and activate their target sequences remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the cis -regulatory transcriptional code that controls the differentiation of serotonergic HSN neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans . Activation of the HSN transcriptome is directly orchestrated by a collective of six TFs. Binding site clusters for this TF collective form a regulatory signature that is sufficient for de novo identification of HSN neuron functional enhancers. Among C. elegans neurons, the HSN transcriptome most closely resembles that of mouse serotonergic neurons. Mouse orthologs of the HSN TF collective also regulate serotonergic differentiation and can functionally substitute for their worm counterparts which suggests deep homology. Our results identify rules governing the regulatory landscape of a critically important neuronal type in two species separated by over 700 million years. © 2018, Lloret-Fernández et al.

  18. Advancing mission in the marketplace. Integrated strategic planning and budgeting helps a system remain accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smessaert, A H

    1992-10-01

    In the late 1980s Holy Cross Health System (HCHS), South Bend, IN, began to implement a revised strategic planning and budgeting process to effectively link the system's mission with its day-to-day operations. Leaders wanted a process that would help system employees internalize and act on the four major elements articulated in the HCHS mission statement: fidelity, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship. Representatives from mission, strategic planning, and finance from the corporate office and subsidiaries examined planning and budgeting methods. From the beginning, HCHS leaders decided that the process should be implemented gradually, with each step focusing on refining methodology and improving mission integration. As the process evolved. HCHS developed a sequence in which planning preceded budgeting. The system also developed a variety of educational and collaborative initiatives to help system employees adapt to the organization's change of direction. One critical aspect of HCHS's ongoing education is an ethical reflection process that helps participants balance ethical considerations by viewing an issue from three perspectives: social vision, multiple responsibility, and self-interest.

  19. Remaining life case history studies for high energy piping systems using equivalent stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the development of plant life extension for high energy piping systems is progressing, conventional piping system design methodologies are also being reevaluated. Traditional guidelines such as American National Standard Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.1 (ANSI/ASME) were developed for plants having design lives in the 25- to 30-year regime based upon relatively short-term base metal creep data. These guidelines use a simplified approach for the piping analysis. Two types of stress criteria must be satisfied. The first type is longitudinal plus torsion stress checks for several types of loading conditions versus the material allowable stresses. The second type is an independent minimum wall thickness check which considers the hoop stress versus the material allowable stress. Seven case histories have been evaluated to estimate the minimum piping system creep life based on the current ANSI/ASME B31.1 finite element type of analysis, which is a traditional approach, versus a multiaxial stress state type of analysis. In nearly every case, the equivalent stress methodology predicted significantly higher stresses. Consequently, the equivalent stress methodology resulted in 11 to 96% lower time to rupture values as compared to the values predicted using ANSI/ASME B31.1 stresses

  20. Health systems' responses to 25 years of HIV in Europe: inequities persist and challenges remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat A; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek

    2008-05-01

    Europe is currently experiencing the fastest rate of growth of HIV of any region of the world. An analysis of policy and health system responses to the HIV epidemic in Europe and central Asia (hereafter referred to as Europe) over the last 25 years reveals considerable heterogeneity. In general, while noting hazards of broad generalisations and the differences that exist across countries in a particular grouping, effective policies to control HIV have been implemented more widely in western than in central and eastern Europe. However, the evidence suggests persistence of inequalities in access to preventive and treatment services, with those at highest risk, such as commercial sex workers, prisoners, intravenous drug users, and migrants often particularly disadvantaged, despite many targeted programmes. Responses in individual countries, especially in the early stages of the epidemic, were influenced by specific cultural and political factors. Strong leadership and active involvement by civil society organisations emerge as important factors for success but also a limiting factor to the response observed in eastern Europe, where civil society or NGO culture is weak as compared to western Europe. Scaling up of effective responses in many countries in eastern Europe will be challenging-where increased financial resources will have to be accompanied by broader changes to health system organization with greater involvement of the civil society in planning and delivery of client-focused services.

  1. Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAvesar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.

  2. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Li, Qing; Deng, Juan; Mu, Di; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-03-21

    Serotonergic neurons play key roles in various biological processes. However, circuit mechanisms underlying tight control of serotonergic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the organization of long-range synaptic inputs to serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of mice with a combination of viral tracing, slice electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques. We found that DRN serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons receive largely comparable synaptic inputs from six major upstream brain areas. Upon further analysis of the fine functional circuit structures, we found both bilateral and ipsilateral patterns of topographic connectivity in the DRN for the axons from different inputs. Moreover, the upstream brain areas were found to bidirectionally control the activity of DRN serotonergic neurons by recruiting feedforward inhibition or via a push-pull mechanism. Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of serotonergic and adrenergic receptors in the rat spinal cord: effects of neonatal chemical lesions and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Pylypiw, A; Ross, L L

    1985-03-01

    The sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord receive dense serotonergic (5-HT) and catecholaminergic (CA) afferent inputs from the descending supraspinal pathways. In the rat spinal cord, the levels of these biogenic amines and their receptors are low at birth, but undergo rapid ontogenetic increases in the ensuing 2-3 postnatal weeks until the adult levels are reached. In many systems it has been shown that denervation of presynaptic neurons leads to an up-regulation of the number of postsynaptic receptors. To determine whether the 5-HT and CA receptors in the developing spinal cord are also subject to such transsynaptic regulation, we examined the ontogeny of serotonergic receptors and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in thoracolumbar spinal cord of rats given neurotoxins which destroy serotonergic (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT)) or noradrenergic (6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)) nerve terminals. Intracisternal administration of 5,7-DHT or 6-OHDA at 1 and 6 days of age prevented, respectively, the development of 5-HT and CA levels in the spinal cord. Rats lesioned with 5,7-DHT displayed a marked elevation of 5-HT receptors with a binding of 50% greater than controls at 1 week and a continuing increase to twice normal by 4 weeks. A similar pattern of up-regulation was also detected with the alpha-adrenergic receptor, as rats lesioned with 6-OHDA exhibited persistent increases in receptor concentration. However, in these same animals ontogeny of the beta-adrenergic receptor in the spinal cord remained virtually unaffected by the chemical lesion. In several other parts of the nervous system, it has been demonstrated that the beta-adrenergic sensitivity can be modulated by hormonal signals, particularly that of the thyroid hormones. This phenomenon was examined in the spinal cord and in confirmation with previous studies neonatal treatment of triiodothyronine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. daily) was capable of evoking persistent increases in beta

  4. Flight Tests of a Remaining Flying Time Prediction System for Small Electric Aircraft in the Presence of Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Smalling, Kyle M.; Strom, Thomas H.; Hill, Boyd L.; Quach, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of building trust in the online prediction of a battery powered aircraft's remaining flying time. A series of flight tests is described that make use of a small electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (eUAV) to verify the performance of the remaining flying time prediction algorithm. The estimate of remaining flying time is used to activate an alarm when the predicted remaining time is two minutes. This notifies the pilot to transition to the landing phase of the flight. A second alarm is activated when the battery charge falls below a specified limit threshold. This threshold is the point at which the battery energy reserve would no longer safely support two repeated aborted landing attempts. During the test series, the motor system is operated with the same predefined timed airspeed profile for each test. To test the robustness of the prediction, half of the tests were performed with, and half were performed without, a simulated powertrain fault. The pilot remotely engages a resistor bank at a specified time during the test flight to simulate a partial powertrain fault. The flying time prediction system is agnostic of the pilot's activation of the fault and must adapt to the vehicle's state. The time at which the limit threshold on battery charge is reached is then used to measure the accuracy of the remaining flying time predictions. Accuracy requirements for the alarms are considered and the results discussed.

  5. Drugs of abuse specifically sensitize noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons via a non-dopaminergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Christophe; Salomon, Lucas; Torrens, Yvette; Glowinski, Jacques; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2008-06-01

    A challenge in drug dependence is to delineate long-term neurochemical modifications induced by drugs of abuse. Repeated d-amphetamine was recently shown to disrupt a mutual regulatory link between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons, thus inducing long-term increased responses to d-amphetamine and para-chloroamphetamine, respectively. We show here that such a sensitization of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons also occurs following repeated treatment with cocaine, morphine, or alcohol, three compounds belonging to main groups of addictive substances. In all cases, this sensitization is prevented by alpha 1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade, indicating the critical role of these receptors on long-term effects of drugs of abuse. However, repeated treatments with two non-addictive antidepressants, venlafaxine, and clorimipramine, which nevertheless inhibit noradrenergic and serotonergic reuptake, do not induce noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons sensitization. Similarly, this sensitization does not occur following repeated treatments with a specific inhibitor of dopamine (DA) reuptake, GBR12783. Moreover, we show that the effects of SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist known to inhibit development of d-amphetamine behavioral sensitization, are due to its 5-HT2C receptor agonist property. SCH23390 blocks amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine and RS102221, a 5-HT2C antagonist, can reverse this inhibition as well as inhibition of noradrenergic sensitization and development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated d-amphetamine. We propose that noradrenergic/serotonergic uncoupling is a common neurochemical consequence of repeated consumption of drugs of abuse, unrelated with DA release. Our data also suggest that compounds able to restore the link between noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory systems could represent important therapeutic targets for investigation.

  6. The Influence Of Franchisors Brand Image On Franchisee Trust And Its Impact On Franchisee Intention To Remain In Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda; Yuyus Suryana; Faisal Afiff; Arief Helmi

    2015-01-01

    Franchisee is the party that play important role in the franchising because most of franchise outlets managed and operated by franchisees. Nevertheless in the process of business operating there would be the conflict of interests between franchisor as the owner of brand with the franchisee as the buyer of franchisors brand to operating retail outlet.and bound with futures contract. Therefore franchisee trust is needed in order to maintain franchisee intention to remain in franchise system. O...

  7. The Influence Of Franchisors Brand Image On Franchisee Trust And Its Impact On Franchisee Intention To Remain In Franchise System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Franchisee is the party that play important role in the franchising because most of franchise outlets managed and operated by franchisees. Nevertheless in the process of business operating there would be the conflict of interests between franchisor as the owner of brand with the franchisee as the buyer of franchisors brand to operating retail outlet.and bound with futures contract. Therefore franchisee trust is needed in order to maintain franchisee intention to remain in franchise system. One of the most important elements in franchising is franchisors brand image because basically franchise is selling the brand. Therefore this study aims to examine franchisee intention to remain in franchise system through franchisee trust that influenced by franchisors brand image. This study is conducted in Aceh province Indonesia. Using causality-explanatory approach with primary data in the form of perception opinions and attitude of 134 franchisees as individual research object. The method of data collection is survey using questionnaire. Regarding time dimension is one shot study. Partial Least Square is used to analyze the data. The result shows that franchisors brand image have a positive significant influence greater through franchisee trust than a direct influence of franchisors brand image to franchisee intention to remain in franchise system.

  8. Near-extreme system condition and near-extreme remaining useful time for a group of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Li, Yan-Feng; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Jin, Tongdan

    2017-01-01

    When a group of identical products is operating in field, the aggregation of failures is a catastrophe to engineers and customers who strive to develop reliable and safe products. In order to avoid a swarm of failures in a short time, it is essential to measure the degree of dispersion from different failure times in a group of products to the first failure time. This phenomenon is relevant to the crowding of system conditions near the worst one among a group of products. The group size in this paper represents a finite number of products, instead of infinite number or a single product. We evaluate the reliability of the product fleet from two aspects. First, we define near-extreme system condition and near-extreme failure time for offline solutions, which means no online observations. Second, we apply them to a continuous degradation system that breaks down when it reaches a soft failure threshold. By using particle filtering in the framework of prognostics and health management for a group of products, we aim to estimate near-extreme system condition and further predict the remaining useful life (RUL) using online solutions. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Highlights: • The aggregation of failures is measured for a group of identical products. • The crowding of failures is quantitated by the near-extreme evaluations. • Near-extreme system condition are given for offline solutions. • Near-extreme remaining useful time are provided for online solutions.

  9. Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Dana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cockroach salivary gland consists of secretory acini with peripheral ion-transporting cells and central protein-producing cells, an extensive duct system, and a pair of reservoirs. Salivation is controled by serotonergic and dopaminergic innervation. Serotonin stimulates the secretion of a protein-rich saliva, dopamine causes the production of a saliva without proteins. These findings suggest a model in which serotonin acts on the central cells and possibly other cell types, and dopamine acts selectively on the ion-transporting cells. To examine this model, we have analyzed the spatial relationship of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers to the various cell types. Results The acinar tissue is entangled in a meshwork of serotonergic and dopaminergic varicose fibers. Dopaminergic fibers reside only at the surface of the acini next to the peripheral cells. Serotonergic fibers invade the acini and form a dense network between central cells. Salivary duct segments close to the acini are locally associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers, whereas duct segments further downstream have only dopaminergic fibers on their surface and within the epithelium. In addition, the reservoirs have both a dopaminergic and a serotonergic innervation. Conclusion Our results suggest that dopamine is released on the acinar surface, close to peripheral cells, and along the entire duct system. Serotonin is probably released close to peripheral and central cells, and at initial segments of the duct system. Moreover, the presence of serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber terminals on the reservoir indicates that the functions of this structure are also regulated by dopamine and serotonin.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  11. Serotonergic drugs in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, JA; Bosker, FJ; Slaap, BR

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, including depressive and anxiety disorders. Much of the evidence for the role of serotonin (5-HT) in these disorders comes from treatment studies with serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin

  12. Effect of diet on serotonergic neurotransmission in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Faisal; Patel, Akash; Mattison, Charles; Bose, Sumit; Krishnamohan, Raathathulaksi; Sweeney, Emily; Sandhu, Sarina; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Ngu, Nguasaah; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    depression observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. However pharmacological interventions to modulate serotonergic neurotransmission in depression, remains clinically significant. Depression may involve several other molecular mechanisms as discussed briefly in this report. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos: pharmacotherapy of preterm labor and an environmental neurotoxicant converge on serotonergic systems in neonatal rat brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental exposure to unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar neurobehavioral outcomes. We examined the effects of developmental exposure to terbutaline, a tocolytic β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, on serotonin (5HT) systems. Treatments were chosen to parallel periods typical of human developmental exposures, terbutaline (10 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF (5 mg/kg) on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45, comparing each agent alone as well as sequential administration of both. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited similar alterations in factors that are critical to the function of the 5HT synapse: 5HT 1A receptors, 5HT 2 receptors, and the presynaptic 5HT transporter (5HTT). Either agent elicited global increases in 5HT receptors and the 5HTT in brain regions possessing 5HT cell bodies (midbrain, brainstem) as well as in the hippocampus, which contains 5HT projections. For both terbutaline and CPF, males were affected more than females, although there were some regional disparities in the sex selectivity between the two agents. Both altered 5HT receptor-mediated cell signaling, suppressing stimulatory effects on adenylyl cyclase and enhancing inhibitory effects. When animals were exposed sequentially to both agents, the outcomes were no more than additive and, for many effects, less than additive, suggesting convergence of the two agents on a common set of developmental mechanisms. Our results indicate that 5HT systems represent a target for otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens

  14. ALIAS an innovative intranet-system for the remaining life analysis of systems and components; ALIAS - ein innovatives Intranet-System zur Restlebensdaueranalyse von Systemen und Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A S; Schweikhard, T [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Balos, D [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The paper describes an innovative and advanced system for remaining life assessment of industrial high-temperature components developed at MPA Stuttgart, Germany and being currently introduced into the power plants in Germany and in several other countries. The system is a corporate memory system, essentially meaning that all the information/knowledge of a corporation (company, institute, etc.) should be maximally exploited in future activities of the company, with minimum changes in the existing structure of the data/information/knowledge already available. The system has two main aspects of practical implementation: (a) the organizational one, represented by MPA LifeTech, and (b) the software system one represented by the ``parent systems`` WISDOM and (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Papier beschreibt ein innovatives und fortschrittliches Softwaresystem, das an der MPA Stuttgart entwickelt wurde und bei mehreren europaeischen und deutschen Kraftwerksbetreibern eingefuehrt wird. Das Konzept beruht auf der Idee von s.g. corporate memory systems mit der Zielsetzung, die gesamte Bandbreite an Informationen und Wissen eines Unternehmens (Firma, Institution usw.) fuer dessen zukuenftige Aktivitaeten optimal zu nutzen. Die bestehende Struktur der bereits vorhandenen Daten sollte dabei nur geringfuegig geaendert werden muessen. Zur praktischen Durchfuehrung des Konzepts sind zwei Aspekte von Bedeutung: die Organisation (MPA LifeTech) und das Softwaresystem bzw. Systeme WISDOM und ALIAS (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular Intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.)

  15. Synaptic glutamate release by postnatal rat serotonergic neurons in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D

    1994-02-01

    Serotonergic neurons are thought to play a role in depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. However, their functional transmitter repertoire is incompletely known. To investigate this repertoire, intracellular recordings were obtained from 132 cytochemically identified rat mesopontine serotonergic neurons that had re-established synapses in microcultures. Approximately 60% of the neurons evoked excitatory glutamatergic potentials in themselves or in target neurons. Glutamatergic transmission was frequently observed in microcultures containing a solitary serotonergic neuron. Evidence for co-release of serotonin and glutamate from single raphe neurons was also obtained. However, evidence for gamma-aminobutyric acid release by serotonergic neurons was observed in only two cases. These findings indicate that many cultured serotonergic neurons form glutamatergic synapses and may explain several observations in slices and in vivo.

  16. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  17. Systemic modulation of serotonergic synapses via reuptake blockade or 5HT1A receptor antagonism does not alter perithreshold taste sensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Clare M; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration-response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-03

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. Copyright

  19. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amélie; Pihl, Robert O; Young, Simon N; Parent, Sophie; Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Sutton, Rachel; Dubois, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure. Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years) with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered. Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter. The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  20. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook [Korea Aerospace Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui [Hyosung Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results.

  1. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook; Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results

  2. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  3. An overview on benzylisoquinoline derivatives with dopaminergic and serotonergic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo, N; Berenguer, I; Figadère, B; Cortes, D

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin are important neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) involved in numerous physiological and behavioural disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Several natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives have displayed affinity for dopamine and serotonin receptors in nanomolar or micromolar ranges. This review covers the last three decades of dopaminergic and serotonergic activities, and especially focuses on structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives. We have included aporphines, 1-benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, bis-benzylisoquinolines, protoberberines, cularines and other structural analogues. Further molecular modelling calculations have been considered as important tools to not only obtain structural information of both neurotransmitter receptors, but to also identify their pharmacophore features. The development of selective potential ligands like benzylisoquinoline derivatives may help in the therapy of diseases related to CNS dysfunction.

  4. Serotonergic mechanism of the relieving effect of bee venom acupuncture on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Li, Dong Xing; Yoon, Heera; Go, Donghyun; Quan, Fu Shi; Min, Byung-Il; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2014-12-06

    Oxaliplatin, an important chemotherapy drug for advanced colorectal cancer, often induces peripheral neuropathy, especially cold allodynia. Our previous study showed that bee venom acupuncture (BVA), which has been traditionally used in Korea to treat various pain symptoms, potently relieves oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats. However, the mechanism for this anti-allodynic effect of BVA remains poorly understood. We investigated whether and how the central serotonergic system, a well-known pathway for acupuncture analgesia, mediates the relieving effect of BVA on cold allodynia in oxaliplatin-injected rats. The behavioral signs of cold allodynia in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a single injection of oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Before and after BVA treatment, the cold allodynia signs were evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4°C) and measuring the withdrawal latency. For BVA treatment, a diluted BV (0.25 mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered into Yaoyangguan (GV3) acupoint, which is located between the spinous processes of the fourth and the fifth lumbar vertebra. Serotonin was depleted by a daily injection of DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days. The amount of serotonin in the spinal cord was measured by ELISA. Serotonergic receptor antagonists were administered intraperitoneally or intrathecally before BVA treatment. The serotonin levels in the spinal cord were significantly increased by BVA treatment and such increase was significantly reduced by PCPA. This PCPA pretreatment abolished the relieving effect of BVA on oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia. Either of methysergide (mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or MDL-72222 (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p) blocked the anti-allodynic effect of BVA. Further, an intrathecal injection of MDL-72222 (12 μg) completely blocked the BVA-induced anti-allodynic action, whereas NAN-190 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 15 μg, i.t.) or

  5. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fabbiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+ increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process.

  6. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Gabriela; Rehermann, María I.; Aldecosea, Carina; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E.

    2018-01-01

    Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT) and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+) increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±)-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process. PMID:29593503

  7. Serotonergic Drugs and Valvular Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Richard B.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The serotonin (5-HT) releasers (±)-fenfluramine and (+)-fenfluramine were withdrawn from clinical use due to increased risk of valvular heart disease. One prevailing hypothesis (i.e., the “5-HT hypothesis”) suggests that fenfluramine-induced increases in plasma 5-HT underlie the disease. Objective Here we critically evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for fenfluramine-associated valve disease. Methods Findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments performed in our laboratory are reviewed. The data are integrated with existing literature to address the validity of the 5-HT hypothesis and suggest alternative explanations. Conclusions The overwhelming majority of evidence refutes the 5-HT hypothesis. A more likely cause of fenfluramine-induced valvulopathy is activation of 5-HT2B receptors on heart valves by the metabolite norfenfluramine. Future serotonergic medications should be designed to lack 5-HT2B agonist activity. PMID:19505264

  8. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered.Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter.The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  9. The use of serotonergic drugs to treat obesity – is there any hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Bello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas T Bello1, Nu-Chu Liang21Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Surgical interventional strategies for the treatment of obesity are being implemented at an increasing rate. The safety and feasibility of these procedures are questionable for most overweight or obese individuals. The use of long-term pharmacotherapy options, on the other hand, can target a greater portion of the obese population and provide early intervention to help individuals maintain a healthy lifestyle to promote weight loss. Medications that act on the central serotonergic pathways have been a relative mainstay for the treatment of obesity for the last 35 years. The clinical efficacy of these drugs, however, has been encumbered by the potential for drug-associated complications. Two drugs that act, albeit by different mechanisms, on the central serotonergic system to reduce food intake and decrease body weight are sibutramine and lorcaserin. Sibutramine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, whereas lorcaserin is a selective 5HT2C receptor agonist. The recent worldwide withdrawal of sibutramine and FDA rejection of lorcaserin has changed the landscape not only for serotonin-based therapeutics specifically, but for obesity pharmacotherapy in general. The purpose of this review is to focus on the importance of the serotonergic system in the control of feeding and its potential as a target for obesity pharmacotherapy. Advances in refining and screening more selective receptor agonists and a better understanding of the potential off-target effects of serotonergic drugs are needed to produce beneficial pharmacotherapy.Keywords: 5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin 1B, fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, satiety, dorsal raphe

  10. Serotonergic modulation of reward and punishment: evidence from pharmacological fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoveanu, Julian

    2014-03-27

    Until recently, the bulk of research on the human reward system was focused on studying the dopaminergic and opioid neurotransmitter systems. However, extending the initial data from animal studies on reward, recent pharmacological brain imaging studies on human participants bring a new line of evidence on the key role serotonin plays in reward processing. The reviewed research has revealed how central serotonin availability and receptor specific transmission modulates the neural response to both appetitive (rewarding) and aversive (punishing) stimuli in putative reward-related brain regions. Thus, serotonin is suggested to be involved in behavioral control when there is a prospect of reward or punishment. The new findings may have implications in understanding psychiatric disorders such as major depression which is characterized by abnormal serotonergic function and reward-related processing and may also provide a neural correlated for the emotional blunting observed in the clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Given the unique profile of action of each serotonergic receptor subtype, future pharmacological studies may favor receptor specific investigations to complement present research mainly focused on global serotonergic manipulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential serotonergic mediation of aggression in roosters selected for resistance and susceptibility to Marek’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Serotonin (5-HT) is a primary regulating neurotransmitter involved in aggressive and impulsive behaviors in mammals and birds. Previous studies have also demonstrated the function of serotonergic system in regulating aggression is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. 2. Our obje...

  12. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA

  13. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has conducted research in energy related fields since 1943. The facilities used to conduct the research include nuclear reactors, chemical pilot plants, research laboratories, radioisotope production laboratories, and support facilities. These facilities have produced a variety of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes that have been transported and stored through an extensive network of piping and tankage. Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A-New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B-Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment, and Category D-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C)

  14. Serotonergic neurons signal reward and punishment on multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin's function in the brain is unclear. One challenge in testing the numerous hypotheses about serotonin's function has been observing the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in animals engaged in behavioral tasks. We recorded the activity of dorsal raphe neurons while mice experienced a task in which rewards and punishments varied across blocks of trials. We ‘tagged’ serotonergic neurons with the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 and identified them based on their responses to light. We found three main features of serotonergic neuron activity: (1) a large fraction of serotonergic neurons modulated their tonic firing rates over the course of minutes during reward vs punishment blocks; (2) most were phasically excited by punishments; and (3) a subset was phasically excited by reward-predicting cues. By contrast, dopaminergic neurons did not show firing rate changes across blocks of trials. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons signal information about reward and punishment on multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06346.001 PMID:25714923

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-D4 Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 1607-D4 Septic System was a septic tank and tile field that received sanitary sewage from the 115-D/DR Gas Recirculation Facility. This septic system operated from 1944 to 1968. Decommissioning took place in 1985 and 1986 when all above-grade features were demolished and the tank backfilled. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  17. A Subset of Serotonergic Neurons Evokes Hunger in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Kaun, Karla R; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Heberlein, Ulrike; Simpson, Julie H

    2015-09-21

    Hunger is a complex motivational state that drives multiple behaviors. The sensation of hunger is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One immediate response to hunger is increased food consumption. Hunger also modulates behaviors related to food seeking such as increased locomotion and enhanced sensory sensitivity in both insects and vertebrates. In addition, hunger can promote the expression of food-associated memory. Although progress is being made, how hunger is represented in the brain and how it coordinates these behavioral responses is not fully understood in any system. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify neurons encoding hunger. We found a small group of neurons that, when activated, induced a fed fly to eat as though it were starved, suggesting that these neurons are downstream of the metabolic regulation of hunger. Artificially activating these neurons also promotes appetitive memory performance in sated flies, indicating that these neurons are not simply feeding command neurons but likely play a more general role in encoding hunger. We determined that the neurons relevant for the feeding effect are serotonergic and project broadly within the brain, suggesting a possible mechanism for how various responses to hunger are coordinated. These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-aminopyridazine derivatives with atypical antidepressant, serotonergic, and dopaminergic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermuth, C G; Schlewer, G; Bourguignon, J J; Maghioros, G; Bouchet, M J; Moire, C; Kan, J P; Worms, P; Biziere, K

    1989-03-01

    Minaprine [3-[(beta-morpholinoethyl)amino]-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazine dihydrochloride] is active in most animal models of depression and exhibits in vivo a dual dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic activity profile. In an attempt to dissociate these two effects and to characterize the responsible structural requirements, a series of 47 diversely substituted analogues of minaprine were synthesized and tested for their potential antidepressant, serotonergic, and dopaminergic activities. The structure-activity relationships show that dopaminergic and serotonergic activities can be dissociated. Serotonergic activity appears to be correlated mainly with the substituent in the 4-position of the pyridazine ring whereas the dopaminergic activity appears to be dependent on the presence, or in the formation, of a para-hydroxylated aryl ring in the 6-position of the pyridazine ring.

  19. Transient electromyographic findings in serotonergic toxicity due to combination of essitalopram and isoniazid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çagdas Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of serotonergic toxicity due to combination of essitalopram and isoniazid, which was rarely reported before. Moreover, we observed transient neurogenic denervation potentials in needle electromyography, which disappeared with the treatment of serotonergic toxicity. As to our best knowledge, this is the first case, reporting transient electromyographic changes probably due to serotonergic toxicity.

  20. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  1. Generation of Pet1210-Cre Transgenic Mouse Line Reveals Non-Serotonergic Expression Domains of Pet1 Both in CNS and Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Barbara; Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pratelli, Marta; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Neurons producing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) constitute one of the most widely distributed neuronal networks in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and exhibit a profuse innervation throughout the CNS already at early stages of development. Serotonergic neuron specification is controlled by a combination of secreted molecules and transcription factors such as Shh, Fgf4/8, Nkx2.2, Lmx1b and Pet1. In the mouse, Pet1 mRNA expression appears between 10 and 11 days post coitum (dpc) in serotonergic post-mitotic precursors and persists in serotonergic neurons up to adulthood, where it promotes the expression of genes defining the mature serotonergic phenotype such as tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) and serotonin transporter (SERT). Hence, the generation of genetic tools based on Pet1 specific expression represents a valuable approach to study the development and function of the serotonergic system. Here, we report the generation of a Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line in which the Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of a 210 kb fragment from the Pet1 genetic locus to ensure a reliable and faithful control of somatic recombination in Pet1 cell lineage. Besides Cre-mediated recombination accurately occurred in the serotonergic system as expected and according to previous studies, Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line allowed us to identify novel, so far uncharacterized, Pet1 expression domains. Indeed, we showed that in the raphe Pet1 is expressed also in a non-serotonergic neuronal population intermingled with Tph2-expressing cells and mostly localized in the B8 and B9 nuclei. Moreover, we detected Cre-mediated recombination also in the developing pancreas and in the ureteric bud derivatives of the kidney, where it reflected a specific Pet1 expression. Thus, Pet1210-Cre transgenic mouse line faithfully drives Cre-mediated recombination in all Pet1 expression domains representing a valuable tool to genetically manipulate serotonergic and non-serotonergic

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Serotonergic changes following proestrous treatment with p,p'-DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphouse, L.; Eckols, K.; Croissant, D.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of 25 and 75 mg/kg p,p'-DDT on the CNS serotonergic system were examined in proestrous female rats. Females were treated with p,p'-DDT on the morning of proestrus and were sacrificed that evening. Levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were examined in cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and preoptic areas. The binding of 3'-8-OH-DPAT [2-hydroxy-2-N, N-(di-propylamino)-tetralin], an agonist for 5-HT1A receptors, was examined in hippocampus and frontal cortex. P,p'-DDT decreased the level of 5-HT in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Elevations in 5-HIAA were present in the hypothalamus but only at the higher dose of p,p'-DDT. The dose of 25 mg/kg p,p'-DDT produced an increase in the Bmax for 3H-8-OH-DPAT binding to frontal cortical and hippocampal membranes. Membrane preparations from females given 75 mg/kg p,p'-DDT fell into two categories. Some were similar to the control but with a slightly higher Kd; others could not be analyzed by traditional linear or nonlinear regression procedures because they showed a constant proportion of bound label, independent of the concentration of 3H-ligand in the reaction. In vitro, p,p'-DDT did not compete with 3H-8-OH-DPAT for binding to cortical membranes so it is unlikely that residual pesticide in the membrane preparation accounted for the binding results. These binding results are particularly interesting because, in previous studies, the dose of 25 mg/kg p,p'-DDT was shown to be more potent than 75 mg/kg p,p'-DDT in reducing female rodent lordosis behavior

  4. Intraspinal serotonergic neurons consist of two, temporally distinct populations in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacob E; Wiggin, Timothy D; Rivera-Perez, Luis M; Lillesaar, Christina; Masino, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Zebrafish intraspinal serotonergic neuron (ISN) morphology and distribution have been examined in detail at different ages; however, some aspects of the development of these cells remain unclear. Although antibodies to serotonin (5-HT) have detected ISNs in the ventral spinal cord of embryos, larvae, and adults, the only tryptophan hydroxylase (tph) transcript that has been described in the spinal cord is tph1a. Paradoxically, spinal tph1a is only expressed transiently in embryos, which brings the source of 5-HT in the ISNs of larvae and adults into question. Because the pet1 and tph2 promoters drive transgene expression in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that tph2 is expressed in spinal cords of zebrafish larvae. We confirmed this hypothesis through in situ hybridization. Next, we used 5-HT antibody labeling and transgenic markers of tph2-expressing neurons to identify a transient population of ISNs in embryos that was distinct from ISNs that appeared later in development. The existence of separate ISN populations may not have been recognized previously due to their shared location in the ventral spinal cord. Finally, we used transgenic markers and immunohistochemical labeling to identify the transient ISN population as GABAergic Kolmer-Agduhr double-prime (KA″) neurons. Altogether, this study revealed a novel developmental paradigm in which KA″ neurons are transiently serotonergic before the appearance of a stable population of tph2-expressing ISNs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impacts of brain serotonin deficiency following Tph2 inactivation on development and raphe neuron serotonergic specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gutknecht

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT is implicated in a wide range of functions from basic physiological mechanisms to complex behaviors, including neuropsychiatric conditions, as well as in developmental processes. Increasing evidence links 5-HT signaling alterations during development to emotional dysregulation and psychopathology in adult age. To further analyze the importance of brain 5-HT in somatic and brain development and function, and more specifically differentiation and specification of the serotonergic system itself, we generated a mouse model with brain-specific 5-HT deficiency resulting from a genetically driven constitutive inactivation of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2. Tph2 inactivation (Tph2-/- resulted in brain 5-HT deficiency leading to growth retardation and persistent leanness, whereas a sex- and age-dependent increase in body weight was observed in Tph2+/- mice. The conserved expression pattern of the 5-HT neuron-specific markers (except Tph2 and 5-HT demonstrates that brain 5-HT synthesis is not a prerequisite for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of raphe neurons subjected to the developmental program of serotonergic specification. Furthermore, although these neurons are unable to synthesize 5-HT from the precursor tryptophan, they still display electrophysiological properties characteristic of 5-HT neurons. Moreover, 5-HT deficiency induces an up-regulation of 5-HT(1A and 5-HT(1B receptors across brain regions as well as a reduction of norepinephrine concentrations accompanied by a reduced number of noradrenergic neurons. Together, our results characterize developmental, neurochemical, neurobiological and electrophysiological consequences of brain-specific 5-HT deficiency, reveal a dual dose-dependent role of 5-HT in body weight regulation and show that differentiation of serotonergic neuron phenotype is independent from endogenous 5-HT synthesis.

  6. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  7. Peripheral markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic function in post-pubertal, caucasian males with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, J; Delmeire, L; Verkerk, R; Lin, A H; Meskal, A; Neels, H; Van der Planken, M; Scharpe, S; Deboutte, D; Pison, G; Maes, M

    2000-03-01

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines serotonergic and noradrenergic markers in a study group of 13 male, post-pubertal, caucasian autistic patients (age 12-18 y; I.Q. > 55) and 13 matched volunteers. [3H]-paroxetine binding Kd values were significantly higher in patients with autism than in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT, were significantly lower in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences between autistic and normal children in the serum concentrations of 5-HT, or the 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. There were no significant differences in [3H]-rauwolscine binding Bmax or Kd values, or in the serum concentrations of tyrosine, the precursor of noradrenaline, between both study groups. There were highly significant positive correlations between age and 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serum tryptophan. The results suggest that: 1) serotonergic disturbances, such as defects in the 5-HT transporter system and lowered plasma tryptophan, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism; 2) autism is not associated with alterations in the noradrenergic system; and 3) the metabolism of serotonin in humans undergoes significant changes between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

  8. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ( 3 H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ( 3 H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake

  10. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ({sup 3}H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ({sup 3}H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake.

  11. Acute restriction impairs memory in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and modifies serotonergic activity in the dorsolateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Morales, Sara Eugenia; García-Saldívar, Norma Laura; González-López, María Reyes; Castillo-Roberto, Georgina; Monroy, Juana; Domínguez, Roberto

    2008-12-16

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in behaviors such as sleep, eating, memory, in mental disorders like anxiety and depression and plays an important role in the modulation of stress. On the other hand, exposure to stress influence learning as well as declarative and non-declarative memory. These effects are dependent on the type of stressor, their magnitude, and the type of memory. The striatum has been associated with non-declarative procedural memory, while the information about stress effects on procedural memory and their relation with striatal serotonin is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stress on the modifications of the striatal serotonergic system. In Experiment 1, the effects of either 60 min of restraint (R) or exposure to the elevated T-maze (ETM) was assessed. Exposure to ETM decreased 5-HT concentration and to R increased 5-HT activity ([metabolite]/[neurotransmitter]). In Experiment 2, we evaluated the effects of restraint on ETM trained immediately, 24 or 48 h after restraint. No effects were detected in acquisition or escape latencies, while retention latencies were lower in all groups compared with the non-restrained group, although significant effects were detected immediately and 24h after restraint. The memory impairment seems to be associated with changes in striatal serotonergic system, given that 5-HT concentration increased, while serotonergic activity decreased. The differences in the activity of 5-HT detected in each experiment could be explained by the effects of different stressors on the serotonergic neurons ability to synthesize the neurotransmitter. Thus, we suggest that exposure to stress impairs procedural memory and that striatal serotonin modulates this effect.

  12. Quantitative analysis of crystalline and remaining glass phases in CaO-B2O3-SiO2 ternary system glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.

  13. Evaluation of the Serotonergic Genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in Aggressive Behavior of Golden Retriever Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, L. van den; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Oost, B.A. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Wade, C.M.; Karlsson, E.K.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Liinamo, A.E.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group ofGolden Retriever dogs.Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B,

  14. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, T; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA

    2000-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of affect, impulse regulation and autoaggressive behavior which are all said to be related to an altered function of the central serotonergic (5-HT) system, are prominent features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high coincidence of childhood physical and sexual

  15. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, T.; Westenberg, H. G.; den Boer, J. A.; van den Brink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Disturbances of affect, impulse regulation, and autoaggressive behavior, which are all said to be related to an altered function of the central serotonergic (5-HT) system, are prominent features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high coincidence of childhood physical and sexual abuse is

  16. The Potential Role of Cannabinoids in Modulating Serotonergic Signaling by Their Influence on Tryptophan Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Fuchs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis plants are well known to exert potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Previously, we have demonstrated that the psychoactive D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD modulate mitogen-induced Th1-type immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The suppressive effect of both cannabinoids on mitogen-induced tryptophan degradation mediated by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, suggests an additional mechanism by which antidepressive effects of cannabinoids might be linked to the serotonergic system. Here, we will review the role of tryptophan metabolism in the course of cell mediated immune responses and the relevance of cannabinoids in serotonergic signaling. We conclude that in particular the non-psychotropic CBD might be useful for the treatment of mood disorders in patients with inflammatory diseases, since this cannabinoid seems to be safe and its effects on activation-induced tryptophan degradation by CBD were more potent as compared to THC.

  17. Involvement of adrenergic and serotonergic nervous mechanisms in allethrin-induced tremors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Obana, N; Yagasaki, O; Yanagiya, I

    1984-05-01

    Oral or intravenous administration of allethrin, a synthetic derivative of the pirethrin-based insecticides, produces neurotoxic symptoms consisting of mild salivation, hyperexcitability, tremors and convulsions which result in death. Intracerebroventricular injection of allethrin to mouse at about one-nineth the dose of intravenous administration, produced qualitatively identical but less prominent symptoms, indicating that at least some of the symptoms may be originated in the central nervous system. To investigate the mechanism of action of the compound, we studied the ability of agents which alter neurotransmission to prevent or potentiate the effect of convulsive doses of technical grade (15.5% cis, 84.5% trans) allethrin. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with drugs which block noradrenergic receptors or norepinephrine synthesis, such as pentobarbital, chlorpromazine, phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine and reserpine, depressed the tremor induced by allethrin. The inhibitory effect of reserpine was reversed by phenylephrine. Both the serotonergic blocker, methysergide, and the serotonin depletor, rho-chlorphenylalanine, potentiated the effect of allethrin. The potentiating effect of methysergide was antagonized by 5-hydroxytryptamine. However, intracerebroventricular administration of methysergide was ineffective in potentiating the effect of allethrin. alpha 2- and beta-adrenoceptor blockers, muscarinic antagonists, GABA mimenergics and morphine had no effect. These results suggest that allethrin produces its neurotoxic responses in mice by acting on the brain and spinal levels. Furthermore, adrenergic excitatory and serotonergic inhibitory mechanisms may be involved in the neural pathway through which the allethrin-induced tremor is evoked.

  18. Feeding motivation as a personality trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): role of serotonergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, P.I.M.; Martins, C.I.M.; Höglund, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Consistent individual variation in behaviour and physiology (i.e. animal personality or coping style) has emerged as a central topic in many biological disciplines. Yet, underlying mechanisms of crucial personality traits like feeding behaviour in novel environments remain unclear. Comparative...... to determine to what degree brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) activity pertains to this aspect of animal personality, as a correlate to feed anticipatory behaviour and recovery of feed intake after transfer to a novel environment. Crucial to the definition of animal personality, a strong degree...... of individual consistency in different measures of feeding behaviour (feeding latency and feeding score), was demonstrated. Furthermore, low serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus was highly correlated with a personality characterized by high feeding motivation, with feeding motivation represented...

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Serotonergic neurotransmission in emotional processing: New evidence from long-term recreational poly-drug ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Helle Ruff; Henningsson, Susanne; Macoveanu, Julian; Jernigan, Terry L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Holst, Klaus K; Skimminge, Arnold; Knudsen, Gitte M; Ramsoy, Thomas Z; Erritzoe, David

    2016-12-01

    The brain's serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the processing of emotional stimuli, and several studies have shown that a reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is associated with an increase in amygdala activity during emotional face processing. Prolonged recreational use of ecstasy (3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) induces alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission that are comparable to those observed in a depleted state. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the responsiveness of the amygdala to emotional face stimuli in recreational ecstasy users as a model of long-term serotonin depletion. Fourteen ecstasy users and 12 non-using controls underwent fMRI to measure the regional neural activity elicited in the amygdala by male or female faces expressing anger, disgust, fear, sadness, or no emotion. During fMRI, participants made a sex judgement on each face stimulus. Positron emission tomography with 11 C-DASB was additionally performed to assess serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in the brain. In the ecstasy users, SERT binding correlated negatively with amygdala activity, and accumulated lifetime intake of ecstasy tablets was associated with an increase in amygdala activity during angry face processing. Conversely, time since the last ecstasy intake was associated with a trend toward a decrease in amygdala activity during angry and sad face processing. These results indicate that the effects of long-term serotonin depletion resulting from ecstasy use are dose-dependent, affecting the functional neural basis of emotional face processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Increased postpartum haemorrhage, the possible relation with serotonergic and other psychopharmacological drugs: a matched cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Hanna M.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Bruning, Andrea H. L.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Scheele, Fedde; van Pampus, Maria G.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is a major obstetric risk worldwide. Therefore risk factors need to be investigated to control for this serious complication. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that the use of both serotonergic and non-serotonergic antidepressants in pregnancy are

  4. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of visual information processing in monkey V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimegi, Satoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Sato, Akinori; Aoyama, Chisa; Mizuyama, Ryo; Tsunoda, Keisuke; Ueda, Fuyuki; Araki, Sera; Goya, Ryoma; Sato, Hiromichi

    2016-09-01

    The brain dynamically changes its input-output relationship depending on the behavioral state and context in order to optimize information processing. At the molecular level, cholinergic/monoaminergic transmitters have been extensively studied as key players for the state/context-dependent modulation of brain function. In this paper, we review how cortical visual information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey, which has a highly differentiated laminar structure, is optimized by serotonergic and cholinergic systems by examining anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological aspects to highlight their similarities and distinctions. We show that these two systems have a similar layer bias for axonal fiber innervation and receptor distribution. The common target sites are the geniculorecipient layers and geniculocortical fibers, where the appropriate gain control is established through a geniculocortical signal transformation. Both systems exert activity-dependent response gain control across layers, but in a manner consistent with the receptor subtype. The serotonergic receptors 5-HT1B and 5HT2A modulate the contrast-response curve in a manner consistent with bi-directional response gain control, where the sign (facilitation/suppression) is switched according to the firing rate and is complementary to the other. On the other hand, cholinergic nicotinic/muscarinic receptors exert mono-directional response gain control without a sign reversal. Nicotinic receptors increase the response magnitude in a multiplicative manner, while muscarinic receptors exert both suppressive and facilitative effects. We discuss the implications of the two neuromodulator systems in hierarchical visual signal processing in V1 on the basis of the developed laminar structure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  7. Novel oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) remains highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis following exposure to tropical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Kishor M; Sivak, Olena; Bartlett, Karen; Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis following administration of a novel oral AmB formulation (iCo-010) that has been pre-exposed to tropical temperatures. Amphotericin B (AmB) was prepared as a 5 mg/mL dispersion in a mixture of Peceol, Gelucire 44/14 and VitE-TPGS 2,3 (iCo-010). The formulation was protected from light and incubated in a sealed container at 43 °C for 60 days. Mice infected with Candida albicans were treated with either iCo-010 formulation pre-incubated at 43 °C for 60 days or freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg once daily for five consecutive days. Single intravenous 5 mg/kg dose of AmBisome® was used as a positive control group. Seven days following the last dose, the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, heart and brain were removed and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) was determined as a measure of tissue fungal load. In addition, the concentration of AmB within each tissue was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were no significant differences in the reduction of CFUs and the concentration of AmB recovered in all organs at all iCo-010 doses tested between the freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation compared to the formulation that was incubated at 43 °C for 60 days. A novel oral AmB formulation, iCo-010, incubated at 43 °C for 60 days to simulate the exposure of the formulation to tropical temperatures remained highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis.

  8. Fluctuating serotonergic function in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome: findings from neuroendocrine challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y; Terao, T; Iwata, N; Okamoto, K; Kojima, H; Okamoto, T; Yoshimura, R; Nakamura, J

    2007-02-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has been assumed to be a subtype of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with depressive symptoms, such as depressive mood, tension, anxiety, and mood liability during luteal phase. At present, no conclusion has been established about serotonergic function in PMDD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serotonergic function of PMDD subjects in comparison to PMS without PMDD subjects and normal controls via neuroendocrine challenge tests. Twenty-four women (seven with PMDD, eight with PMS without PMDD, and nine normal controls) were tested on three occasions (follicular phase, early luteal phase, and late luteal phase) receiving paroxetine 20 mg orally as a serotonergic probe at 8:00 A: .M: . Plasma ACTH and cortisol were measured prior to the administration and every hour for 6 h thereafter. As a whole, there were significant differences in serotonergic function measured by ACTH and cortisol responses to paroxetine challenge across these three groups. PMDD subjects showed higher serotonergic function in follicular phase but lower serotonergic function in luteal phase, compared with women with PMS without PMDD and normal controls. The present findings suggest that PMDD women have fluctuating serotonergic function across their menstrual cycles and that the pattern may be different from PMS without PMDD.

  9. Merkel disc is a serotonergic synapse in the epidermis for transmitting tactile signals in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Gu, Jianguo G

    2016-09-13

    The evolution of sensory systems has let mammals develop complicated tactile end organs to enable sophisticated sensory tasks, including social interaction, environmental exploration, and tactile discrimination. The Merkel disc, a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells (MCs) and Aβ-afferent endings, are highly abundant in fingertips, touch domes, and whisker hair follicles of mammals. The Merkel disc has high tactile acuity for an object's physical features, such as texture, shape, and edges. Mechanisms underlying the tactile function of Merkel discs are obscured as to how MCs transmit tactile signals to Aβ-afferent endings leading to tactile sensations. Using mouse whisker hair follicles, we show herein that tactile stimuli are transduced by MCs into excitatory signals that trigger vesicular serotonin release from MCs. We identify that both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are expressed on whisker Aβ-afferent endings and that their activation by serotonin released from MCs initiates Aβ-afferent impulses. Moreover, we demonstrate that these ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors have a synergistic effect that is critical to both electrophysiological and behavioral tactile responses. These findings elucidate that the Merkel disc is a unique serotonergic synapse located in the epidermis and plays a key role in tactile transmission. The epidermal serotonergic synapse may have important clinical implications in sensory dysfunctions, such as the loss of tactile sensitivity and tactile allodynia seen in patients who have diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and undergo chemotherapy. It may also have implications in the exaggerated tactile sensations induced by recreational drugs that act on serotoninergic synapses.

  10. Aging adult skull remains through radiological density estimates: A comparison of different computed tomography systems and the use of computer simulations to judge the accuracy of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Martin; Kubelt, Carolin; Schaaf, Thomas; Dassinger, Benjamin; Grams, Astrid; Gizewski, Elke R; Krombach, Gabriele A; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2013-05-10

    The objective of this article was to explore age-at-death estimates in forensic medicine, which were methodically based on age-dependent, radiologically defined bone-density (HC) decay and which were investigated with a standard clinical computed tomography (CT) system. Such density decay was formerly discovered with a high-resolution flat-panel CT in the skulls of adult females. The development of a standard CT methodology for age estimations--with thousands of installations--would have the advantage of being applicable everywhere, whereas only few flat-panel prototype CT systems are in use worldwide. A Multi-Slice CT scanner (MSCT) was used to obtain 22,773 images from 173 European human skulls (89 male, 84 female), taken from a population of patients from the Department of Neuroradiology at the University Hospital Giessen and Marburg during 2010 and 2011. An automated image analysis was carried out to evaluate HC of all images. The age dependence of HC was studied by correlation analysis. The prediction accuracy of age-at-death estimates was calculated. Computer simulations were carried out to explore the influence of noise on the accuracy of age predictions. Human skull HC values strongly scatter as a function of age for both sexes. Adult male skull bone-density remains constant during lifetime. Adult female HC decays during lifetime, as indicated by a correlation coefficient (CC) of -0.53. Prediction errors for age-at-death estimates for both of the used scanners are in the range of ±18 years at a 75% confidence interval (CI). Computer simulations indicate that this is the best that can be expected for such noisy data. Our results indicate that HC-decay is indeed present in adult females and that it can be demonstrated both by standard and by high-resolution CT methods, applied to different subject groups of an identical population. The weak correlation between HC and age found by both CT methods only enables a method to estimate age-at-death with limited

  11. Serotonergic synaptic input to facial motoneurons: localization by electron-microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanian, G K; McCall, R B [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). School of Medicine

    1980-12-01

    Serotonergic nerve terminals in the facial motor nucleus were labelled with (/sup 3/H)5-hydroxytryptamine. When serotonergic nerve terminals were destroyed (by the selective neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine) the labelling was lost. By electron-microscopic autoradiography, labelled serotonergic terminals were found to make axo-dendritic or axo-somatic junctions with facial motor neurons. No axo-axonic junctions were observed. These morphological findings are consistent with physiological studies which indicate that 5-hydroxytryptamine facilitates the excitation of facial motoneurons through a direct postsynaptic action.

  12. Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L

    2015-01-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and mescaline, are somewhat enigmatic substances. Although these drugs are derived from multiple chemical families, they all produce remarkably similar effects in animals and humans, and they show cross-tolerance. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is the primary site of hallucinogen action. The 5-HT2A receptor is responsible for mediating the effects of hallucinogens in human subjects, as well as in animal behavioral paradigms such as drug discrimination, head twitch response, prepulse inhibition of startle, exploratory behavior, and interval timing. Many recent clinical trials have yielded important new findings regarding the psychopharmacology of these substances. Furthermore, the use of modern imaging and electrophysiological techniques is beginning to help unravel how hallucinogens work in the brain. Evidence is also emerging that hallucinogens may possess therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Putaminal serotonergic innervation: monitoring dyskinesia risk in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Young; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Jeon, Beom S

    2015-09-08

    To explore serotonergic innervation in the basal ganglia in relation to levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). A total of 30 patients with PD without dementia or depression were divided into 3 matched groups (dyskinetic, nondyskinetic, and drug-naive) for this study. We acquired 2 PET scans and 3T MRI for each patient using [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile ((11)C-DASB) and N-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((18)F-FP-CIT). Then we analyzed binding potentials of the 2 radiotracers at basal ganglia structures and correlations with clinical variables. We observed no difference in (18)F-FP-CIT binding between dyskinetic and nondyskinetic patients, whereas there were differences in (11)C-DASB binding for the caudate and putamen. Binding potential ratios ((11)C-DASB/(18)F-FP-CIT) at the putamen, which indicate serotoninergic fiber innervation relative to dopaminergic fiber availability, were highest in the dyskinetic group, followed by the nondyskinetic and drug-naive PD groups. (11)C-DASB/(18)F-FP-CIT ratios at the putamen and pallidum correlated positively with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total scores and duration of PD, and pallidal binding ratio also correlated with the UPDRS motor scores. Ratios were not dependent on dopaminergic medication dosages for any of the regions studied. Relative serotonergic innervation of the putamen and pallidum increased with clinical PD progression and was highest in patients with established dyskinesia. The serotonin/dopamine transporter ratio might be a potential marker of disease progression and an indicator of risk for levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD. A prospective evaluation is warranted in the future. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Brain serotonergic and dopaminergic modulators, perceptual responses and endurance exercise performance following caffeine co-ingested with a high fat meal in trained humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilduff Liam P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study examined putative modulators and indices of brain serotonergic and dopaminergic function, perceptual responses, and endurance exercise performance following caffeine co-ingested with a high fat meal. Methods Trained humans (n = 10 performed three constant-load cycling tests at 73% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max until exhaustion at 10°C remove space throughout. Prior to the first test, subjects consumed a 90% carbohydrate meal (Control trial and for the remaining two tests, a 90% fat meal with (FC trial and without (F trial caffeine. Results Time to exhaustion was not different between the F and FC trials (P > 0.05; [Control trial: 116(88-145 min; F trial: 122(96-144 min; FC trial: 127(107-176 min]. However, leg muscular discomfort during exercise was significantly lower on the FC relative to F trial (P P > 0.05 with the exception of plasma free-Trp:LNAA ratio which was higher at 90 min and at exhaustion during the FC trial (P Conclusions Neither brain 5-HT nor DA systems would appear to be implicated in the fatigue process when exercise is performed without significant thermoregulatory stress, thus indicating fatigue development during exercise in relatively cold temperatures to occur predominantly due to glycogen depletion.

  15. Computational and biological evidences on the serotonergic involvement of SeTACN antidepressant-like effect in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G Fronza

    Full Text Available A series of phenylselanyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonitriles with different substituents were screened for their binding affinity with serotonin transporter (SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT by docking molecular. 5-(4methoxyphenyl-1-(2-(phenylselanylphenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonitrile (SeTACN exhibited the best conformation with SERT even higher than fluoxetine and serotonin, suggesting a competitive inhibition. SeTACN demonstrated additional affinity to other serotonergic receptors involved in antidepressant effects: 5HT1a, 5HT2a and 5HT3. In another set of experiments, SeTACN led to significant reductions in the immobility time of mice submitted to forced swimming test (FST in the dose range of 0.1- 20mg/kg, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. The possible mechanism of action was investigated using serotonergic and dopaminergic antagonists. The antidepressant-like effect of SeTACN (0.1mg/kg i.g. was prevented by the pretreatment with WAY100635 (a selective 5HT1a antagonist, ketanserin (a 5HT2a/c antagonist and ondansetron (a selective 5ht3 antagonist, PCPA (an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis but not with SCH23390 (dopaminergic D1 antagonist and sulpiride (D2 antagonist. Sub-effective dose of fluoxetine was able to potentiate the effects of a sub-effective dose of SeTACN in FST. None of the treatments affected locomotor activity in open field test (OFT. These results together, suggest that the SeTACN antidepressant-like effect is mediate, at least in parts, by serotonergic system.

  16. Development of a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the thermoregulatory effects of serotonergic drugs in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Ling Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI, potentiates serotonin (5-HT receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control. Harmaline-induced hypothermia and 5-MeO-DMT–elicited hyperthermia were attributable to the loss of heat through the activation of 5-HT1A receptor and thermogenesis via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptor, respectively. Thus serotonergic 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia was readily distinguished from handling/injection stress-provoked hyperthermic effects. This PK/PD model was able to simultaneously describe all experimental data including the impact of drug-metabolizing enzyme status on 5-MeO-DMT and harmaline PK properties, and drug- and stress-induced simple hypo/hyperthermic and complex biphasic effects. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed a 4-fold decrease of apparent SC50 value (1.88–0.496 µmol/L for 5-MeO-DMT when harmaline was co-administered, providing a quantitative assessment for the impact of concurrent MAOI harmaline on 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia. In addition, the hyperpyrexia caused by toxic dose combinations of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT were linked to the increased systemic exposure to harmaline rather than 5-MeO-DMT, although the body temperature profiles were mispredicted by the model. The results indicate that current PK/PD model may be used as a new conceptual framework to define the impact of serotonergic agents and stress factors on thermoregulation.

  17. The serotonergic system in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Noristani, H. N.; Verkhratsky, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2012), s. 15-41 ISSN 0301-0082 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696; GA ČR GA305/08/1384; GA ČR GA309/08/1381; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : dementia * serotonin * hippocampus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 9.035, year: 2012

  18. Electrophysical properties, synaptic transmission and neuromodulation in serotonergic caudal raphe neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y W; Bayliss, D A

    1998-06-01

    1. We studied electrophysiological properties, synaptic transmission and modulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of caudal raphe neurons using whole-cell recording in a neonatal rat brain slice preparation; recorded neurons were identified as serotonergic by post-hoc immunohistochemical detection of tryptophan hydroxylase, the 5-HT-synthesizing enzyme. 2. Serotonergic neurons fired spontaneously (approximately 1 Hz), with maximal steady state firing rates of < 4 Hz. 5-Hydroxytryptamine caused hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity in these neurons by activating inwardly rectifying K+ conductance via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. 3. Unitary glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) and currents (EPSC) were evoked in serotonergic neurons by local electrical stimulation. Evoked EPSC were potently inhibited by 5-HT, an effect mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. 4. In conclusion, serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are spontaneously active in vitro; they receive prominent glutamatergic synaptic inputs. 5-Hydroxytryptamine regulates serotonergic neuronal activity of the caudal raphe by decreasing spontaneous activity via somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors and by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission onto these neurons via presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors. These local modulatory mechanisms provide multiple levels of feedback autoregulation of serotonergic raphe neurons by 5-HT.

  19. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  20. Perinatal serotonergic activity: A decisive factor in the control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabeli Lins PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The serotoninergic system controls key events related to proper nervous system development. The neurotransmitter serotonin and the serotonin transporter are critical for this control. Availability of these components is minutely regulated during the development period, and the environment may affect their action on the nervous system. Environmental factors such as undernutrition and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and change its anorectic action. The physiological responses promoted by serotonin on intake control decrease when requested by acute stimuli or stress, demonstrating that animals or individuals develop adaptations in response to the environmental insults they experience during the development period. Diseases, such as anxiety and obesity, appear to be associated with the body’s response to stress or stimulus, and require greater serotonergic system action. These findings demonstrate the importance of the level of serotonin in the perinatal period to the development of molecular and morphological aspects of food intake control, and its decisive role in understanding the possible environmental factors that cause diseases in adulthood.

  1. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Haynes, Robin L; Rognum, Ingvar J; Paterson, David S

    2011-07-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary "homeostatic network" that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term "developmental serotonopathies" of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genistein alleviates anxiety-like behaviors in post-traumatic stress disorder model through enhancing serotonergic transmission in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Min; Ni, Gui-Lian; Shao, Ai-Min; Cui, Rong

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21. Genistein (2-8mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally daily for 7 days. The anti-anxiety effects of genistein were measured by contextual freezing behavior and elevated plus maze. By the end of the experiments, the amygdala was extracted and subject to neurochemistry analysis. Genistein alleviated contextual freezing behavior and improved performance in elevated plus maze dose-dependently in PTSD rats. Furthermore, in these rats, genistein enhanced serotonergic transmission in the amygdala, including upregulation of tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin, and phosphorylated (p)-CaMKII and p-CREB, as well. Genistein exerts anti-anxiety effects on a PTSD model probably through enhancing serotonergic system and CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway in the amygdala. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonergic 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists: Heterocyclic Chemistry and Potential Therapeutic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Alka; Singh, Shalu

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor (5- HT(6)R) is amongst the recently discovered serotonergic receptors with almost exclusive localization in the brain. Hence, this receptor is fast emerging as a promising target for cognition enhancement in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (cognitive function), obesity, schizophrenia and anxiety. The last decade has seen a surge of literature reports on the functional role of this receptor in learning and memory processes and investigations related to the chemistry and pharmacology of 5-HT(6) receptor ligands, especially 5- HT(6) receptor antagonists. Studies show the involvement of multiple neurotransmitter systems in cognitive enhancement by 5-HT(6)R antagonists including cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems. Several of the 5-HT(6)R ligands are indole based agents bearing structural similarity to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin. Based on the pharmacophoric models proposed for these agents, drug designing has been carried out incorporating various heterocyclic replacements for the indole nucleus. In this review, we have broadly summarized the medicinal chemistry and current status of this fairly recent class of drugs along with their potential therapeutic applications.

  4. The relationship between carbonate facies, volcanic rocks and plant remains in a late Palaeozoic lacustrine system (San Ignacio Fm, Frontal Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.; Gallastegui, G.; Colombo, F.; Cardó, R.; Limarino, O.; Heredia, N.; Césari, S. N.

    2013-07-01

    The San Ignacio Fm, a late Palaeozoic foreland basin succession that crops out in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentinean Andes), contains lacustrine microbial carbonates and volcanic rocks. Modification by extensive pedogenic processes contributed to the massive aspect of the calcareous beds. Most of the volcanic deposits in the San Ignacio Fm consist of pyroclastic rocks and resedimented volcaniclastic deposits. Less frequent lava flows produced during effusive eruptions led to the generation of tabular layers of fine-grained, greenish or grey andesites, trachytes and dacites. Pyroclastic flow deposits correspond mainly to welded ignimbrites made up of former glassy pyroclasts devitrified to microcrystalline groundmass, scarce crystals of euhedral plagioclase, quartz and K-feldspar, opaque minerals, aggregates of fine-grained phyllosilicates and fiammes defining a bedding-parallel foliation generated by welding or diagenetic compaction. Widespread silicified and silica-permineralized plant remains and carbonate mud clasts are found, usually embedded within the ignimbrites. The carbonate sequences are underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks. The carbonate sequence bottoms are mostly gradational, while their tops are usually sharp. The lower part of the carbonate sequences is made up of mud which appear progressively, filling interstices in the top of the underlying volcanic rocks. They gradually become more abundant until they form the whole of the rock fabric. Carbonate on volcanic sandstones and pyroclastic deposits occur, with the nucleation of micritic carbonate and associated production of pyrite. Cyanobacteria, which formed the locus of mineral precipitation, were related with this nucleation. The growth of some of the algal mounds was halted by the progressive accumulation of volcanic ash particles, but in most cases the upper boundary is sharp and suddenly truncated by pyroclastic flows or volcanic avalanches. These pyroclastic flows partially destroyed the

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario

  6. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP as an indicator of serotonergic dysfunction in patients with predominant schizophrenic negative symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wyss

    Full Text Available Besides the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on negative symptoms in schizophrenia, there is evidence that alterations of serotonin (5-HT system functioning also play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. From post mortem and genetic studies on patients with negative symptoms a 5-HT dysfunction is documented. In addition atypical neuroleptics and some antidepressants improve negative symptoms via serotonergic action. So far no research has been done to directly clarify the association between the serotonergic functioning and the extent of negative symptoms. Therefore, we examined the status of brain 5-HT level in negative symptoms in schizophrenia by means of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP. The LDAEP provides a well established and non-invasive in vivo marker of the central 5-HT activity. We investigated 13 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms treated with atypical neuroleptics and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls with a 32-channel EEG. The LDAEP of the N1/P2 component was evaluated by dipole source analysis and single electrode estimation at Cz. Psychopathological parameters, nicotine use and medication were assessed to control for additional influencing factors. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher LDAEP in both hemispheres than controls. Furthermore, the LDAEP in the right hemisphere in patients was related to higher scores in scales assessing negative symptoms. A relationship with positive symptoms was not found. These data might suggest a diminished central serotonergic neurotransmission in patients with predominant negative symptoms.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  8. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is one segment of a late Proterozoic(?) to early Paleozoic intracontinental rift complex in the south-central United States. The rift complex is situated beneath Mesozoic to Cenozoic strata of the Mississippi embayment of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and western Tennessee and Kentucky. The rift portion of the stratigraphic section consists primarily of synrift Cambrian and Ordovician strata, capped by a postrift sag succession of Late Ordovician to Cenozoic age. Potential synrift source rocks have been identified in the Cambrian Elvins Shale. Thermal maturity of Paleozoic strata within the rift ranges from the oil window to the dry gas window. Petroleum generation in Elvins source rocks likely occurred during the middle to late Paleozoic. Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlie various Paleozoic units and define the likely upper boundary of the petroleum system.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  10. Stress Enables Reinforcement-Elicited Serotonergic Consolidation of Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Michael V; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Monahan, Patrick E; Yao, Junmei; Weber, Michael D; Lin, Pei-Ann; Gisabella, Barbara; Petrossian, Natalie; Amat, Jose; Kim, Kyungman; Yang, Aimei; Forest, Craig R; Boyden, Edward S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-05-15

    Prior exposure to stress is a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to trauma, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Using a rodent model of stress-based susceptibility to PTSD, we investigated the role of serotonin in this phenomenon. Adult mice were exposed to repeated immobilization stress or handling, and the role of serotonin in subsequent fear learning was assessed using pharmacologic manipulation and western blot detection of serotonin receptors, measurements of serotonin, high-speed optogenetic silencing, and behavior. Both dorsal raphe serotonergic activity during aversive reinforcement and amygdala serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activity during memory consolidation were necessary for stress enhancement of fear memory, but neither process affected fear memory in unstressed mice. Additionally, prior stress increased amygdala sensitivity to serotonin by promoting surface expression of 5-HT2CR without affecting tissue levels of serotonin in the amygdala. We also showed that the serotonin that drives stress enhancement of associative cued fear memory can arise from paired or unpaired footshock, an effect not predicted by theoretical models of associative learning. Stress bolsters the consequences of aversive reinforcement, not by simply enhancing the neurobiological signals used to encode fear in unstressed animals, but rather by engaging distinct mechanistic pathways. These results reveal that predictions from classical associative learning models do not always hold for stressed animals and suggest that 5-HT2CR blockade may represent a promising therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive fear responses such as that observed in PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  12. Complex investigations for the technical diagnosis and constructive optimization of the pipe systems from Rovinari power plant to extend their remaining life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Lupescu, L.; Nicolescu, N. [Institutul de Studii si Proiectari Energetice, Bucharest (Romania); Pisc, I.; Botis, A. [ISIM, Timisoara (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The remnant life assessment of power plant components is an issue of a high importance all over the Europe and not only. The need of power products, the environmental-related restrictions within this field as well as the task of lowering the fabrication costs led to and increased importance of maintenance and retrofit activities of old power equipment during the last decade. Replacement of pipe lines exceeding their designed life is no longer regarded as an option for power plant managers. Instead, life assessment techniques combined with state of the art design and fabrication methods focusing on the replacement of damaged components as well as redesign of pipe line systems in order to eliminate overloading and/or secondary stresses that usually lead to premature life exhaustion are only some of the issues discussed within this paper. It deals with the retrofit of a conventional power plant (Group no. 3 of Rovinari Power Plant) which reached its designed life after about 110.000 operating hours. The need of improvement of the boiler efficiency as well as the extension of the plant life, maintaining in the same time old, but still good components determined the three companies (ISPE, ISIM and TUeV) to gather their skills in order to reach this task. (orig.)

  13. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  14. Serotonergic dysfunctions and abnormal iron metabolism: Relevant to mental fatigue of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li-Jun; Yu, Shu-Yang; Hu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Piao, Ying-Shan; Lian, Teng-Hong; Yu, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Rui-Dan; Li, Li-Xia; Guo, Peng; Du, Yang; Zhu, Rong-Yan; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-Di; Wang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-21

    Fatigue is a very common non-motor symptom in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. It included physical fatigue and mental fatigue. The potential mechanisms of mental fatigue involving serotonergic dysfunction and abnormal iron metabolism are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the fatigue symptoms, classified PD patients into fatigue group and non-fatigue group, and detected the levels of serotonin, iron and related proteins in CSF and serum. In CSF, 5-HT level is significantly decreased and the levels of iron and transferrin are dramatically increased in fatigue group. In fatigue group, mental fatigue score is negatively correlated with 5-HT level in CSF, and positively correlated with the scores of depression and excessive daytime sleepiness, and disease duration, also, mental fatigue is positively correlated with the levels of iron and transferrin in CSF. Transferrin level is negatively correlated with 5-HT level in CSF. In serum, the levels of 5-HT and transferrin are markedly decreased in fatigue group; mental fatigue score exhibits a negative correlation with 5-HT level. Thus serotonin dysfunction in both central and peripheral systems may be correlated with mental fatigue through abnormal iron metabolism. Depression, excessive daytime sleepiness and disease duration were the risk factors for mental fatigue of PD.

  15. Impairment of Serotonergic Transmission by the Antiparkinsonian Drug L-DOPA: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Miguelez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between the anti-Parkinsonian drug L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA and the serotonergic (5-HT system has been long established and has received increased attention during the last decade. Most studies have focused on the fact that L-DOPA can be transformed into dopamine (DA and released from 5-HT terminals, which is especially important for the management of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In patients, treatment using L-DOPA also impacts 5-HT neurotransmission; however, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of this effect. The purpose of this review is to summarize the electrophysiological and neurochemical data concerning the effects of L-DOPA on 5-HT cell function. This review will argue that L-DOPA disrupts the link between the electrical activity of 5-HT neurons and 5-HT release as well as that between 5-HT release and extracellular 5-HT levels. These effects are caused by the actions of L-DOPA and DA in 5-HT neurons, which affect 5-HT neurotransmission from the biosynthesis of 5-HT to the impairment of the 5-HT transporter. The interaction between L-DOPA and 5-HT transmission is especially relevant in those Parkinson’s disease (PD patients that suffer dyskinesia, comorbid anxiety or depression, since the efficacy of antidepressants or 5-HT compounds may be affected.

  16. Serotonergic Regulation of Prefrontal Cortical Circuitries Involved in Cognitive Processing: A Review of Individual 5-HT Receptor Mechanisms and Concerted Effects of 5-HT Receptors Exemplified by the Multimodal Antidepressant Vortioxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Steven C; Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Dale, Elena; Smagin, Gennady; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-07-15

    It has been known for several decades that serotonergic neurotransmission is a key regulator of cognitive function, mood, and sleep. Yet with the relatively recent discoveries of novel serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes, as well as an expanding knowledge of their expression level in certain brain regions and localization on certain cell types, their involvement in cognitive processes is still emerging. Of particular interest are cognitive processes impacted in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical to normal cognitive processes, including attention, impulsivity, planning, decision-making, working memory, and learning or recall of learned memories. Furthermore, serotonergic dysregulation within the PFC is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders associated with prominent symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Thus, it is important to better understand the overall makeup of serotonergic receptors in the PFC and on which cell types these receptors mediate their actions. In this Review, we focus on 5-HT receptor expression patterns within the PFC and how they influence cognitive behavior and neurotransmission. We further discuss the net effects of vortioxetine, an antidepressant acting through multiple serotonergic targets given the recent findings that vortioxetine improves cognition by modulating multiple neurotransmitter systems.

  17. [Local GABA-ergic modulation of serotonergic neuron activity in the nucleus raphe magnus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniushkin, A N; Merkulova, N A; Orlova, A O; Iniushkina, E M

    2009-07-01

    In voltage-clamp experimental on slices of the rat brainstem the effects of 5-HT and GABA on serotonergic neurons of nucleus raphe magnus were investigated. Local applications of 5-HT induced an increase in IPCSs frequency and amplitude in 45% of serotonergic cells. The effect suppressed by the blocker of fast sodium channels tetradotoxin. Antagonist of GABA receptor gabazine blocked IPSCs in neurons both sensitive and non-sensitive to 5-HT action. Applications of GABA induced a membrane current (I(GABA)), which was completely blocked by gabazine. The data suggest self-control of the activity of serotonergic neurons in nucleus raphe magnus by negative feedback loop via local GABAergic interneurons.

  18. Selective Serotonergic (SSRI) Versus Noradrenergic (SNRI) Reuptake Inhibitors with and without Acetylsalicylic Acid in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Lepiece, Brice; Dubois, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Antidepressant medication efficacy remains a major research challenge. Here, we explored four questions: whether noradrenergic antidepressants are more effective than serotonergic antidepressants; whether the addition of 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) changes antidepressant efficacy; whether the long-term efficacy differs depending on the antidepressant and the addition of ASA; and whether serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are clinically informative. In a two-year study, forty people with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to groups that received an SSRI (escitalopram) or an SNRI (duloxetine), each group received concomitant ASA (100 mg) or a placebo. Sociodemographic data were recorded and patients under went regular assessments with the Hamilton depression scale (HDS) and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. Serum levels of BDNF were measured four times per year. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the two antidepressants or between antidepressant treatment with and without ASA. However, subgroup comparisons revealed that the duloxetine + ASA (DASA) subgroup showed a more rapid improvement in HDS score as early as 2 months (t=-3.114, p=0.01), in CGI score at 5 months (t=-2.119, p=0.05), and a better remission rate (χ 2 =6.296, p 0.012) than the escitalopram + placebo (EP) subgroup. Serum BDNF before treatment was also higher in the DASA subgroup than in the EP subgroup (t=3.713; p=0.002). This suggest two hypotheses: either a noradrenergic agent combined with ASA is more effective in treating depression than a serotonergic agent alone, or the level of serum BDNF before treatment is a precursor marker of the response to antidepressants. Further research is needed to test these hypotheses.

  19. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055 and 2004-006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  1. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  2. Thoracic Hemisection in Rats Results in Initial Recovery Followed by a Late Decrement in Locomotor Movements, with Changes in Coordination Correlated with Serotonergic Innervation of the Ventral Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska, Anna N.; Majczyński, Henryk; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Sławińska, Urszula; Cabaj, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral thoracic hemisection of the rodent spinal cord is a popular model of spinal cord injury, in which the effects of various treatments, designed to encourage locomotor recovery, are tested. Nevertheless, there are still inconsistencies in the literature concerning the details of spontaneous locomotor recovery after such lesions, and there is a lack of data concerning the quality of locomotion over a long time span after the lesion. In this study, we aimed to address some of these issues. In our experiments, locomotor recovery was assessed using EMG and CatWalk recordings and analysis. Our results showed that after hemisection there was paralysis in both hindlimbs, followed by a substantial recovery of locomotor movements, but even at the peak of recovery, which occurred about 4 weeks after the lesion, some deficits of locomotion remained present. The parameters that were abnormal included abduction, interlimb coordination and speed of locomotion. Locomotor performance was stable for several weeks, but about 3–4 months after hemisection secondary locomotor impairment was observed with changes in parameters, such as speed of locomotion, interlimb coordination, base of hindlimb support, hindlimb abduction and relative foot print distance. Histological analysis of serotonergic innervation at the lumbar ventral horn below hemisection revealed a limited restoration of serotonergic fibers on the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord, while on the contralateral side of the spinal cord it returned to normal. In addition, the length of these fibers on both sides of the spinal cord correlated with inter- and intralimb coordination. In contrast to data reported in the literature, our results show there is not full locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection. Secondary deterioration of certain locomotor functions occurs with time in hemisected rats, and locomotor recovery appears partly associated with reinnervation of spinal circuitry by serotonergic fibers. PMID

  3. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  4. Serotonergic modulation of hippocampal pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Horwitz, B. A.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Serotonergic fibers project to the hippocampus, a brain area previously shown to have distinctive changes in electroencephalograph (EEG) activity during entrance into and arousal from hibernation. The EEG activity is generated by pyramidal cells in both hibernating and nonhibernating species. Using the brain slice preparation, we characterized serotonergic responses of these CA1 pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating Syrian hamsters. Stimulation of Shaffer-collateral/commissural fibers evoked fast synaptic excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells, a response monitored by recording population spikes (the synchronous generation of action potentials). Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) decreased population spike amplitude by 54% in cold-acclimated animals, 80% in hibernating hamsters, and 63% in euthermic animals. The depression was significantly greater in slices from hibernators than from cold-acclimated animals. In slices from euthermic animals, changes in extracellular K+ concentration between 2.5 and 5.0 mM did not significantly alter serotonergic responses. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin mimicked serotonergic inhibition in euthermic hamsters. Results show that 5-HT is a robust neuromodulator not only in euthermic animals but also in cold-acclimated and hibernating hamsters.

  5. Loss of serotonin 2A receptors exceeds loss of serotonergic projections in early Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Frøkjær, Vibe; Kalbitzer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    and the serotonin transporter binding, the latter as a measure of serotonergic projections and neurons. Twelve patients with AD (average Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]: 24) and 11 healthy age-matched subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [(18)F]altanserin and [(11)C...

  6. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  7. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  8. Remain stable.; Schoen stabil bleiben.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teroerde, Michael; Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Eckoldt, Hans-Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Magnetstromversorgung

    2013-11-15

    In the German power grid the increasing photovoltaic power plants and wind turbines provide due to their volatile energy supply high demands on the control of the power grid. In the case of malfunctions in the network short-term energy storage could participate in the grid control. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) belongs to the efficient short-term energy storage. A SMES system was investigated at DESY in Hamburg. [German] Im deutschen Stromnetz stellen die zunehmenden Photovoltaik- und Windkraftanlagen aufgrund ihrer stark schwankenden Energieeinspeisung hohe Anforderungen an die Regelung des Stromnetzes. Bei eventuell auftretenden Stoerungen im Netz koennten Kurzzeitenergiespeicher an der Netzregelung teilnehmen. Zu den effizienten Kurzzeitspeichern gehoeren supraleitende magnetische Energiespeicher (SMES). Ein SMES-System wurde bei DESY in Hamburg untersucht.

  9. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit eBrogaard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  10. Role of serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila larval response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Ana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila larval locomotion consists of forward peristalsis interrupted by episodes of pausing, turning and exploratory behavior (head swinging. This behavior can be regulated by visual input as seen by light-induced increase in pausing, head swinging and direction change as well as reduction of linear speed that characterizes the larval photophobic response. During 3rd instar stage, Drosophila larvae gradually cease to be repelled by light and are photoneutral by the time they wander in search for a place to undergo metamorphosis. Thus, Drosophila larval photobehavior can be used to study control of locomotion. Results We used targeted neuronal silencing to assess the role of candidate neurons in the regulation of larval photobehavior. Inactivation of DOPA decarboxylase (Ddc neurons increases the response to light throughout larval development, including during the later stages of the 3rd instar characterized by photoneutral response. Increased response to light is characterized by increase in light-induced direction change and associated pause, and reduction of linear movement. Amongst Ddc neurons, suppression of the activity of corazonergic and serotonergic but not dopaminergic neurons increases the photophobic response observed during 3rd instar stage. Silencing of serotonergic neurons does not disrupt larval locomotion or the response to mechanical stimuli. Reduced serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT signaling within serotonergic neurons recapitulates the results obtained with targeted neuronal silencing. Ablation of serotonergic cells in the ventral nerve cord (VNC does not affect the larval response to light. Similarly, disruption of serotonergic projections that contact the photoreceptor termini in the brain hemispheres does not impact the larval response to light. Finally, pan-neural over-expression of 5-HT1ADro receptors, but not of any other 5-HT receptor subtype, causes a significant decrease in the response to

  11. Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    125 I-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 125 I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. 125 I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus 125 I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue

  12. Influence of early stress on social abilities and serotonergic functions across generations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B Franklin

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environments during early development is a known risk factor for several psychiatric conditions including antisocial behavior and personality disorders. Here, we induced social anxiety and altered social recognition memory in adult mice using unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress during early postnatal life. We show that these social defects are not only pronounced in the animals directly subjected to stress, but are also transmitted to their offspring across two generations. The defects are associated with impaired serotonergic signaling, in particular, reduced 5HT1A receptor expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and increased serotonin level in a dorsal raphe projection area. These findings underscore the susceptibility of social behaviors and serotonergic pathways to early stress, and the persistence of their perturbation across generations.

  13. Optogenetic activation of serotonergic terminals facilitates GABAergic inhibitory input to orexin/hypocretin neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Srikanta; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Orexin/hypocretin neurons play a crucial role in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness, primarily in the maintenance of wakefulness. These neurons innervate wide areas of the brain and receive diverse synaptic inputs including those from serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the raphe nucleus. Previously we showed that pharmacological application of 5-HT directly inhibited orexin neurons via 5-HT1A receptors. However, it was still unclear how 5-HT neurons regulated orexin neurons since 5-HT neurons co...

  14. Biophysical properties and computational modeling of calcium spikes in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckwell, Henry C

    2013-06-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nuclei, with their extensive innervation of nearly the whole brain have important modulatory effects on many cognitive and physiological processes. They play important roles in clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders. In order to quantify the effects of serotonergic transmission on target cells it is desirable to construct computational models and to this end these it is necessary to have details of the biophysical and spike properties of the serotonergic neurons. Here several basic properties are reviewed with data from several studies since the 1960s to the present. The quantities included are input resistance, resting membrane potential, membrane time constant, firing rate, spike duration, spike and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude, spike threshold, cell capacitance, soma and somadendritic areas. The action potentials of these cells are normally triggered by a combination of sodium and calcium currents which may result in autonomous pacemaker activity. We here analyse the mechanisms of high-threshold calcium spikes which have been demonstrated in these cells the presence of TTX (tetrodotoxin). The parameters for calcium dynamics required to give calcium spikes are quite different from those for regular spiking which suggests the involvement of restricted parts of the soma-dendritic surface as has been found, for example, in hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Psychotherapy with Adjuvant use of Serotonergic Psychoactive Substances: Possibilities and Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Tomislav; Jungaberle, Henrik; Schmidt, Timo T; Zeuch, Andrea; Hermle, Leo; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Background  Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method  A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000. Results  Studies were found investigating the following indications: alcohol (LSD and psilocybin) and tobacco addiction (psilocybin), anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness (LSD and psilocybin), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (psilocybin), treatment-resistant major depression (psilocybin), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (MDMA). Discussion  Substance use disorders, PTSD and anxiety and depression in patients suffering from life-threatening somatic illness belong to the indications with the best evidence for substance-assisted psychotherapy with serotonergic psychoactive agents. To date, studies indicate efficacy and relatively good tolerability. Further studies are needed to determine whether these substances may represent suitable and effective treatment options for some treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Lateral Parabrachial Nucleus Serotonergic Mechanisms and Salt Appetite Induced by Sodium Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; DeLuca, Laurival Antonio, Jr.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of a serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on the intake of NaCl and water induced by 24-h water deprivation or by sodium depletion followed by 24 h of sodium deprivation (injection of the diuretic furosemide plus 24 h of d sodium-deficient diet). Rats had stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN. Bilateral LPBN injections of the serotonergic 5-HT(1/2) receptor antagonist methysergide (4 micro-g/200 nl at each site) increased hypertonic NaCl intake when tested 24 h after sodium depletion and after 24 h of water deprivation. Water intake also increased after bilateral injections of methysergide into the LPBN. In contrast, the intake of a palatable solution (0.06 M sucrose) under body fluid-replete conditions was not changed after bilateral LPBN methysergide injections. The results show that serotonergic mechanisms in the LPBN modulate water and sodium intake induced by volume depletion and sodium loss. The finding that sucrose intake was not affected by LPBN serotonergic blockade suggests that the effects of the methysergide treatment on the intakes of water and NaCl are not due to a mechanism producing a nonspecific enhancement of all ingestive behaviors.

  17. Anxiogenic drug administration and elevated plus-maze exposure in rats activate populations of relaxin-3 neurons in the nucleus incertus and serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, A J; Clissold, M L; Ma, S; Kent, S; Lowry, C A; Gundlach, A L; Hale, M W

    2015-09-10

    Anxiety is a complex and adaptive emotional state controlled by a distributed and interconnected network of brain regions, and disruption of these networks is thought to give rise to the behavioral symptoms associated with anxiety disorders in humans. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which contains the majority of forebrain-projecting serotonergic neurons, is implicated in the control of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior via neuromodulatory effects on these networks. Relaxin-3 is the native neuropeptide ligand for the Gi/o-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, and is primarily expressed in the nucleus incertus (NI), a tegmental region immediately caudal to the DR. RXFP3 activation has been shown to modulate anxiety-related behavior in rodents, and RXFP3 mRNA is expressed in the DR. In this study, we examined the response of relaxin-3-containing neurons in the NI and serotonergic neurons in the DR following pharmacologically induced anxiety and exposure to an aversive environment. We administered the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 or vehicle to adult male Wistar rats and, 30 min later, exposed them to either the elevated plus-maze or home cage control conditions. Immunohistochemical detection of c-Fos was used to determine activation of serotonergic neurons in the DR and relaxin-3 neurons in the NI, measured 2h following drug injection. Analysis revealed that FG-7142 administration and exposure to the elevated plus-maze are both associated with an increase in c-Fos expression in relaxin-3-containing neurons in the NI and in serotonergic neurons in dorsal and ventrolateral regions of the DR. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that relaxin-3 systems in the NI and serotonin systems in the DR interact to form part of a network involved in the control of anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation of Callosal Projection Neurons in the Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Stephens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current, or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs. However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of serotonergic excitation in commissural/callosal (COM projection neurons, a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons that exhibits 2A-dependent excitation in response to 5-HT. In baseline conditions, 5-HT enhanced the rate of action potential generation in COM neurons experiencing suprathreshold somatic current injection. This serotonergic excitation was occluded by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors, confirming that 5-HT acts via the same Gq-signaling cascades engaged by ACh. Like ACh, 5-HT promoted the generation of calcium-dependent ADPs following spike trains. However, calcium was not necessary for serotonergic excitation, as responses to 5-HT were enhanced (by >100%, rather than reduced, by chelation of intracellular calcium with 10 mM BAPTA. This suggests intracellular calcium negatively regulates additional ionic conductances gated by 2A receptors. Removal of extracellular calcium had no effect when intracellular calcium signaling was intact, but suppressed 5-HT response amplitudes, by about 50%, when BAPTA was included in patch pipettes. This suggests that 2A excitation involves activation of a non-specific cation conductance that is both calcium-sensitive and calcium-permeable. M-current suppression was found to be a third

  19. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  20. The LIM and POU homeobox genes ttx-3 and unc-86 act as terminal selectors in distinct cholinergic and serotonergic neuron types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifan; Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Nelson, Jessica C; Abe, Namiko; Gordon, Patricia; Lloret-Fernandez, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Flames, Nuria; Mann, Richard S; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Hobert, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive neuron type-specific terminal differentiation programs in the developing nervous system are often expressed in several distinct neuronal cell types, but to what extent they have similar or distinct activities in individual neuronal cell types is generally not well explored. We investigate this problem using, as a starting point, the C. elegans LIM homeodomain transcription factor ttx-3, which acts as a terminal selector to drive the terminal differentiation program of the cholinergic AIY interneuron class. Using a panel of different terminal differentiation markers, including neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes, neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides, we show that ttx-3 also controls the terminal differentiation program of two additional, distinct neuron types, namely the cholinergic AIA interneurons and the serotonergic NSM neurons. We show that the type of differentiation program that is controlled by ttx-3 in different neuron types is specified by a distinct set of collaborating transcription factors. One of the collaborating transcription factors is the POU homeobox gene unc-86, which collaborates with ttx-3 to determine the identity of the serotonergic NSM neurons. unc-86 in turn operates independently of ttx-3 in the anterior ganglion where it collaborates with the ARID-type transcription factor cfi-1 to determine the cholinergic identity of the IL2 sensory and URA motor neurons. In conclusion, transcription factors operate as terminal selectors in distinct combinations in different neuron types, defining neuron type-specific identity features.

  1. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  2. Brain Aromatase Modulates Serotonergic Neuron by Regulating Serotonin Levels in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulvikar Syambani Ulhaq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish are known to express two isoforms of P450 aromatase, a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis. One of the isoforms, brain aromatase (AroB, cyp19a1b, is highly expressed during early development of zebrafish, thereby suggesting its role in brain development. On the other hand, early development of serotonergic neuron, one of the major monoamine neurons, is considered to play an important role in neurogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of AroB in development of serotonergic neuron by testing the effects of (1 estradiol (E2 exposure and (2 morpholino (MO-mediated AroB knockdown. When embryos were exposed to E2, the effects were biphasic. The low dose of E2 (0.005 µM significantly increased serotonin (5-HT positive area at 48 hour post-fertilization (hpf detected by immunohistochemistry and relative mRNA levels of tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms (tph1a, tph1b, and tph2 at 96 hpf measured by semi-quantitative PCR. To test the effects on serotonin transmission, heart rate and thigmotaxis, an indicator of anxiety, were analyzed. The low dose also significantly increased heart rate at 48 hpf and decreased thigmotaxis. The high dose of E2 (1 µM exhibited opposite effects in all parameters. The effects of both low and high doses were reversed by addition of estrogen receptor (ER blocker, ICI 182,780, thereby suggesting that the effects were mediated through ER. When AroB MO was injected to fertilized eggs, 5-HT-positive area was significantly decreased, while the significant decrease in relative tph mRNA levels was found only with tph2 but not with two other isoforms. AroB MO also decreased heart rate and increased thigmotaxis. All the effects were rescued by co-injection with AroB mRNA and by exposure to E2. Taken together, this study demonstrates the role of brain aromatase in development of serotonergic neuron in zebrafish embryos and larvae, implying that brain-formed estrogen is an important factor to

  3. Association Between Serotonergic Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K; Ray, Joel G; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona; Gomes, Tara; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-04-18

    Previous observations of a higher risk of child autism spectrum disorder with serotonergic antidepressant exposure during pregnancy may have been confounded. To evaluate the association between serotonergic antidepressant exposure during pregnancy and child autism spectrum disorder. Retrospective cohort study. Health administrative data sets were used to study children born to mothers who were receiving public prescription drug coverage during pregnancy in Ontario, Canada, from 2002-2010, reflecting 4.2% of births. Children were followed up until March 31, 2014. Serotonergic antidepressant exposure was defined as 2 or more consecutive maternal prescriptions for a selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor between conception and delivery. Child autism spectrum disorder identified after the age of 2 years. Exposure group differences were addressed by inverse probability of treatment weighting based on derived high-dimensional propensity scores (computerized algorithm used to select a large number of potential confounders) and by comparing exposed children with unexposed siblings. There were 35 906 singleton births at a mean gestational age of 38.7 weeks (50.4% were male, mean maternal age was 26.7 years, and mean duration of follow-up was 4.95 years). In the 2837 pregnancies (7.9%) exposed to antidepressants, 2.0% (95% CI, 1.6%-2.6%) of children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The incidence of autism spectrum disorder was 4.51 per 1000 person-years among children exposed to antidepressants vs 2.03 per 1000 person-years among unexposed children (between-group difference, 2.48 [95% CI, 2.33-2.62] per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 2.16 [95% CI, 1.64-2.86]; adjusted HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.17-2.17]). After inverse probability of treatment weighting based on the high-dimensional propensity score, the association was not significant (HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.997-2.59]). The association was also not significant when exposed children

  4. MDMA, serotonergic neurotoxicity, and the diverse functional deficits of recreational 'Ecstasy' users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Serotonergic neurotoxicity following MDMA is well-established in laboratory animals, and neuroimaging studies have found lower serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users. Serotonin is a modulator for many different psychobiological functions, and this review will summarize the evidence for equivalent functional deficits in recreational users. Declarative memory, prospective memory, and higher cognitive skills are often impaired. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with reduced SERT in the hippocampus, parietal cortex, and prefrontal cortex. EEG and ERP studies have shown localised reductions in brain activity during neurocognitive performance. Deficits in sleep, mood, vision, pain, psychomotor skill, tremor, neurohormonal activity, and psychiatric status, have also been demonstrated. The children of mothers who take Ecstasy/MDMA during pregnancy have developmental problems. These psychobiological deficits are wide-ranging, and occur in functions known to be modulated by serotonin. They are often related to lifetime dosage, with light users showing slight changes, and heavy users displaying more pronounced problems. In summary, abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users can show deficits in a wide range of biobehavioral functions with a serotonergic component. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Sparks

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh and serotonin (5-HT have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  6. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Daniel W; Tian, Michael K; Sargin, Derya; Venkatesan, Sridevi; Intson, Katheron; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  7. An Elongin-Cullin-SOCS Box Complex Regulates Stress-Induced Serotonergic Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicotencatl Gracida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulatory cells transduce environmental information into long-lasting behavioral responses. However, the mechanisms governing how neuronal cells influence behavioral plasticity are difficult to characterize. Here, we adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP approach in C. elegans to profile ribosome-associated mRNAs from three major tissues and the neuromodulatory dopaminergic and serotonergic cells. We identified elc-2, an Elongin C ortholog, specifically expressed in stress-sensing amphid neuron dual ciliated sensory ending (ADF serotonergic sensory neurons, and we found that it plays a role in mediating a long-lasting change in serotonin-dependent feeding behavior induced by heat stress. We demonstrate that ELC-2 and the von Hippel-Lindau protein VHL-1, components of an Elongin-Cullin-SOCS box (ECS E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulate this behavior after experiencing stress. Also, heat stress induces a transient redistribution of ELC-2, becoming more nuclearly enriched. Together, our results demonstrate dynamic regulation of an E3 ligase and a role for an ECS complex in neuromodulation and control of lasting behavioral states.

  8. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  9. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  10. The effects of increased central serotonergic activity on prepulse inhibition and habituation of the human startle response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Sensorimotor gating is critical to normal brain functioning, and disruptions are associated with certain mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating, of which evidence for a serotonergic...

  11. The association between concomitant use of serotonergic antidepressants and lithium-induced polyuria. A multicenter medical chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, I; Egberts, A C G; Movig, K L L; Laarhoven, J H M van; Heerdink, E R; Nolen, W A

    2008-07-01

    A previous study aimed at revealing the prevalence and determinants of lithium induced polyuria suggested an increased risk of polyuria (urine volume > or =3 L/24 h) in those using serotonergic antidepressants next to lithium. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate this secondary finding in another study population. We performed a multicenter medical chart review study in patients using lithium in whom a 24-hour urine volume had been determined. We included 116 patients, twelve (26%)of the 46 patients with polyuria used serotonergic antidepressants compared to ten (14%) of the 70 patients without polyuria. We found an increased risk of polyuria in lithium users concurrently using serotonergic antidepressants (oddsratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.00-8.21), adjusted for age, gender, use of antiepileptics and thyreomimetics. Our results confirm the previous secondary finding of an increased risk of polyuria in patients using serotonergic antidepressants next to lithium. Physicians should take this into account when evaluating polyuria in patients using lithium and when choosing an antidepressant in patients using lithium.

  12. The association between concomitant use of serotonergic antidepressants and lithium-induced polyuria. A multicenter medical chart review study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Movig, K. L. L.; van Laarhoven, J. H. M.; Heerdink, E. R.; Nolen, W. A.

    Background: A previous Study aimed at revealing the prevalence and determinants Of lithium induced polyuria Suggested an increased risk of polyuria (urine volume >= 3L/24h) in those using serotonergic antidepressants next to lithium. Objective: The objective of our study was to re-evaluate this

  13. GDNF family ligands display distinct action profiles on cultured GABAergic and serotonergic neurons of rat ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducray, Angélique; Krebs, Sandra H:; Schaller, Benoft

    2006-01-01

    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), known as the GDNF family ligands (GFLs), influence the development, survival and differentiation of cultured dopaminergic neurons from ventral mesencephalon (VM). Detailed knowledge about...... factors for VM GABAergic and serotonergic neurons, demonstrating characteristic individual action profiles emphasizing their important and distinct roles during brain development....

  14. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e fósforo remanescente em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo Carbon, light organic matter and remaining phosphorus in different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico total (COT, matéria orgânica leve (MOL e fósforo remanescente (Prem, em áreas de cerrado sob sistema de plantio direto com diferentes cultivos de coberturas do solo, e compará-los aos de áreas sob preparo convencional e pousio. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho, de agosto de 2000 a março de 2007. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas constituídas pelos cinco sistemas de manejo do solo avaliados - pousio, preparo convencional e plantio direto com uso dos cultivos de cobertura crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, milheto (Pennisetum americanum e braquiária (Urochloa brizantha -, e as subparcelas pelos cultivos de soja e milho. Em março de 2007, coletaram-se amostras de solo das profundidades 0,0-0,025, 0,025-0,05, 0,05-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, das quais foram quantificados COT, MOL, estoques de COT e Prem. Em áreas sob plantio direto, o aumento nos teores de MOL pode reduzir a adsorção de fósforo ao solo. Sistemas de manejo que não envolvem revolvimento do solo favorecem o aumento do estoque de carbono orgânico nas camadas superficiais, enquanto o preparo convencional e o plantio direto com uso do milheto como planta de cobertura propiciam a incorporação mais profunda do carbono.The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of total organic carbon (COT, light organic matter (MOL and remaining phosphorus (Prem on savanna areas under no tillage system using cover crops and to compare them to the ones observed under fallow and conventional tillage. The experiment was carried out in field conditions, in a Latossolo Vermelho (Rhodic Haplustox from August 2000 to March 2007. A randomized complete block design was used, in a split-plot arrangement, with plots consisting of the five soil management systems evaluated - fallow, conventional tillage, and no tillage using sunn hemp

  15. Playing it safe but losing anyway--serotonergic signaling of negative outcomes in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in the context of risk-aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-08-01

    Risk avoidance is an important determinant of human behavior. The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated in processing negative outcomes caused by risky decisions. However, it is unclear whether serotonin provides a neurobiological link between making a risk aversive decision and the response to a negative outcome. Using pharmacological fMRI, we manipulated the availability of serotonin in healthy volunteers while performing a gambling task. The same group of participants was studied in three fMRI sessions: (i) during intravenous administration of the SSRI citalopram to increase the serotonergic tone, (ii) after acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to reduce central serotonin levels, or (iii) without interventions. ATD and citalopram had opposite effects on outcome related activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and amygdala. Relative to the control condition, ATD increased and citalopram decreased the neural response to negative outcomes in dmPFC. Conversely, ATD decreased and citalopram increased the neural response to negative outcomes in left amygdala. Critically, these pharmacological effects were restricted to negative outcomes that were caused by low-risk decisions and led to a high missed reward. ATD and citalopram did not alter the neural response to positive outcomes in dmPFC, but relative to ATD, citalopram produced a bilateral increase in the amygdala response to large wins caused by high-risk choices. The results show a selective involvement of the serotonergic system in neocortical processing of negative outcomes resulting from risk-averse decisions, thereby linking risk aversion and processing of negative outcomes in goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated by alterations in monoamines neurotransmission. A role of decreased brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels has been implicated in impaired cognitive performance and depression. Memory functions of rats were assessed by Water Maze (WM) and immobility time by Forced Swim Test (FST). The results of this study showed that repeated caffeine administration for 6 days at 30 mg/kg dose significantly increases brain 5-HT (pcaffeine. Withdrawal of caffeine however produced memory deficits and significantly increases the immobility time of rats in FST. The results of this study are linked with caffeine induced alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission and its role in memory and depression.

  17. Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Popova

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays. The P19-derived neurons express both the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT, that is functionally active, and the serotonin metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A. The involvement of these proteins in the MDMA-induced toxicity was investigated by a pharmacological approach. The MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl, and the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, per se or in combination, were not able to mimic the toxic effects of MDMA in the P19-derived neurons or block the MDMA-induced cell toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but pre-treatment with the antioxidants α-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine did not reveal any protective effects in the P19 neurons. Involvement of mitochondria in the MDMA-induced cytotoxicity was also examined, but MDMA did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm in the P19 neurons. We conclude that MDMA produce a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent neurotoxicity and our results suggest that the mechanism behind MDMA-induced toxicity in mouse-derived neurons do not involve the serotonergic system, oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy) in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Dina; Forsblad, Andréas; Hashemian, Sanaz; Jacobsson, Stig O P

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays. The P19-derived neurons express both the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), that is functionally active, and the serotonin metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). The involvement of these proteins in the MDMA-induced toxicity was investigated by a pharmacological approach. The MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl, and the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, per se or in combination, were not able to mimic the toxic effects of MDMA in the P19-derived neurons or block the MDMA-induced cell toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but pre-treatment with the antioxidants α-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine did not reveal any protective effects in the P19 neurons. Involvement of mitochondria in the MDMA-induced cytotoxicity was also examined, but MDMA did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the P19 neurons. We conclude that MDMA produce a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent neurotoxicity and our results suggest that the mechanism behind MDMA-induced toxicity in mouse-derived neurons do not involve the serotonergic system, oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Sexually dimorphic serotonergic dysfunction in a mouse model of Huntington's disease and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Renoir

    Full Text Available Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Huntington's disease (HD patients. In the general population, women are more prone to develop depression and such susceptibility might be related to serotonergic dysregulation. There is yet to be a study of sexual dimorphism in the development and presentation of depression in HD patients. We investigated whether 8-week-old male and female R6/1 transgenic HD mice display depressive-like endophenotypes associated with serotonergic impairments. We also studied the behavioral effects of acute treatment with sertraline. We found that only female HD mice exhibited a decreased preference for saccharin as well as impaired emotionality-related behaviors when assessed on the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT and the forced-swimming test (FST. The exaggerated immobility time displayed by female HD in the FST was reduced by acute administration of sertraline. We also report an increased response to the 5-HT(1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT in inducing hypothermia and a decreased 5-HT(2A receptor function in HD animals. While tissue levels of serotonin were reduced in both male and female HD mice, we found that serotonin concentration and hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 mRNA levels were higher in the hippocampus of males compared to female animals. Finally, the antidepressant-like effects of sertraline in the FST were blunted in male HD animals. This study reveals sex-specific depressive-related behaviors during an early stage of HD prior to any cognitive and motor deficits. Our data suggest a crucial role for disrupted serotonin signaling in mediating the sexually dimorphic depression-like phenotype in HD mice.

  20. Pattern of distribution of serotonergic fibers to the amygdala and extended amygdala in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Stephanie B; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Vertes, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al. 2015). SERT + fibers were shown to distributed moderately to densely to the deep and cortical pallial nuclei, but, by contrast, lightly to the subpallial nuclei. Specifically, 1) of the deep pallial nuclei, the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei contained a very dense concentration of 5-HT fibers; 2) of the cortical pallial nuclei, the anterior cortical and amygdala-cortical transition zone rostrally and the posteromedial and posterolateral nuclei caudally contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers; and 3) of the subpallial nuclei, the anterior nuclei and the rostral part of the medial (Me) nuclei contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers, whereas caudal regions of Me as well as the central nuclei and the intercalated nuclei contained a sparse/light concentration of 5-HT fibers. With regard to the extended amygdala (primarily the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; BST), on the whole, the BST contained moderate numbers of 5-HT fibers, spread fairly uniformly throughout BST. The findings are discussed with respect to a critical serotonergic influence on the amygdala, particularly on the basal complex, and on the extended amygdala in the control of states of fear and anxiety. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:116-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (I h ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of I h currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Phrenic motoneuron expression of serotonergic and glutamatergic receptors following upper cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Bailey, Jeffrey P.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Following cervical spinal cord injury at C2 (SH hemisection model) there is progressive recovery of phrenic activity. Neuroplasticity in the postsynaptic expression of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to functional recovery. Phrenic motoneurons express multiple serotonergic (5-HTR) and glutamatergic (GluR) receptors, but the timing and possible role of these different neurotransmitter receptor subtypes in the neuroplasticity following SH are not clear. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that there is an increased expression of serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors within phrenic motoneurons after SH. In adult male rats, phrenic motoneurons were labeled retrogradely by intrapleural injection of Alexa 488-conjugated cholera toxin B. In thin (10 μm) frozen sections of the spinal cord, fluorescently-labeled phrenic motoneurons were visualized for laser capture microdissection (LCM). Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR in LCM samples, the time course of changes in 5-HTR and GluR mRNA expression was determined in phrenic motoneurons up to 21 days post-SH. Expression of 5-HTR subtypes 1b, 2a and 2c and GluR subtypes AMPA, NMDA, mGluR1 and mGluR5 was evident in phrenic motoneurons from control and SH rats. Phrenic motoneuron expression of 5-HTR2a increased ~8-fold (relative to control) at 14 days post-SH, whereas NMDA expression increased ~16-fold by 21-days post-SH. There were no other significant changes in receptor expression at any time post-SH. This is the first study to systematically document changes in motoneuron expression of multiple neurotransmitter receptors involved in regulation of motoneuron excitability. By providing information on the neuroplasticity of receptors expressed in a motoneuron pool that is inactivated by a higher-level spinal cord injury, appropriate pharmacological targets can be identified to alter motoneuron excitability. PMID:22227062

  3. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  4. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  5. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  6. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  7. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  8. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  9. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  10. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  11. Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the Egyptian rousette flying fox, Rousettus aegyptiacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bourne, James A; Manger, Paul R

    2007-11-01

    Over the past decade much controversy has surrounded the hypothesis that the megachiroptera, or megabats, share unique neural characteristics with the primates. These observations, which include similarities in visual pathways, have suggested that the megabats are more closely related to the primates than to the other group of the Chiropteran order, the microbats, and suggests a diphyletic origin of the Chiroptera. To contribute data relevant to this debate, we used immunohistochemical techniques to reveal the architecture of the neuromodulatory systems of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegypticus), an echolocating megabat. Our findings revealed many similarities in the nuclear parcellation of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems with that seen in other mammals including the microbat. However, there were 11 discrete nuclei forming part of these systems in the brain of the megabat studied that were not evident in an earlier study of a microbat. The occurrence of these nuclei align the megabat studied more closely with primates than any other mammalian group and clearly distinguishes them from the microbat, which aligns with the insectivores. The neural systems investigated are not related to such Chiropteran specializations as echolocation, flight, vision or olfaction. If neural characteristics are considered strong indicators of phylogenetic relationships, then the data of the current study strongly supports the diphyletic origin of Chiroptera and aligns the megabat most closely with primates in agreement with studies of other neural characters.

  12. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  13. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  14. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  15. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  16. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  17. Serotonergic versus Nonserotonergic Dorsal Raphe Projection Neurons: Differential Participation in Reward Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A. McDevitt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN contains the largest group of serotonin-producing neurons in the brain and projects to regions controlling reward. Although pharmacological studies suggest that serotonin inhibits reward seeking, electrical stimulation of the DRN strongly reinforces instrumental behavior. Here, we provide a targeted assessment of the behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological contributions of serotonergic and nonserotonergic DRN neurons to reward processes. To explore DRN heterogeneity, we used a simultaneous two-vector knockout/optogenetic stimulation strategy, as well as cre-induced and cre-silenced vectors in several cre-expressing transgenic mouse lines. We found that the DRN is capable of reinforcing behavior primarily via nonserotonergic neurons, for which the main projection target is the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Furthermore, these nonserotonergic projections provide glutamatergic excitation of VTA dopamine neurons and account for a large majority of the DRN-VTA pathway. These findings help to resolve apparent discrepancies between the roles of serotonin versus the DRN in behavioral reinforcement.

  18. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of hypergravic fields on serotonergic neuromodulation in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D J; Fuller, C A; Horowitz, J M

    1997-10-01

    The effects of 7 day exposure to 2G fields on serotonergic modulation at two synapses on a hippocampal pathway were examined by recording dentate gyrus and CA1 pyramidal cell layer electrical activity. Serotonin decreased the amplitude of the population spike (synchronous action potentials in hundreds of neurons) in both the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of rats exposed to 2G fields for 7 days. The inhibition, averaging 26 +/- 4% (mean +/- SEM) in the dentate gyrus and 80 +/- 5% in the CA1 region, was not significantly different from inhibitory responses observed in 1G controls. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT mimicked this inhibition in the dentate and CA1 regions of 1G rats. 8-OH-DPAT responses were not affected by exposure to 2G fields. We conclude that the hippocampus contains surplus 5-HT receptors so that decreases in receptor density reported in receptor binding studies do not result in a decrease in modulatory capability. A model to account for the physiological pathway that relates gravitational field strength to 5-HT receptor density without changing the effectiveness of 5-HT neuromodulation is discussed.

  20. Quantitative accuracy of serotonergic neurotransmission imaging with high-resolution 123I SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging can be used to study the role of regional abnormalities of neurotransmitter release in various mental disorders and to study the mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs or drugs' abuse. We examine the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility that can be achieved with high-resolution SPECT of serotonergic neurotransmission. Method: Binding potential (BP) of 123 I labeled tracer specific for midbrain SERT was assessed in 20 healthy persons. The effects of scatter, attenuation, partial volume, misregistration and statistical noise were estimated using phantom and human studies. Results: Without any correction, BP was underestimated by 73%. The partial volume error was the major component in this underestimation whereas the most critical error for the reproducibility was misplacement of region of interest (ROI). Conclusion: The proper ROI registration, the use of the multiple head gamma camera with transmission based scatter correction introduce more relevant results. However, due to the small dimensions of the midbrain SERT structures and poor spatial resolution of SPECT, the improvement without the partial volume correction is not great enough to restore the estimate of BP to that of the true one. (orig.) [de

  1. [Functional organization and structure of the serotonergic neuronal network of terrestrial snail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, E S; Balaban, P M

    2011-01-01

    The extension of knowledge how the brain works requires permanent improvement of methods of recording of neuronal activity and increase in the number of neurons recorded simultaneously to better understand the collective work of neuronal networks and assemblies. Conventional methods allow simultaneous intracellular recording up to 2-5 neurons and their membrane potentials, currents or monosynaptic connections or observation of spiking of neuronal groups with subsequent discrimination of individual spikes with loss of details of the dynamics of membrane potential. We recorded activity of a compact group of serotonergic neurons (up to 56 simultaneously) in the ganglion of a terrestrial mollusk using the method of optical recording of membrane potential that allowed to record individual action potentials in details with action potential parameters and to reveal morphology of the neurons rcorded. We demonstrated clear clustering in the group in relation with the dynamics of action potentials and phasic or tonic components in the neuronal responses to external electrophysiological and tactile stimuli. Also, we showed that identified neuron Pd2 could induce activation of a significant number of neurons in the group whereas neuron Pd4 did not induce any activation. However, its activation is delayed with regard to activation of the reacting group of neurons. Our data strongly support the concept of possible delegation of the integrative function by the network to a single neuron.

  2. Pharmacological profiling an abundantly expressed schistosome serotonergic GPCR identifies nuciferine as a potent antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is a key regulator of muscle contraction in parasitic flatworms. In Schistosoma mansoni, the myoexcitatory action of 5-HT is effected through activation of a serotonergic GPCR (Sm.5HTRL, prioritizing pharmacological characterization of this target for anthelmintic drug discovery. Here, we have examined the effects of several aporphine alkaloids on the signaling activity of a heterologously expressed Sm.5HTRL construct using a cAMP biosensor assay. Four structurally related natural products – nuciferine, D-glaucine, boldine and bulbocapnine – were demonstrated to block Sm.5HTRL evoked cAMP generation with the potency of GPCR blockade correlating well with the ability of each drug to inhibit contractility of schistosomule larvae. Nuciferine was also effective at inhibiting both basal and 5-HT evoked motility of adult schistosomes. These data advance our understanding of structure-affinity relationships at Sm.5HTRL, and demonstrate the effectiveness of Sm.5HTRL antagonists as hypomotility-evoking drugs across different parasite life cycle stages.

  3. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  4. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  5. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  6. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  7. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  8. Hypocretin/Orexin Peptides Alter Spike Encoding by Serotonergic Dorsal Raphe Neurons through Two Distinct Mechanisms That Increase the Late Afterhyperpolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Gumenchuk, Iryna; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Ross, William N; Leonard, Christopher S

    2016-09-28

    Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including reward and arousal, in part by exciting serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons, the major source of forebrain serotonin. Here, using mouse brain slices, we found that, instead of simply depolarizing these neurons, orexin-A altered the spike encoding process by increasing the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) via two distinct mechanisms. This orexin-enhanced AHP (oeAHP) was mediated by both OX1 and OX2 receptors, required Ca(2+) influx, reversed near EK, and decayed with two components, the faster of which resulted from enhanced SK channel activation, whereas the slower component decayed like a slow AHP (sAHP), but was not blocked by UCL2077, an antagonist of sAHPs in some neurons. Intracellular phospholipase C inhibition (U73122) blocked the entire oeAHP, but neither component was sensitive to PKC inhibition or altered PKA signaling, unlike classical sAHPs. The enhanced SK current did not depend on IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release but resulted from A-current inhibition and the resultant spike broadening, which increased Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+)-induced-Ca(2+) release, whereas the slower component was insensitive to these factors. Functionally, the oeAHP slowed and stabilized orexin-induced firing compared with firing produced by a virtual orexin conductance lacking the oeAHP. The oeAHP also reduced steady-state firing rate and firing fidelity in response to stimulation, without affecting the initial rate or fidelity. Collectively, these findings reveal a new orexin action in serotonergic raphe neurons and suggest that, when orexin is released during arousal and reward, it enhances the spike encoding of phasic over tonic inputs, such as those related to sensory, motor, and reward events. Orexin peptides are known to excite neurons via slow postsynaptic depolarizations. Here we elucidate a significant new orexin action that increases and prolongs the postspike

  9. Is the serotonergic system altered in romantic love? A literature review and research suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslag, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInfatuated individuals think about their beloved a lot. The notions that these frequent thoughts resemble the obsessions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and that those patients benefit from serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have led to the hypothesis that romantic love is associated with reduced central serotonin levels. In this chapter, the literature on this topic is reviewed and suggestions for future research are made. Previous studies have shown that roma...

  10. Possible Modulation of the Anexiogenic Effects of Vitex Agnus-castus by the Serotonergic System

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Fatehi Gharehlar, Laleh; Salari, Ali-Akbar; Solati, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) There is well documented evidence for the increase in widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of physical and psychiatric symptoms and disorders within the populations. In the present study, we investigated the influence of V itex agnus-castus (vitex) on anxiety-like behaviors of rats. Materials and Methods Elevated plus maze which is one of the methods used for testing anxiety is used in our present study. Rats were orally administrated with vit...

  11. Is the serotonergic system altered in romantic love? A literature review and research suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInfatuated individuals think about their beloved a lot. The notions that these frequent thoughts resemble the obsessions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and that those patients benefit from serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have led to the hypothesis that romantic

  12. An association study of suicide and candidate genes in the serotonergic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Flint, Tracey J; Foldager, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Strong evidence demonstrates a genetic susceptibility to suicidal behaviour and a relationship between suicide and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to test for association between suicide and five selected genetic variants, which had shown association with suicide in other...... populations. Method: We performed a nationwide case-control study on all suicide cases sent for autopsy in Denmark between the years 2000 and 2007. The study comprised 572 cases and 1049 controls and is one of the largest genetic studies in completed suicide to date. The analysed markers were located within...... the Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4), Monoamine Oxidase-A (MAOA) and the Ttyptophan Hydroxylase I and II (TPH1 and TPH2) genes. Results: None of the genetic markers within SLC6A4, MAOA, TPH1 and TPH2 were significantly associated with completed suicide or suicide method in the basic association tests. Exploratory...

  13. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Zana R.; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT r...

  14. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture.We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury.

  15. Action of naftopidil on spinal serotonergic neurotransmission for inhibition of the micturition reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Hattori, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    We examined the mechanism of action of naftopidil, an α1D/A blocker, on spinal descending serotonergic neurotransmission for the micturition reflex. We examined (1) urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) after intraperitoneal administration of saline, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA; a serotonin synthetic enzyme inhibitor), and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP; a serotonin precursor); (2) isovolumetric cystometry after intraperitoneal administration of saline, PCPA, and/or 5-HTP and intravenous injection of naftopidil; and (3) isovolumetric cystometry before and after intrathecal administration of serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists and intravenous injection of naftopidil. PCPA decreased and 5-HTP increased urinary 5-HIAA/creatinine. Intraperitoneal injection of PCPA did not influence cystometric parameters. Intraperitoneal injection of 5-HTP significantly shortened the interval between bladder contractions. Intravenous injection of naftopidil transiently abolished bladder contractions. However, the duration of abolishment of bladder contractions after injection of naftopidil in rats given PCPA was significantly shorter than that in rats given vehicle, but significantly longer than that in rats given PCPA and 5-HTP. Intrathecal injection of 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, or 5-HT7 receptor antagonists significantly prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. Intrathecal injection of 5-HT1D or 5-HT2B receptor antagonists significantly shortened the interval between bladder contractions. Combined administration of the maximum non-effective dose of 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and intravenous injection of naftopidil significantly shortened the duration of abolishment of bladder contraction compared to intravenous injection of naftopidil alone. Naftopidil may inhibit the micturition reflex via 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT3 receptors in the spinal cord. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:604-609, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Remaining Calm in the Midst of Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Ryan, Grant W.; Young, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    At the DOE Hanford site in Washington State, Fluor Hanford, Inc is in the process of developing and, procuring systems to remove and disposition sludge from the 100 Area K Basins. The K Basins were used to store spent fuel from the operating reactors at the Hanford Site. The sludge is a by-product from th corrosion of the fuel and fuel storage canisters. The sludge removal project is very dynamic involving two basins, K East and K West, and has an ambitious schedule for removal and subsequent Basin D and D. The challenge for the safety basis development for this project is how to integrate the analysis with the project schedule and still provide the required project design, development, and regulatory (10CFR830) support. During the development of new project/systems, safety analysis activities are used throughout the design phase to assist in identifying design/safety issues before the design is complete. Control allocation and identification processes assist procurement of equipment during the development phase and a PDSA is required to support the decision to proceed with construction/installation. For the K Basins project, all the safety basis development activities need to be done in the context of new and existing facilities/equipment and an existing safety basis for the K Basins. When schedules are demanding and design, procurement, and safety documentation activities must be completed in parallel, it creates complex issues for maintaining the safety basis current. In addition, developing a safety basis that will cover the lifecycle of the facility creates issues when using it to support the necessary short term decisions at the same time as long term planning. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a safety basis strategy to deal with this situation. This paper discusses the strategy developed to deal with the complexity and project schedule issues and the methods for safety analysis development and documentation being used to assist in maintaining some

  17. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  18. The Association between Use of Serotonergic Antidepressants and Perioperative Bleeding during Total Hip Arthroplasty - A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, M.; Primdahl, A.; Damborg, F.

    2014-01-01

    on the observed blood loss and the need for blood transfusions among this group. We compared the blood loss between users of SA, users of non-serotonergic antidepressants (NSA) and non-users, while adjusting for potential confounders using multivariate linear regression. We indentified 1318 patients...... that underwent a THA in the study period. The average volume of surgical bleeding was 350 ml. The adjusted incremental blood loss associated with use of SA and NSA was 93, 95% confidence interval (38-147) ml and -50 (-125 to 25) ml compared with non-use. Only 48 subjects (3.6%) had transfusions. Use of SA...

  19. Estrogenic and serotonergic butenolides from the leaves of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joanna L; Chen, Yegao; Zhang, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Krunic, Alecjev; Orjala, Jimmy; Veliz, Mario; Soni, Kapil K.; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Caceres, Armando; Perez, Alice; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Our previous work has demonstrated that several plants in the Piperaceae family are commonly used by the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and pain. Extracts of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae), bound to the estrogen (ER) and serotonin (5-HT7) receptors. Aim of the study To investigate the estrogenic and serotonergic activities of P. hispidum extracts in functionalized assays, identify the active chemical constituents in the leaf extract, and test these compounds as agonists or antagonists of ER and 5-HT7. Materials and methods The effects of the P. hispidum leaf extracts were investigated in estrogen reporter gene and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells to determine if the extracts acted as an estrogen agonist or antagonist. In addition, the active compounds were isolated using ER- and 5-HT7 receptor bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the purified compounds were identified using high-resolution LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The ER- and 5-HT7-agonist effects of the purified chemical constituents were tested in a 2ERE-reporter gene assay in MCF-7 cells and in serotonin binding and functionalized assays. Results Three butenolides including one new compound (1) were isolated from the leaves of P. hispidum, and their structures were determined. Compound 1 bound to the serotonin receptor 5-HT7 with IC50 values of 16.1 and 8.3 μM, respectively, and using GTP shift assays, compound 1 was found to be a partial agonist of the 5-HT7 receptor. The P. hispidum leaf extracts, as well as compounds 2 and 3 enhanced the expression of estrogen responsive reporter and endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, demonstrating estrogen agonist effects. Conclusions Extracts of P. hispidum act as agonists of the ER and 5-HT7 receptors. Compound 1, a new natural product, identified as 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5,6-Z-fadyenolide, was isolated as the 5-HT7 agonist. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the

  20. Restoring Serotonergic Homeostasis in the Lateral Hypothalamus Rescues Sleep Disturbances Induced by Early-Life Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazea, Mary; Patchev, Alexandre V; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Leidmaa, Este; Pissioti, Anna; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Almeida, Osborne F X; Kimura, Mayumi

    2018-01-10

    Early-life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders, which can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. EEG and EMG recordings revealed that ppDIO increases sleep during the active phase but reduces resting-phase sleep quality. This impaired sleep phenotype persisted for up to 1 year, although animals were returned to a non-obesiogenic diet from postnatal week 11 onwards. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the ppDIO-induced alterations in sleep, we focused on the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Mice exposed to ppDIO did not show altered mRNA expression levels of orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, two peptides that are important for sleep-wake behavior and food intake. Conversely, the LH of ppDIO-exposed mice had reduced contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a neurotransmitter involved in both sleep-wake and satiety regulation. Interestingly, an acute peripheral injection of the satiety-signaling peptide YY 3-36 increased 5-HT turnover in the LH and ameliorated the ppDIO-induced sleep disturbances, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this peptide. These findings provide new insights into how sleep-wake behavior is programmed during early life and how peripheral and central signals are integrated to coordinate sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adult physiology and behavior are strongly influenced by dynamic reorganization of the brain during puberty. The present work shows that obesity during puberty leads to persistently dysregulated patterns of sleep and wakefulness by blunting serotonergic signaling in the lateral hypothalamus. It also shows that pharmacological mimicry of satiety with peptide YY 3-36 can reverse this neurochemical imbalance and

  1. Descending serotonergic facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT3 receptors engages spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported the importance of spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in maintaining persistent pain-like states. A descending facilitatory drive mediated through spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) originating from superficial dorsal horn NK1-expressing neurons and that relays through the parabrachial nucleus and the rostroventral medial medulla to act on deep dorsal horn neurons is known be important in maintaining these pain-like states. To determine if spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways are activated by a descending serotonergic drive, we investigated the effects of spinally administered rapamycin on responses of deep dorsal horn neurons that had been pre-treated with the selective 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron. We also investigated the effects of spinally administered cell cycle inhibitor (CCI)-779 (a rapamycin ester analogue) on deep dorsal horn neurons from rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw. Unlike some other models of persistent pain, this model does not involve an altered 5-HT3R-mediated descending serotonergic drive. We found that the inhibitory effects of rapamycin were significantly reduced for neuronal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli when the spinal cord was pre-treated with ondansetron. Furthermore, CCI-779 was found to be ineffective in attenuating spinal neuronal responses to peripheral stimuli in carrageenan-treated rats. Therefore, we conclude that 5-HT3R-mediated descending facilitation is one requirement for activation of rapamycin-sensitive pathways that contribute to persistent pain-like states. PMID:20709148

  2. Identifying new susceptibility genes on dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways for the framing effect in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxue; Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Wang, Junhui; Fang, Wan; Yan, Hongming; Zhu, Lusha; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    The framing effect refers the tendency to be risk-averse when options are presented positively but be risk-seeking when the same options are presented negatively during decision-making. This effect has been found to be modulated by the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene (COMT) polymorphisms, which are on the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways and which are associated with affective processing. The current study aimed to identify new genetic variations of genes on dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways that may contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility to framing. Using genome-wide association data and the gene-based principal components regression method, we examined genetic variations of 26 genes on the pathways in 1317 Chinese Han participants. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the genetic variations of the SLC6A4 gene and the COMT gene were associated with the framing effect. More importantly, we demonstrated that the genetic variations of the aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (DDC) gene, which is involved in the synthesis of both dopamine and serotonin, contributed to individual differences in the susceptibility to framing. Our findings shed light on the understanding of the genetic basis of affective decision-making. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Identifying new susceptibility genes on dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways for the framing effect in decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxue; Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Wang, Junhui; Fang, Wan; Yan, Hongming; Zhu, Lusha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The framing effect refers the tendency to be risk-averse when options are presented positively but be risk-seeking when the same options are presented negatively during decision-making. This effect has been found to be modulated by the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene (COMT) polymorphisms, which are on the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways and which are associated with affective processing. The current study aimed to identify new genetic variations of genes on dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways that may contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility to framing. Using genome-wide association data and the gene-based principal components regression method, we examined genetic variations of 26 genes on the pathways in 1317 Chinese Han participants. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the genetic variations of the SLC6A4 gene and the COMT gene were associated with the framing effect. More importantly, we demonstrated that the genetic variations of the aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (DDC) gene, which is involved in the synthesis of both dopamine and serotonin, contributed to individual differences in the susceptibility to framing. Our findings shed light on the understanding of the genetic basis of affective decision-making. PMID:28431168

  4. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  5. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    -term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  6. Up-regulation of serotonergic binding sites labeled by (3H) WB4101 following fimbrial transection and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, A.L.; Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Loy, R.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lesions of the serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus, by fimbrial transection or by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment, produce an increase in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 to its nanomolar affinity binding site, with no effect on its picomolar affinity binding site or on ( 3 H)prazosin binding. The nanomolar site is serotonergic as the serotonergic agonists, serotonin and 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT) have nanomolar affinity for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding when studied in the presence of a prazosin mask (30nM) of the alpha-1 component of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding. The serotonin receptor antagonists metergoline, lysergic acid diethylamide and lisuride also have high nanomolar affinities while ketanserin, yohimbine, prazosin and noradrenergic agonists have affinities in the micromolar range. Fimbrial transection or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections produced 32% and 44% increases in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding in the presence of a prazosin mask. Serotonin competition for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding was identical in control and experimental tissues from each lesion experiment. Although specific binding of ( 3 H)WB4101 was increased, there was no change in the affinities or the percentages of the two binding components for serotonin competition with ( 3 H)WB4101. These data suggest that removal of the serotonergic input to the hippocampus produces an increase in the Bmax of serotonin receptor binding sites labeled by ( 3 H)WB4101. 33 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Concomitant use of opioid medications with triptans or serotonergic antidepressants in US office-based physician visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kyle C; Fairman, Kathleen A; Sclar, David A

    2018-01-01

    Opioids are not recommended for routine treatment of migraine because their benefits are outweighed by risks of medication overuse headache and abuse/dependence. A March 2016 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication warned of the risk of serotonin syndrome from using opioids concomitantly with 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists (triptans) or serotonergic antidepressants: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Epidemiological information about co-prescribing of these medications is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of co-prescribing of an opioid with a serotonergic antidepressant and/or triptan in US office-based physician visits made by 1) all patients and 2) patients diagnosed with migraine. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data were obtained for 2013 and 2014. Physician office visits that included the new or continued prescribing of ≥1 opioid medication with a triptan or an SSRI/SNRI were identified. Co-prescribed opioids were stratified by agent to determine the proportion of co-prescriptions with opioids posing a higher risk of serotonergic agonism (meperidine, tapentadol, and tramadol). Of an annualized mean 903.6 million office-based physician visits in 2013-2014, 17.7 million (2.0% of all US visits) resulted in the prescribing of ≥1 opioid medication with a triptan or an SSRI/SNRI. Opioid-SSRI/SNRI was co-prescribed in 16,044,721 visits, while opioid-triptan was co-prescribed in 1,622,827 visits. One-fifth of opioid co-prescribing was attributable to higher-risk opioids, predominantly tramadol (18.6% of opioid-SSRI/SNRI, 21.8% of opioid-triptan). Of 7,672,193 visits for patients diagnosed with migraine, 16.3% included opioid prescribing and 2.0% included co-prescribed opioid-triptan. During a period approximately 2 years prior to an FDA warning about the risk of serotonin syndrome from opioid-SSRI/SNRI or

  8. Elevated mazes as animal models of anxiety: effects of serotonergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone H. Pinheiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews reported results about the effects of drugs that act upon the serotonergic neurotransmission measured in three elevated mazes that are animal models of anxiety. A bibliographic search has been performed in MEDLINE using different combinations of the key words X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin and 5-HT, present in the title and/or the abstract, with no time limit. From the obtained abstracts, several publications were excluded on the basis of the following criteria: review articles that did not report original results, species other than the rat, intracerebral drug administration alone, genetically manipulated rats, and animals having any kind of experimental pathology. The reported results indicate that the effect of drugs on the inhibitory avoidance task performed in the elevated T-maze and on the spatio temporal indexes of anxiety measured in the X and plus mazes correlate with their effect in patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, the drug effects on the one-way escape task in the elevated T-maze predict the drug response of panic disorder patients. Overall, the drug effects assessed with the avoidance task in the T-maze are more consistent than those measured through the anxiety indexes of the X and plus mazes. Therefore, the elevated T-maze is a promising animal model of generalized anxiety and panic disorder.No presente artigo, revisamos resultados publicados relatando efeitos de drogas que atuam na neurotransmissão serotonérgica medidos em três labirintos elevados, que são modelos animais de ansiedade. Realizamos uma busca bibliográfica no MEDLINE, usando diferentes combinações das palavras-chave: X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin e 5-HT, presentes no título ou no resumo, sem limite de tempo. Dos resumos obtidos, vários foram excluídos com base nos seguintes critérios: artigos de revisão que não continham resultados originais, espécies diferentes do rato, apenas inje

  9. The modulatory action of harmane on serotonergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-02-09

    The naturally occurring β-carboline, harmane, has been implicated in various physiological and psychological conditions. Some of these effects are attributed to its interaction with monoaminergic systems. Previous literature indicates that certain β-carbolines including harmane modulate central monoamine levels partly through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. However, this is not always the case and thus additional mechanisms may be involved. This study set to assess the potential modulatory role of harmane on the basal or K(+) stimulated release of preloaded radiolabelled noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in rat brain cortex in vitro in the presence of the MAO inhibitor pargyline. Harmane displayed an overt elevation in K(+) -evoked [(3)H]5-HT release; whilst little and no effect was reported with [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]NA respectively. The effect of harmane on [(3)H]5-HT efflux was partially compensated in K(+)-free medium. Further analyses demonstrated that removal of Ca(2+) ions and addition of 1.2mM EGTA did not alter the action of harmane on [(3)H]5-HT release from rat brain cortex. The precise mechanism of action however remains unclear but is unlikely to reflect an involvement of MAO inhibition. The current finding aids our understanding on the modulatory action of harmane on monoamine levels and could potentially be of therapeutic use in psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Serotonergic modulation of receptor occupancy in rats treated with L-DOPA after unilateral 6-OHDA lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Høltzermann, Mette; Landau, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID), a severe complication of conventional L-DOPA therapy of Parkinson's disease, may be caused by dopamine (DA) release originating in serotonergic neurons. To evaluate the in vivo effect of a 5-HT(1A) agonist...... [(±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin hydrobromide, 8-OHDPAT] on the L-DOPA-induced increase in extracellular DA and decrease in [(11) C]raclopride binding in an animal model of advanced Parkinson's disease and LID, we measured extracellular DA in response to L-DOPA or a combination of L......-DOPA and the 5-HT(1A) agonist, 8-OHDPAT, with microdialysis, and determined [(11) C]raclopride binding to DA receptors, with micro-positron emission tomography, as the surrogate marker of DA release. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions had micro-positron emission tomography scans with [(11) C...

  11. Impact of CYP2C19 phenotypes on escitalopram metabolism and an evaluation of pupillometry as a serotonergic biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noehr-Jensen, L; Zwisler, S; Larsen, F

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) phenotypes on escitalopram metabolism and to evaluate pupillometry as a serotonergic biomarker. METHODS: This was a double-blind, crossover design study with single and multiple doses of 10 mg escitalopram and placebo in panels...... of CYP2C19 extensive (EM) and poor metabolisers (PM). Pupillometry was measured by a NeurOptics Pupillometer-PLR. RESULTS: Five PM and eight EM completed the study. The CYP2C19 phenotype significantly affected the metabolism of escitalopram. The area under the time-plasma concentration curve (AUC(0......-24)) was 1.8-fold higher in PM than in EM after both single and multiple doses. Escitalopram treatment did not affect the maximum pupil size, but it did statistically significantly decrease the relative amplitude of the pupil light reflex compared to the placebo; this effect was equal in both phenotype...

  12. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  13. Is a serotonergic mechanism involved in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced appetite suppression in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozman, K. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF), Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie); Pfeifer, B.; Kerecsen, L.; Alper, R.H. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics)

    1991-02-01

    The major cause of TCDD-induced death in rats is a progressive voluntary feed refusal which has been correlated with reduced gluconeogenesis. Since centrally administered TCDD does not cause death or decreased feed intake in rats, the ability of TCDD to suppress appetite via peripheral mechanisms acting on the central nervous system was examined in two experimental models. First, it was found that the feed intake of rats on scheduled feeding cycles was not decreased by blood transfused from rats with TCDD-induced appetite suppression (8 days after a lethal dose of TCDD, i.p.). In contrast, a similar transfusion from normal, satiated rats did reduce feed intake of recipient rats by approximately 40%, suggesting that TCDD-treated rats are not satiated but rather that they are not hunggy. In the second study tryptophan (the amino acid precursor of the neutrotransmitter serotonin) was measured in the plasma and tryptophan, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the hypothalamus as well as dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum 4, 8, and 16 days after TCDD dosage (125 {mu}g/kg, i.p.). Progressive time-dependent increases in tryptophan levels in plasma and brain were paralleled by increases in brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (the primary metabolite of serotonin) in TCDD-treated rats. No changes were observed regarding the other biogenic amines. It is suggested based on these data and on substantial evidence from the published literature that a serotonergic mechanism may be involved in TCDD-induced feed intake reduction. (orig.).

  14. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  15. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  16. Modulation of haloperidol-induced patterns of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nor-1 expression by serotonergic and adrenergic drugs in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Jérôme; Vuillier, Laura; Mahfouz, Mylène; Rouillard, Claude; Lévesque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Different patterns of expression of the transcription factors of Nur77 and Nor-1 are induced following acute administration of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The pharmacological profile of atypical antipsychotics suggests that serotonergic and/or adrenergic receptors might contribute to these reported differences. In order to test this possibility, we examined the abilities of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C, and α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor drugs to modify the pattern of Nur77 (NR4A1) and Nor-1 (NR4A3) mRNA expression induced by haloperidol. Various groups of mice were treated with either saline, DOI, a 5-HT2A/2C agonist, MDL11939, a 5-HT2A antagonist, 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A agonist, prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist and idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic antagonist, alone or in combination with haloperidol. The 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOI alone significantly increased Nur77 expression in the medial striatum and nucleus accumbens. DOI reduced Nor-1 expression, while MDL11939 increased the expression of this transcript in the cortex. Prazosin reduced Nur77 expression in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, 8-OH-DPAT and MDL11939 partially prevented haloperidol-induced Nur77 up-regulation, while MDL11939 completely abolished Nor-1 expression in the striatum. In addition, MDL11939 decreased haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. On the contrary, idazoxan (α2 antagonist) consistently potentiated haloperidol-induced Nur77, but not Nor-1 mRNA levels in the striatum, whereas prazosin (α1 antagonist) remained without effect. Taken together, these results show the ability of a 5-HT1A agonist or a 5-HT2A antagonist to reduce haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 striatal expression, suggesting that these serotonin receptor subtypes participate in the differential pattern of gene expression induced by typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21524335

  17. A happy valve in a happy patient? Serotonergic antidepressants and the risk of valvular heart disease (SERVAL). A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Tine; Petrovic, Mirko; Audenaert, Kurt; Coeman, Mathieu; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the risk of valvular heart disease in humans in relation to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. A case-control study. We conducted a case-control study within this cohort in which patients with newly diagnosed cardiac valve regurgitation were age-matched to controls. Patient demographics, their cardiovascular risk factors and medication use were extracted in both series. Use of SSRIs, serotonin and noradreline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and other pro-serotonergic agents, their dose and treatment duration were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish the strength of the association between SSRI/SNRI use and valvular heart disease. Outpatient clinic of the cardiology department at the Ghent University Hospital, East-Flanders in Belgium. Total of 2911 persons 21-58 years of age who had undergone an echocardiogram in the period 2006-2010 and had no known cardiovascular disease or previous cardiac intervention. Two hundred and six echocardiographically proven cases of valvular regurgitation and 195 matched controls. Odd ratio of valvular disease associated with intake of serotonergic drugs. Of the 206 patients with newly diagnosed cardiac valve regurgitation, 11.6% were exposed to serotonergic agents compared to 4.1% in the 195 control patients, leading to an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-7.04). The analysis of doses and treatment durations revealed a dose-relationship pattern between SSRI/SNRI use and prevalent valvular heart disease. In this study, use of serotonergic antidepressants was associated with an increased rate of valvular regurgitation in humans.

  18. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  19. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar...

  20. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  1. Altered depression-related behavior and neurochemical changes in serotonergic neurons in mutant R406W human tau transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Takashima, Akihiko; Watanabe, Takuya; Kawabe, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Tomomi; Mishima, Kenichi; Chidori, Shozo; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2005-10-12

    Mutant R406W human tau was originally identified in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) and causes a hereditary tauopathy that clinically resembles Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we examined the performance of R406W transgenic (Tg) mice in the forced swimming test, a test with high predictivity of antidepressant efficacy in human depression, and found an enhancement of the immobility time. In contrast, the motor function and anxiety-related emotional response of R406W Tg mice were normal. Furthermore, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluvoxamine (100 mg/kg, p.o.), significantly reduced this enhancement of the immobility time, whereas a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desipramine, had no effect. In an in vivo microdialysis study, R406W Tg mice exhibited a significantly decreased extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) level in the frontal cortex and also exhibited a tendency toward a decreased extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level. Moreover, fluvoxamine, which reduced the enhancement of the immobility time, significantly increased the extracellular 5-HT level in R406W Tg mice. These results suggest that R406W Tg mice exhibit changes in depression-related behavior involving serotonergic neurons and provide an animal model for investigating AD with depression.

  2. Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphé neurones and cranial motoneurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Will H; Mangoli, Maryam; Lele, Zsolt; Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Diamond, Brianne; Mercurio, Sara; Russell, Claire; Teraoka, Hiroki; Stickney, Heather L; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Houart, Corinne; Schilling, Thomas F; Frohnhoefer, Hans-Georg; Rastegar, Sepand; Neumann, Carl J; Gardiner, R Mark; Strähle, Uwe; Geisler, Robert; Rees, Michelle; Talbot, William S; Wilson, Stephen W

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we elucidate the roles of the winged-helix transcription factor Foxa2 in ventral CNS development in zebrafish. Through cloning of monorail (mol), which we find encodes the transcription factor Foxa2, and phenotypic analysis of mol-/- embryos, we show that floorplate is induced in the absence of Foxa2 function but fails to further differentiate. In mol-/- mutants, expression of Foxa and Hh family genes is not maintained in floorplate cells and lateral expansion of the floorplate fails to occur. Our results suggest that this is due to defects both in the regulation of Hh activity in medial floorplate cells as well as cell-autonomous requirements for Foxa2 in the prospective laterally positioned floorplate cells themselves. Foxa2 is also required for induction and/or patterning of several distinct cell types in the ventral CNS. Serotonergic neurones of the raphenucleus and the trochlear motor nucleus are absent in mol-/- embryos, and oculomotor and facial motoneurones ectopically occupy ventral CNS midline positions in the midbrain and hindbrain. There is also a severe reduction of prospective oligodendrocytes in the midbrain and hindbrain. Finally, in the absence of Foxa2, at least two likely Hh pathway target genes are ectopically expressed in more dorsal regions of the midbrain and hindbrain ventricular neuroepithelium, raising the possibility that Foxa2 activity may normally be required to limit the range of action of secreted Hh proteins.

  3. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  4. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  5. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  6. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  7. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems.

  8. Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. IV. Serotonergic involvement in the effects of buspirone on punished behavior of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkin, J.M.; Mansbach, R.S.; Barrett, J.E.; Bolger, G.T.; Skolnick, P.; Weissman, B.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone, with serotonin (5-HT) were studied using behavioral and neurochemical procedures. Punished responding was studied in pigeons as this behavior is a generally acknowledged preclinical predictor of anxiolytic activity and because buspirone increases punished responding of pigeons with greater potency and efficacy than in other species. Keypeck responses were maintained under either fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of food presentation; every 30th response produced a brief electric shock and suppressed responding (punishment). Buspirone (0.1-5.6 mg/kg i.m.) produced dose-related increases in punished responding which reached a maximum at 1 mg/kg. A serotonin agonist, MK-212 (0.01 mg/kg), antagonized whereas the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (0.01 mg/kg), potentiated the effects of buspirone without having behavioral effects of their own. The characteristics of [ 3 H]-5-HT binding in pigeon brain membranes were similar to results reported in mammalian brain. Neither buspirone, MJ-13805 (gepirone, a related analog), nor MJ-13653 (a buspirone metabolite), significantly affected [ 3 H]-5-HT binding and none of the compounds appreciably inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-5-HT into pigeon cerebral synaptosomes. Hill coefficients significantly less than unity for all drugs except 5-HT suggested multiple serotonergic binding sites for buspirone and analogs. Buspirone and MJ-13805 (1 nM) inhibited [ 3 H]ketanserin binding (a measure of 5-HT2 binding sites) in pigeon cerebrum with Ki values above 10(-6) M. The number of [ 3 H]ketanserin binding sites was estimated to be 109 fmol/mg of protein in pigeon cerebrum compared to 400 fmol/mg of protein in rat cerebrum

  9. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia after extensive lesion of medullary serotonergic neurons in newborn conscious piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, E M; Berniker, A V; Kereshi, B; Cafaro, C; Kelly, M L; Niblock, M M; Gao, H G; Kinney, H C; Li, A; Nattie, E E

    2006-10-01

    Acute inhibition of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the medullary raphé (MR) using a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist had an age-dependent impact on the "CO(2) response" of piglets (33). Our present study explored the effect of chronic 5-HT neuron lesions in the MR and extra-raphé on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia in piglets, with possible implications on the role of 5-HT in the sudden infant death syndrome. We established four experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 11) did not undergo any treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected with either vehicle or the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the cisterna magna during the first week of life (group 2, n = 9; group 4, n = 11) or second week of life (group 3, n = 10). Ventilation was recorded in response to 5% CO(2) (all groups) and 12% O(2) (group 2) during wakefulness and sleep up to postnatal day 25. Surprisingly, the piglets did not reveal changes in their CO(2) sensitivity during early postnatal development. Overall, considerable lesions of 5-HT neurons (up to 65% decrease) in the MR and extra-raphé had no impact on the CO(2) response, regardless of injection time. Postlesion raphé plasticity could explain why we observed no effect. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine-treated males, however, did present a lower CO(2) response during sleep. Hypoxia significantly altered the frequency during sleep in lesioned piglets. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of plasticity, sex, and 5-HT abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome.

  10. The association between serum lipid levels, suicide ideation, and central serotonergic activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GATA-3 is involved in the development of serotonergic neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Wees (Jacqueline); A. Karis (Alar); E. Goedknegt; M. Rutteman; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.H. van Doorninck (Hikke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The GATA-3 transcription factor shows a specific and restricted expression pattern in the developing and adult mouse brain. In the present study we investigated the role of GATA-3 in the caudal raphe system, which is known to operate as a modulator of motor activity. We

  12. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Hernandez

    Full Text Available Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and keratin 5 (K5, a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT biosynthesis, and the 5-HT(7 receptor (HTR7, which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α. These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process.

  14. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  15. A medicinal herb, Melissa officinalis L. ameliorates depressive-like behavior of rats in the forced swimming test via regulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chou, Mei-Ling; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Hao, Cherng-Wei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-12-04

    Depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. However, the conventional medications typically cause side effects that result in patients opting to out of therapy. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., MO) is an old and particularly reliable medicinal herb for relieving feelings of melancholy, depression and anxiety. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of water extract of MO (WMO) by evaluating its influence on the behaviors and the relevant neurotransmitters of rats performed to forced swimming test. Two phases of the experiment were conducted. In the acute model, rats were administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, WMO, or the indicated active compound (rosmarinic acid, RA) three times in one day. In the sub-acute model, rats were respectively administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, or three dosages of WMO once a day for 10 days. Locomotor activity and depression-like behavior were examined using the open field test and the forced swimming test, respectively. The levels of relevant neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. In the acute model, WMO and RA significantly reduced depressive-like behavior but the type of related neurotransmitter could not be determined. The results indicated that the effect of WMO administration on the reduction of immobility time was associated with an increase in swimming time of the rats, indicative of serotonergic neurotransmission modulation. Chromatography data validated that the activity of WMO was associated with a reduction in the serotonin turnover rate. The present study shows the serotonergic antidepressant-like activity of WMO. Hence, WMO may offer a serotonergic antidepressant activity to prevent depression and to assist in conventional therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Valproic acid silencing of ascl1b/Ascl1 results in the failure of serotonergic differentiation in a zebrafish model of fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal valproate syndrome (FVS is caused by in utero exposure to the drug sodium valproate. Valproate is used worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, as a mood stabiliser and for its pain-relieving properties. In addition to birth defects, FVS is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which is characterised by abnormal behaviours. Valproate perturbs multiple biochemical pathways and alters gene expression through its inhibition of histone deacetylases. Which, if any, of these mechanisms is relevant to the genesis of its behavioural side effects is unclear. Neuroanatomical changes associated with FVS have been reported and, among these, altered serotonergic neuronal differentiation is a consistent finding. Altered serotonin homeostasis is also associated with autism. Here we have used a chemical-genetics approach to investigate the underlying molecular defect in a zebrafish FVS model. Valproate causes the selective failure of zebrafish central serotonin expression. It does so by downregulating the proneural gene ascl1b, an ortholog of mammalian Ascl1, which is a known determinant of serotonergic identity in the mammalian brainstem. ascl1b is sufficient to rescue serotonin expression in valproate-treated embryos. Chemical and genetic blockade of the histone deacetylase Hdac1 downregulates ascl1b, consistent with the Hdac1-mediated silencing of ascl1b expression by valproate. Moreover, tonic Notch signalling is crucial for ascl1b repression by valproate. Concomitant blockade of Notch signalling restores ascl1b expression and serotonin expression in both valproate-exposed and hdac1 mutant embryos. Together, these data provide a molecular explanation for serotonergic defects in FVS and highlight an epigenetic mechanism for genome-environment interaction in disease.

  17. Sleep deprivation decreases phase-shift responses of circadian rhythms to light in the mouse: role of serotonergic and metabolic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E; Turek, F W; Laute, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-08-03

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei is primarily synchronized to the daily light-dark cycle. The phase-shifting and synchronizing effects of light can be modulated by non-photic factors, such as behavioral, metabolic or serotonergic cues. The present experiments examine the effects of sleep deprivation on the response of the circadian pacemaker to light and test the possible involvement of serotonergic and/or metabolic cues in mediating the effects of sleep deprivation. Photic phase-shifting of the locomotor activity rhythm was analyzed in mice transferred from a light-dark cycle to constant darkness, and sleep-deprived for 8 h from Zeitgeber Time 6 to Zeitgeber Time 14. Phase-delays in response to a 10-min light pulse at Zeitgeber Time 14 were reduced by 30% in sleep-deprived mice compared to control mice, while sleep deprivation without light exposure induced no significant phase-shifts. Stimulation of serotonin neurotransmission by fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), a serotonin reuptake inhibitor that decreases light-induced phase-delays in non-deprived mice, did not further reduce light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice. Impairment of serotonin neurotransmission with p-chloroamphetamine (three injections of 10 mg/kg), which did not increase light-induced phase-delays in non-deprived mice significantly, partially normalized light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice. Injections of glucose increased light-induced phase-delays in control and sleep-deprived mice. Chemical damage of the ventromedial hypothalamus by gold-thioglucose (600 mg/kg) prevented the reduction of light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice, without altering phase-delays in control mice. Taken together, the present results indicate that sleep deprivation can reduce the light-induced phase-shifts of the mouse suprachiasmatic pacemaker, due to serotonergic and metabolic changes associated with the loss of sleep.

  18. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  19. Extrasynaptic glycine receptors of rodent dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons:a sensitive target for ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Edward P.; Mitchell, Elizabeth A.; Greig, Scott J.; Corteen, Nicole; Balfour, David J. K.; Swinny, Jerome; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Belelli, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant medical and social problem. Several neurotransmitter systems are implicated in ethanol's actions, with certain receptors and ion channels emerging as putative targets. The dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus is associated with the behavioral actions of alcohol, but ethanol actions on these neurons are not well understood. Here, using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology we characterize DR inhibitory transmission and its sensitivity to ethanol. DR neurons exhibit inh...

  20. Neuroendocrine Associations Underlying the Persistent Therapeutic Effects of Classic Serotonergic Psychedelics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle A. D. Schindler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class. Several mechanisms, including biological and psychological ones, have been suggested to explain the long-lasting effects of psychedelics. Actions on the neuroendocrine system are some such mechanisms that warrant further investigation in the study of persisting psychedelic effects. In this report, we review certain structural and functional neuroendocrinological pathologies associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and cluster headache. We then review the effects that psychedelic drugs have on those systems and provide preliminary support for potential long-term effects. The circadian biology of cluster headache is of particular relevance in this area. We also discuss methodologic considerations for future investigations of neuroendocrine system involvement in the therapeutic benefits of psychedelic drugs.

  1. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  2. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  3. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  4. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  5. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  6. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  7. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  8. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  9. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  10. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  11. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  12. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  13. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta 2 -adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via [I 125 ]iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay

  14. A Touchscreen Assay to Probe the Role of the Serotonergic System in Learning and Visual Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Jeffrey M; Pak, Alexandr; Chubykin, Alexander A

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in numerous processes in the brain such as behavior, learning, memory, mood, and neurodevelopment. Serotonin signaling is regulated by the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), which maintains normal serotonin levels. Mutations in the SERT gene are known to correlate with cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and autism spectrum disorder. Researchers study these deficits using SERT kno...

  15. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  16. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  17. Serotonergic dysfunction in addiction: effects of alcohol, cigarette smoking and heroin on platelet 5-HT content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L G; Dufeu, P; Heinz, A; Kuhn, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-10-10

    The impact of ethanol, cigarette smoking and heroin on serotonin function was evaluated, first in alcoholics during chronic ethanol intoxication and in opiate addicts after long-term heroin consumption, and secondly in both patient groups after detoxification treatment (i.e. a short-term abstinence of 8 days). Our results showed that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in platelets was: (1) increased in the subgroup of anti-social alcoholics; (2) transiently and differently altered in alcoholics compared to opiate addicts; and (3) lowered in drinking alcoholics and normal in alcoholics who were drinking as well as smoking (that may occur via MAO-B inhibition by smoke). The findings indicate that alterations of the peripheral and possibly the central serotonin system may occur as predisposing factors for alcoholism in individuals with anti-social traits; they may also have some impact on the progression of alcoholism due to its lowered function during chronic ethanol intoxication that is substantially modified by smoking.

  18. Serotonergic activation during courtship and aggression in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Hartline

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT in social behavior regulation is not fully understood. While 5-HT release in nuclei of the social behavior network has generally been associated with inhibition of aggressive behavior across multiple classes of vertebrates, less is known about its effects on sexual, especially non-copulatory courtship display behaviors. Furthermore, most research has examined effects at 5-HT release sites, while studies examining the behavioral relevance of source cell populations have generated contradictory findings. This study utilized immunohistochemistry to examine the colocalization of 5-HT with Fos, an immediate early gene product and marker of neural activity, in the raphe and superior reticular nuclei of male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei exposed to either aggression, courtship, or control social interactions. Supporting previous research, copulation was associated with a decrease in 5-HT activity, while a novel link between 5-HT activity and latency to non-copulatory courtship was also found. Within the aggression group, intensity and frequency of behavior were both associated with decreased 5-HT activity. An effect of social context was also seen, with anoles exposed to either courtship or aggression encounters showing decreased 5-HT activity in certain raphe and superior reticular nuclei populations compared to controls. Interestingly, context effects and behavioral effects were seen at separate brain nuclei, suggesting the presence of separate systems with distinct functional roles.

  19. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  20. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  1. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  2. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  3. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. The serotonin-lir nervous system of the Bryozoa (Lophotrochozoa): a general pattern in the Gymnolaemata and implications for lophophore evolution of the phylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaha, Thomas F; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-10-14

    Serotonin represents an evolutionary ancient neurotransmitter that is ubiquitously found among animals including the lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa, a group of colonial filter-feeders. Comparatively little is known on their nervous system, and data on their serotonin-lir nervous system currently are mostly limited to the basal phylactolaemates. Previous investigations indicated a common ground-pattern of the serotonin-lir nervous system in these animals, but in order to assess this on a larger scale, 21 gymnolaemate species from 21 genera were comparatively analysed herein. Twenty-one species from 21 gymnolaemate genera were analysed by immunocytochemical stainings and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In all species the serotonin-lir signal is concentrated in the cerebral ganglion from where a nerve tract emanates laterally and traverses orally to engulf the foregut. Serotonin-lir perikarya are situated at the base of the tentacles that almost always correspond to the number of tentacles minus two. The oral side in almost all species shows three serotonin-lir perikarya followed by a 'serotonergic gap' that to our knowledge is not reflected in the morphology of the nervous system. Some species show additional serotonin-lir signal in tentacle nerves, visceral innervation and pore complexes. Paludicella articulata is exceptional as it shows signal in the latero-visceral nerves with serotonin-lir perikarya in the esophagus, parts of the tentacle sheath nerves as well as the frontal body wall around the parietal muscle bundles. In general, the serotonin-lir nervous system in the Bryozoa shows a consistent pattern among its different clades with few deviations. Preliminary data on phylactolaemates suggest the presence of a 'serotonergic gap' similar to gymnolaemates. Both show a subset of oral tentacles and the remaining tentacles in gymnolaemates which correspond to the lateral tentacles of phylactolaemates. The lophophoral concavity lacks serotonin-lir perikarya

  6. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  7. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  8. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  9. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  10. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  11. Serotonergic mediation of the effects of fluoxetine, but not desipramine, in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M E; Detke, M J; Dalvi, A; Kirby, L G; Lucki, I

    1999-11-01

    on FST-induced immobility may be exerted by distinguishable contributions from different neurotransmitter systems.

  12. Education Information Security: Improvements Made But Control Weaknesses Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of information system general controls in place to prevent unauthorized access, disclosure, and disruption to Education's primary accounting and payment system (i.e., EDCAPS...

  13. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  14. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  15. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  16. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  17. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  18. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  19. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  20. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  2. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  3. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  4. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  5. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  6. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  8. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  9. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  11. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  12. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, J; Bureau, A; Mérette, C; Jomphe, V; Barker, E D; Vitaro, F; Hébert, M; Carbonneau, R; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2010-08-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts

  13. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  14. Why silicon is and will remain the dominant photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra

    2009-07-01

    Rising demands of energy in emerging economies, coupled with the green house gas emissions related problems around the globe have provided a unique opportunity of exploiting the advantages offered by photovoltaic (PV) systems for green energy electricity generation. Similar to cell phones, power generated by PV systems can reach over two billion people worldwide who have no access to clean energy. Only silicon based PV devices meet the low-cost manufacturing criterion of clean energy conversion (abundance of raw material and no environmental health and safety issues). The use of larger size glass substrates and manufacturing techniques similar to the ones used by the liquid crystal display industry and the large scale manufacturing of amorphous silicon thin films based modules (~ GW per year manufacturing at a single location) can lead to installed PV system cost of $3/Wp. This will open a huge market for grid connected PV systems and related markets. With further research and development, this approach can provide $2/Wp installed PV system costs in the next few years. At this cost level, PV electricity generation is competitive with any other technology, and PV power generation can be a dominant electricity generation technology in the 21st century.

  15. The Remains of the Day in Dissociative Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Staniloiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not a unity, but is divided along a content axis and a time axis, respectively. Along the content dimension, five long-term memory systems are described, according to their hierarchical ontogenetic and phylogenetic organization. These memory systems are assumed to be accompanied by different levels of consciousness. While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system. Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia—a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging. Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called “internal coherence of life”.

  16. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  17. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  18. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  19. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  20. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  2. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Salt Marsh Sustainability in New England: Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural resource managers, conservationists, and scientists described marsh loss and degradation in many New England coastal systems at the 2014 “Effects of Sea Level Rise on Rhode Island’s Salt Marshes” workshop, organized by the Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Rese...

  4. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  5. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  6. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  7. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  8. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  9. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  10. Oxytocin effects on emotional response to others' faces via serotonin system in autism: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Mina; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yuko; Miyagishi, Yoshiaki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yokokura, Masamichi; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Minabe, Yoshio

    2017-09-30

    The oxytocin (OT)-related serotonergic system is thought to play an important role in the etiology and social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no evidence exists for the relation between the prosocial effect of chronic OT administration and the brain serotonergic system. Ten male subjects with ASD were administered OT for 8-10 weeks in an open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, uncontrolled manner. Before and during the OT treatment, positron emission tomography was used with the ( 11 C)-3-amino-4-(2-[(demethylamino)methyl]phenylthio)benzonitrile( 11 C-DASB) radiotracer. Then binding of serotonin transporter ( 11 C-DASB BP ND ) was estimated. The main outcome measures were changes in 11 C-DASB BP ND and changes in the emotional response to others' faces. No significant change was found in the emotional response to others' faces after the 8-10 week OT treatment. However, the increased serotonin transporter (SERT) level in the striatum after treatment was correlated significantly with increased negative emotional response to human faces. This study revealed a relation between changes in the serotonergic system and in prosociality after chronic OT administration. Additional studies must be conducted to verify the chronic OT effects on social behavior via the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  12. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  13. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  14. The nervous system of the basal mollusk Wirenia argentea (Solenogastres): a study employing immunocytochemical and 3D reconstruction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todt, Christiane; Bchinger, Thomas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    is present in most compartments of the nervous system, while serotonergic immunoreactivity appears to be restricted to the longitudinal nerve cords, the cerebro-pedal commissure and part of the cerebral ganglion. The buccal system shows immunoreactivity against none of the neurotransmitters....

  15. Determination Methods for the Exoskeletal Remains of Early Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karatajute-Talimaa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeleton, consisting of micromeric elements (odontodes and their derivatives, is characteristic of the most ancient vertebrates. Great morphological and histological variability of discrete exoskeletal microremains makes it difficult to identify them. It is necessary to study not only separate scales or tesserae, but also to get a picture of the squamation in general, because species determined from discrete elements are understood as an assemblage of morphological types. For determination of discrete exoskeletal elements, their morphology, internal structure, defined tissue types of crown and basal plate, types (way of their growth, system of vascular canals should be studied in addition changes occuring during ontogenetic development of both the dermal skeletal elements and the squamation should be taken in consideration. The material of different groups of early vertebrates (astraspids, tesakoviaspids, heterostracans, thelodonts, mongolepids, chondrichthyans and acanthodians, which were widely distributed in the Early Palaeozoic, are used as examples. Ein Hautskelett aus mikromerischen Elementen (Odontodes und davon abgeleiteten Formen ist für die meisten frühen Vertebraten kennzeichnend. Große morphologische und histologische Variabilität der einzelnen Mikroreste des Hautskeletts bereitet bei ihrer Bestimmung Schwierigkeiten. Es ist notwendig, nicht nur isolierte Schuppen und Tesserae zu untersuchen, sondern man muß sich eine Vorstellung der der gesamten Beschuppung verschaffen, da Arten bestimmt auf isoliertem Material als eine Ansammlung von morphologischen Typen verstanden werden müssen. Bei der Bestimmung isolierter Elemente des Enskeletts sollte man deren Morphologie, innere Struktur, Gewebetypen der Krone und Basalplatte, Arten des Wachstums, Anordnung der Gefäßkanäle und Veränderungen während des Wachstums des Einzelelements und der Gesamtbeschuppung berücksichtigen. Hautskelett-Elemente der verschiedenen Gruppen fr

  16. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P road traffic injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  17. Chemical Plants Remain Vulnerable to Terrorists: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H.; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L.; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A.; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation’s security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  18. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  19. Time Remains

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2014-01-01

    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute 'problem of time'. Under our view, duration is still regarded as relative, but te...

  20. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, T; Santos, A M P; Pinheiro, J [Institute Nacional de Recursos Biologicos (INRB), L-IPIMAR, Av. 5 de Outubro s/n 8700-305 OLHaO (Portugal); Ferreira-Bartrina, V [Centra de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada- CICESE, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana, C.P.22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: tdrago@ipimar.pt

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  1. Serotonergic neurotransmission and lapses of attention in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: availability of tryptophan influences attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian D; Gaber, Tilman J; Baurmann, David; Bubenzer, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Stadler, Christina; Poustka, Fritz; Wöckel, Lars

    2010-08-01

    Deficiencies in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission have frequently been linked to altered attention and memory processes. With attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being associated with impaired attention and working memory, this study investigated the effects of a diminished 5-HT turnover achieved by rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) on attentional performance in children and adolescents with ADHD. Twenty-two male patients with ADHD (aged 9-15 yr) received the RTD procedure Moja-De and a tryptophan (Trp)-balanced placebo (Pla) in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject crossover design on two separate study days. Lapses of attention (LA) and phasic alertness (PA) were assessed within the test battery for attentional performance under depleted and sham-depleted conditions 120 (T1), 220 (T2) and 300 (T3) min after intake of RTD/Pla. At T1 there was a significant main effect for RTD, indicating more LA under intake of a Trp-balanced Pla compared to diminished 5-HT neurotransmission. For T2/T3 there were no such effects. PA was not affected by the factors RTD/Pla and time. Interactions of 5-HT with other neurotransmitters as possible underlying neurochemical processes could be subject to further investigations involving healthy controls as regards altered attentional performance in children and adolescents.

  2. Central analgesic activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Albizia lebbeck: role of the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Girish G; Kumar, Anil; Rizvi, Waseem; Tripathi, C D; Khan, R A

    2015-01-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating several painful and inflammatory disorders. The possible central analgesic activity and the underlying mechanism of action of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) of the leaves of A. lebbeck were investigated in Wistar rats using Eddy's hot plate and the tail flick tests. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism of action, rats were pretreated with naloxone, bicuculline or methysergide and then were administered a per os (p.o.) dose of AE or EE. AE and EE caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the mean basal reaction time in the hot plate method and an increase in the latency time in the tail flick method. In rats pretreated with bicuculline and methysergide, a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the analgesic activity was observed in comparison to AE and EE. Thus, AE and EE exhibited significant central analgesic activity and act possibly via the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways. The flavonoids and saponins found in the leaves could be responsible for the observed effect.

  3. Brief pup exposure induces Fos expression in the lateral habenula and serotonergic caudal dorsal raphe nucleus of paternally experienced male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, T R; Measor, K R; Chauke, M; Harris, B N; Saltzman, W

    2010-09-01

    Fathers play a substantial role in infant care in a small but significant number of mammalian species, including humans. However, the neural circuitry controlling paternal behavior is much less understood than its female counterpart. In order to characterize brain areas activated by paternal care, male California mice were separated from their female mate and litter for 3 h and then exposed to a pup or a control object (a glass pebble with the approximate size and oblong shape of a newborn pup) for 10 min. All males receiving a pup showed a strong paternal response towards it, whereas males receiving a pebble interacted with it only occasionally. Despite the clear behavioral differences, exposure to a pup did not increase Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) compared to a pebble in brain areas previously found to be associated with parental care, including the medial preoptic nucleus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pup exposure did, however, significantly increase Fos-LIR in the lateral habenula (LHb) and in predominantly serotonergic neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), as compared to pebble exposure. Both the LHb and DRC are known to be involved in the behavioral responses to strong emotional stimuli; therefore, these areas might play a role in controlling parental behavior in male California mice. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of remaining fission products in low-decontaminated fuel on reactor core characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2002-07-01

    Design study of core, fuel and related fuel cycle system with low-decontaminated fuel has been performed in the framework of the feasibility study (F/S) on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. This report summarizes the influence on core characteristics of remaining fission products (FPs) in low-decontaminated fuel related to the reprocessing systems nominated in F/S phase I. For simple treatment of the remaining FPs in core neutronics calculation the representative nuclide method parameterized by the FP equivalent coefficient and the FP volume fraction was developed, which enabled an efficient evaluation procedure. As a result of the investigation on the sodium cooled fast reactor with MOX fuel designed in fiscal year 1999, it was found that the pyrochemical reprocessing with molten salt (the RIAR method) brought the largest influence. Nevertheless, it was still within the allowable range. Assuming an infinite-times recycling, the alternations in core characteristics were evaluated as follows: increment of burnup reactivity by 0.5%Δk/kk', decrement of breeding ratio by 0.04, increment of sodium void reactivity by 0.1x10 -2 Δk/kk' and decrement of Doppler constant (in absolute value) by 0.7x10 -3 Tdk/dT. (author)

  5. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt C VerCauteren

    Full Text Available Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos, have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216 and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0. Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  6. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  7. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  8. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  9. Intelligent Prognostic Framework for Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All industrial systems and machines are subjected to degradation processes, which can be related to the operating conditions. This degradation can cause unwanted stops at any time and major maintenance work sometimes. The accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL is an important challenge in condition-based maintenance. Prognostic activity allows estimating the RUL before failure occurs and triggering actions to mitigate faults in time when needed. In this study, a new smart prognostic method for photovoltaic module health degradation was developed based on two approaches to achieve more accurate predictions: online diagnosis and data-driven prognosis. This framework of forecasting integrates the strengths of real-time monitoring in the first approach and relevant vector machine in the second. The results show that the proposed method is plausible due to its good prediction of RUL and can be effectively applied to many systems for monitoring and prognostics.

  10. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  11. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  12. Serotonergic Chemosensory Neurons Modify the C. elegans Immune Response by Regulating G-Protein Signaling in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra; Laurenson-Schafer, Henry; Partridge, Frederick A.; Hodgkin, Jonathan; McMullan, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems influence each other, allowing animals to rapidly protect themselves from changes in their internal and external environment. However, the complex nature of these systems in mammals makes it difficult to determine how neuronal signaling influences the immune response. Here we show that serotonin, synthesized in Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons, modulates the immune response. Serotonin released from these cells acts, directly or indirectly, to regulate G-protein signaling in epithelial cells. Signaling in these cells is required for the immune response to infection by the natural pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum. Here we show that serotonin signaling suppresses the innate immune response and limits the rate of pathogen clearance. We show that C. elegans uses classical neurotransmitters to alter the immune response. Serotonin released from sensory neurons may function to modify the immune system in response to changes in the animal's external environment such as the availability, or quality, of food. PMID:24348250

  13. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  14. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems ("DRD4", "DRD2", "COMT", "5-HTT", "OXTR") on attachment security and disorganization.…

  15. Aging is accompanied by a subfield-specific reduction of serotonergic fibers in the tree shrew hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; Keijser, Jan N.; Nyakas, Csaba; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a crucial structure for learning and memory, and serotonin together with other neurotransmitters is essential in these processes. Although the effects of aging on various neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus have been extensively investigated, it is not entirely

  16. Serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei to the subthalamic nucleus; a retrograde- and anterograde neuronal tracing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Plenge, Per; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A not were present. Retrograde tracer FluoroGold or Choleratoxin subunit B were iontophoretically delivered in the STN and combined with immunohistochemistry for 5-HT in order to map the topographic organization in the dorsal raphe system. The study showed that approximately 320...

  17. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  18. Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Wall, Anders; Olsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    -follicular) correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006). The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (premenstrual-follicular) in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin) of radiotracer activity...... here seems plausible, and the findings give further support to an underlying frontal brain disturbance in hormonally influenced serotonergic activity in women with PMD. Because of the small number of subjects in the study, these results should be considered preliminary, requiring verification in larger...

  19. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  20. Immunocytochemistry and metamorphic fate of the larval nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum (Ectoprocta: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Degnan, Bernard M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of gymnolaemate Ectoprocta includes a larval stage of either the coronate or the cyphonautes type. Herein, we provide the first description of the larval neural anatomy of a coronate larva using immunocytochemical methods. We used antibodies against the neurotransmitters serotonin...... that the larval neuroanatomy and the processes that underlie the reorganization of larval organ systems during metamorphosis may vary much more among lophotrochozoan taxa than previously thought....... and FMRFamide and followed the fate of immunoreactive cells through metamorphosis. The larval serotonergic nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum consists of an apical commissure, one pair of lateral axons, a coronate nerve net, an internal nerve mesh, and one pair of axons innervating the frontal organ....... FMRFamide is only found in the larval commissure and in the lateral axons. The entire serotonergic and FMRFamidergic nervous system is lost during metamorphosis and the adult neural structures form independent of the larval ones. In the postlarval zooid, both neurotransmitters are detected in the cerebral...

  1. The analgesic agent tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat brainstem via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that tapentadol inhibits GGRP release from the rat brainstem through a mechanism mediated by the inhibition of NA reuptake; as a second alternative hypothesis, we investigated whether tapentadol inhibits GGRP release via the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Rat brainstems were explanted and incubated in short-term experiments. CGRP released in the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from the central terminals of trigeminal neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of tapentadol; NA, 5-HT, clonidine, yohimbine and ondansetron were used as pharmacological tools to investigate the action mechanism of tapentadol. The α2-antagonist yohimbine failed to counteract the effects of tapentadol. Moreover, neither NA nor the α2-agonist clonidine per se inhibited K(+)-stimulated CGRP release, thereby indicating that the effects of tapentadol are nor mediated through the block of NA reuptake. Further experiments showed that 5-HT and tramadol, which inhibits both NA and 5-HT reuptake, significantly reduced K(+)-stimulated CGRP release. Moreover, the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was able to counteract the effects of tapentadol in this system. This study provided pharmacological evidence that tapentadol inhibits stimulated CGRP release from the rat brainstem in vitro through a mechanism involving an increase in 5-HT levels in the system and the subsequent activation of 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Local neuropeptide signaling modulates serotonergic transmission to shape the temporal organization of C. elegans egg-laying behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navonil Banerjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviors are often composed of distinct alternating behavioral states. Neuromodulatory signals are thought to be critical for establishing stable behavioral states and for orchestrating transitions between them. However, we have only a limited understanding of how neuromodulatory systems act in vivo to alter circuit performance and shape behavior. To address these questions, we have investigated neuromodulatory signaling in the context of Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying. Egg-laying activity cycles between discrete states-short bursts of egg deposition (active phases that alternate with prolonged quiescent periods (inactive phases. Here using genetic, pharmacological and optogenetic approaches for cell-specific activation and inhibition, we show that a group of neurosecretory cells (uv1 located in close spatial proximity to the egg-laying neuromusculature direct the temporal organization of egg-laying by prolonging the duration of inactive phases. We demonstrate that the modulatory effects of the uv1 cells are mediated by peptides encoded by the nlp-7 and flp-11 genes that act locally to inhibit circuit activity, primarily by inhibiting vesicular release of serotonin from HSN motor neurons. This peptidergic inhibition is achieved, at least in part, by reducing synaptic vesicle abundance in the HSN motor neurons. By linking the in vivo actions of specific neuropeptide signaling systems with the generation of stable behavioral outcomes, our study reveals how cycles of neuromodulation emanating from non-neuronal cells can fundamentally shape the organization of a behavioral program.

  3. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  4. Guarantee of remaining life time. Integrity of mechanical components and control of ageing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Koenig, G.

    2012-01-01

    The life time of safety relevant systems, structures and components (SSC) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is determined by two main principles. First of all the required quality has to be produced during the design and fabrication process. This means that quality has to be produced and can't be improved by excessive inspections (Basis Safety - quality through production principle). The second one is assigned to the initial quality which has to be maintained during operation. This concerns safe operation during the total life time (life time management), safety against ageing phenomena (AM - ageing management) as well as proof of integrity (e.g. break preclusion or avoidance of fracture for SSC with high safety relevance). Initiated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi event in Japan in spring 2011 for German NPP's Long Term Operation (LTO) is out of question. In June 2011 legislation took decision to phase-out from nuclear by 2022. As a fact safe operation shall be guaranteed for the remaining life time. Within this technical framework the ageing management is a key element. Depending on the safety-relevance of the SSC under observation including preventive maintenance various tasks are required in particular to clarify the mechanisms which contribute systemspecifically to the damage of the components and systems and to define their controlling parameters which have to be monitored and checked. Appropriate continuous or discontinuous measures are to be considered in this connection. The approach to ensure a high standard of quality in operation for the remaining life time and the management of the technical and organizational aspects are demonstrated and explained. The basis for ageing management to be applied to NNPs is included in Nuclear Safety Standard 1403 which describes the ageing management procedures. For SSC with high safety relevance a verification analysis for rupture preclusion (proof of integrity, integrity concept) shall be performed (Nuclear Safety Standard 3206

  5. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  6. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  7. Dorsal-to-Ventral Shift in Midbrain Dopaminergic Projections and Increased Thalamic/Raphe Serotonergic Function in Early Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Seppänen, Marko; Noponen, Tommi; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2015-07-01

    Loss of nigrostriatal neurons leading to dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum is the pathologic hallmark of Parkinson disease contributing to the primary motor symptoms of the disease. However, Parkinson pathology is more widespread in the brain, affecting also other dopaminergic pathways and neurotransmitter systems, but these changes are less well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the mesencephalic striatal and extrastriatal dopaminergic projections together with extrastriatal serotonin transporter binding in Parkinson disease. Two hundred sixteen patients with Parkinson disease and 204 control patients (patients without neurodegenerative parkinsonism syndromes and normal SPECT imaging) were investigated with SPECT using the dopamine/serotonin transporter ligand (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) in the clinical setting. The group differences and midbrain correlations were analyzed voxel by voxel over the entire brain. We found that Parkinson patients had lower (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the striatum and ventral midbrain but higher uptake in the thalamus and raphe nuclei than control patients. In patients with Parkinson disease, the correlation of the midbrain tracer uptake was shifted from the putamen to widespread corticolimbic areas. All findings were highly significant at the voxel level familywise error-corrected P value of less than 0.05. Our findings show that Parkinson disease is associated not only with the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, but also with a parallel shift toward mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Furthermore, Parkinson disease patients seem to have upregulation of brain serotonin transporter function at the early phase of the disease. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Phenotypic expression in the developing murine enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, T.P.; Gershon, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the enteric nervous system was examined in fetal mice. Synthesis of [3H] acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) from [3H]choline and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry were used as phenotypic markers for cholinergic neurons, while the radioautographic detection of the specific uptake of [3H]serotonin (5-[3H]HT) and immunocytochemical staining with antiserum to 5-HT marked serotonergic neurons. The gut also was examined by light and electron microscopy. Development of the gut was studied in situ and in explants grown in organotypic tissue culture. Neurons were first detected morphologically in the foregut on embryonic day 12 (E12). Synthesis of [3H]ACh was detectable on days E10 to E12 but increased markedly between days E13 and E14. Uptake and radioautographic labeling by 5-[3H]HT was seen first in the foregut on day E12, in the colon on day E13, and in the terminal colon on day E14. Gut explanted from both distal and proximal bowel prior to the time when neurons could be detected (days E9 to E11) nevertheless formed neurons in culture. These cultures of early explants displayed markers for both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Enhances development of both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons was found in cultures explanted at day E11 over that found in cultures explanted on days E9 or E10. The evidence presented indicates (1) that enteric neurons develop from nonrecognizable precursors, (2) that the proximodistal gradient in neuronal phenotypic expression probably is not related to a proximodistal migration of precursor cells down the gut, (3) that the colonization of the bowel by neuronal precursors may be a prolonged process continuing from day E9 at least through day E11, (4) that the first pool of neuronal primordia to colonize the developing bowel can produce both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons

  9. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoqiang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Zhijie; Si, Xiaosheng

    2014-01-01

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  10. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  12. Remaining dischargeable time prediction for lithium-ion batteries using unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Wei, Jingwen; Chen, Zonghai; Sun, Han; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the range anxiety, one of the important strategies is to accurately predict the range or dischargeable time of the battery system. To accurately predict the remaining dischargeable time (RDT) of a battery, a RDT prediction framework based on accurate battery modeling and state estimation is presented in this paper. Firstly, a simplified linearized equivalent-circuit-model is developed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of a battery. Then, an online recursive least-square-algorithm method and unscented-Kalman-filter are employed to estimate the system matrices and SOC at every prediction point. Besides, a discrete wavelet transform technique is employed to capture the statistical information of past dynamics of input currents, which are utilized to predict the future battery currents. Finally, the RDT can be predicted based on the battery model, SOC estimation results and predicted future battery currents. The performance of the proposed methodology has been verified by a lithium-ion battery cell. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide an accurate SOC and parameter estimation and the predicted RDT can solve the range anxiety issues.

  13. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  14. Serotonergic Modulation of Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R. Homberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned fear plays a key role in anxiety disorders as well as depression and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Understanding how neuromodulators drive the associated learning and memory processes, including memory consolidation, retrieval/expression, and extinction (recall, is essential in the understanding of (individual differences in vulnerability to these disorders and their treatment. The human and rodent studies I review here together reveal, amongst others, that acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment facilitates fear conditioning, reduces contextual fear, and increases cued fear, chronic SSRI treatment reduces both contextual and cued fear, 5-HT1A receptors inhibit the acquisition and expression of contextual fear, 5-HT2A receptors facilitates the consolidation of cued and contextual fear, inactivation of 5-HT2C receptors facilitate the retrieval of cued fear memory, the 5-HT3 receptor mediates contextual fear, genetically induced increases in serotonin levels are associated with increased fear conditioning, impaired cued fear extinction, or impaired extinction recall, and that genetically induced 5-HT depletion increases fear conditioning and contextual fear. Several explanations are presented to reconcile seemingly paradoxical relationships between serotonin levels and conditioned fear.

  15. Antipsychotic activity of standardized Bacopa extract against ketamine-induced experimental psychosis in mice: Evidence for the involvement of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Manavi; Verma, Rajkumar; Kumari, Reena; Singh, Seema; Verma, Anil Kumar; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Palit, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disabling psychiatric disorder affecting 1% of the population worldwide. Due to the adverse effects of available antipsychotic medications, recent investigations have focused on the search for well-tolerated, safe molecules from natural resources to control the severity and progression of schizophrenia. To screen the standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) (BM) for its antipsychotic potential in the ketamine-induced psychosis model with mice. Graded dose of BM (40, 80, and 120 mg/kg, p.o.) were given to the mice 1 h prior to ketamine administration and tested for positive symptoms and cognitive deficits. A chronic ketamine treatment regimen was used to study the effect of BM on negative symptoms such as immobility enhancement. Each mouse was used once for the behavioral studies. BM reduced ketamine-induced hyperactivity with an EC50 value of 76.60 mg/kg. The 80 mg/kg dose was used for all other behavior analysis. Pretreatment with BM at 80 mg/kg showed two-fold increases in transfer latency time (TLT) in passive avoidance task. Chronic BM pretreatment (80 mg/kg p.o. daily × 10 d) ameliorated the ketamine-induced enhanced immobility effect by 21% in the forced swim test. BM treatment reversed ketamine-induced increase in monoamine oxidase activity in both cortex and striatum and normalized the acetylcholinesterase activity and the glutamate levels in the hippocampus. Overall our findings suggest that BM possesses antipsychotic properties which might be due to its modulatory action on dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate neurotransmission.

  16. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2008-06-10

    We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft.

  17. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  18. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D. Flouris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  19. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  20. Anammox-based technologies for nitrogen removal: Advances in process start-up and remaining issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based process has been recognized as efficient, cost-effective and low energy alternative to the conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than one hundred full-scale anammox plants have been installed and operated for treatment of NH4(+)-rich wastewater streams around the world, and the number is increasing rapidly. Since the discovery of anammox process, extensive researches have been done to develop various anammox-based technologies. However, there are still some challenges in practical application of anammox-based treatment process at full-scale, e.g., longer start-up period, limited application to mainstream municipal wastewater and poor effluent water quality. This paper aimed to summarize recent status of application of anammox process and researches on technological development for solving these remaining problems. In addition, an integrated system of anammox-based process and microbial fuel cell is proposed for sustainable and energy-positive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ensemble of data-driven prognostic algorithms for robust prediction of remaining useful life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chao; Youn, Byeng D.; Wang Pingfeng; Taek Yoon, Joung

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics aims at determining whether a failure of an engineered system (e.g., a nuclear power plant) is impending and estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) before the failure occurs. The traditional data-driven prognostic approach is to construct multiple candidate algorithms using a training data set, evaluate their respective performance using a testing data set, and select the one with the best performance while discarding all the others. This approach has three shortcomings: (i) the selected standalone algorithm may not be robust; (ii) it wastes the resources for constructing the algorithms that are discarded; (iii) it requires the testing data in addition to the training data. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes an ensemble data-driven prognostic approach which combines multiple member algorithms with a weighted-sum formulation. Three weighting schemes, namely the accuracy-based weighting, diversity-based weighting and optimization-based weighting, are proposed to determine the weights of member algorithms. The k-fold cross validation (CV) is employed to estimate the prediction error required by the weighting schemes. The results obtained from three case studies suggest that the ensemble approach with any weighting scheme gives more accurate RUL predictions compared to any sole algorithm when member algorithms producing diverse RUL predictions have comparable prediction accuracy and that the optimization-based weighting scheme gives the best overall performance among the three weighting schemes.

  2. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  3. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  4. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  5. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  6. Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Eriksson

    Full Text Available To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD and asymptomatic controls.Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women.Positron-emission tomography with the immediate precursor of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, radiolabelled by 11C in the beta-3 position, was performed in the follicular and luteal phases for 12 women with PMD and 8 control women. Brain radioactivity-a proxy for serotonin precursor uptake and synthesis-was measured in 9 regions of interest (ROIs: the right and left sides of the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus, and the single "whole brain".There were no significant quantitative differences in brain 5-HTP-derived activity between the groups in either of the menstrual phases for any of the 9 ROIs. However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the groups. Asymptomatic control women showed a premenstrual right sided relative increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 5-HTP derived activity, whereas PMD women displayed the opposite (p = 0.0001. Menstrual phase changes in this asymmetry (premenstrual-follicular correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006. The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (premenstrual-follicular in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin of radiotracer activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal ROI (rs = -0.635; 0.027. The control group showed no such correlation.Absence of increased premenstrual right-sided relative 5-HTP-derived activity of the dorsolateral

  7. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  8. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  9. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  10. Recent Successes and Remaining Challenges in Predicting Phosphorus Loading to Surface Waters at Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.; Metson, G.; Beusen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication and associated effects such as harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Effectively addressing this challenge requires understanding geographic and temporal distribution of aquatic P loading, knowledge of major controls on P loading, and the relative importance of various potential P sources. The Global (N)utrient (E)xport from (W)ater(S)heds) NEWS model and recent improvements and extensions of this modeling system can be used to generate this understanding. This presentation will focus on insights global NEWS models grant into past, present, and potential future P sources and sinks, with a focus on the world's large rivers. Early results suggest: 1) that while aquatic P loading is globally dominated by particulate forms, dissolved P can be locally dominant; 2) that P loading has increased substantially at the global scale, but unevenly between world regions, with hotspots in South and East Asia; 3) that P loading is likely to continue to increase globally, but decrease in certain regions that are actively pursuing proactive P management; and 4) that point sources, especially in urban centers, play an important (even dominant) role in determining loads of dissolved inorganic P. Despite these insights, substantial unexplained variance remains when model predictions and measurements are compared at global and regional scales, for example within the U.S. Disagreements between model predictions and measurements suggest opportunities for model improvement. In particular, explicit inclusion of soil characteristics and the concept of temporal P legacies in future iterations of NEWS (and other) models may help improve correspondence between models and measurements.

  11. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  12. Theory of superconductivity. II. Excited Cooper pairs. Why does sodium remain normal down to 0 K?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a generalized BCS Hamiltonian in which the interaction strengths (V 11 , V 22 , V 12 ) among and between electron (12) and hole (2) Cooper pairs are differentiated, the thermodynamic properties of a type-I superconductor below the critical temperature T c are investigated. An expression for the ground-state energy, W - W 0 , relative to the unperturbed Block system is obtained. The usual BCS formulas are obtained in the limits: (all) V jl = V 0 , N 1 (0) = N 2 (0). Any excitations generated through the BCS interaction Hamiltonian containing V jl must involve Cooper pairs of antiparallel spins and nearly opposite momenta. The nonzero momentum or excited Cooper pairs below T c are shown to have an excitation energy band minimum lower than the quasi-electrons, which were regarded as the elementary excitations in the original BCS theory. The energy gap var-epsilon g (T) defined relative to excited and zero-momentum Copper pairs (when V jl > 0) decreases from var-epsilon g (0) to 0 as the temperature T is raised from 0 to T c . If electrons only are available as in a monovalent metal like sodium (V 12 = 0), the energy constant Δ 1 is finite but the energy gap vanishes identically for all T. In agreement with the BCS theory, the present theory predicts that a pure nonmagnetic metal in any dimensions should have a Cooper-pair ground state whose energy is lower than that of the Bloch ground state. Additionally it predicts that a monovalent metal should remain normal down to 0 K, and that there should be no strictly one-dimensional superconductor

  13. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. suPAR remains uninfluenced by surgery in septic patients with bloodstream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabensteiner, Jasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical trauma induces activation of the immune system and may cause an increase of inflammatory biomarkers tested postoperatively in septic patients treated for bloodstream infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of surgical interventions on the novel sepsis biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and to compare results with those of routine laboratory parameters CRP, PCT, and IL-6 in patients with culture-proven bloodstream infection. Forty-six adult patients with positive blood culture undergoing minor or major surgical intervention were investigated, 12 blood culture positive patients served as control group. Blood was collected 24 hours before and after surgical intervention for determination of the sepsis biomarkers suPAR, CRP, PCT, and IL-6. Within the surgical study cohort, a non-significant increase of suPAR, CRP, and PCT was observed postoperatively ( 0.642; 0.773; 0.087. In contrast, a slight decrease of IL-6 ( 0.599 was observed. A significant correlation was calculated for the pre- and postoperative difference of CRP ( 0.028 and PCT and type of surgical intervention received: after minor surgical intervention only PCT decreased significantly (<0.001, while after major surgical interventions no significant differences were observed for all biomarkers evaluated. In the control group, a significant decrease of CRP ( 0.005 and PCT ( 0.005 was observed. In patients treated adequately for bloodstream infections, postoperative suPAR levels remained uninfluenced of the surgical trauma and might therefore be a reliable parameter for postoperative infectious monitoring. After minor surgical intervention, PCT seems to be the most reliable parameter.

  15. A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Møller, Malik U; Christiansen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    the association between polymorphisms in genes involved in the serotonergic pathway and the effect of escitalopram on peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: We genotyped 34 participants from a placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in peripheral neuropathic pain for polymorphisms in five genes: the serotonin.......047), with 75% carrying the C allele being responders. The same tendency was seen in women. Similarly, carriership of the C allele at rs6318 was associated with better pain relief during treatment with escitalopram [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, p = 0.014)] Furthermore, there was a tendency of better relief...... with increasing number of short alleles for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (OR 5.7, p = 0.057). None of the other polymorphisms showed a significant association with treatment response to escitalopram. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that variation in the HTR2C gene is associated...

  16. Involvement of 5-HT(2) serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis complex neural networks in the antinociceptive phenomenon that follows the post-ictal immobility syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Ferreira, Célio Marcos Dos Reis; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-09-01

    The post-ictal immobility syndrome is followed by a significant increase in the nociceptive thresholds in animals and men. In this interesting post-ictal behavioral response, endogenous opioid peptides-mediated mechanisms, as well as cholinergic-mediated antinociceptive processes, have been suggested. However, considering that many serotonergic descending pathways have been implicated in antinociceptive reactions, the aim of the present work is to investigate the involvement of 5-HT(2)-serotonergic receptor subfamily in the post-ictal antinociception. The analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in seven or eight Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by statistically significant increase in the tail-flick latencies (TFL), at least for 120 min of the post-ictal period. Male Wistar rats were submitted to stereotaxic surgery for introduction of a guide-cannula in the rhombencephalon, aiming either the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or the gigantocellularis complex. In independent groups of animals, these nuclei were neurochemically lesioned with a unilateral microinjection of ibotenic acid (1.0 microg/0.2 microL). The neuronal damage of either the NRM or nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis complex decreased the post-ictal analgesia. Also, in other independent groups, central administration of ritanserin (5.0 microg/0.2 microL) or physiological saline into each of the reticular formation nuclei studied caused a statistically significant decrease in the TFL of seizing animals, as compared to controls, in all post-ictal periods studied. These results indicate that serotonin input-connected neurons of the pontine and medullarly reticular nuclei may be involved in the post-ictal analgesia.

  17. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  18. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  19. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  1. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  2. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  3. Systems Biology Genetic Approach Identifies Serotonin Pathway as a Possible Target for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Results from a Literature Search Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Overall validity of existing genetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA remains unclear. The objective of this systematic genetic study is to identify “novel” biomarkers for OSA using systems biology approach. Methods. Candidate genes for OSA were extracted from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase search engines and DisGeNET database. The gene ontology (GO analyses and candidate genes prioritization were performed using Enrichr tool. Genes pertaining to the top 10 pathways were extracted and used for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results. In total, we have identified 153 genes. The top 10 pathways associated with OSA include (i serotonin receptor interaction, (ii pathways in cancer, (iii AGE-RAGE signaling in diabetes, (iv infectious diseases, (v serotonergic synapse, (vi inflammatory bowel disease, (vii HIF-1 signaling pathway, (viii PI3-AKT signaling pathway, (ix regulation lipolysis in adipocytes, and (x rheumatoid arthritis. After removing the overlapping genes, we have identified 23 candidate genes, out of which >30% of the genes were related to the genes involved in the serotonin pathway. Among these 4 serotonin receptors SLC6A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and HTR1B were strongly associated with OSA. Conclusions. This preliminary report identifies several potential candidate genes associated with OSA and also describes the possible regulatory mechanisms.

  4. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  5. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  6. The potential and biological test on cloned cassava crop remains on local sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, R.; Umar, S.; Hanum, C.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at knowing the potential of cloned cassava crop remains dry matter and the impact of the feeding of the cloned cassava crop remains based complete feed on the consumption, the body weight gain, and the feed conversion of the local male sheep with the average of initial body weight of 7.75±1.75 kg. The design applied in the first stage research was random sampling method with two frames of tile and the second stage research applied Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) treatments and four (4) replicates. These treatments consisted of P1 (100% grass); P2 (50% grass, 50% complete feed pellet); P3 (100% complete feed from the raw material of cloned cassava crop remaining). Statistical tests showed that the feeding of complete feed whose raw material was from cloned cassava crop remains gave a highly significant impact on decreasing feed consumption, increasing body weight, lowering feed conversion, and increasing crude protein digestibility. The conclusion is that the cloned cassava crop remains can be used as complete sheep feed to replace green grass and can give the best result.

  7. The first Neanderthal remains from an open-air Middle Palaeolithic site in the Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ella; Hovers, Erella; Ekshtain, Ravid; Malinski-Buller, Ariel; Agha, Nuha; Barash, Alon; Mayer, Daniella E Bar-Yosef; Benazzi, Stefano; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Levin, Lihi; Greenbaum, Noam; Mitki, Netta; Oxilia, Gregorio; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel; Soudack, Michalle; Yeshurun, Reuven; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Nir, Nadav; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Rak, Yoel; Barzilai, Omry

    2017-06-07

    The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel. The hominin remains represent three individuals: EQH1, a nondiagnostic skull fragment; EQH2, an upper right third molar (RM 3 ); and EQH3, lower limb bones of a young Neandertal male. EQH2 and EQH3 constitute the first diagnostic anatomical remains of Neandertals at an open-air site in the Levant. The optically stimulated luminescence ages suggest that Neandertals repeatedly visited 'Ein Qashish between 70 and 60 ka. The discovery of Neandertals at open-air sites during the late MP reinforces the view that Neandertals were a resilient population in the Levant shortly before Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens populated the region.

  8. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  10. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  11. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  12. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate a...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...... on the interactions between humans and past plant communities....

  13. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  14. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  15. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  16. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  17. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam(trademark) (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam(trademark) system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas

  18. FAA computer security : concerns remain due to personnel and other continuing weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    FAA has a history of computer security weaknesses in a number of areas, including its physical security management at facilities that house air traffic control (ATC) systems, systems security for both operational and future systems, management struct...

  19. Effects of Ginseng Fruit Saponins on Serotonin System in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Myocardial Infarction, Depression, and Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Fang He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that GFS might inhibit the reuptake of 5-HT from serum to platelet according to decreased 5-HT2AR in platelet and SERT in serum and platelet. The change of 5-HT in serum after GFS treatment was inconsistent with that in the brain. It seemed that GFS could not pass through the blood-brain barrier to affect the central serotonergic system.

  20. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  1. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  2. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... religious leaders of all Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations: (i) From whose tribal lands, at... objects; (ii) The names and appropriate methods to contact any traditional religious leaders who should be...

  3. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-07-12

    Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. A four-year-old female lizard E. macularius was evaluated due to a subcutaneous tumor in the occipito-pterional portion behind its right eye. A solid tumor beneath the skin was surgically enucleated under general anesthesia. Then, the ulcerated skin was dissected away together with the tumor. The necrotic edge of the remaining skin flap was carefully trimmed to leave as much of the pigmented portions as possible on the outskirt of the skin flap. The scar was covered with the remaining skin flap, and the uncovered lesion was protected with Vaseline containing gentamicin. The lesion was rapidly covered with regenerated dermis within a week, and the epidermis with round and well-oriented pigmented spots were almost completely restored in four months. The surgical suture of the skin flap after removal of the ulcerated margins resulted in the scar-free regeneration of the scales and the pigmented spots. And the pigmented spots of the remaining skin close to the lesion site might be a source of the regenerated spots.

  4. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  5. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  6. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  8. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  9. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys

    2014-09-01

    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  10. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  11. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  12. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  13. Editorial Forestry faces big issues to remain sustainable — a role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantation forestry remains an attractive land use, both from an economic perspective through the production of costeffective wood and from a sustainable development perspective through the generation of jobs in rural areas. The forest industry directly employs over 100 000 people and if one considers that all of plantation ...

  14. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Mexico; and Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. History and Description of the Remains Upon preparation for... Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION...-10909, February 20, 2001). The Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of...

  15. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den He