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Sample records for seroprevalence estimates house

  1. Risk factors related to Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huifang; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Luttikholt, Saskia; Maas, Miriam; Nielen, Mirjam; Swart, Arno; Vellema, Piet; van der Giessen, Joke; Opsteegh, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two out of ninety approached farmers with indoor-kept goats (58%) participated by answering a standardized questionnaire and contributing 32 goat blood samples each. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii SAG1 antibodies by ELISA and results showed that the frequency distribution of the log10-transformed OD-values fitted well with a binary mixture of a shifted gamma and a shifted reflected gamma distribution. The overall animal seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.7–14.9%), and at least one seropositive animal was found on 61.5% (95% CI: 48.3–74.7%) of the farms. To evaluate potential risk factors on herd level, three modeling strategies (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated) were compared. The negative binomial model fitted the data best with the number of cats (1–4 cats: IR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; > = 5 cats:IR: 14.2, 95% CI: 3.9–51.1) and mean animal age (IR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) related to herd positivity. In conclusion, the ELISA test was 100% sensitive and specific based on binary mixture analysis. T. gondii infection is prevalent in indoor housed Dutch dairy goats but at a lower overall animal level seroprevalence than outdoor farmed goats in other European countries, and cat exposure is an important risk factor.

  2. Estimating seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among different Middle East and North African male populations residing in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Dargham, Soha R.; Mohammed, Layla I.

    2017-01-01

    HSV‐1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV‐1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age‐distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013‐2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti‐HSV‐1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA). Robust Poisson regression was conducted to estimate adjusted infection prevalence ratios. Country‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for 10 national populations: 97.5% among Egyptians, 92.6% among Yemenis, 90.7% among Sudanese, 88.5% among Syrians, 86.5% among Jordanians, 82.3% among Qataris, 81.4% among Iranians, 81.4% among Lebanese, 80.5% among Palestinians, and 77.0% among Pakistanis. Age‐specific HSV‐1 seroprevalence was estimated for Egypt, the Fertile Crescent (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria), and Qatar. Seroprevalence increased with age among Fertile Crescent and Qatari nationals. Seroprevalence increased from 70.0% among those aged ≤ 24 years up to 98.0% among those aged ≥55 years among Fertile Crescent nationals. Seroprevalence was consistently above 90% for all ages among Egyptians. HSV‐1 seroprevalence is high in MENA, though with some variation across countries. The seroprevalence appears to have declined among current young age cohorts compared to its levels a few decades ago. PMID:28817197

  3. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in workers of slaughter houses in the municipalities of Tolima (Colombia

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    Diego Fernando Morales Ortegón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human brucelosis is usually detected onpersonnel whom keep permanent closer cattle contact or frequently ingestion of inadequatecattle derivated processed products.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designedto determinate the seroprevalence of Brucellainfection in workers of slaughterhouses of theTolima region (Colombia. A group of 186workers were evaluated by using serological testlike rose bengal test, complement fixation testand Elisa.Results: An aproximated 4% prevalence ofBrucella antibodies were detected in the examinatedpopulation. Showy correlation betweenseropositive and hygienic work conditions werefounded.Conclusions: Slaugtherhouses workers have anelevated risk infection due to Unfavorable workhygienical conditions.

  4. Use of multiple data sources to estimate hepatitis C seroprevalence among prisoners: A retrospective cohort study.

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    Kathryn J Snow

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Prisoners are a key population for hepatitis C control programs, and with the advent of highly effective therapies, prisons are increasingly important sites for hepatitis C diagnosis and treatment. Accurate estimates of hepatitis C prevalence among prisoners are needed in order to plan and resource service provision, however many prevalence estimates are based on surveys compromised by limited and potentially biased participation. We aimed to compare estimates derived from three different data sources, and to assess whether the use of self-report as a supplementary data source may help researchers assess the risk of selection bias. We used three data sources to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in a large cohort of Australian prisoners-prison medical records, self-reported status during a face-to-face interview prior to release from prison, and data from a statewide notifiable conditions surveillance system. Of 1,315 participants, 33.8% had at least one indicator of hepatitis C seropositivity, however less than one third of these (9.5% of the entire cohort were identified by all three data sources. Among participants of known status, self-report had a sensitivity of 80.1% and a positive predictive value of 97.8%. Any one data source used in isolation would have under-estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C in this cohort. Using multiple data sources in studies of hepatitis C seroprevalence among prisoners may improve case detection and help researchers assess the risk of selection bias due to non-participation in serological testing.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and estimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis.

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    Gulnara Minbaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8-7.8 (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9-6.5, and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5-21.7 (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1-19.3, respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked

  6. Housing wealth and US money demand : A panel estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article estimates a panel model for U.S. money demand using annual state-level data for the period from 1977 to 2008. We incorporate housing wealth in the demand-for-money function and find strong evidence of a relationship between a broad monetary aggregate and housing wealth. This finding is

  7. Urban-Rural estimation of hepatitis c virus infection sero-prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been partially described for at risk groups in urban communities in Nigeria. On the other hand, literature on the possible spread of the virus in rural Nigeria remains extremely scanty. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ...

  8. Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Lkhagvatseren, Sukhbaatar; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Nymadawa, Pagbajab; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Baigalmaa, Bekh-Ochir; Anderson, Benjamin D; Reller, Megan E; Lantos, Paul M; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these

  9. HEDONIC ESTIMATION OF HOUSING MARKET PRICES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    YAYAR, Rüştü; DEMİR, Derya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, there has been aimed to determine the factors that affect the price of flats in the housing sector in Turkey with a hedonic pricing model. According to the model results, the house’s having residential swimming pool, a jacuzzi and a water tank, its being a duplex, its central heating system, its being closer to the center, the size of the house, the bathroom floor’s being vinyl or PVC, being closer to banking services and compulsory education services,  its having  cable TV, te...

  10. An Estimated DSGE Model with a Housing Sector for the Czech Economy

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    Miroslav Hloušek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an estimated DSGE model with an explicit housing sector to analyse the role of the housing sector and housing collateral for business cycle fluctuations in the Czech economy. The baseline results show that the development in the housing market has negligible effect on the rest of the economy. Counterfactual experiments indicate that the spill-overs increases with looser credit standards, if banks provide loans for higher value of houses. Similarly, with the higher loan-to-value ratios the transmission mechanism of monetary policy also seems to strengthen, with the key rates having bigger influence on the consumption and output. Looking at the development in house prices, the recent boom and bust is found to have been caused primarily by housing preference shocks (demand side shocks. Supply shocks are also found to have been significant, but to a much lesser extent.

  11. A Community-Based Study to Estimate the Seroprevalence of Trichinellosis and Echinococcosis in the Roma and Non-Roma Population of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolová, Daniela; Halánová, Monika; Janičko, Martin; Jarčuška, Peter; Reiterová, Katarína; Jarošová, Júlia; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia

    2018-02-02

    Trichinellosis and cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are serious parasitic diseases transmissible between animals and humans. Moreover, alveolar echinococcosis is considered one of the most dangerous of human helminthoses. Roma communities are particularly numerous in Central and Eastern Europe. They are often concentrated in economically undeveloped regions and live in segregated localities with unsatisfactory housing and sanitary conditions. The study aimed to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in the Roma population of segregated settlements and to compare it with the seropositivity of the non-Roma population of eastern Slovakia. Out of 823 samples, three sera showed seropositivity to Trichinella in the ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test. Subsequent Western blot reaction (WB) confirmed seropositivity in two Roma women. ELISA seropositivity to E. multilocularis was recorded in six persons (0.73%), and five (0.61%) respondents were seropositive to E. granulosus , but WB confirmed the presence of antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in one Roma participant. Positive persons suffered from unspecific clinical symptoms; Trichinella -positive persons reported headache, cough, fatigue, and muscle pain. The Echinococcus -positive participant suffered from headache and back pain. The study showed that the worse living conditions of the Roma community did not significantly influence the occurrence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in this minority.

  12. A Community-Based Study to Estimate the Seroprevalence of Trichinellosis and Echinococcosis in the Roma and Non-Roma Population of Slovakia

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    Daniela Antolová

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis and cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are serious parasitic diseases transmissible between animals and humans. Moreover, alveolar echinococcosis is considered one of the most dangerous of human helminthoses. Roma communities are particularly numerous in Central and Eastern Europe. They are often concentrated in economically undeveloped regions and live in segregated localities with unsatisfactory housing and sanitary conditions. The study aimed to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in the Roma population of segregated settlements and to compare it with the seropositivity of the non-Roma population of eastern Slovakia. Out of 823 samples, three sera showed seropositivity to Trichinella in the ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Subsequent Western blot reaction (WB confirmed seropositivity in two Roma women. ELISA seropositivity to E. multilocularis was recorded in six persons (0.73%, and five (0.61% respondents were seropositive to E. granulosus, but WB confirmed the presence of antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in one Roma participant. Positive persons suffered from unspecific clinical symptoms; Trichinella-positive persons reported headache, cough, fatigue, and muscle pain. The Echinococcus-positive participant suffered from headache and back pain. The study showed that the worse living conditions of the Roma community did not significantly influence the occurrence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in this minority.

  13. Intensity estimation of historical earthquakes through seismic analysis of wooden house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I. K.; Soe, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The intensity of historical earthquake records related with house collapses are estimated by the seismic analyses of traditional three-bay-straw-roof house. Eighteen artificial time histories for magnitudes 6-8, epicentral distances 5 km - 350 km and hard and soft soil condition were generated for the analyses. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed for a traditional three-bay-roof house. Damage level of the wooden house according to the input earthquake motions and the MM intensity were estimated by maximum displacement response at the top of columns. Considering the structural characteristics of the three-bay-straw-roof house, the largest historical earthquake record related to the house collapse is about MMI VIII

  14. A model to Estimate the Implicit Values of Housing Attributes by Applying the Hedonic Pricing Method

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    TD Randeniya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars focused on the location based attributes rather than the non-location factors in decision making on land prices. Further, new research studies have identified the importance of the non-location attributes with the location factors. Many studies suggest that, many attributes exist which affects the housing price. Since the attributes involved and dominant for a particular case differs from one situation to the other, there cannot be an exact list of attributes. Yet, identification of factors that determine housing price and their relationships and the level of influence have poorly understood in planning and property development in the context of Sri Lanka. This study attempts to address what make householders to decide on housing price and application of hedonic pricing approach to estimate the implicit price of housing attributes in context of Sri Lanka. A sample study of selected fifty (50 single house transactions in Maharagama urban neighborhood area has been utilized to illustrate the applicability of the hedonic pricing model. As a methodology, correlation analysis has been carried out to study the degree of relationship between the housing price and the independent variables. The attributes which correlate with housing prices, the study identified the most significant attributes. A model was developed to estimate the future house price by applying the pricing model which is incorporated with these attributes. A hedonic house price model derived from multiple liner regression analysis was developed for the purpose. The findings reveal that six attributes as design type of the house, distance to the local road, quality of Infrastructure, garden size, number of the bed rooms and property age are contributed to estimate the implicit value of Housing property. The model developed would be used to identify implicit values of houses located in urban neighborhood area of Sri Lanka.

  15. Estimation of historical earthquake intensities and intensity-PGA relationship for wooden house damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests and dynamic analyses on Korean traditional wooden houses was performed for the intensity estimation of the typical large historical earthquake records. Static and cyclic lateral load tests on the wooden frames were performed to assess the lateral load capacity of wooden frames. The shaking table tests on two 1:4 scaled models of a Korean ancient commoner's house made of fresh pine lumber were performed. Typical earthquake time histories recorded on soil and rock sites were used as input for the tests. The prototypical wooden house was analyzed for multiple time histories which match Ohsaki's ground response spectra. Seismic analyses comprise the aging of lumber and different soil condition. The relationship between the earthquake intensity and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) is proposed for the wooden house damages based on the results of this study. The intensity of major Korean historical earthquake records related with house collapses was quantitatively estimated to be MM VIII

  16. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  17. A simple mathematical method to estimate ammonia emission from in-house windrowing of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Szogi, Ariel A; Moore, Philip A

    2018-05-12

    In-house windrowing between flocks is an emerging sanitary management practice to partially disinfect the built-up litter in broiler houses. However, this practice may also increase ammonia (NH 3 ) emission from the litter due to the increase in litter temperature. The objectives of this study were to develop mathematical models to estimate NH 3 emission rates from broiler houses practicing in-house windrowing between flocks. Equations to estimate mass-transfer areas form different shapes windrowed litter (triangular, rectangular, and semi-cylindrical prisms) were developed. Using these equations, the heights of windrows yielding the smallest mass-transfer area were estimated. Smaller mass-transfer area is preferred as it reduces both emission rates and heat loss. The heights yielding the minimum mass-transfer area were 0.8 and 0.5 m for triangular and rectangular windrows, respectively. Only one height (0.6 m) was theoretically possible for semi-cylindrical windrows because the base and the height were not independent. Mass-transfer areas were integrated with published process-based mathematical models to estimate the total house NH 3 emission rates during in-house windrowing of poultry litter. The NH 3 emission rate change calculated from the integrated model compared well with the observed values except for the very high NH 3 initial emission rate from mechanically disturbing the litter to form the windrows. This approach can be used to conveniently estimate broiler house NH 3 emission rates during in-house windrowing between flocks by simply measuring litter temperatures.

  18. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

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    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

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    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  20. House thermal model parameter estimation method for Model Predictive Control applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In this paper we investigate thermal network models with different model orders applied to various Dutch low-energy house types with high and low interior thermal mass and containing floor heating. Parameter estimations are performed by using data from TRNSYS simulations. The paper discusses results

  1. Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiry, D.; Mauroy, A.; Saegerman, C.; Thomas, I.; Wautier, M.; Miry, C.; Czaplicki, G.; Berkvens, D.; Praet, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Cariolet, R.; Brochier, B.; Thiry, E.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence

  2. Estimation of the frequency of Q fever in sheep, goat and cattle herds in France: results of a 3-year study of the seroprevalence of Q fever and excretion level of Coxiella burnetii in abortive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, K; Rousset, E; Perrin, J B; DE Cremoux, R; Hosteing, S; Jourdain, E; Guatteo, R; Nicollet, P; Touratier, A; Calavas, D; Sala, C

    2017-11-01

    A study was carried out, from 2012 to 2015, in 10 French départements to estimate the serological prevalence of Q fever and the frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to Coxiella burnetii in a large sample of cattle, sheep and goat herds. The serological survey covered 731 cattle, 522 sheep and 349 goat herds, randomly sampled. The frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to C. burnetii was estimated by investigating series of abortions in 2695 cattle, 658 sheep and 105 goat herds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses and complementary serological results when needed. The average between-herd seroprevalence was significantly lower for cattle (36·0%) than for sheep (55·7%) and goats (61·0%) and significantly higher for dairy herds (64·9% for cattle and 75·6% for sheep) than for meat herds (18·9% for cattle and 39·8% for sheep). Within-herd seroprevalence was also significantly higher for goats (41·5%) than for cattle (22·2%) and sheep (25·7%). During the study period, we estimated that 2·7% (n = 90), 6·2% (n = 48) and 16·7% (n = 19) of the abortive episodes investigated could be 'potentially related to C. burnetii'in cattle, sheep and goat herds, respectively. Overall, strong variability was observed between départements and species, suggesting that risk factors such as herd density and farming practices play a role in disease transmission and maintenance.

  3. A Data Analysis Technique to Estimate the Thermal Characteristics of a House

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    Seyed Amin Tabatabaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost one third of the energy is used in the residential sector, and space heating is the largest part of energy consumption in our houses. Knowledge about the thermal characteristics of a house can increase the awareness of homeowners about the options to save energy, for example by showing that there is room for improvement of the insulation level. However, calculating the exact value of these characteristics is not possible without precise thermal experiments. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically estimate two of the most important thermal characteristics of a house, i.e., the loss rate and the heat capacity, based on collected data about the temperature and gas usage. The method is evaluated with a data set that has been collected in a real-life case study. Although a ground truth is lacking, the analyses show that there is evidence that this method could provide a feasible way to estimate those values from the thermostat data. More detailed data about the houses in which the data was collected is required to draw stronger conclusions. We conclude that the proposed method is a promising way to add energy saving advice to smart thermostats.

  4. Estimated Number of Birds Killed by House Cats (Felis catus in Canada

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    Peter Blancher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation by house cats (Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts. In total, cats are estimated to kill between 100 and 350 million birds per year in Canada (> 95% of estimates were in this range, with the majority likely to be killed by feral cats. This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats, a rough approximation of 1.4 to 4.2 million feral cats, and literature values of predation rates from studies conducted elsewhere. Reliability of the total kill estimate would be improved most by better knowledge of feral cat numbers and diet in Canada, though any data on birds killed by cats in Canada would be helpful. These estimates suggest that 2-7% of birds in southern Canada are killed by cats per year. Even at the low end, predation by house cats is probably the largest human-related source of bird mortality in Canada. Many species of birds are potentially vulnerable to at least local population impacts in southern Canada, by virtue of nesting or feeding on or near ground level, and habitat choices that bring them into contact with human-dominated landscapes where cats are abundant. Because cat predation is likely to remain a primary source of bird mortality in Canada for some time, this issue needs more scientific attention in Canada.

  5. Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Lorenzo, José-María; Larraz-Iribas, Beatriz; Páez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values, with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential transactions. In order to address this issue, in this paper we propose the use of cokriging and housing prices as ancillary information to estimate commercial property prices. Cokriging takes into account the spatial autocorrelation structure of property prices, and the use of more abundant information on housing prices helps to improve the accuracy of property value estimates. A case study of Toledo in Spain, a city for which commercial activity stemming from tourism is one of the key elements of the economy in the city, demonstrates that substantial accuracy and precision gains can be obtained from the use of cokriging.

  6. Covariance specification and estimation to improve top-down Green House Gas emission estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) operates the North-East Corridor (NEC) project and the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) in order to develop measurement methods to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions as well as their uncertainties in urban domains using a top down inversion method. Top down inversion updates prior knowledge using observations in a Bayesian way. One primary consideration in a Bayesian inversion framework is the covariance structure of (1) the emission prior residuals and (2) the observation residuals (i.e. the difference between observations and model predicted observations). These covariance matrices are respectively referred to as the prior covariance matrix and the model-data mismatch covariance matrix. It is known that the choice of these covariances can have large effect on estimates. The main objective of this work is to determine the impact of different covariance models on inversion estimates and their associated uncertainties in urban domains. We use a pseudo-data Bayesian inversion framework using footprints (i.e. sensitivities of tower measurements of GHGs to surface emissions) and emission priors (based on Hestia project to quantify fossil-fuel emissions) to estimate posterior emissions using different covariance schemes. The posterior emission estimates and uncertainties are compared to the hypothetical truth. We find that, if we correctly specify spatial variability and spatio-temporal variability in prior and model-data mismatch covariances respectively, then we can compute more accurate posterior estimates. We discuss few covariance models to introduce space-time interacting mismatches along with estimation of the involved parameters. We then compare several candidate prior spatial covariance models from the Matern covariance class and estimate their parameters with specified mismatches. We find that best-fitted prior covariances are not always best in recovering the truth. To achieve

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    2017-01-18

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii as they can shed the environmentally resistant oocysts after acquiring infection. Human populations living in cities with high densities of feral cats are therefore likely to be at risk of infection. The current study is the first to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the feral cat population in Qatar. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 495 adult cats from urban and suburban districts in Qatar. Using results from the Modified Agglutination Test, we fitted statistical models with host sex, area and season as explanatory factors and seropositivity as the outcome. The analysis revealed an overall seroprevalence of 82%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the summer season (P = 0.006). No significant difference was detected (P > 0.05) between seroprevalence in female and male cats and in cats from urban and suburban districts of Qatar. Despite the seasonal difference, the observed seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests high environmental contamination throughout the year, with some female cats generating more intense responses compared to males. Both findings merit further investigations.

  8. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  9. Spatially disaggregated population estimates in the absence of national population and housing census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, N. A.; Jochem, W. C.; Bird, T. J.; Chamberlain, H. R.; Clarke, D.; Kerr, D.; Bengtsson, L.; Juran, S.; Seaman, V.; Tatem, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated. Here we review past and ongoing work aimed at producing spatially disaggregated local-scale population estimates, and discuss how new technologies are now enabling robust and cost-effective solutions. Recent advances in the availability of detailed satellite imagery, geopositioning tools for field surveys, statistical methods, and computational power are enabling the development and application of approaches that can estimate population distributions at fine spatial scales across entire countries in the absence of census data. We outline the potential of such approaches as well as their limitations, emphasizing the political and operational hurdles for acceptance and sustainable implementation of new approaches, and the continued importance of traditional sources of national statistical data. PMID:29555739

  10. Neural network-based segmentation of satellite imagery for estimating house cluster of an urban settlement from Google Earth images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P D; Ridha, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a backpropagation neural network is utilized to perform house cluster segmentation from Google Earth data. The algorithm is subjected to identify houses in the image based on the RGB pattern within each pixel. Training data is given through cropping selection for a target that is a house cluster and a non object. The algorithm assigns 1 to a pixel belong to a class of object and 0 to a class of non object. The resulting outcome, a binary image, is then utilized to perform quantification to estimate the number of house clusters. The number of the hidden layer is varying in order to find its effect to the neural network performance and total computational time

  11. Application of Agent-based Modelling for Estimation of Norm-based Dynamics of Housing Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Hájek, Martin; Kážmér, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2017), s. 379-398 ISSN 1403-6096 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-06335S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing market * social norms * housing system Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016

  12. A Data Analysis Technique to Estimate the Thermal Characteristics of a House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, S.; van der Ham, Wim; Klein, Michel C. A.; Treur, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Almost one third of the energy is used in the residential sector, and space heating is the largest part of energy consumption in our houses. Knowledge about the thermal characteristics of a house can increase the awareness of homeowners about the options to save energy, for example by showing that

  13. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hoon Chew

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. Methods We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Results Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Conclusion Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  14. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Cheng Hoon; Woon, Yuan Liang; Amin, Faridah; Adnan, Tassha H; Abdul Wahab, Asmah Hani; Ahmad, Zul Edzhar; Bujang, Mohd Adam; Abdul Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Jamal, Rahman; Chen, Wei Seng; Hor, Chee Peng; Yeap, Lena; Hoo, Ling Ping; Goh, Pik Pin; Lim, Teck Onn

    2016-08-18

    Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  15. Estimation of Hedonic Single-Family House Price Function Considering Neighborhood Effect Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Shimizu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the formulation of hedonic models, in addition to locational factors and building structures which affect the house prices, the generation of the omitted variable bias is thought to occur in cases when local environmental variables and the individual characteristics of house buyers are not taken into consideration. However, since it is difficult to obtain local environmental information in a small neighborhood unit and to observe individual characteristics of house buyers, these variables have not been sufficiently considered in previous studies. We demonstrated that non-negligible levels of omitted variable bias are generated if these variables are not considered.

  16. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  17. Seroprevalences of varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Glez, Carlos; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-10-17

    We estimated the seroprevalences of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in this cross-sectional database study. Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-70 years between January and October 2010. Serological assays for the determination of antibodies against VZV, HSV and CMV were performed. The overall seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV were 85.8%, 80.9%, 9.9% and 89.2%, respectively. Seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1 and CMV were comparable between males and females. For HSV-2, although the seroprevalence rate was higher in females when compared to males, this difference in seroprevalence was not statistically significant. Seroprevalence rates for VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV increased with age (p-value<.0001). Differences in seroprevalence rate for VZV by socioeconomic status (SES) were significant (p-value<0001). Results of the serological analyses reported high VZV seroprevalence, indicating high transmission in the Mexican population with children and adolescents at risk of acquiring VZV. Global HSV-1 seroprevalence was high, especially in adults. HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalences were consistently higher in women than men, particularly for HSV-2. CMV seroprevalence was higher in Mexico when compared to developed countries. Seroepidemiological data on VZV supports the fact that varicella vaccination may serve as an alternative effective solution to reduce transmission in the Mexican population. For CMV and HSV, since no vaccines are available, activities to reduce transmission are important to reduce the risk of complications and therefore need to be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating Housing Vacancy Rate in Qingdao City with Npp-Viirs Nighttime Light and Geographical National Conditions Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.

    2018-04-01

    Accompanying China's rapid urbanization in recent decades, especially in the new millennium, the housing problem has become one of the most important issues. The estimation and analysis of housing vacancy rate (HVR) can assist decision-making in solving this puzzle. It is particularly significant to government departments. This paper proposed a practical model for estimating the HVR in Qingdao city using NPP-VIIRS nighttime light composed data, Geographic National Conditions Monitoring data (GNCMD) and resident population distribution data. The main steps are: Firstly, pre-process the data, and finally forming a series of data sets with 500*500 grid as the basic unit; Secondly, select 400 grids of different types within the city as sample grids for SVM training, and establish a reasonable HVR model; Thirdly, using the model to estimate HVR in Qingdao and employing spatial statistical analysis methods to reveal the spatial differentiation pattern of HVR in this city; Finally test the accuracy of the model with two different methods. The results conclude that HVR in the southeastern coastal area of Qingdao city is relatively low and the low-low clusters distributed in patches. Simultaneously, in other regions it shows the tendency of the low value accumulation in the downtown area and the increasing trend towards the outer suburbs. Meanwhile the suburban and scenery regions by the side of the sea and mountains are likely to be the most vacant part of the city.

  19. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  20. Use of tracer technique in estimation of methane (green house gas) from ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Several methods developed to estimate the methane emission by ruminant livestock like feed fermentation based technique, using radioisotope as tracer, respiration chamber, etc. have been discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  1. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  2. Estimating the Influence of Housing Energy Efficiency and Overheating Adaptations on Heat-Related Mortality in the West Midlands, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Taylor

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates rise during hot weather in England, and projected future increases in heatwave frequency and intensity require the development of heat protection measures such as the adaptation of housing to reduce indoor overheating. We apply a combined building physics and health model to dwellings in the West Midlands, UK, using an English Housing Survey (EHS-derived stock model. Regional temperature exposures, heat-related mortality risk, and space heating energy consumption were estimated for 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s medium emissions climates prior to and following heat mitigating, energy-efficiency, and occupant behaviour adaptations. Risk variation across adaptations, dwellings, and occupant types were assessed. Indoor temperatures were greatest in converted flats, while heat mortality rates were highest in bungalows due to the occupant age profiles. Full energy efficiency retrofit reduced regional domestic space heating energy use by 26% but increased summertime heat mortality 3–4%, while reduced façade absorptance decreased heat mortality 12–15% but increased energy consumption by 4%. External shutters provided the largest reduction in heat mortality (37–43%, while closed windows caused a large increase in risk (29–64%. Ensuring adequate post-retrofit ventilation, targeted installation of shutters, and ensuring operable windows in dwellings with heat-vulnerable occupants may save energy and significantly reduce heat-related mortality.

  3. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: ...

  4. Housing land transaction data and structural econometric estimation of preference parameters for urban economic simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Geoffrey; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Frankhauser, Pierre; Vuidel, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model. The estimates are used by Caruso et al. (2015) to run a calibrated microeconomic urban growth simulation model where households are assumed to trade-off accessibility and local green space amenities.

  5. Housing land transaction data and structural econometric estimation of preference parameters for urban economic simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Geoffrey; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Frankhauser, Pierre; Vuidel, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model. The estimates are used by Caruso et al. (2015) to run a calibrated microeconomic urban growth simulation model where households are assumed to trade-off accessibility and local green space amenities. PMID:26958606

  6. Seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in Cattle, Molecular Characterization in Milk, and the Analysis of Associated Risk Factors with Seroprevalence in Humans, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Heba A; Sayour, Ashraf E; El Hofy, Fatma I; Tahoun, Asmaa B M B; Shafik, Saleh M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in humans and cattle at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. In addition, identification of Brucella spp. in milk samples by PCR and culture with the evaluation of the risk factors associated with Brucella spp. seroprevalence in humans were carried out. Overall, the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in the examined cattle was 23.8%, while in human participants it was 21%. The examination of 205 milk samples using PCR revealed that 6.3% were positive for B. abortus biovar 1 and the results were confirmed by culture methods. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, occupational contact with animals, and knowledge about the disease are risk factors associated with infection in humans. This study documented the endemic status of brucellosis in Egypt. Hygienic measures and increased awareness about the disease are recommended to minimize the spread of infection from animals to humans.

  7. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in small ruminants in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Klaasen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5-15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics.

  8. [Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the rural population of Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jordán, Noris; Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Rodríguez, Jessicca; Concepción, Juan Luis; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2017-10-26

    The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela, and its association with epidemiological risk factors. The cluster sampling design allowed selecting 96 villages and 576 dwellings in the State's 15 municipalities. A total of 2,212 serum samples were analyzed by ELISA, HAI, and IFI. Seroprevalence in Sucre State was 3.12%. Risk factors associated with T. cruzi infection were: accumulated garbage, flooring and wall materials, type of dwelling, living in a house with wattle and daub walls and/or straw roofing, living in a house with risky walls and roofing, risky buildings and wattle and daub outbuildings, poultry inside the human dwelling, and presence of firewood. Infection was associated with individual age, and three seropositive cases were found in individuals less than 15 years of age. Sucre State has epidemiological factors that favor the risk of acquiring T. cruzi infection.

  9. Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  10. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thêmis R. Silveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12 000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%, followed by Brazil (7.9%, Venezuela (3.2%, Argentina (2.1%, Mexico (1.4%, and Chile (0.6%. In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  11. Analytical and numerical models for estimating the effect of exhaust ventilation on radon entry in houses with basements or crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowris, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems are being installed in newer, energy-efficient houses and their operation can increase the indoor-outdoor pressure differences that drive soil gas and thus radon entry. This thesis presents simplified models for estimating the pressure driven flow of radon into houses with basements or crawl spaces, due to underpressures induced by indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind, or exhaust ventilation. A two-dimensional finite difference model is presented and used to calculate the pressure field and soil gas flow rate into a basement situated in soil of uniform permeability. A simplified analytical model is compared to the finite difference model with generally very good agreement. Another simplified model is presented for houses with a crawl space. Literature on radon research is also reviewed to show why pressure driven flow of soil gas is considered to be the major source of radon entry in houses with higher-than-average indoor radon concentrations. Comparisons of measured vs. calculated indoor radon concentrations for a house with a basement showed the simplified basement model underpredicting on average by 25%. For a house with a crawl space the simplified crawl space model overpredicted by 23% when the crawl space vents are open and 48% when the crawl space vents are sealed

  12. A prospective cohort study to assess seroprevalence, incidence, knowledge, attitudes and practices, willingness to pay for vaccine and related risk factors in dengue in a high incidence setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. In Colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. Departments of La Guajira, Cesar and Magdalena are dengue endemic areas. The objective of this research is to determine the seroprevalence and the incidence of dengue virus infection in the participating municipalities from these Departments, and also establish the association between individual and housing factors and vector indices with seroprevalence and incidence. We will also assess knowledge, attitudes and practices, and willingness-to-pay for dengue vaccine. Methods A cohort study will be assembled with a clustered multistage sampling in 11 endemic municipalities. Approximately 1000 homes will be visited to enroll people older than one year who living in these areas, who will be followed for 1 year. Dengue virus infections will be evaluated using IgG indirect ELISA and IgM and IgG capture ELISA. Additionally, vector indices will be measured, and adult mosquitoes will be captured with aspirators. Ovitraps will be used for continuous estimation of vector density. Discussion This research will generate necessary knowledge to design and implement strategies with a multidimensional approach that reduce dengue morbidity and mortality in La Guajira and other departments from Colombian Caribbean.

  13. Duration of the vector period of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni estimated by experimental infection series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    The house fly Musca domestica may act as a vector and transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We determined the duration of the vector period for C. jejuni at various temperatures and inoculation doses. For the temperature experiment, laboratory reared house flies (n = 375) were inoculated with...

  14. HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans age 15 to 49: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans aged 15 to 49 years old and living in households, and to describe the profile of serorreactive individuals. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study with a national probabilistic sample of individuals aged 15 to 49 years with behavioral data from direct interview (face-to-face at households and HIV screening using capillary blood collected from the same individuals. Results. A seroprevalence of 0.15% (95%CI 0.09-0.21 was estimated for Mexicans aged 15 to 49; seroprevalence among women was 0.07% (95%CI 0.03-0.11 and 0.24% (95%CI 0.11-0.36 for men. HIV serorreactive population is composed of younger men, with a higher socioeconomic level compared to the general population, and with a higher insurance coverage –social protection on health in general and social security in particular. Only 50% of the serorreactive individuals may be aware of their status as living with HIV. Conclusions. The estimated HIV seroprevalence in the NHNS 2012 suggests a stable pattern since 2000. The estimated prevalence among individuals 15 to 49 years was adjusted both for selection bias correction and to include MSM estimations (under the assumption that MSM is a population hard to reach in a household survey, resulting in a total seroprevalence of 0.23% and an estimated number of people with HIV of 140000

  15. Estimating the influence of social-economic factors on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsiya Sayetovna Gatina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the group of factors influencing on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal services organization. Methods methods of systemic analysis and synthesis economicstatistical analysis. Results using the statistical methods of analysis a group of factors is defined which should be taken into account when developing the strategy of services market in housing and communal sphere. The objective of the strategy is to increase the level of quality services to the population of Russia in the housing and communal industry. Scientific novelty the indicators are revealed of the quality of communal services formed under socialeconomic factors. When analyzing the data of the matrix of interfactoral influence those were extinguished which show the largest influence on the level of services market development in housing and communal sphere. Practical value is the ability to use the assessment results to develop measures to improve the quality of housing and communal services organizations. nbsp

  16. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in rural Ecuador and clustering of seropositivity within households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carla L; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Riner, Diana K; Costales, Jaime A; Lascano, Mauricio S; Arcos-Terán, Laura; Preisser, John S; Seed, J Richard; Grijalva, Mario J

    2009-12-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study of Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence in 14 communities in three provinces of Ecuador and estimated the magnitude of the association of seropositive individuals within households. A total of 3,286 subjects from 997 households were included. Seroprevalence was 5.7%, 1.0%, and 3.6% in subjects in the Manabí, Guayas, and Loja provinces, respectively. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in Manabí and Guayas, whereas in Loja, the highest prevalence occurred in children Loja, the odds of seropositivity were more than two times greater for an individual living in a household with another seropositive person. Our results indicate that transmission of T. cruzi is ongoing in Ecuador, although intensity of transmission and mechanisms of interaction between humans and the insect vectors of disease vary between geographic regions.

  17. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants in Gran Canaria Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N F; Carranza, C; Bolaños, M; Pérez-Arellano, J L; Gutierrez, C

    2010-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonosis with worldwide occurrence. In the Canary Islands, the overall seroprevalence in humans has been estimated to be 21.5%. Gran Canaria island concentrates the highest ruminant population in the archipelago and the prevalence of the human infection is 23.5%. To evaluate the seroprevalence in livestock and the affected areas in Gran Canaria island, a total of 1249 ruminants were randomly selected for this study (733 goats, 369 sheep and 147 cattle). The samples were evaluated using an indirect ELISA Kit. The results showed seroprevalences of 60.4%, 31.7% and 12.2% in goats, sheep and cattle, respectively. Based on these results, Q fever could be considered as endemic in Gran Canaria island. Sanitary measures should be taken at the farm level to minimize the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  19. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijckevorsel, G. G. C.; Sonder, G. J. B.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in the general adult population of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To our knowledge this is the first study testing parvovirus B19 in a random sample of the Dutch adult population. The study was a cross-sectional survey,

  20. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huan; Gao, Yu-Meng; Deng, Yao; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Lu, Da-Bing

    2017-01-13

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii which can infect all warm-blooded animals. As the most common feline definitive host, cats play a vital role in the transmission of T. gondii. However, national estimates of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in mainland China are lacking, and therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to provide insight into national environmental transmission levels and potential transmission to humans. Studies published up until July 1, 2016, on T. gondii seroprevalence in cats within mainland China were searched for in CNKI, WanFang, CBM, PubMed, Embase and through the reference lists of resulting articles. The seroprevalence with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for each individual study was presented, and then point estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pooled seroprevalence were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed according to potential risk factors. A total of 38 eligible studies, published between 1995 to 2016, covering fifteen provinces and municipalities, and involving 7,285 cats, were included. The seroprevalence in cats per study ranged from 3.9 to 79.4% with a median of 20.3%. As substantial heterogeneity existed among studies, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled seroprevalence. The value of the point estimate seroprevalence was 24.5% (95% CI: 20.1-29.0). Seroprevalence in stray cats was significantly higher than in pet cats (OR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60-5.64). The seroprevalence increased significantly with cat age (P = 0.018) with 17.4% (95% CI: 7.6-27.2) in the group of ≤ 1 year old, 19.5% (95% CI: 12.7-26.3) in the group of ≤ 3 year-old and 31.6% (95% CI: 22.9-40.3) in the group of > 3 year-old. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in mainland China was moderate and was associated with cat ownership and age. Due to the increasing prevalence of pet cats in China and the intimate relationship between these cats and humans, this

  2. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 y. Subjects’ gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10–19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1–9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden. PMID:23291940

  4. Energy house - dream house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    An energy house a prefabricated house with an extensive minimization of heat losses, is air-conditioned by means of a combined heating system consisting of hot water cycle and recirculating heating. The energy system is trivalent: wind power, solar energy with heat pumps and normal oil heating.

  5. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  6. Decrease in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A after the implementation of nationwide disposable tableware use in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wei-Chih

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan is an endemic area of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, which is transmitted mainly from the fecal-oral route. In order to reduce the transmission through food intake, the government implemented a policy of nationwide disposal tableware use in public eating places in 1982. We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in a group of workers in Taiwan in 2005, determine the risk factors, and compare seroprevalence to published estimates in Taiwan to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence after the implementation of the nationwide disposal tableware use. Methods We recruited workers of an industrial park during their annual health examinations in 2005 and measured their anti-hepatitis A virus IgG titer using microparticle enzyme immunoassay. We compared the seroprevalence across different birth cohorts within the study population and also analyzed data from previous studies. Results The overall sero-positive rate was 22.0% in the 11,777 participants. The rate was much lower among those who were covered by the program since birth (born after 1982 in comparison with those who were not (2.7% vs. 25.3%, p Conclusions Data from both the current and previous studies in different time periods supported the effectiveness of disposal tableware in preventing the transmission of hepatitis A.

  7. Seroprevalence and "Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices" (KAPs) survey of endemic ovine brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Yamen; Elmonir, Walid; Abdel-Hamid, Nour Hosny; Elbauomy, Essam Mohamed

    2016-01-07

    Between February and July 2014, a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep in the Kafrelsheikh district of Egypt was carried out, together with a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) among local shepherds. A total of 273 serum samples were collected from 28 sheep flocks in 10 villages within the study area. These samples were analysed by the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) test, with all positive samples being confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). True seroprevalence was 20 % (95 % CI 15.3-24.7 %) with the prevalence of villages with at least one seropositive sheep estimated at 95.5 % (95 % CI 92.2-100 %); village flock seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 46.8 %. Results of the KAPs survey demonstrated that despite good knowledge regarding brucellosis being potentially present within their flocks, shepherds lacked knowledge regarding routes of livestock to humans disease transmission and the symptoms of brucellosis in humans. This lack of knowledge regarding disease transmission resulted in high-risk practices being widespread-practices such as assisting parturition without protective measures, throwing aborted material into water canals and a reluctance to remove animals that had aborted from the flock. This study proposes potential measures to reduce seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and reduce public health risks from brucellosis such as culling aborted livestock and educational campaigns among shepherds regarding disease risks and modes of transmission.

  8. Refining a model-based assessment strategy to estimate the ammonia emission from floors in dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Dennis J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission is still high, and agriculture is still the dominant contributor. In The Netherlands, the NH3 emission from dairy cow houses is one of the most important sources. A lot of research has been conducted to understand and model NH3 emission, to measure it, and to reduce it

  9. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors at Bolga-tanga Regional Hospital, Ghana by blood group type, sex and age and also determining the asso-ciation, if any, in the occurrence of the ...

  11. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2010 and December 2014 was conducted to analyze for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors aged 17-65 years. The association of these infections with age group, blood group, their ...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from two Argentinean provinces raised under different management conditions. A total of 2922 serum samples from adult goats of Córdoba (n=2187) and Buenos Aires provinces (n= 735), Argentina, were ...

  13. 219 ORIGINAL ARTICLE SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from ...

  14. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium SSP paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy cattle in the Jimma zone of Ethiopia in 2011. A random sample of 29 herds was selected, and all mature cattle within these herds had a blood sample taken. Serum was tested in duplicate, ...

  15. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among undiagnosed family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study investigated the seroprevalence, complications and risk factors of Brucella infection in rural areas of Sivas, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three hyperendemic counties for brucellosis known as Gurun, Altinyayla and Kangal in Sivas between April and October in 2011. A total of ...

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors in Qatar (2013-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Al Absi, Enas S; Ghandour, Rula; Ali, Nadima H; Taleb, Sara; Hedaya, Laila; Ali, Fatima; Huwaidy, Mariam; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus transmitted mainly through zoonotic transmission or fecal-oral route. More than 80% of Qatar's population are expatriates, including many coming from hyperendemic countries; thus, it is important to estimate the seroprevalence and to compare between different nationalities. The results can be useful in alerting blood banks to the importance of HEV screening. Samples from 5854 blood donations provided by Hamad Medical Corporation were tested in the period between June 2013 to June 2016. Samples were tested for the presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibodies and viral RNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression were used. Anti-HEV seroprevalence was 20.7%. A total of 1198 and 38 donations tested positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Of the IgM-positive donations four tested positive by PCR. A significant association was detected between HEV seroprevalence with age and nationality. The seroprevalence of anti-HEV was high in Qatar. Since HEV IgM and RNA were detected, this suggests the possibility of HEV transmission by transfusion. Blood banks in Qatar and the region should consider screening for HEV, especially when transfusion is intended to pregnant women or immunocompromised patients. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Zika virus epidemiology in Bolivia: A seroprevalence study in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba Villarroel, Paola Mariela; Nurtop, Elif; Pastorino, Boris; Roca, Yelin; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gallian, Pierre; Jaenisch, Thomas; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Priet, Stéphane; Ninove, Laetitia; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), was widely reported in Latin America and has been associated with neuropathologies, as microcephaly, but only few seroprevalence studies have been published to date. Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence amongst Bolivian blood donors and estimate the future potential circulation of the virus. A ZIKV seroprevalence study was conducted between December 2016 and April 2017 in 814 asymptomatic Bolivian volunteer blood donors residing in various eco-environments corresponding to contrasting entomological activities. It was based on detection of IgG to ZIKV using NS1 ELISA screening, followed by a seroneutralisation test in case of positive or equivocal ELISA result. Analysis revealed that ZIKV circulation occurred in tropical areas (Beni: 39%; Santa Cruz de la Sierra: 21.5%) but not in highlands (~0% in Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija). It was modulated by Aedes aegypti activity and the virus spread was not limited by previous immunity to dengue. Cases were geo-localised in a wide range of urban areas in Santa Cruz and Trinidad. No differences in seroprevalence related to gender or age-groups could be identified. It is concluded that ZIKV has been intensely circulating in the Beni region and has still a significant potential for propagating in the area of Santa Cruz.

  18. Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a rural population in France: detection of a household effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riche Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, has a complex life cycle. In humans, the parasite may be acquired either through ingestion of contaminated meat or through oocysts present in the environment. The importance of each source of contamination varies locally according to the environment characteristics and to differences concerning human eating habits and the presence of cats; thus, the risk factors may be determined through fine-scale studies. Here, we searched for factors associated with seropositivity in the population of two adjacent villages in Lorraine region, France. Methods All voluntary inhabitants filled out a questionnaire and gave a blood sample. The seroprevalence was estimated globally and according to the inhabitants' ages using a cubic spline regression. A mixed logistic regression model was used to quantify the effect of individual and household factors on the probability of seropositivity. Results Based on serological results from 273 persons, we estimated seroprevalence to be 47% (95% confidence interval: 41 to 53%. That seroprevalence increased with age: the slope was the steepest up to the age of 40 years (OR = 2.48 per 10-year increment, 95% credibility interval: [1.29 to 5.09], but that increase was not significant afterwards. The probability of seropositivity tended to be higher in men than in women (OR = 2.01, 95% credibility interval: [0.92 to 4.72] and in subjects eating raw vegetables at least once a week than in the others (OR = 8.4, 95% credibility interval: [0.93 to 72.1]. These effects were close to statistical significance. The multivariable analysis highlighted a significant seroprevalence heterogeneity among households. That seroprevalence varied between 6 and 91% (5th and 95th percentile of the household seropositivity distribution. Conclusion The major finding is the household effect, with a strong heterogeneity of seroprevalence among households. This effect may be explained by

  19. Cross-sectional Serologic Assessment of Immunity to Poliovirus in Differential Risk Areas of India: India Seroprevalence Survey - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil; Kunwar, Abhishek

    2016-08-07

    To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. Cross-sectional Survey. Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas. Serum samples from the study site were shipped to Enterovirus Research Centre (ERC), Mumbai to determine the neutralizing antibodies against all three poliovirus serotypes. Children with a reciprocal antibody titer ≥1:8 were considered seropositive to the specific poliovirus. Overall, seroprevalence in all the three study areas was 98%, 98% and 91% against poliovirus type-1, type-2 and type-3, respectively. Bihar had a seroprevalence of 99%, 99% and 92% against type-1, type-2 and type-3 respectively. Corresponding figures for Madhya Pradesh and Mumbai were 98%, 99% and 88% and 98%, 97% and 94%, respectively. The study found high seroprevalence against all three poliovirus types not only in the traditional high-risk areas for polio in India, but even in the areas known to have low routine immunization coverage and among the migratory clusters living in Mumbai urban slums. Type-2 seroprevalence was found to be high. These findings are reassuring against the threat of emergence of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in the country subsequent to switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine to bivalent oral polio vaccine in the routine immunization schedule from April 2016.

  20. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  1. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in U.S. children ages 6-19, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Beam Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a common herpesvirus linked to infectious mononucleosis and multiple cancers. There are no national estimates of EBV seroprevalence in the United States. Our objective was to estimate the overall prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of EBV among U.S. children and adolescents aged 6-19. METHODS: We calculated prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios for EBV seroprevalence using data from the 2003-2010 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES for children aged 6-19 (n = 8417. Poisson regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios across subgroup categories (sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, household size, foreign-born, BMI, and household smoking. FINDINGS: Overall EBV seroprevalence was 66.5% (95% CI 64.3%-68.7%.. Seroprevalence increased with age, ranging from 54.1% (95% CI 50.2%-57.9% for 6-8 year olds to 82.9% (95% CI 80.0%-85.9% for 18-19 year olds. Females had slightly higher seroprevalence (68.9%, 95% CI 66.3%-71.6% compared to males (64.2%, 95% CI 61.7%-66.8%. Seroprevalence was substantially higher for Mexican-Americans (85.4%, 95% CI 83.1%-87.8% and Non-Hispanic Blacks (83.1%, 95% CI 81.1%-85.1% than Non-Hispanic Whites (56.9%, 95% CI 54.1%-59.8%. Large differences were also seen by family income, with children in the lowest income quartile having 81.0% (95% CI 77.6%-84.5% seroprevalence compared to 53.9% (95% CI 50.5%-57.3% in the highest income quartile, with similar results for parental education level. These results were not explained by household size, BMI, or parental smoking. Among those who were seropositive, EBV antibody titers were significantly higher for females, Non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican-Americans, with no association found for socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In the first nationally representative U.S. estimates, we found substantial socioeconomic and race/ethnic differences in the

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Patients of Intensive Care Unit in China: A Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 394 patients of intensive care unit (ICU in a hospital between April 2010 and March 2012 and analyze the association between T. gondii infection and ICU patients according to the species of disease. Toxoplasma serology was evaluated by ELISA method using a commercially available kit. Data of patients were obtained from the patients, informants, and medical examination records. Seventy-four (18.78% of 394 patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies demonstrating latent infection. Of these, the highest T. gondii seroprevalence was found in the age group of 31–45 years (27.45%, and the lowest was found in the age group of <30 years (12.5%. In addition, females (21.6% had a higher seroprevalence than males (18.36%. With respect to the species of disease, the patients with kidney diseases (57.14%, lung diseases (27.84%, and brain diseases (24% had high T. gondii seroprevalence. The present study represents the first survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in ICU patients in China, revealing an 18.78% seropositivity. Considering the particularities of ICU patients, molecular identification, genetic characterization, and diagnosis of T. gondii should be considered in future study.

  3. Increasing seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) with age confirms HHV-8 endemicity in Amazon Amerindians from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A M G; Caterino-de-Araujo, A; Costa, S C B; Santos-Fortuna, E; Boa-Sorte, N C A; Gonçalves, M S; Costa, F F; Galvão-Castro, B

    2005-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalences were determined in two isolated Amazon Amerindian tribes, according to age, gender and familial aggregation. Plasma and serum samples obtained from 982 Amazon Amerindians (664 Tiriyó and 318 Waiampi) were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens by using 'in-house' immunofluorescence assays. Overall, HHV-8 seroprevalence was 56.8 % (57.4 % in the Tiriyó tribe and 55.7 % in the Waiampi tribe). Seroprevalence was independent of gender and increased linearly with age: it was 35.0 % among children aged 2-9 years, 51.4 % in adolescents (10-19 years), 72.9 % in adults and 82.3 % in adults aged >50 years. Interestingly, 44.4 % of children under 2 years of age were HHV-8-seropositive. No significant differences in seroprevalence between tribes and age groups were detected. It is concluded that HHV-8 is hyperendemic in Brazilian Amazon Amerindians, with vertical and horizontal transmission during childhood, familial transmission and sexual contact in adulthood contributing to this high prevalence in these isolated populations.

  4. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors in Qatar (2013-2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Al Absi, Enas S.; Ghandour, Rula; Ali, Nadima H.; Taleb, Sara; Hedaya, Laila; Ali, Fatima; Huwaidy, Mariam; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus transmitted mainly through zoonotic transmission or fecal–oral route. More than 80% of Qatar's population are expatriates, including many coming from hyperendemic countries; thus, it is important to estimate the seroprevalence and to compare between different nationalities. The results can be useful in alerting blood banks to the importance of HEV screening. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Samples from 5854 blood donations provided by Ham...

  6. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  7. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  8. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasma gondii In Nazaret Town, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, assess its zoonotic importance and identify factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods: Questionnaire survey was conducted on 65 serum samples collected from male and female urban and peri-urban residents aged between 15 days and 65 years.

  9. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  10. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico: Implications for hepatitis A vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-95 y. Subjects' gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10-19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1-9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden.

  11. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in Bos javanicus ('Bali cattle') from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damriyasa, I Made; Schares, Gereon; Bauer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain first information on the presence of Neospora caninum infection in Bos javanicus ('Bali cattle'), the predominant beef cattle in the Eastern Islands of Indonesia. Serum samples were collected from 438 Bali cattle of two age classes (2 years) and both genders at three slaughterhouses in the Bali island, and examined for N. caninum-specific antibodies using native NcSRS2 (p38 antigen) as an ELISA antigen. The estimated overall seroprevalence of antibodies was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.5-8.0%). The seroprevalence was not significantly associated with age class or gender of the animals. The results give first serological evidence for the presence of natural N. caninum infection in Bos javanicus and indicate its occurrence in Indonesia.

  12. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in patients with prolonged fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Akm Anisur; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude; Fretin, David; Muhammad, Noor; Hossain, Akram; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2016-09-30

    This study describes the seroprevalence of human brucellosis among pyretic patients and detection of Brucella abortus DNA from seropositive pyretic patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for the first time in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 300 pyretic patients from October 2007 to May 2008 and subjected to three serological tests: Rose-Bengal plate test (RBT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Risk factors were identified by multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. Brucella genus (BCSP31) and species-specific (IS711) rtPCR were applied to six human sera samples. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among pyretic patients was estimated to be 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-4.30). The odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 8.9 (95% CI: 1.26-63.0) times higher in pyretic patients who handled goats than those who handled only cattle, whereas the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 9.7 (95% CI: 1.28-73.68) times higher in pyretic patients who had backache compared to those without backache. B. abortus DNA was amplified from all six human sera that tested positive by RBT, STAT, and iELISA. As the agreement between the tests was very strong, RBT is recommended as a screening test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in Bangladesh because it is easier to use, cheaper, and faster. Brucellosis among pyretic patients is common, and B. abortus is responsible for brucellosis in such patients. Pyretic patients who handle goats and those with backaches should be screened for brucellosis.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in southern districts of Tamil Nadu using IgG-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucilathangam, G; Palaniappan, N; Sreekumar, C; Anna, T

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in and around Tirunelveli by in-house IgG assay using ELISA. Serum samples from 175 immunodeficient and 175 immunocompetent patients were collected at Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu from May 2006 to October 2007. They were subjected into in-house IgG assay using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) in which tachyzoite soluble antigen derived from solubilised whole organisms was used. Out of 350 patients tested by IgG ELISA, 46 patients (13.14%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis with mean OD value of 0.2 ± 0.073 and the OD value ranged from 0.144 to 0.444. Among the immunocompetent group of 175 patients, 19 patients (10.86%) had antibodies to toxoplasmosis whereas, in immunodeficient group of 175 patients, 27 patients (15.43%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between the immunocompetent and immunodeficient group. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG ELISA in detecting toxoplasmosis was 90 and 100%, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in and around Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu was 13.14% based on IgG ELISA. The study has proved ELISA to be a sensitive and specific procedure for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  14. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  15. Parameter-based estimation of CT dose index and image quality using an in-house android™-based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarok, S; Lubis, L E; Pawiro, S A

    2016-01-01

    Compromise between radiation dose and image quality is essential in the use of CT imaging. CT dose index (CTDI) is currently the primary dosimetric formalisms in CT scan, while the low and high contrast resolutions are aspects indicating the image quality. This study was aimed to estimate CTDI vol and image quality measures through a range of exposure parameters variation. CTDI measurements were performed using PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) phantom of 16 cm diameter, while the image quality test was conducted by using catphan ® 600. CTDI measurements were carried out according to IAEA TRS 457 protocol using axial scan mode, under varied parameters of tube voltage, collimation or slice thickness, and tube current. Image quality test was conducted accordingly under the same exposure parameters with CTDI measurements. An Android™ based software was also result of this study. The software was designed to estimate the value of CTDI vol with maximum difference compared to actual CTDI vol measurement of 8.97%. Image quality can also be estimated through CNR parameter with maximum difference to actual CNR measurement of 21.65%. (paper)

  16. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and prior immunity in immigrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carmine; Shrier, Ian; Marshall, Lee; Cnossen, Sonya; Schwartzman, Kevin; Klein, Marina B; Schwarzer, Guido; Greenaway, Chris

    2012-01-01

    International migrants experience increased mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma compared to host populations, largely due to undetected chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV). We conducted a systematic review of the seroprevalence of chronic HBV and prior immunity in migrants arriving in low HBV prevalence countries to identify those at highest risk in order to guide disease prevention and control strategies. Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Studies that reported HBV surface antigen or surface antibodies in migrants were included. The seroprevalence of chronic HBV and prior immunity were pooled by region of origin and immigrant class, using a random-effects model. A random-effects logistic regression was performed to explore heterogeneity. The number of chronically infected migrants in each immigrant-receiving country was estimated using the pooled HBV seroprevalences and country-specific census data. A total of 110 studies, representing 209,822 immigrants and refugees were included. The overall pooled seroprevalence of infection was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.3%-8.2%) and the seroprevalence of prior immunity was 39.7% (95% CI: 35.7%-43.9%). HBV seroprevalence differed significantly by region of origin. Migrants from East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa were at highest risk and migrants from Eastern Europe were at an intermediate risk of infection. Region of origin, refugee status and decade of study were independently associated with infection in the adjusted random-effects logistic model. Almost 3.5 million migrants (95% CI: 2.8-4.5 million) are estimated to be chronically infected with HBV. The seroprevalence of chronic HBV infection is high in migrants from most world regions, particularly among those from East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe, and more than 50% were found to be susceptible to HBV. Targeted screening and vaccination of international migrants can become an important component of HBV

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those Romania.

  18. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in the Americas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvatits, Thomas; Ozga, Ann-Kathrin; Westhölter, Dirk; Hartl, Johannes; Manthey, Carolin F; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Rauch, Geraldine; Kriston, Levente; Lohse, Ansgar W; Bendall, Richard; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Dalton, Harry R; Pischke, Sven

    2018-04-16

    While hepatitis E virus infections are a relevant topic in Europe, knowledge about epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infections in the USA and Latin America is still limited. Aim of this study was to estimate anti-hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in the Americas and to assess whether low socioeconomic status is associated with hepatitis E virus exposure. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published 01/1994-12/2016. Prevalence was estimated using a mixed-effects model and reported in line with PRISMA reporting guidelines. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the USA than in Latin America, independently of assay, patient cohort, methodological quality or study year (OR: 1.82 (1.06-3.08), P = .03). Patients in the USA had a more than doubled estimated seroprevalence (up to 9%, confidence interval 5%-15.6%) than those in Brazil (up to 4.2%, confidence interval 2.4%-7.1%; OR: 2.27 (1.25-4.13); P = .007) and Mixed Caribbean (up to 1%, OR: 8.33 (1.15-81.61); P = .04). A comparison with published data from Europe demonstrated that anti-hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in the USA and Europe did not differ significantly (OR: 1.33 (0.81-2.19), P = .25), while rate in South America was significantly lower than that in Europe (OR: 0.67 (0.45-0.98), P = .04). Hepatitis E virus is common in the USA. Surprisingly, the risk of hepatitis E virus exposure was low in many South American countries. Seroprevalence did not differ significantly between Europe and the USA. Hence, hepatitis E virus is not limited to countries with low sanitary standards, and a higher socioeconomic status does not protect populations from hepatitis E virus exposure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection in South Australian prisoners: seroprevalence, seroconversion, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emma Ruth; Bi, Peng; Ryan, Philip

    2009-03-01

    To determine entry antibody seroprevalence and seroconversion to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and associated risk factors in newly incarcerated prisoners. Males and females entering South Australian prisons completed risk factor surveys and were offered HCV-antibody testing. Participants completed additional surveys and, if HCV-negative at last test, underwent further antibody tests at 3-monthly intervals for up to 15 months. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate techniques. HCV seroprevalence among 662 prison entrants was estimated at 42%. Previous injecting history was highly prevalent at entry (64%) and both community and prison injecting independently predicted entry HCV status. Tattooing was not an important risk factor. While community exposure could not be ruled out, three seroconversions were noted in 148 initially HCV-seronegative individuals occurring in a median 121 days--4.6 per 100 person-years. Prison injecting was infrequently reported, but HCV-seropositive participants were significantly more likely to commence IDU in prison than seronegative participants (p=0.035). Entry HCV seroprevalence in South Australian prisoners is extremely high and may have contributed to a 'ceiling effect', minimizing the observable seroconversion rate. Greater frequency of injecting among those already infected with HCV represents a significant threat to other prisoners and prison staff.

  20. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  1. [Seroprevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in 13 departments of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella, R; Calegari, L; Casserone, S; Civila, E; Carbajal, S; Pérez, G; Somma, R; Sampaio, I; Llanes, M E; Conti, M

    1989-08-01

    In 1985 a study was undertaken of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 13 departments of Uruguay where transmission of the parasite by the vector Triatoma infestans persists. A total of 5,924 serum samples were selected using a probabilistic method--3,840 from individuals over the age of 12 (sample I) and 2,084 from subjects who were 12 years old (sample II). The population was classified according to place of residence (capital city, non-capital city, suburban area, and rural area). The percentage of positive sera detected by indirect immunofluorescence in the different departments ranged from 1 to 11%, and overall seroprevalence for the area was 3.4%. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to distinguish three areas: A, with seroprevalence from 6 to 11%; B, 2 to 3.2%, and C, 1 to 1.4%. In sample II from the Departments of Paysandú, Soriano, Flores, Florida, and Durazno, no cases of Chagas' disease were detected, which suggests that there is no active transmission of T. cruzi in this age group in the area studied. The number of persons estimated to have the disease was 36,952, or 1.3% of the total population of Uruguay and 4% of the population in the area surveyed. These seroprevalence figures are similar to those recorded in the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina, and in the neighboring municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  2. Seroprevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae infection in domestic ruminants in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisawi, Nagwa M; Hassan, Dina A; Hussien, Mohammed O; Musa, Azza B; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M

    2017-05-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis is caused by obligatory intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that belong to the genus Rickettsia . Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae can act as vectors, reservoirs or amplifiers of SFG rickettsiae. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of SFG rickettsioses in cattle, sheep and goats from Khartoum State, Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 600 animals (sheep, goats and cattle) from 32 different farms distributed in three locations in Khartoum State during the period January to December 2012. Sera were tested for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae using IFAT. The prevalence of seropositivity was 59.3% in sheep, 60.1% in goats and 64.4% in cattle. Season was significantly ( P <  0.05) associated with seroprevalence of SFG rickettsiae in cattle during winter. The SFG rickettsiae antibodies prevalence was significantly higher in female compared with male in sheep, but there were no significant differences between male and female in either cattle or goats. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult animals compared with young in both sheep and goats. With regard to management system, there was a significant difference in the prevalence in cattle raised in closed system compared with those raised in semi-intensive system. In contrast, there was significant difference in the seroprevalence of SFG in sheep where the prevalence was higher in the sheep raised in semi-intensive system compared with those raised in close system. There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence in goats with regard to management systems. The unexpected high prevalence of SFG rickettsia antibodies in domestic ruminants sera suggest that the veterinary and public health impact of these agents in Sudan need further evaluation especially in humans.

  3. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  4. Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gu Yoon

    Full Text Available Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.

  5. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  6. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  7. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  8. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SINIDU

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Received ... 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of IBD infection .... Avian pathology of industrial poultry farms in. Ethiopia ...

  9. Seroprevalence of Maedi -Visna in sheep in selected districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... cross rams distributed for breeding purpose should be taken without delay to depict the real picture of the disease in the country . Key words: Ethiopia, Maedi-visna, Risk factor, Sensitivity Seroprevalence, Specificity, ...

  10. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the average...... house price in the municipality. Furthermore, I document that the aggregate house price loss of 2.1 billion DKK greatly exceeds the increase in public debt of 1 billion DKK. I find that the drop in house prices is sustained 1 year, indicating that the housing market initially overreacts...

  11. Evidence for Seroprevalence in Human Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania donovani in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamuna Deepani Siriwardana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is considered as a major health threat in the Indian subcontinent. Leishmania donovani, a usually visceralizing species, causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Sri Lanka. However, visceralizing potential of the local L. donovani is not yet fully understood. This project studied the seroprevalence of local CL by using an in-house ELISA. An IgG-based ELISA using crude Leishmania antigen (Ag was developed and validated. A total of 50 laboratory confirmed cases of locally acquired CL were examined using the newly developed ELISA. According to the optimized ELISA, seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies in the study group was 34.0% (n=17/50. Majority of seropositive individuals were males (n=13/17, representing 76%. Nearly half of the seropositive individuals were young adults (20–40 years, n=9/17, 53%. Higher proportions of single lesions, large lesions, and nodular lesions were associated with a seroconversion. A proportion of local L. donovani infections leading to CL have the ability to raise an antibody response in the host. This may indicate early systemic involvement as one possibility. Study of a large number of patients with adequate follow-up would be useful.

  12. A marginal structural model to estimate the causal effect of antidepressant medication treatment on viral suppression among homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D; Petersen, Maya L; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Bangsberg, David R

    2010-12-01

    Depression strongly predicts nonadherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy, and adherence is essential to maintaining viral suppression. This suggests that pharmacologic treatment of depression may improve virologic outcomes. However, previous longitudinal observational analyses have inadequately adjusted for time-varying confounding by depression severity, which could yield biased estimates of treatment effect. Application of marginal structural modeling to longitudinal observation data can, under certain assumptions, approximate the findings of a randomized controlled trial. To determine whether antidepressant medication treatment increases the probability of HIV viral suppression. Community-based prospective cohort study with assessments conducted every 3 months. Community-based research field site in San Francisco, California. One hundred fifty-eight homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV who met baseline immunologic (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, 13) inclusion criteria, observed from April 2002 through August 2007. Probability of achieving viral suppression to less than 50 copies/mL. Secondary outcomes of interest were probability of being on an antiretroviral therapy regimen, 7-day self-reported percentage adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and probability of reporting complete (100%) adherence. Marginal structural models estimated a 2.03 greater odds of achieving viral suppression (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.58; P = .02) resulting from antidepressant medication treatment. In addition, antidepressant medication use increased the probability of antiretroviral uptake (weighted odds ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.98-7.58; P effect is likely attributable to improved adherence to a continuum of HIV care, including increased uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  13. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  14. Population and Housing Unit Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  15. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. State of the Irish housing stock—Modelling the heat losses of Ireland's existing detached rural housing stock and estimating the benefit of thermal retrofit measures on this stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, Ciara; Griffiths, Philip; O'Flaherty, Micheál

    2013-01-01

    Ireland's housing stock has been identified as being amongst the least energy efficient in Northern Europe. Consequently, atmospheric emissions are greater than necessary. Government funded schemes have been introduced to incentivise the uptake of thermal retrofit measures in the domestic Irish market. A study of Ireland's housing highlights the dominance of detached houses (43%), 72% of which are rurally located and are predominantly heated with fuel oil. This paper investigates the economic and carbon case for thermal retrofit measures to the existing detached, oil centrally heated, rural housing stock. The study found the case for energy efficiency measures to be categorical and supports the Irish Government's focus on energy efficiency policy measures. Thermal retrofit measures in the detached housing stock have the potential to realise an averaged 65% theoretical reduction in heating costs and CO 2 emissions for houses constructed prior to 1979 (coinciding with the introduction of building regulations) and around 26% for newer homes, thus offering a significant contribution (44%) to Ireland's residential carbon abatement projections and hence in meeting the EU's directives on energy and carbon. The greatest savings (36%) of Ireland's carbon abatement projections result from improving the energy efficiency of the pre 1979 stock. - Highlights: ► Model constructs base geometry of detached rural Irish dwellings by age band. ► Model quantifies savings to this stock via The National Insulation Scheme. ► Results offer significant contribution to Ireland's carbon abatement projections. ► Greatest savings result from retrofitting the pre 1979 stock. ► Government needs to introduce PAYS scheme or similar to engage public at large

  17. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence.

  18. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002. Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019 and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016 years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.

  19. Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J; Chilton, Neil B; Pearl, David L; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2015-06-01

    Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are an emerging concern in Canada. We estimated the seroprevalence of EGA and equine LB by testing 376 convenience serum samples from 3 provinces using a point-of-care SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA), and investigated the agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and laboratory-based serologic tests. The estimated seroprevalence for EGA was 0.53% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 0.71% in Manitoba), while the estimated seroprevalence for LB was 1.6% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 2.86% in Manitoba). There was limited agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test for EGA (kappa 0.1, PABAK 0.47) and an ELISA/Western blot combination for LB (kappa 0.23, PABAK 0.71). While the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA yielded expected seroprevalence estimates, further evaluation of serologic tests for the purposes of disease exposure recognition may be needed.

  20. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  1. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  2. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  3. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  4. Seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, R

    2016-09-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (EAV), is present in many European countries. In Spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. The disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by Spanish Purebred (SP) horses in Spain. To estimate the seroprevalence of EAV in the breeding SP horse population in central Spain and identify potential horse and studfarm level factors associated with seropositivity to EAV. Cross-sectional study. Individual serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 35 studfarms, were tested using a commercially available EAV antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test for samples with positive and equivocal results. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EAV were collected via a questionnaire and examined using random effects logistic regression for analysis of clustered data. Equine arteritis virus seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was estimated to be 16.8% (95% confidence interval 5.2-28.5%). Increasing numbers of breeding mares on the studfarm and increasing percentage of mares with reproductive problems during the last 12 months were identified as being positively associated with EAV seropositivity. Mares vaccinated against Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and/or -4 (EHV-4) were also positively associated with EAV seropositivity. These findings are of importance to ensure appropriate biosecurity measures for studfarms are carried out and may help facilitate the development of an EVA surveillance programme in the SP breeding horse population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  6. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengcai ZOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013.Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and exam­ined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Some risk fac­tors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression.Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P﹤0.05.Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high expo­sure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health.

  8. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1.Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China.The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  9. Dengue seroprevalence and force of primary infection in a representative population of urban dwelling Indonesian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, Joshua; Satari, Hindra Irawan; Karyanti, Mulya Rahma; Sekartini, Rini; Soedjatmiko, Soedjatmiko; Gunardi, Hartono; Medise, Bernie Endyarni; Sasmono, R. Tedjo; Simmerman, James Mark; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki

    2017-01-01

    Background Indonesia reports the second highest dengue disease burden in the world; these data are from passive surveillance reports and are likely to be significant underestimates. Age-stratified seroprevalence data are relatively unbiased indicators of past exposure and allow understanding of transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand dengue infection history and associated risk factors in Indonesia, a representative population-based cross-sectional dengue seroprevalence study was conducted in 1–18-year-old urban children. From October to November 2014, 3,210 children were enrolled from 30 geographically dispersed clusters. Serum samples were tested for anti-dengue IgG antibodies by indirect ELISA. A questionnaire investigated associations between dengue serologic status and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Overall, 3,194 samples were tested, giving an adjusted national seroprevalence in this urban population of 69.4% [95% CI: 64.4–74.3] (33.8% [95% CI: 26.4–41.2] in the 1–4-year-olds, 65.4% [95% CI: 69.1–71.7] in the 5–9-year-olds, 83.1% [95% CI: 77.1–89.0] in the 10–14-year-olds, and 89.0% [95% CI: 83.9–94.1] in the 15–18-year–olds). The median age of seroconversion estimated through a linear model was 4.8 years. Using a catalytic model and considering a constant force of infection we estimated 13.1% of children experience a primary infection per year. Through a hierarchical logistic multivariate model, the subject’s age group (1–4 vs 5–9 OR = 4.25; 1–4 vs. 10–14 OR = 12.60; and 1–4 vs 15–18 OR = 21.87; p<0.0001) and the number of cases diagnosed in the household since the subject was born (p = 0.0004) remained associated with dengue serological status. Conclusions/Significance This is the first dengue seroprevalence study in Indonesia that is targeting a representative sample of the urban paediatric population. This study revealed that more than 80% of children aged 10

  10. The seroprevalance of hepatitis A in Adiyaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ekrem Citil

    2015-09-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study, the seropositivity of hepatitis A infection of people who had admitted to Adiyaman University training and research hospital and primary care provider from central regions of Adiyaman city from March 2012 to April 2013 were evaluated, retrospectively. Existence of anti- HAV IgG antibodies were studied by macro ELISA devices belonging two different manufacturers (Abbott Laboratories and Roche Diagnostics. Results: One thousand seven hundred twenty male and 1844 female were included the study (a total of 3564 cases. Anti HAV IgG seropositivity was 77,5% (2761/3564. It was determined that the prevalance was increasing with age. This study found no difference in HAV antibody prevalence between men and women.(p>0,05 Conclusion: Hepatitis A infection's serological prevalence profiles vary geographically in the world. In the intermediate endemic areas like Turkey, the latency in the exposure to the virus has constitute a vast number of susceptible adolescents and extremely increased the average age at infection. The severity of illness increases by age. Implement and not;ing vaccination programs for HAV infection, as well as improved hygiene, sanitation, and drinking water quality and quantity are associated with decreased risk of HAV infection. Key Words: Hepatitis A, seroprevalence, Adiyaman [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 157-162

  11. Indigenous Greenlanders have a higher sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori than Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Byg, Keld-Erik; Andersen, Leif P

    2003-01-01

    To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes.......To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes....

  12. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children of northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroten, Anna; Toczylowski, Kacper; Kiziewicz, Bozena; Oldak, Elzbieta; Sulik, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease. Soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs appears to be the main source of infection for humans. The aim of our study was to estimate the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs in public areas in northeastern Poland followed by the assessment of seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the children's population inhabiting the areas. A total of 168 soil samples were collected in June and September from public areas, and 28 from patients' residences. They were all examined for Toxocara eggs using the centrifugal flotation technique. Two-step serological tests comprising enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) were performed in 190 children aged 2-17 without any symptoms of toxocariasis. The positive samples accounted for 36 and 32 % in the urban area, 39 and 18 % in the suburbs, and 39 and 46 % in parks, for June and September, respectively. All the sites located near the patients' residences with confirmed persistent toxocariasis were found contaminated with Toxocara eggs. A significant drop in the mean number of eggs was noted in the suburbs after summer (0.64 vs 0.18, p contamination was documented in soil from urban sandboxes and parks. The overall seroprevalence in children tested for toxocariasis was 4.2 % as determined by ELISA and WB (3.0 % in preschool children and 7.7 % in school children). The current study revealed high contamination of public areas in northeastern Poland with Toxocara eggs as well as marked seroprevalence in asymptomatic children. There is an urgent need to introduce and promote preventive health measures to limit spread of toxocariasis.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sarman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24 women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9% were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8% and 25–29 years (22.6% age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs. The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04 in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5 in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

  14. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody in HIV-infected patients at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osunkalu VO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vincent O Osunkalu1, Sulaimon A Akanmu1, Nkolika J Ofomah1, Igwebuike V Onyiaorah2, Adewumi A Adediran1, Ralph O Akinde3, Ifeanyi A Onwuezobe41Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Histopathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, College of Medicine Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, NigeriaBackground: Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with a ubiquitous intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. With the advent of the HIV pandemic in Nigeria, toxoplasmic encephalitis has become one of the more frequent opportunistic infections and the most commonly implicated cause of focal brain lesions complicating the course of AIDS.Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the pattern of seroprevalence of T. gondii (Toxo-IgG antibodies among HIV-infected persons presenting with neurological complications and those without.Materials and methods: Plasma specimens collected from 380 subjects were tested for Toxo-IgG antibodies by enzyme immunoassay technique and CD4 estimation by flow cytometry. Close-ended questionnaires were applied to all respondents to collect relevant data, with ethical approval from the hospital ethical committee. Plasma was obtained from two study groups comprising 300 HIV-positive respondents without neurological presentations, and 80 HIV-positive respondents with neurological complications.Results: Seroprevalence of Toxo-IgG antibodies was 58% in the HIV-positive study group without neurological complications (of these, 79.2% were males and 38.5% were females and 40% in the study group with neurological complications (46.2% of these were males and 28.6% were females. The overall seroprevalence of Toxo-IgG antibodies among the HIV-positive respondents (with and without neurological complications was 54.2% (206 of 380. Seroprevalence of Toxo

  16. West Nile Virus: Seroprevalence in Animals in Palestine and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Manasrah, Mu'taz; Mizrahi, Rotem; Nasereddin, Abed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Lustig, Yaniv; Gelman, Boris; Schvartz, Gili; Steinman, Amir

    2017-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel. Sera samples were collected from 717 animals from Palestine and Israel (460 horses, 124 donkeys, 3 mules, 50 goats, 45 sheep, and 35 camels). Two hundred and ten horses were sampled twice. The level of WNV antibodies was determined using commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit. Seroprevalence in equids was 73%. Seroprevalence in Israel (84.6%) was significantly higher than in Palestine (48.6%). Seroprevalence in horses (82.6%) was significantly higher than in donkeys and mules (39.3%). Multivariable statistical analysis showed that geographical area, landscape features (altitude), environmental factors (land surface temperature during the day [LSTD]), species, and age significantly influenced WNV seroprevalence. Fourteen of 95 (14.7%) sheep and goats and 14/35 camels (40%) sampled in Palestine were seropositive for WNV. Of the horses that were sampled twice, 82.8% were seropositive for WNV at the first sampling, and all remained seropositive. Three of the seronegative horses, all from Palestine, converted to positive when resampled (8.5%). The results indicate that domestic animals in Palestine were infected with WNV in the past, and the seroconversion indicates that WNV was circulating in Palestine in the summer of 2014. Control measures to prevent human infection should be implemented in Palestine. Anti WNV antibodies in domestic animals suggest that those species can be used as

  17. Estimation of efficiency of the heat supply system based on a boiler house and a wind turbine in the northern environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhan, A. V.; Minin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a methodological approach to defining indoor air temperature in buildings heated by a power supply unit consisting of a boiler house and a wind-driven power plant (WDPP). We discuss a heating option for a residential building in the windy conditions of Murmansk city. We proved that, during the periods of strong wind, a WDPP can partially or fully satisfy the heat demand and sometimes even create a surplus of energy. During low wind weather, almost all loads are handled by the boiler house. We considered a possibility to accumulate the surplus energy obtained from a WDPP during strong wind by increasing the temperature in the whole building up to 25°C and further using the accumulated heat during the lowwind period when indoor air temperature may fall below 20°C. This allows saving organic fuel in the boiler house. We demonstrated how indoor air temperature in the building may change throughout the year when using the surplus energy from the WDPP due to thermal storage capacitance of the building. We also provided the results of study, showing favorable energy-related effects of using a WDPP along with the boiler house. It was determined that engaging a WDPP in fulfilling the diagram of heating loads promotes the decrease in the boiler house's contribution to heat supply by 30 to 50%, and using the surplus energy from the WDPP and thermal storage capacitance of the building allows reducing the contribution of the boiler house by 5-15% more in certain months.

  18. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  19. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  20. [Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużewski, Stanisław; Rastawicki, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common causative agent of tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia, mainly in children and adolescents. The infections are often seen as epidemics occurring in autumn-winter seasons at intervals of 4-7 years. Epidemiological studies showed that M. pneumoniae is responsible for 30% to 40% of all cases of bacterial respiratory infections in Poland. The aim of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013 in comparing to results obtained in other European countries. The results of diagnostic serological tests (ELISA) in particular immunoglobulin classes for infection with M. pneumoniae performed in 16.825 persons were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were mostly children at the preschool and school age with clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infection. The data were obtained from Bacteriology Department of National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw and from 13 Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations through the country which send quarterly or monthly reports. The serological results showed that in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 the "early antibodies" (IgA and/or IgM) for M. pneumoniae were twice more often diagnosed in sera of patients with respiratory tract infection than in analogous seasons of 2008-2010. The antibodies were detected in 34% and 42% of patients, respectively in third quarter of 2011 and 2012. Epidemic increase of M. pneumoniae infections in Poland in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 was mainly observed due to diagnosis of the IgA and/or IgM antibodies in serological tests.

  1. Seroprevalence, distribution and risk factor for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa; Kouidri, Brahim; Metref, Djamil; Luka, Pam Dachung; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind

    2015-11-01

    Peste des petit ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and infectious viral disease of small ruminants with severe socio-economic implications. The disease was first reported in the Southern part of Algeria in 2011 and by February 2012 it has reached the central part of the country. Estimating national prevalence, distribution and identification of risk factors remains a key component in understanding the epidemiology and control of the disease. The present study was carried out between January and June 2014, to include a detailed description of flock and within-flock seroprevalence and risk association between PPR seropositivity and various flock management factors in Algeria. A total of 150 flocks randomly sampled across the country were investigated and 4552 serum samples were collected from 3336 sheep and 1216 goats, respectively. C-ELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in small ruminant animals as an indicator of PPRV exposure. The results showed an overall true flock seroprevalence of 30.45% [95% CI 23.76-37.14] with a mean of the true within-flock prevalence as 29.87%±2.11. The mean of the true within-flock prevalence in mixed flocks (12.93%±1.85) was however found to be significantly higher than sheep flocks (5.74%±1.06). Also the mean of the true within-flock prevalence was found to be significantly higher in adult (35.36%±3.13) compared to young animals (21.83%±2.47) and in females (33.11%±2.87) compared to males (22.14%±2.31). The univariate analysis revealed that PPR overall flock seroprevalence was significantly higher (Prisk factor analysis, univariate analysis of variables followed by a multiple logistic regression identified mixed flocks [OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.30-5.38; P=0.007] and contact with other flocks [OR=2.27, 95% CI 0.99-5.21; P=0.053] as risk factors in the spread of the disease. In conclusion, this study revealed a high seroprevalence of PPR in Algerian small ruminants, therefore the establishment of early warning systems

  2. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  3. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S F; Wong, J Y; Khor, K H; Roslan, M A; Abdul Rahman, M S; Bejo, S K; Radzi, R; Bahaman, A R

    2017-12-01

    Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries. The duration of immunity in vaccinated dogs for Leptospira can last up to 13 months; however, there is no full crossprotection between the different serovars. Five representative canine units from different government agencies in Malaysia (n = 96 dogs) were recruited in this study. For detection, the microscopic agglutination test was performed by incubating the serum from dogs with various serovars of leptospires, namely, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Australis, Bataviae, Javanica, Tarassovi, Hebdomadis, Lai, and Pyrogenes. The plasma obtained was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, for the detection of 16S rRNA, and lipL 32 genes of Leptospira. Out of the 96 dogs sampled, only 3 dogs were positive toward serovars, Australis, Bataviae, and Javanica, based on the cutoff point at 1:80. The seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in this population was 3.1% (n = 3/96). However, all 96 blood samples of working dogs tested negative for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira genes. The results revealed that, by vaccination alone, working dogs were not fully protected against leptospirosis and could pose a risk to dog handlers. A preventative and control protocol for leptospirosis is warranted, and its implementation should be monitored and improved accordingly from time to time, in order to maintain a healthy condition in both working dogs and their

  4. How Well Are We Housed? 3. Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Ruth

    Blacks are housed poorly compared to the total American population. Black housing suffers frequently from deficiencies in every category except heating and electricity. It is estimated that 37% of blacks, but only 20% of the total population, need to spend more than a quarter of their cash incomes to live in unflawed, uncrowded housing. The…

  5. Seroprevalence and factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Kassaye; Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein; Gebremedhin, Endrias Z; Asmare, Kassahun

    2018-05-31

    This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the risk of BVDV seroprevalence, and BVDV serostatus and reproductive disorders. Seroreaction to BVDV antigens was detected in 32.6% of the 1379 cattle and 69.8% of the 149 herds sampled. Factors associated with BVDV seroplevalence were age, breed, and herd size (P  0.05). Risk of reproductive disorders was not affected by BVDV serostatus, except for repeat breeding (P > 0.05). The present study demonstrated that BVDV has wide distribution in the country being detected in all the 15 conurbations and 69.8% of herds involved in the study.

  6. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factor analysis of human leptospirosis in distinct climatic regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad Luqman; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Naseer, Omer; Fatima, Zahida; Ahmad, Abdullah Saghir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2018-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance and large epidemics and epizootics have been reported all over the globe. A cross survey study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in climatically distinct regions of Pakistan and to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. Blood samples from 360 humans were collected through convenient sampling, 120 from each of three study areas. Serological testing was performed using ELISA kit as per manufacturer's recommendations. The results showed an overall prevalence of 40.83% (95% CI; 35.71-46.11). Statistical analysis showed significant (P climatic region (50.83%; 95% CI; 41.55-60.07), followed by semi-arid region (44.16%; 95% CI; 35.11-53.52) and lowest in hot and dry region (27.50%; 95% CI; 19.75-36.40). After multivariate analysis age, gender, exposure to flooding water, source of water usage, disinfection schedule of surroundings and history of cut and wound were found significantly associated with the seropositivity of Leptospira. The present study, first to uncover seroprevalence of human Leptospira in different climatic regions of Pakistan, alarms about effect of climate on prevalence of Leptospira in the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  9. [Seroprevalence of brucelosis in the workers of a plant of treatment of sanitary wastes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, Begoña; Almagro Nievas, Diego; Cabrera Castillo, María José

    2003-03-22

    The management of biosanitary (hospital) waste, while being a key issue in the prevention of public health risks, involves professional risks as well. The objective of this study was to analyze the risks of infection and their relation with the various works within a cluster of brucellosis detected in an infectious waste plant. Cross-descriptive study of the total of 24 employees at the waste plant. A survey was carried out taking into account personal as well as professional items and serological tests. Both bivariant (contingency charts and mean comparison) and multivariant (logistic regression) analyses were carried out. The seroprevalence of brucella infection was 45.93% (CI95%, 26.17-66.76). The estimated risk (OR) for processing workers was 33.72 (CI95%, 2.73-415.96). The permanence within the posts was not different among groups. Infection seroprevalence was higher than that found in endemic populations. The post of processing was found to hold a relation with the contact with Brucella sp.

  10. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Cortés Maria Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence antibody testing (IFAT in 3,100 sera samples from apparently healthy horses of different ages, breeds, coat colours, genders and geographical locations. The overall seroprevalence was 52%, consisting of 44% seropositive for T. equi and 21% for B. caballi. There was a significant association between age (p < 0.0001, breed (p < 0.004, geographical location (p < 0.0001 and the seroprevalence, but neither the coat colour nor the gender was significantly associated with prevalence. In addition, it was proved that most of the geographic areas showed a moderate to high prevalence. The statistical κ value was used to compare the results obtained by the IFAT and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA utilised to test some samples (n = 108 and showed a higher concordance for T. equi (κ = 0.68 than for B. caballi (κ = 0.22. Consequently, this revealed the importance of developing an appropriate technique to detect each haemoparasite.

  11. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  12. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence in Black Sea Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the seroprevalence of hepatitis B among all age groups in northern Turkey using HBsAg and anti-HBs serological markers. Materials and Methods: .... in human serum or plasma, with a total incubation time of 18 min. All the ...

  13. Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    % for males and females respectively), while in the same state, Anaghalu (2006) among a seroprevalence rate of 23.8% for males and 28.0% for females among infertile couples. Chlamydia is known as the “silent epidemic” ...

  14. Seroprevalence of hiv and hepatitis viruses in directed blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B viruses in directed blood donors in Nguru and also to see if there is co-infection of these viruses in this category of donor population. Method: This is a prospective study carried out at the blood bank of the Federal Medical Centre Nguru, Yobe State between ...

  15. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and seven (307) healthy blood donors aged 18 – 55 years were used to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Yola, Nigeria. The association between donors' age, occupation and marital status and the prevalence of the infections among blood ...

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Sur- face antigen among apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... and provision of universal HBV vaccination should be given urgent priority. Keywords: Children, HBsAg,. Primary school, Seroprevalence. Introduction. Hepatitis B virus infection is a disease of global distri- bution and constitutes a major public health prob- lem.1More than one third of the world's population ...

  17. Sero-Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection among New -Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborn babies in our environment and hence the suitability of cord blood for stem cell transplantation. Methodology: Cord blood sera of 212 babies in the labour room of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) ...

  18. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease/infection of medical and veterinary importance. The causative agent; Toxoplasma gondii, can infect warm blooded animals, birds as well as humans. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs in Makurdi, Nigeria.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potential risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is important in pigs and humans may get infected through the consumption of undercooked infected pork. This study conducted in Oyo state, Nigeria for 15 months (between February, 2012 and April, 2013) investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs reared on farms ...

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Seroprevalence in Blood Donors at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In developing countries, blood transfusion is still a major route of its transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HCV infection among blood donors and to determine some of the risk factors for the ...

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Antibodies among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important health problem with an increasing number of patients acquiring the virus. Some infected patients are known to develop liver cirrhosis and /or possible hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was designed to find out the seroprevalence of hepatitis C viral antibodies among ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in People Exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who had been exposed to traditional surgical practices in Edo State, Nigeria. Sera from the subjects were tested for HCV antibodies using Clinotech Diagnostic test device supplied by Clinotech Diagnostic and ...

  5. Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates of Hepatitits B Seroprevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circumcision, scarification, ear piercing, history of blood transfusion, receipt of unsafe injections, present/ past history of jaundice and malnutrition were not significantly associated with being seropositive (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study did not identify any pathognomonic clinical feature of hepatitis b seroprevalence.

  6. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis viruses and their correlation with CD4 T-cell lymphocyte counts in pregnant women in the Buea Health District of Cameroon. Rebecca Enow Tanjong, Pride Teyim, Henry Lucien Kamga, Edwin Suh Neba, Theresia Nkuo-Akenji ...

  7. SEROPREVALENCE OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS 8 (HHV8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Praise

    SEROPREVALENCE OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS 8 (HHV8) INFECTION. AMONG COMMERCIAL SEX WORKERS IN JOS. Zakari1, H., Nimzing2, L., Agabi1, Y. A., Amagam3, P. and Dashen,1 M. M.. 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University o f Jos, Nigeria. 2Department of Medical Microbiology, ...

  8. seroprevalence of parvovirus bi9 antibody in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    immunological and infectious complications. Accurate epidemiologic data on the frequency of. Parvovirus ... chronic illness e.g. Hypertension, Diabetes, Asthma; commercial sex workers and Intravenous drug users. Inclusion ..... reported 0% in Spanish blood donors (20). The seroprevalence of PVB 19 may vary with the.

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van Froukje; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  11. Seroprevalence of Treponema Pallidum in Donor Blood at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...

  12. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of contagious Caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of contagious Caprine pleuropneumonia in goats in selected districts of bale zone pastoral area, south eastern Ethiopia. ... Multivariable logistic regression statistical analysis revealed that age category, flock size, newly introduced goats and accessibility to veterinary service ...

  13. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  14. Seroprevalence Of Varicella Zoster Antibodies Among Children With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of varicella zoster in paediatric patients at a high risk of developing complications. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Paediatric general wards at Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Children with malignancies, severe malnutrition and were HIV positive. Interventions: The ...

  15. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis in dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious disease of cattle causing reproductive failure, loss of milk production and zoonosis worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 816 dairy cattle (449 were cows) from 60 dairy farms to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis ...

  16. [A meta-analysis of HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women with syphilis and the impact of syphilis infection on mother-to-child HIV transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T T; Xu, Y; Li, Z Z; Chen, L Z

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To estimate HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and evaluate the influence of syphilis infection on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV by meta-analysis. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search for 1 678 articles related to maternal syphilis and HIV infection published until October 1 st 2015 using the PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, Weipu, and SinoMed databases and evaluated the quality of each papers using the STROBE checklist, and the keywords were " pregnant women/maternal/pregnancy" , "syphilis/AIDS" , "HIV/human immunodeficiency virus" , "mother- to-child transimission/vertical transmission" . Excluding studies with the special subgroups of HIV-positive pregnant women as the research objects, review or meeting abstract, impossibility of full-text acquisition, sample size HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and the RR of MTCT for women infected with both syphilis and HIV. Subgroup analyses were undertaken by study location, sample size, use of anti-retroviral therapy and study quality. Results: Sixteen studies with a combined sample of 110 573 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Of these, ten reported HIV seroprevalences among pregnant women with syphilis and six studies evaluated the influence of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV. Pooled estimates yielded a HIV seroprevalence of 11.6% (95 % CI : 6.7%-19.5%) among pregnant women with syphilis. We estimated that the risk of MTCT of HIV was 1.86 times ( RR= 1.86, 95 % CI : 0.89%-3.89%) higher among pregnant women with syphilis compared with those only infected with HIV-although this effect was not statistically significant. Cochran's Q test showed a high degree of heterogeneity in estimates of HIV seroprevalence and the effect of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV across studies ( I 2 =89.4% and 86.2%, respectively, PHIV seroprevalences of 24.9% (95 %CI : 17.4%-34.3%) in Africa, 2.8% (95 % CI : 1.4%-5.6%) in

  17. Seroprevalence of yellow fever virus in selected health facilities in Western Kenya from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwallah, Allan ole; Inoue, Shingo; Thairu-Muigai, Anne Wangari; Kuttoh, Nancy; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF), which is caused by a mosquito-borne virus, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in equatorial Africa and South America. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of YFV in selected health facilities in Western Kenya during the period 2010-2012. A total of 469 serum samples from febrile patients were tested for YFV antibodies using in-house IgM-capture ELISA, in-house indirect IgG ELISA, and 50% focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area. Twenty-eight samples (6%) tested positive for YFV IgG, because of either YFV vaccination or past exposure to various flaviviruses including YFV. Five cases were confirmed by FRNT50; of these, 4 were either vaccination or natural infection during the YF outbreak in 1992-1993 or another period and 1 case was confirmed as a West Nile virus infection. Domestication and routine performance of arboviral differential diagnosis will help to address the phenomenon of pyrexia of unknown origin, contribute to arboviral research in developing countries, and enhance regular surveillance.

  18. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and prior immunity in immigrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Rossi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International migrants experience increased mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma compared to host populations, largely due to undetected chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV. We conducted a systematic review of the seroprevalence of chronic HBV and prior immunity in migrants arriving in low HBV prevalence countries to identify those at highest risk in order to guide disease prevention and control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Studies that reported HBV surface antigen or surface antibodies in migrants were included. The seroprevalence of chronic HBV and prior immunity were pooled by region of origin and immigrant class, using a random-effects model. A random-effects logistic regression was performed to explore heterogeneity. The number of chronically infected migrants in each immigrant-receiving country was estimated using the pooled HBV seroprevalences and country-specific census data. A total of 110 studies, representing 209,822 immigrants and refugees were included. The overall pooled seroprevalence of infection was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.3%-8.2% and the seroprevalence of prior immunity was 39.7% (95% CI: 35.7%-43.9%. HBV seroprevalence differed significantly by region of origin. Migrants from East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa were at highest risk and migrants from Eastern Europe were at an intermediate risk of infection. Region of origin, refugee status and decade of study were independently associated with infection in the adjusted random-effects logistic model. Almost 3.5 million migrants (95% CI: 2.8-4.5 million are estimated to be chronically infected with HBV. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of chronic HBV infection is high in migrants from most world regions, particularly among those from East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe, and more than 50% were found to be susceptible to HBV. Targeted screening and vaccination of

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5% of whom, and 31 (7.8% of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1% of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8% of the control subjects (P = 0.23. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004. In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04, chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03, and reflex impairment (P = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03, unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02, and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01, whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005. Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age.

  20. Sydney Opera House Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House".......Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House"....

  1. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Antigens as Predictive Disease Transmission Markers in an Area of Ghana with Seasonal Malaria Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo A Kusi

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of malaria-endemic countries approach the disease elimination phase, sustenance of control efforts and effective monitoring are necessary to ensure success. Mathematical models that estimate anti-parasite antibody seroconversion rates are gaining relevance as more sensitive transmission intensity estimation tools. Models however estimate yearly seroconversion and seroreversion rates and usually predict long term changes in transmission, occurring years before the time of sampling. Another challenge is the identification of appropriate antigen targets since specific antibody levels must directly reflect changes in transmission patterns. We therefore investigated the potential of antibodies to sporozoite and blood stage antigens for detecting short term differences in malaria transmission in two communities in Northern Ghana with marked, seasonal transmission.Cross-sectional surveys were conducted during the rainy and dry seasons in two communities, one in close proximity to an irrigation dam and the other at least 20 Km away from the dam. Antibodies against the sporozoite-specific antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP and Cell traversal for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS and the classical blood stage antigen apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody levels and seroprevalence were compared between surveys and between study communities. Antibody seroprevalence data were fitted to a modified reversible catalytic model to estimate the seroconversion and seroreversion rates.Changes in sporozoite-specific antibody levels and seroprevalence directly reflected differences in parasite prevalence between the rainy and dry seasons and hence the extent of malaria transmission. Seroconversion rate estimates from modelled seroprevalence data did not however support the above observation.The data confirms the potential utility of sporozoite-specific antigens as useful markers for monitoring short term

  2. Trends in HIV seroprevalence, AIDS and prevention policy among intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men, before and after 1990 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piribauer, Franz; Duer, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    This study reports for the first time on secular trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, and possible associations with prevention policy in Austria. We analysed HIV seroprevalence and AIDS cases among intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study we found a diminished rate of increase in new cases of AIDS and a decline in HIV seroprevalence among IDU but not among MSM. Among clients visiting HIV counselling and testing centres in Austria between 1987 and 1990, seroprevalence among IDU was estimated at 27.9% as compared to 19.6% between 1990 and 1992 (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45-0.85). Among MSM corresponding prevalence for these two periods was 12.1% and 10.9%, respectively, which was not a significant decline. In the period 1990 to 1994, the increase in AIDS cases per half-year levelled off for IDU (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) but to a lesser extent among MSM (IRR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02). The most effective prevention policy intervention was considered to be the national methadone maintenance program (MMTP), started in 1987, and the provision of sterile injection equipment. We observed that in the recent period there was a decline in the frequency of attendance among young (less than 28 years of age) MSM at counselling centres (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), accompanied by the observation that the rate of seroprevalence among this group did not decline. This is in contrast to young IDU where attendance did not decline but seroprevalence did. Although inference is limited from cross sectional studies, we argue for a reoriented and effectively monitored HIV prevention policy focused on young MSM

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors among an urban population in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Hepburn, Matthew J; Lawitz, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The seroprevalence of hepatitis C varies substantially between countries and geographic regions. A better understanding of the seroprevalence of this disease, and the risk factors associated with seropositive status, supply data for the development of screening programs and provide insight into the transmission of the disease. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in an urban population in Haiti. Me...

  4. Housing markets and housing policies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Piyush; Rao, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating ad...

  5. Illegal Alien Schoolchildren: Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs. Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. GAO-04-733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    To address the potential for estimating the costs of educating illegal alien schoolchildren, this report: identifies major government sources of relevant data; describes a Census Bureau plan for developing new information; and outlines cost-estimation approaches. Data were collected through: a survey of 20 states; outreach through associations of…

  6. House price risk and the hedging benefits of home Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Hassink, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a repeat-sales methodology, this paper finds that estimates of house price risk based on aggregate house price indices substantially underestimate the true size of house price risk. This is the result of the fact that aggregate house price indices average away the idiosyncratic volatility in

  7. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  8. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies Among Lebanese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahouli, Hasan; El Arnaout, Nour; Chalhoub, Elias; Anastadiadis, Elie; El Hajj, Hiba

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the infection of almost one-third of the world's population. T. gondii is particularly threatening for primo-infected pregnant women and may lead, following vertical transplacental transmission, to spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, or severe manifestations in the newborn. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies among a group of Lebanese pregnant women and its seroconversion rate. This is a retrospective cohort study, in which medical records of 11,000 pregnant women were screened. These women visited a private Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic located in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, during the period of January 1994 till September 2015. Serological results of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) results of 2456 Lebanese pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Seropositivity and seroconversion rates for women with repeated tests were reported according to age and area of residence. The overall anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM seropositivity among 2456 Lebanese pregnant women was 82.6% and 1.8% respectively. The highest IgG seropositivity is among the age group of 35-44 years (87.81%) and at the governorate of "Mount Lebanon" (82.95%). Sixty-four seroconversions were detected and two abortions due to T. gondii infection during pregnancy were recorded. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG among the screened pregnant women in Lebanon is the highest in the Arab region. These results highlight the importance of running a national sample survey to estimate the real potential burden of this infection and its impact on maternal and fetal health.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sævik, Bente Kristin; Krontveit, Randi Ingebjørg; Eggen, Kristine P; Malmberg, Nina; Thoresen, Stein I; Prestrud, Kristin W

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and to evaluate risk factors for seropositivity. Additionally, serum biochemistry and haematological variables for T gondii seropositive and seronegative cats were compared. A convenience sample of surplus sera submitted to the Central Laboratory, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, was collected. The samples were from healthy cats and cats with a variety of diseases. Analyses for IgG antibodies to T gondii were performed with a commercial direct agglutination test, with 1:40 as the threshold value. For risk factor analysis a logistic regression model of the relationship between predictors and the outcome was applied. One hundred and ninety-six of 478 cats were seropositive for T gondii, and the estimated seroprevalence in the study sample was 41.0% (95% confidence interval 36.6-45.4). Compared with domestic cats, pedigree cats had reduced risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 0.42). Males had increased risk (OR 1.63) compared with females. The effect of age was highly significant, and an increase in the cats' age across the interquartile range (IQR; 52-160 months/4-13 years of age) doubled the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity (OR 2.11). The risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity among cats living in Oslo was significantly reduced (OR 0.51) when compared with the rest of Norway. Pet cats in Norway appear to be commonly exposed to T gondii. Signalment and geographical region influenced the odds of Toxoplasma seropositivity, whereas health status did not. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  10. Seroprevalence of rickettsial infections and Q fever in Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshokey Tshokey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With few studies conducted to date, very little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsioses in Bhutan. Due to two previous outbreaks and increasing clinical cases, scrub typhus is better recognized than other rickettsial infections and Q fever.A descriptive cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted from January to March 2015 in eight districts of Bhutan. Participants were 864 healthy individuals from an urban (30% and a rural (70% sampling unit in each of the eight districts. Serum samples were tested by microimmunofluorescence assay for rickettsial antibodies at the Australian Rickettsial Reference Laboratory.Of the 864 participants, 345 (39.9% were males and the mean age of participants was 41.1 (range 13-98 years. An overall seroprevalence of 49% against rickettsioses was detected. Seroprevalence was highest against scrub typhus group (STG (22.6% followed by spotted fever group (SFG rickettsia (15.7%, Q fever (QF (6.9% and typhus group (TG rickettsia (3.5%. Evidence of exposure to multiple agents was also noted; the commonest being dual exposure to STG and SFG at 5%. A person's likelihood of exposure to STG and SFG rickettsia significantly increased with age and farmers were twice as likely to have evidence of STG exposure as other occupations. Trongsa district appeared to be a hotspot for STG exposure while Punakha district had the lowest STG exposure risk. Zhemgang had the lowest exposure risk to SFG rickettsia compared to other districts. People living at altitudes above 2000 meters were relatively protected from STG infections but this was not observed for SFG, TG or QF exposure.This seroprevalence study highlights the endemicity of STG and SFG rickettsia in Bhutan. The high seroprevalence warrants appropriate public health interventions, such as diagnostic improvements and clinical treatment guidelines. Future studies should focus on vector profiles, geospatial, bio-social and environmental risk assessment and preventive and control

  11. CHANGING TRENDS IN HIV SEROPREVALENCE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bama Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Routine antenatal screening for HIV combined with advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to increased detection and effective treatment in pregnancy. AIM To know effectiveness of screening in antenatal mother and their husband for HIV status, seroprevalence rate among them and among their infants from a tertiary care hospital. We aim to outline key interventions which can influence the rate of mother to child transmission and how these are best incorporated into care of pregnant women and her baby including antenatal testing use of antiretroviral medication, management of labour and of breast-feeding. METHOD Retrospective analysis of Data over a period of six years available in Integrated counselling and Testing centre attached to Tertiary Care Government Medical College and Hospital Trichy, from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2015. Data of Antenatal mothers screened and diagnosed as HIV Seropositive and its various outcomes related to these pregnancies were analysed. RESULTS Among 29215 women who were screened, 104 were found to be HIV seropositive. Declining seroprevalence rate from 0.66% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2015 noted. Among seropositive mothers, majority were in 25-34 years of age. Maximum incidence was in second gravida during initial years followed by primigravida, In subsequent years, declining seroprevalence rate in spouse and declining mother to child transmission rate were analysed. CONCLUSION Decreasing seroprevalence rate indicates effective counselling and intensive screening of HIV status of Antenatal mothers and their Husbands & their infants with effective Implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission programme and also effective treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Toxocara infection in psychiatric inpatients: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is poor knowledge about the epidemiology of toxocariasis in psychiatric patients. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Through a case-control seroprevalence study, 128 psychiatric inpatients and 276 control subjects were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies in Durango, Mexico. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of inpatients associated with toxocariasis were also investigated. RESULTS: Six of the 128 (4.7% psychiatric inpatients, and 3 (1.1% of the 276 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (P = 0.03. Stratification by age showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.02 higher in patients aged ≤50 years old (6/90∶6.7% than controls of the same age (2/163∶1.2%. While Toxocara seroprevalence was similar in patients and controls aged >50 years old. Stratification by gender showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.03 higher in female patients (2/37∶5.4% than in female controls (0/166∶0%. No statistically significant associations between Toxocara seropositivity and clinical characteristics were found. In contrast, Toxocara seropositivity was associated with consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of toxocariasis in psychiatric inpatients in Mexico. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with psychiatric diseases. The role of the consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail in the transmission of Toxocara deserve further investigation.

  13. [Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in population groups of Villavicencio, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Agustín; Parra, Jorge; Aponte, Luz; Gómez, Luz

    2008-01-01

    Determining Leptospira spp . antibody seroprevalence in an apparently healthy population and in groups at risk plus their associated factors in the town of Villavicencio in the Meta department of Colombia A cross-sectional epidemiological model was used (subjects being selected by convenience sampling). Blood-samples were obtained by cubital puncture from (n: 503) people, consisting of 230 first semester students from different programmes at the Universidad de los Llanos and 273 people corresponding to 8 groups at risk. Information regarding risk factor was obtained from interviewing the 503 people. A commercial indirect ELISA kit (Pambio) was used for determining IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was 5,2 % in the low risk group. There was 19 % seroprevalence for groups at risk, 7 % for the group of people working in slaughterhouses, 17 % for vets and small animal clinic assistants, 17 % for students in their last year of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnia, 21 % for people milking cows on dual-purpose farms, 23 % for people working in rice-fields, 35 % for people working on pig-farms and 48 % for those working on fish-farms. Three factors were found to be associated: rural social level, having a pet dog and coming into contact with rodents in the workplace. A high seroprevalence for Leptospira spp was found in the groups at risk, people working on pig-farms and fish-farms being those most affected. There was a 1,86 relative risk in both groups indicated as having a greater risk of contagion amongst the population suffering occupational exposure.

  14. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  15. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REY Luís C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in population groups in Fortaleza, Brazil, was conducted, in order to identify seroprevalence rates according to age and risk factors associated with acquired infection. A Toxoplasma IgG-antibody enzyme immunoassay (Sanofi Pasteur Diagnostics, Marnes la Coquette, France was employed to assess the immunity. Public day-care centers and schools were randomly selected, while three large antenatal clinics and maternity units were choosen by its importance. Population groups and results of 997 blood tests were: 227 children (mean age 3.8 years, 22.8% seropositives; 584 students (mean 11.4 years, 58.4%, and pregnant and postpartum women (mean 24 years, 71.5% seropositives (p < 0.001. Of 256 participants reporting close contact with cats, 59.8% were seropositive, in contrast with 51% seropositives without contact (relative risk 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.33; p = 0.01. Having three or more siblings at home was related to higher seroprevalence in children and students (relative risk 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.60; p < 0.01. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence showed a rapid increase during the first ten years of life, in association with close contact with cats and larger households, probably related to inappropriate hygiene and child-care practices.

  16. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  17. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568

  18. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martins Netto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%, comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1% and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%. Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017. Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5 at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of <1 in subsequent years. Our data corroborate ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A infection in a low endemicity country: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilca Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada – a low endemicity country, vaccines for hepatitis A virus (HAV are currently recommended to individuals at increased risk for infection or its complications. Applying these recommendations is difficult because the epidemiology of HAV infection is poorly defined, complex, and changing. This systematic review aimed to 1 estimate age-specific prevalence of HAV antibody in Canada and 2 evaluate infection-associated risk factors. Methods MEDLINE (1966–2005 and EMBASE (1980–2005 were searched to identify relevant studies for the systematic review. Archives for the Canada Diseases Weekly Report (1975–1991 and Canada Communicable Disease Report (1992–2005 were searched for relevant public health reports. Data were abstracted for study and participants' characteristics, age-specific prevalence, and risk factors. Results A total of 36 reports describing 34 unique studies were included. The seroprevalence in Canadian-born children was approximately 1% in ages 8–13, 1–6% in 20–24, 10% in 25–29, 17% in 30–39, and increased subsequently. In age groups below 20 and 20–29, age-specific seroprevalence generally remained constant for studies conducted across geographic areas and over time. Compared to Canadian-born individuals, subjects born outside Canada were approximately 6 times more likely to be seropositive (relative risk: 5.7 [95% CI 3.6, 9.0]. Travel to high risk areas in individuals aged 20–39 was associated with a significant increase in anti-HAV seropositivity (RR 2.8 [1.4, 5.5]. Compared to heterosexuals, men having sex with men were only at a marginally higher risk (adjusted odds ratio 2.4 [0.9, 6.1]. High risk for seropositivity was also observed for Canadian First Nations and Inuit populations. Conclusion Results from the current systematic review show that in this low endemicity country, disease acquisition occurs in adulthood rather than childhood. The burden of disease is high; approximately

  20. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  1. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  2. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  3. Seroprevalence of serum IgG of HSV-1 coinfected with HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the seroprevalence of IgG of HSV-1 coinfected HIV patients who attended Offa General Hospital, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic (HAART). Methods: A cross sectional study used to study the seroprevalence of IgG of HSV-1 coinfected HIV infected patients that attended Offa Highly Active ...

  4. Maternal hiv positive sero-prevalence at delivery at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Key Words: Maternal HIV positive sero-prevalence, delivery, birth sex ratio,Orlu.: The duo of HIV/AIDS infection has become a Global public health problem. This study was conducted to determine the maternal HIV positive seroprevalence at delivery at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu. Methods: ...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  6. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anou Dreyfus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda.359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3% defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%. The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800 was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2% and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes. Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048. Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6 with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024 of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229 had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009 of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby.The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup. Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  7. Phocine distemper virus (PDV) seroprevalence as predictor for future outbreaks in harbour seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludes-Wehrmeister, Eva; Dupke, Claudia; Harder, Timm C; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Haas, Ludwig; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune; Jensen, Lasse F; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-02-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) infections caused the two most pronounced mass mortalities in marine mammals documented in the past century. During the two outbreaks, 23,000 and 30,000 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), died in 1988/1989 and 2002 across populations in the Wadden Sea and adjacent waters, respectively. To follow the mechanism and development of disease spreading, the dynamics of Morbillivirus-specific antibodies in harbour seal populations in German and Danish waters were examined. 522 serum samples of free-ranging harbour seals of different ages were sampled between 1990 and 2014. By standard neutralisation assays, Morbillivirus-specific antibodies were detected, using either the PDV isolate 2558/Han 88 or the related canine distemper virus (CDV) strain Onderstepoort. A total of 159 (30.5%) of the harbour seals were seropositive. Annual seroprevalence rates showed an undulating course: Peaks were seen in the post-epidemic years 1990/1991 and 2002/2003. Following each PDV outbreak, seroprevalence decreased and six to eight years after the epidemics samples were tested seronegative, indicating that the populations are now again susceptible to new PDV outbreak. After the last outbreak in 2002, the populations grew steadily to an estimated maximum (since 1975) of about 39,100 individuals in the Wadden Sea in 2014 and about 23,540 harbour seals in the Kattegat area in 2013. A re-appearence of PDV would presumably result in another epizootic with high mortality rates as encountered in the previous outbreaks. The current high population density renders harbour seals vulnerable to rapid spread of infectious agents including PDV and the recently detected influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Anou; Dyal, Jonathan W; Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M; Travis, Dominic A; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  9. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  10. House Prices and the stance of Monetary Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarociński, Marek; Smets, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a Bayesian VAR for the US economy which includes a housing sector and addresses the following questions. Can developments in the housing sector be explained on the basis of developments in real and nominal GDP and interest rates? What are the effects of housing demand shocks on the economy? How does monetary policy affect the housing market? What are the implications of house price developments for the stance of monetary policy? Regarding the latter question, we implement...

  11. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  13. Seroprevalences of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats in the United States and Canada and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Amie N; Levy, Julie K; Scott, H Morgan; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To estimate seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody and risk factors for seropositivity among cats in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 62,301 cats tested at 1,396 veterinary clinics (n = 45,406) and 127 animal shelters (16,895). PROCEDURES Blood samples were tested with a point-of-care ELISA for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody. Seroprevalence was estimated, and risk factors for seropositivity were evaluated with bivariate and multivariable mixed-model logistic regression analyses adjusted for within-clinic or within-shelter dependencies. RESULTS Overall, seroprevalence was 3.1% for FeLV antigen and 3.6% for anti-FIV antibody. Adult age, outdoor access, clinical disease, and being a sexually intact male were risk factors for seropositivity for each virus. Odds of seropositivity for each virus were greater for cats tested in clinics than for those tested in shelters. Of 1,611 cats with oral disease, 76 (4.7%) and 157 (9.7%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Of 4,835 cats with respiratory disease, 385 (8.0%) were seropositive for FeLV and 308 (6.4%) were seropositive for FIV. Of 1,983 cats with abscesses or bite wounds, 110 (5.5%) and 247 (12.5%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Overall, 2,368 of 17,041 (13.9%) unhealthy cats were seropositive for either or both viruses, compared with 1,621 of 45,260 (3.6%) healthy cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody were similar to those reported in previous studies over the past decade. Taken together, these results indicated a need to improve compliance with existing guidelines for management of feline retroviruses.

  14. A nationwide survey on seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañales, Pedro; Fernandez, Leandro; Repiso, María V; Gil, Andres; Dargatz, David A; Osawa, Takeshi

    2006-06-30

    Bovine abortions due to Neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. Uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in South America. However, no data on the prevalence of N. caninum infection have been available in this country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of N. caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay through a nationwide survey. A two stage sampling design was used with farms being selected in stage one and animals being selected in stage two. A brief questionnaire was administered on each farm. Seroprevalence of N. caninum in 4444 beef cattle from 229 farms in all the counties, except Montevideo, of Uruguay was determined by an ELISA. The data were then analyzed to identify associations between infection and variables such as type of animal (cow or heifer), herd size, use of veterinary advice, productivity of the soil in relation to the national average, use of improved grass, use of mineral salts, use of supplemental feed, and presence of a dog(s) on the farm. The estimated proportion of positive farms for all the beef cattle operations was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.7-84.7). The overall cattle seroprevalence was estimated as 13.9% (95% CI, 11.6-16.3). The prevalence estimation by animal category was 14.3% (95% CI, 11.4-17.2) for beef cows and 12.9% (95% CI, 10.0-15.8) for beef heifers. There was no significant difference in the estimated prevalence between the two animal types. There was no significant difference in the animal level prevalence of N. caninum infection among different herd sizes. None of the herd demographic or management variables was significantly associated with the seropositivity to N. caninum infection. In conclusion, these results show that N. caninum infection is common among beef herds across Uruguay. Since the beef industry is one of the key industries in Uruguay, the

  15. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Dengue seroprevalence, seroconversion and risk factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Paul, Kishor Kumar; Hossain, Shakhawat; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Drebot, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) activity has been reported in Dhaka, Bangladesh since the early 1960s with the greatest burden of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever cases observed in 2000. Since this time, the intensity of dengue activity has varied from year to year, and its determining factors remained relatively unknown. In light of such gaps in knowledge, the main objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of seroprevalence and seroconversion among the surveyed population, and establish the individual/household level risk factors for the presence of DENV antibodies among all age groups of target populations in the city of Dhaka. Methodology/Principal findings Considering the lack of fine scale investigations on the factors driving dengue activity in Bangladesh, a prospective cohort study involving serological surveys was undertaken with participant interviews and blood donation across the city of Dhaka in 2012. Study participants were recruited from 12 of 90 wards and blood samples were collected during both the pre-monsoon (n = 1125) and post-monsoon (n = 600) seasons of 2012. The findings revealed that the seroprevalence in all pre-monsoon samples was 80.0% (900/1125) while the seropositivity in the pre-monsoon samples that had paired post-monsoon samples was 83.3% (503/600). Of the 97 paired samples that were negative at the pre-monsoon time point, 56 were positive at the post-monsoon time point. This resulted in a seroprevalence of 93.2% (559/600) among individuals tested during the post-monsoon period. Seroprevalence trended higher with age with children exhibiting a lower seropositivity as compared to adults. Results from this study also indicated that DENV strains were the only flaviviruses circulating in Dhaka in 2012. A multivariate analysis revealed that age, possession of indoor potted plants, and types of mosquito control measures were significant factors associated with DENV seroprevalence; while attendance in public

  17. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  18. Seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies among populations at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Baki Abdullah Al-Robasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to assess the Leptospira IgG antibodies seroprevalence among populations at risk in Hodeida Governorate, Yemen. Methods: A total of 200 subjects (136 males and 64 females participated in this study during June and December 2012.They represented 10 sewage workers, 22 butchers, 16 construction workers, 108 agriculture workers, 20 hospital sanitary workers and 24 blood donors. Predesigned questionnaires and consent were taken from each individual. Blood samples were collected from subjects, and the sera were tested by ELISA to detect the presence of leptospira IgG antibodies. The possible related factors for seropositivity were evaluated. Results: Leptospira IgG antibodies were found positive in 42% of the participants. The highest seroprevalence level was detected in sewage workers (80%, followed by hospital sanitary workers (60%, construction workers (37.5% and farmers (37%. The lowest of antibodies was in butchers (36.4%. Seroprevalence among blood donors was 25% which was comparatively less than of the populations at risk. Seropositivity of Leptospira IgG antibodies was found higher among males than females (42.6% vs. 34.4%. The highest Leptospira antibodies seropositivity was among elderly participants (81.8%. The seropositivity of antibodies in population live in rural and urban areas was not significant differences. As for closely contacting with animals, the highest antibodies were discovered in people who had goats (80% and sheep (60.9%. Conclusion: Individuals engaged in risk activities are often exposed to leptospiral infection. Therefore, control and prevention policy toward these people are necessary. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(1: 1-4

  19. Seroprevalence of rubella in school girls and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.

  20. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  1. [Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in Puente Piedra, Lima, in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A; LaRochelle, Patrick; Campos, Kalina; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Ricaldi, Jessica N

    2011-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a disease widely prevalent in tropical areas, but may also be present in urban areas. The present study aims to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira in the district of Puente Piedra, where there have been cases of severe leptospirosis in recent years. We collected data related to risk factors associated with leptospirosis and blood samples from 250 participants, selected by random sampling. We found a high prevalence of risk factors in the population and using the microscopic agglutination test, antibodies were found in only 3 participants (1.2%).

  2. Family Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Family Open House Join us for an afternoon of science fun. The Fermilab Family Open House is a party for children of all ages to learn about the world of physics. The Open House is supported by Open House? Check out our YouTube video to learn more! Explore physics concepts with hands-on

  3. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Tham Chi; Dinh, Pham Ngoc; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tan, Luong Minh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thanh, Le Thi; Mai, Le Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian-human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam.

  4. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1 among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Chi Dung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.

  5. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies to the Hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in a hospital-based population in Jaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Smita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV infections are a serious global and public health problem. To assess the magnitude and dynamics of disease transmission and for its prevention and control, the study of its seroprevalence is important. A private hospital catering to the needs of a large population represents an important center for serological surveys. Available data, at Rajasthan state level, on the seroprevalence of these bloodborne pathogens is also very limited. Objective: A study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and antibodies to hepatitis C (anti-HCV Ab and human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV Ab in both the sexes and different age groups in a hospital-based population in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Serum samples collected over a period of 14 months from patients attending OPDs and admitted to various IPDs of Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, were subjected within the hospital-based lab for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab and anti-HIV Ab using rapid card tests. This was followed by further confirmation of all reactive samples by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (Abbott AxSYM at Super Religare Laboratories (formerly SRL Ranbaxy Reference Lab, Mumbai. Results: The seroprevalence of HBsAg was found to be 0.87%, of anti-HCV Ab as 0.28%, and of anti-HIV Ab as 0.35%. Conclusion: The study throws light on the magnitude of viral transmission in the community in the state of Rajasthan and provides a reference for future studies.

  6. Innova House - Ottawa`s advanced house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    A pilot program was developed to provide the housing industry with a means to field test innovative technologies, products and building systems, and to evaluate their overall performance. Under Canada`s Advanced House Program, ten demonstration houses were designed, built and monitored. Ottawa`s Innova House, was one of the ten houses built for this program. The innovative energy saving features of the house included (1) air distribution with small diameter ducts and an electronically commutated motor, a 2.6 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system, (3) an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) with free-cooling mode, (4) a 94 per cent efficient integrated gas heating and hot water system, (5) airtight drywall construction, (6) CFC-free exterior insulation, (7) a natural-gas-engine heat pump for air conditioning, (8) a prototype sealed combustion gas range and clothes dryer, and (9) a manifold plumbing system to conserve water. It was designed to consume one half of the energy consumed in an R-2000 home and one third of the energy of a conventional house. Several of the mechanical elements did not perform at expected levels, (lower than expected efficiencies from the heating and cooling systems and a malfunctioning ERV), nevertheless, overall performance of the house was still very close to the targets. The construction and operation of the house was described. tabs., figs.

  7. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in Iran between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Asadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in different areas of Iran. One thousand and one hundred ovine and 180 caprine samples from 43 sheep and goat flocks in four counties located in the Northeast (Mashhad, Central (Isfahan, Western (Arak, and Southwest (Shiraz Iran were collected randomly between March 2011 and April 2012. The CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit was used to identify specific antibodies against C. burnetii in sheep and goats. The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats was 19.5% and 27.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between sheep and goats (P<0.05. Central Iran significantly had the highest prevalence among the studied areas, especially in goat coxiellosis (23.8% and 40.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. The lowest prevalence in sheep was 12.8% in Northeast Iran while in Western Iran C. burnetii antibodies were absent in goats. The higher prevalence of Q fever in Central Iran may be partly due to persistent favourable conditions to spread C. burnetii in this area including drought and dust storms that originated from neighbouring Iraq and Kuwait. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the relatively high prevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion. Therefore, Q fever could be responsible for considerable numbers of ovine and caprine abortions in Iran.

  9. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  10. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  11. Hepatitis B & C among farmers - a seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravinder; Kaur, Shaminder; Aseri, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Simmi; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Mann, Simarpreet; Kumar, Sumit; Kaur, Sarabjot

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis B & C are the two major causes of chronic liver disease, having the similar parenteral route of transmission, thereby responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Agriculture being the backbone of this part of country, the present study was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of these diseases among the farmers which form the major occupation class in the Malwa belt of Punjab, India. Screening camp was organized at Kisan Mela at the regional station of Punjab Agriculture University at Faridkot, Punjab. Blood samples were collected, and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Total of 1219 subjects, 63% being in the age group of 30-50 years, were screened of which the seroprevalence of HCV & HBV was 5% and 0.32% respectively, and 72% of HCV positive cases were between 30-50 years of age. The study stresses on the need of safe injection practices especially in villages and control on addiction, a more effective vaccination program for HBV, strict check on commercial blood banks, and community education regarding tattooing and sexual behaviour.

  12. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in pregnant females of Hazara division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, N.; Idris, M.; Sarwar, J.; Suleman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), the causative agent of Hepatitis C is prevalent in different countries including Pakistan. Studies have been conducted on various aspects of HCV in Pakistan. The present study was planed to see the prevalence of hepatitis C in pregnant females of Hazara Division. Five hundred pregnant females of reproductive age group from Hazara Division selected by non probability convenient sampling technique were studied from 1, March 2006 to 28, February 2007 at Ayub Teaching Hospital, and District Head quarter Hospitals Abbottabad, Haripur and Mansehra. After initial serving by immunology technique positive cases were confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Essay (ELISA). Seroprevalence of HCV in pregnant females of Hazara division was 8.9%. Females aged from 25-35 constituted the largest group among positive cases. HCV was more prevalent in District Abbottabad as compared to the other districts of Hazara division. Seroprevalence of HCV in pregnant females of Hazara Division is different from the figures already reported form the other parts of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gürbilek, Sevil E; Tel, Osman Y; Keskin, Oktay; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-26

    Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  15. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates, and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award-winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges’ comments.

  16. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  17. The bishops and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellabarger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    According to Catholic social teaching, housing is not a commodity but a human right. To ensure that all people--especially low-income elderly and other vulnerable populations--have access to affordable housing, the church has established a variety of programs, services, and advocacy efforts. Much of this work is based on key concepts: preserving existing housing stock, creating new programs to provide more options for the underserved, empowering residents and communities to deal with housing issues, establishing partnerships to make organizations' efforts more successful, making housing affordable, and ending discrimination in housing. Although church ministries, community groups, the private sector, and other players must work together to find solutions to the housing crisis, federal leadership is essential. Especially with the housing affordability gap growing and the U.S. population aging, the federal government must provide the resources, leadership, and direction for effective housing solutions.

  18. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen......Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  19. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  20. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  1. Hepatitis C among Egyptian Patients Referred for Bone Marrow Examination: Seroprevalence and Analysis of Hematological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaia Mohammed Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a significant public health problem in Egypt where the highest prevalence (14.7% of hepatitis C virus (HCV exists. HCV prevalence is even higher among clinical populations and groups at risk of exposure to infection. Chronic HCV infection is associated with several hematological complications that may necessitate bone marrow (BM examination. The aim of this study is to estimate HCV prevalence among patients referred for BM examination and to explore hematological and BM findings among HCV positive patients. One hundred adult patients referred for BM examination were included in the study and screened for HCV antibodies. Patients’ clinical, hematological, and BM findings were recorded. The seroprevalence of HCV among patients referred for BM examination was 42%. The most common indication for BM examination among HCV positive patients was peripheral cytopenias (88.1%. The most common cytopenia detected was thrombocytopenia (85.7%. The most common diagnosis among HCV positive patients was hypersplenism (52.4% followed by B-lymphoproliferative disorders (19% and then immune thrombocytopenic purpura (11.9%. In conclusion, HCV prevalence among patients referred for BM examination is higher than that estimated in the general population. Patients with unexplained peripheral cytopenias should be tested for HCV.

  2. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies amongst children in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giwa, F J; Olayinka, A T; Ogunshola, F T

    2012-11-06

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Northern Nigeria where there is continuous transmission of wild poliovirus 1 and 3 (WPV1 and 3) and circulating vaccine derived poliovirus 2 (cVDPV2) resulting in a high number of cases of children with acute flaccid paralysis. The seroprevalence of antibodies to polio serotypes which can be used to assess the immune status of children and the effectiveness of the vaccine against poliomyelitis is unknown, despite its endemicity in this part of the world. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in children aged 1-10 years in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. A descriptive, cross sectional, community based study was undertaken in Zaria, North Western Nigeria between 2008 and 2009. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) children aged 1-10 years were enrolled from two local government in Zaria by multistage random sampling method. Demographic data and polio immunisation history were retrieved from parents and caregivers by an interviewer administered questionnaire. Neutralising antibody titres to polioserotypes 1, 2 and 3 were assayed according to the WHO Manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titres ≥ 1:8 were considered positive. The mean age of the 264 children studied was 6.25 years. Fifty-five percent of the children were protected against the three polioserotypes, while 86.4%, 76.1% and 77.3% of children had neutralising antibodies to P1, P2 and P3 polioserotypes respectively. 5 (1.9%) of the children had no antibodies to all the three polioserotypes. Polio antibody seropositivity was significantly associated with higher socioeconomic status and immunisation was the single most important determinant of seropositivity to poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes, though higher than values found in previous studies done in Nigeria, was lower compared to findings in the developed world. The use of more immunogenic vaccines and the balanced use of OPV formulations in SIAs, with

  3. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  4. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  5. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  6. Sero-prevalence status of foot and mouth disease in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and South Gondar zones of North Western Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia to determine the ... sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in cattle at the North and South Gondar zones was ..... Coetzer, W., Thomson, R. and Tustin, C., 1994.

  7. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Four Species of Parrots in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Wei-Peng Tian, Ying-Tian Xu and Xing-Quan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibodies against avian Hepatitis E Virus (avian HEV were detected in 6.43% of examined serum samples (n=311 from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, lovebirds (Agapornis sp., cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in different parrot species varied from 0 to 7.92%. Statistical analysis of the origins of parrots demonstrated that parrots from Weifang city had a higher avian HEV seropositivity (7.84% compared with parrots from Beijing city (5.06%. The seroprevalence in parrots of different age groups varied from 4 to 7.62%. The avian HEV seroprevalence in parrots examined in spring and summer was 7.19 and 5.81%, respectively. This is the first report of avian HEV seroprevalence in four species of parrots in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of HEV infection in parrots in China.

  8. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Khan

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  10. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxocariasis in preschool children in Aragua state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María; García, Héctor; Figuera, Liliana; González, Verónica; Lamas, Félix; López, Katherinne; Mijares, Víctor; Corrales, Yeasiry; Lares, María; Ferrer, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Toxocara canis. In Venezuela, the magnitude of the disease is unknown and seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out in Aragua state. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in eight preschools in three municipalities from Aragua state in Venezuela. A total of 224 children aged between 1 and 6 years were studied (43.8% [98/224] male and 56.2% [126/224] female). Blood samples were obtained for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara spp. using ELISA. Participating families were given a questionnaire and children included in the study were clinically evaluated by paediatricians, and signs and symptoms observed were included in the questionnaires. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected in 29.0% (65/224) of children. The seroprevalence in the different preschools studied ranged between 4.2% and 60.6%. Leucocytosis and eosinophilia were also detected. Analysis of questionnaires indicated that boys were more at risk than girls. Younger children were also more at risk. Other significant risk factors were socio-economic strata (IV and V), inadequate improvised housing, earthen flooring indoors and outdoors and the presence of dogs in preschools. The results from this work show the presence of infection and a high prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara spp. in the studied municipalities and indicate that toxocariasis poses a serious health problem to preschool children in Aragua state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  13. Tetanus Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women in Ben-U Sen Health Center in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: At the aim of this study was to determine the tetanus seroprevalence among pregnant women and childbearing aged woman living in the Ben-u Sen Health Center region that is in lower socio-economical level. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, a team including the staff of health center and several volunteers visited the houses of pregnant women living in the health center coverage region and questionnaires were completed through face to face interviews. The study group included 214 pregnant women. Among them, serum samples of 197 subjects’ were studied for anti-toxic antibody for tetanus. For control, serum samples from 200 women living in the same health center region were collected. It was evaluated as partially protective, protective and longterm protection when tetanus antibody level was 0,01-<0,1 IU/ml, 0,1-<1.0 IU/ml and 1,0 IU/ml and over, respectively. Results: The mean age of the women was 26,4, mean marriage and first pregnancy ages were 17,9 and 18,9, respectively, and 40% of the subjects had never been examined or received follow up by a health center. It was revealed that 25.8% of the subjects were not protected and 74.2% had a full protection level of antibody. Within the control group, the same levels of antibodies were detected in 40.0% and 60.0% of the women, respectively. Conclusion: The study indicates that the immunity levels against tetanus are not satisfactory and every childbearing aged woman should be included in a vaccination program whenever they receive any examination in a health center. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 481-486

  14. Radon in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.A.; Markun, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of 222 Rn and its short-lived daughter products in the air of single-family houses in the midwestern US. During the past year, more than 200 houses were added to the study, resulting in a total of more than 400 houses. So far, results are available for 270 of these houses, equally divided between the Chicago area and Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. 6 refs

  15. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... as social initiatives in the existing stock....

  16. Smart Solar Housing Renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.; Bruijn, de D.M.P.; Vos, S.J.H.; Weijers, K.A.M.; Straver, M.C.W.; Scartezzini, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    After World War II, the demand for houses in the Netherlands was enormous. Large housing construction programs were established in the fifties, sixties and seventies. Nowadays, these houses are facing some societal, economic and technological problems. On the other hand, many of the occupants are

  17. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  20. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in domestic pigs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Montserrat Elemi; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Trujillo, María E; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2017-09-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the country is largely unknown. Here, we assessed the seroprevalence of HEV among swine in different geographical regions in Mexico. Seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine herds in Mexico was evaluated in a representative sample including 945 pig serum specimens from different regions of the country using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine was 59.4%. The northern region of Mexico exhibited the highest seroprevalence in the country (86.6%), while the central and southern regions in Mexico showed lower seroprevalence, 42.7% and 51.5%, respectively. In Mexico, HEV seroprevalence in swine is high. Importantly, northern Mexico showed the highest seroprevalence in the country. Thus, further studies are required to identify the risk factors contributing to HEV transmission among pigs in the country. Assessment of HEV human infection in the context of viral transmission in swine is required to better understand the epidemiology of hepatitis E in Mexico.

  1. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  2. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Housing and Health: The relationship between housing ... The authors in chapter one, deal extensively with historical context of housing and health chronologically ... Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action.

  3. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among pregnant women in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Dipankar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections that facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition by over two fold or more. The development of HSV-2 control methods as a measure to control HIV epidemic in high HSV-2/HIV areas has become a priority. Two out of the six high HIV prevalent states of India are located in the Northeastern region of India. Due to lack of documented HSV-2 studies from this part of the country; there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence and risk factors of HSV-2 infection in this defined population. Methods Pregnant women (n = 1640 aged18 years and above attending antenatal clinics of tertiary referral hospitals in five Northeastern states of India were screened for type specific HSV-2 IgG antibodies. Blood samples were collected from all the participants after conducting interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Results Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 8.7% (142/1640; 95% CI 7.3-10.0 with a highest prevalence of 15.0% (46/307; 95% CI 11.0-19.0 in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Higher seroprevalence was observed with increasing age (Adj. Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.9 for 22-25 years old, AOR 2.29 for > 29 years old. The risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositives were multiple sex partners (AOR 2.5, p = 0.04, condom non-user's (AOR 4.7, p 0.001, early coitarchal age (age of first intercourse 'less than 18 years' (AOR 9.6, p = 0.04, middle income group (AOR 2.1, p = 0.001 compared to low income group and low level of education (AOR 3.7, p = 0.02 compared to higher education. HSV-2 seropositivity was higher among Christians (12.6% compared to Muslims (3.8%. The most frequent clinical symptoms among HSV-2 seropositives were excess vaginal discharge in last one year (53.5%, 76/142 and pelvic pain (26.1%, 37/142. While among subjects with

  5. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  6. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  7. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    The research employed a mixed method approach by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data which were analysed using descriptive analysis in SPSS. The results are ... critical examination of mass housing design in. Nigeria will show ...

  8. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    cellars are emptied regularly in a four weeks interval. Due to a high and variable carbon dioxide production in deep straw litter houses and houses with indoor storage of manure longer than four weeks, we do not recommend to calculate the ventilation flow based on the carbon dioxide concentration......This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o...

  9. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Seroprevalence among Children in Papua New Guinea, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitau, Russel; Sankar Datta, Siddhartha; Patel, Minal K.; Hennessey, Karen; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Sui, Gerard; Lagani, William

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8% of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To decrease the burden of chronic HBV infection, a national 3-dose infant hepatitis B vaccination program was implemented starting in 1989, with a birth dose (BD) added to the schedule in 1992. To assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program, we conducted a serosurvey among children born after vaccine introduction. During 2012–2013, a cross-sectional stratified four-stage cluster survey was conducted to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among children 4–6 years of age. We collected demographic data, vaccination history, and tested children for HBsAg. Of 2,133 participants, 2,130 children had vaccination data by either card or recall: 28% received a BD; 81% received ≥ 3 vaccine doses. Of 2,109 children providing a blood sample, 60 (2.3%) tested positive for HBsAg. This is the largest, most geographically diverse survey of hepatitis B vaccination and HBsAg seroprevalence done in PNG. Progress has been made in PNG toward the Western Pacific Regional goal to reduce the prevalence of chronic HBV infection to < 1% by 2017 among 5-year-old children. Vaccination efforts should be strengthened, including increasing BD coverage and completing the 3-dose series. PMID:25582692

  10. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  11. The seroprevalence of human papillomavirus by immune status and by ethnicity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of cutaneous HPV is unclear and in particular, seroprevalence among individuals with different levels of immune function and ethnicity is unknown. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 409 OTR patients without skin cancer (243 Caucasians and 166 non-Caucasians, 367 individuals with end stage renal failure on dialysis (222 Caucasians and 145 non-Caucasians and 152 immunocompetent (IC individuals without skin cancer (102 Caucasians and 50 non-Caucasians to compare the HPV seroprevalence in patients with differing immune status and ethnicity. In total, seroprevalence data from 928 individuals, all from London, was available. Results Overall, no difference between HPV seroprevalence by immune status was observed (P = 0.3 among Caucasian or among non-Caucasian individuals, with seroprevalence varying from 87% to 94% across different immune status and ethnic groups. Those individuals seropositive to multiple types of one genus were more likely to be seroreactive to multiple types of another genus, independent of immune status or ethnicity. Lower seroprevalence for gammaHPV 4, and to a lesser extent gammaHPV 48, were observed among OTR compared to IC and dialysis patients. Higher seroprevalence against antibodies to betaHPV 93 were detected more frequently in non-Caucasians than Caucasians whereas muHPV 1 and, to a lesser extent, gammaHPV 4 were found more frequently among Caucasians - these findings were independent of immune status. Within non-Caucasian subgroups, the seroprevalence of 8 HPV (alpha-mucosal HPV16 and 13, alpha-cutaneous HPV7 and 2, betaHPV8, 17, 23 and 38 was significantly (P Conclusion We did not observe major disturbance in antibody response between immunocompetent, dialysis and OTR individuals, but

  12. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, C; Pietsch-Escueta, S; Tsang, V; Corral-Leyva, G; Ng, L; Medina, M T; Astudillo, S; Padilla, N; Leyva, P; Martinez, L; Noh, J; Levine, M; del Villasenor, R; Sorvillo, F

    2005-02-01

    Taenia solium Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy and neurological disability in the developing world. It is caused by ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm, T. solium Taeniasis. The prevalence of either T. solium Cysticercosis or T. solium Taeniasis in the United States in populations at risk is poorly understood. The primary objectives of this study are to perform the first study of the sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in an at-risk community in the USA, specifically rural Southern California; identify T. solium Taeniasis positive individuals, and treat positive individuals for the tapeworm T. solium Taeniasis. Community based sero-prevalence study of antibodies to T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in 449 subjects living in a federally funded, predominantly Hispanic residential community; and in two migrant farm worker camps in rural Ventura County, California, USA. For this study, fingerstick blood samples were obtained. Serum immunoblots for both T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis were performed. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis was 1.8% and the sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis by serum immunoblot was 1.1%. Taenia solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis antibodies were not detected in children. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis was highest in the migrant farm worker community. Handwashing frequency was correlated with T. solium Taeniasis sero-positivity. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in this population, as detected by serum immunoblot, approximates the prevalence in some endemic areas of Latin America. Importantly, most patients likely had prior exposure, not active infection. This study establishes for the first time, the relative sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in at-risk populations in the United States.

  13. Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies, how to estimate how much they mitigate the green house effect gases emissions; Eficiencia energetica y uso de energias renovables, como estimar cuanto mitigan las emisiones de gases efecto invernadoro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica, A.C. [Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    In the last years much attention has been given to the polluting gas discharges, in special of those that favor the green house effect (GHE), due to the negative sequels that its concentration causes to the atmosphere, particularly as the cause of the increase in the overall temperature of the planet, which has been denominated world-wide climatic change. There are many activities that allow to lessen or to elude the GHE gas emissions, and with the main ones the so-called projects of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) have been structured. In order to carry out a project within the frame of the MDL, it is necessary to evaluate with quality, precision and transparency, the amount of emissions of GHE gases that are reduced or suppressed thanks to their application. For that reason, in our country we tried different methodologies directed to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions that are attenuated or eliminated by means of the application of EE/RE projects. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos se ha puesto mucha atencion a las emisiones de gases contaminantes, en especial de los que favorecen el efecto invernadero (GEI), debido a las secuelas negativas que su concentracion ocasiona a la atmosfera, particularmente como causante del aumento en la temperatura general del planeta, en lo que se ha denominado cambio climatico mundial. Existen muchas actividades que permiten aminorar o eludir las emisiones de GEI, y con las principales se han estructurado los llamados proyectos de eficiencia energetica y energia renovables (EE/ER). Para llevar a cabo un proyecto dentro del marco del MDL, es necesario evaluar con calidad, precision y transparencia, la cantidad de emisiones de GEI que se reducen o suprimen gracias a su aplicacion. Por ello, en nuestro pais ensayamos diferentes metodologias encaminadas a estimar las emisiones de CO{sub 2} que se atenuan o eliminan mediante la aplicacion de proyectos de EE/ER.

  14. Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam: Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Quan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited.In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam.The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137, Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136, Dak Lak province (n = 137, and Hue City (n = 136. The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%. The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58-18.02, 13.42% (7.16-19.68, 7.97% (3.56-12.38, and 3.72% (1.75-5.69 in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2-4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue. We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year.In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and

  15. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  16. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among pregnant women in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Mahanta, Jagadish; Walia, Kamini; Saikia, Lahari; Akoijam, Brogen S; Jampa, Lobsang; Kharkongar, Alia; Zomawia, Eric

    2011-11-23

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections that facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition by over two fold or more. The development of HSV-2 control methods as a measure to control HIV epidemic in high HSV-2/HIV areas has become a priority. Two out of the six high HIV prevalent states of India are located in the Northeastern region of India. Due to lack of documented HSV-2 studies from this part of the country; there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence and risk factors of HSV-2 infection in this defined population. Pregnant women (n = 1640) aged18 years and above attending antenatal clinics of tertiary referral hospitals in five Northeastern states of India were screened for type specific HSV-2 IgG antibodies. Blood samples were collected from all the participants after conducting interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 8.7% (142/1640; 95% CI 7.3-10.0) with a highest prevalence of 15.0% (46/307; 95% CI 11.0-19.0) in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Higher seroprevalence was observed with increasing age (Adj. Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.9 for 22-25 years old, AOR 2.29 for > 29 years old). The risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositives were multiple sex partners (AOR 2.5, p = 0.04), condom non-user's (AOR 4.7, p women of Northeast India is relatively low. The generation of awareness among high risk groups may have played key role to limit the infection. The role of vaccination against HSV-2 in near future and elimination of HSV-2 viral shedding along with genital tract inflammation in high HIV/HSV-2 areas may be an option for initiating successful intervention strategies to reduce the transmission and acquisition of HIV infection in Northeast India.

  1. The Housing Finance Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Green; Susan M. Wachter

    2007-01-01

    While other countries dismantled their segmented housing finance systems and linked housing finance to capital markets through deregulated depositories, the US linked housing finance to capital markets through depository deregulation and securitization. Elsewhere securitization has not developed. The US provided the underpinnings for its mortgage security infrastructure with the creation of FNMA in 1938 and in order to create liquidity in the mortgage market required the standardization of mo...

  2. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...... for everyone. In 1924 he designed a house for himself and his family: one of the first examples of functionalism in Denmark....

  3. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus in dairy cattle in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Skjerve, Eystein; Asmare, Kassahun

    2018-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1379 dairy cattle sampled from 149 dairy herds in central, southern and western Ethiopia during September 2011 to May 2012. Serum samples were examined using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data on hypothesised risk factors were collected from farm records where available and semi-structured questionnaire-based interview. The apparent seroprevalence of exposure to SBV was 56.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.9-59.3). True prevalence adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA kit used was 58.3% (95% CI 55.7-60.9). Among the sampled herds, 82.6% (95% CI: 75.5-88.3) had at least one seropositive animal. Seropositive cattle were found in all of the 15 conurbations studied. Adult dairy cows [odds ratio (OR)=1.6] were more commonly affected than young heifers. Dairy cattle kept in commercial (OR=1.6) and breeding farms (OR=3.5) and Midland agroecology (OR=2.5) showed statistically significant seroconversion than cattle kept under small-holder dairy farms and Highland agroecology respectively (p<0.05). Reproductive disorders including abortion, retention of the fetal membranes, and metritis were associated with serostatus of SBV. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of SBV is high and widely distributed in the studied parts of Ethiopia. This being the first study of its kind on SBV in Ethiopia, further

  4. Asymmetric information and list-price reductions in the housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2013-01-01

    In housing markets with asymmetric information list prices may signal unobserved properties of the house or the seller. Asymmetric information is the starting point for many models for the housing market. In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of list-price reductions on the time houses remain

  5. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-04-03

    No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vega, Pedro Pablo; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Gutierrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi 2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118). Fifty-two percent (61/118) of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato . Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%), thrombocytopenia (70%), and hemorrhage (14%) were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75) of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75) of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75) of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75) of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75) of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1-3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp.), tick infestation (OR = 3.13), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36). In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia.

  8. Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Martínez-Vega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118. Fifty-two percent (61/118 of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%, thrombocytopenia (70%, and hemorrhage (14% were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75 of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75 of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75 of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75 of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75 of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1–3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp., tick infestation (OR = 3.13, and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36. In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia.

  9. [Seroprevalence of Q fever among the adult population of Lanzarote (Canary Islands)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Velasco, F; Rodríguez Pérez, J C; Otero Ferrio, I; Borobio Enciso, M V

    1992-09-01

    Q fever is an endemic zoonosis in the Canary Islands. In 1986, we detected, in a pilot study, residual antibodies of the infection in 3% of the population from Lanzarote. In 1989, we performed a new study in order to assess seroprevalence of Q fever among the adult native population from the island. We studied 390 human serums obtained from an statistically representative sample. Age ranged from 30 to 64 years. Out of 390 serums, 196 (50.25%) were obtained from men and 194 (49.74%) from women. The serological technique used was the fixation of complement using Coxiella burnetii antigens in phase II. Titres equal or higher than 1/8 were considered positive. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to seroprevalence rates considering sex, age, nor living in or outside the island's capital city. However, when dividing the island's territory in three areas (north, centre and south), and assessing independently their respective seroprevalences, we observed relatively higher seroprevalences in the furthest areas (13.3% in the north and 13.5% in the south) than in the central area (4.7%), although only the higher seroprevalence in the south reached statistical significance when compared with the mean prevalence. Probably, these observations indicate that, although Q fever is extended all over the island, it is a more frequent infection in rural areas of Lanzarote, at the north and the south, than in the central area, where the main urban areas are located.

  10. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  11. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence rate among Eastern Mediterranean and middle eastern countries; A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Ranaei, Alireza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a hepatotropic virus is one of the major global health concerns. Autochthonous HEV transmitted by oral fecal-route in poor sanitation conditions as well as vertical and rarely blood transfusion. HEV occurrence is more common in developing countries and recently increased in developed countries too. Middle East (ME) and Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) of WHO have been an endemic region for HEV infection. In this regard, we aimed to design a systematic review and pooled analysis to determine seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibody in ME and EMR countries. By using PRISMA guideline, data were collected from papers identified through PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus and also from some national and regional databases from January 1990 to June 2016. Serum anti-HEV antibody (IgG) used for HEV prevalence estimation. HEV prevalence in the ME, WHO EMR countries, and in total, calculated by each country population size based on 2015 UN report. overall, 62 papers with a total sample size of 31,673 were fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included in our project. Considering anti-HEV antibody (IgG), prevalence of HEV infection in the countries of ME, WHO EMR and in total were 12.17% (95% CI: 11.79-12.57), 11.81% (95% CI: 11.43-12.21), and 11.87% (95% CI: 11.52-12.23) respectively. HEV seroprevalence in WHO EMR and ME countries has high rate and more considerations are needed for the prevention and control of this infection especially in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  13. A Painted House In Ankara: Dedebayrak House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Karaaslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservative family lifestyle in the Ottoman State affected the ways that houses were planned and decorated. Different decorative programs emerged with major differences in each period. New techniques and styles began to be seen in the 18th century thanks to the influence of the West. This article will focus on the decoration of Dedebayrak House in Ankara. Decoration in the architecture found within the boundaries of Ankara consist mostly of geometrical or floral decorations and various inscriptions. The Dedebayrak House not only has these kind of decorations, but also it has these decorations in its architectural descriptions, so it makes this house the only one to have survived in Ankara. Moreover, this building is especially important as the décor included work belonging to Nakkaş Mustafa. However, these decorative features do not remain today. The situation in Turkey is such that architecture is not conserved, which leads to many historically important buildings vanishing. Neither local authorities, nor the owner of these buildings look after these buildings properly, leading their specific historical features to be lost. This situation both damages the urban fabric and harms the historical heritage of the city. Therefore, decorative features in the building will be analysed both on their own and compared to other buildings in Ankara in order to create an overall picture.

  14. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  15. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, J; Klukowski, M; Debkowska, K; Kilon, J; Citko, D; Flisiak, M; Oleksinska, M; Kaczmarski, M

    2016-08-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is considered to be a factor involved in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This cross-sectional study examined the seroprevalence of HP in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in respect to OSAS severity and in reference to other common pediatric medical conditions. Overnight polysomnography with pH-metry (PSG) was performed at a Sleep Laboratory (in the years 2008-2011). OSAS severity was determined based on Obstructive Apnea Index (OAI). Subjects were classified into primary snoring group (OAI system, food hypersensitivity, and gastrointestinal tract]. Analyses were performed by nonparametric statistical tests. HP seropositivity was 10.4% (12/115) in the SDB group and 11.6% (45/387) in the reference group. HP positive and negative subjects did not differ in PSG, acid gastro-esophageal reflux index nor in age, sex, nutritional status (BMI-z score), and hematological indices in the SDB group. Seropositivity was found in 16.7% of the primary snoring group, 10.2% of mild-moderate OSAS, and in 11.1% of severe OSAS (chi(2) p = 0.832). Children with SDB are not more predisposed to a chronic HP infection than children with other common chronic pediatric conditions. HP seropositivity does not influence OSAS severity but possible infection should none-the-less be considered on a case-by-case basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human toxocarosis. Its seroprevalence in the City of La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NE Radman

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is very common in dogs throughout the world. It is the primary cause of visceral larva migrans (VLM in humans. Soil contaminated with T. canis embryonated eggs is the main source of infection of man. Our objective was to describe Toxocara seroprevalence in humans in the city of La Plata associated with some determinants such asage, presence or absence of clinical manifestations and risk factors. Blood samples were collected at random from 156 patients of different sex and age, with and without clinical symptoms compatible with the disease. The diagnostic technique ELISA test was performed with the Bordier Affinity Products Commercial Kit, using excretory-secretory Toxocara antigen with a sensitivity higher than 90%. The values were positive in 39% of the studied population. In the analysis according to age, the younger group presented significant differences with respect to the older one (Chi-square p<0.05. Positive patients presented clinical symptoms compatible with the disease (84%, and 41% presented some risk factor. The level of positivity obtained indicates a certain risk of being infectes mainly in patients younger than 15 years old. The authors agree that an early identification and treatment of VLM may save a life.

  17. Seroprevalance of rickettsioses among healthy individuals in Mersin province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Alakus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies relevant to rikettsial biology, its pathogenesis and diagnosis  have increase due to the increase of rickettsioses incidents in the world, particularly over the the past two decades. We investigated the seroprevalence of the ricketsia disease in the Mersin province of Turkey. Methods: This study included 450 healthy individuals aged 5 years and over, who had attended family health centers in Mersin city center. Serum samples collected during November 2011 were evaluated. Rickettsia antibody assays were used indirect immunofluorescenc techniques. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis, the Chi-Square Test and the Student T Test for comparison of variables. Results: The prevelance of ricketsia positivity was determined as 9.8%. The seropositivities were higher in males, in the unemployed, in the occupational risk groups, in people who live in rural regions, in people who work in gardens/farms, in picnickers, in countryside walkers, in hunters, in owners of livestock, in people with no history of rash diseases. When the relationship of spotted fever group (SFG seropositivity the risk factors was investigated, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: According to our study rickettsial disease is detected in Mersin and it was seen that the rickettsiosis disease need for more comprehensive studies to show the prevalence in all of Turkey.Keywords: Rickettsioses, seroprevelance, antibodies

  18. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in the UK farming population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meader, E; Thomas, D; Salmon, R; Sillis, M

    2010-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a zoonosis that can be acquired by the consumption of contaminated food or water, or via person-to-person spread. However, little is known about the transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the UK. We investigated the epidemiology of indigenous hepatitis E infection using the PHLS Farm Cohort, a sentinel group with a history of close contact with a range of domestic animals. Ten of the 413 subjects tested were positive for hepatitis E IgG antibodies (2.4%). Seroprevalence peaked in those aged 51 to 60 years (relative risk 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.5). Male participants (relative risk 3.6, 95% CI: 0.6-21.2) and those from farms in the Hereford area of the United Kingdom (relative risk 2.7, 95% CI: 0.8-8.4), an area of mixed livestock farming, were more likely to have serological evidence of previous HEVs exposure, although these findings were not statistically significant. Exposure to pigs, or water from a private supply, was not identified as a significant risk factor. The results of this study suggest that UK farming populations are exposed to HEV, but the predominant route of transmission remains elusive. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Suryamani; Padmaja, I Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of fetal death is one of the tragedies that confront the physician providing obstetric care. Among the various agents associated with infections of pregnancy, viruses are the most important followed by bacteria and protozoa. Among protozoal infections in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis is reported to have a high incidence, sometimes causing fetal death. The study was intended to observe the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presenting with bad obstetric history (BOH). A total of 92 antenatal women were included in the study (80 in the study group and 12 in control group). The study group comprised of antenatal women with BOH in the age group of 20-35 years. Antenatal women with Rh incompatibility, pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disorders and syphilis were not included in the study. The control group included women in reproductive age group without BOH. All the samples were screened by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for Toxoplasma specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Of the 80 antenatal women in the study group, 36 (45%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies (P habits, illiteracy, socio-economic status and residential status were also studied. We conclude that toxoplasmosis during pregnancy causes congenital fetal infection with possible fetal loss. ELISA was found to be a sensitive serological test for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women with BOH. Major cause of fetal loss in BOH cases in the study group was abortion.

  20. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H

    2013-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in tropical Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Eddy, K; Hodgen, A N; Lopez, R I; Turner, K J

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in different socio-economic groups of the tropical population of Venezuela. The lack of definitive independent diagnostic criteria for toxocariasis required the establishment of operational upper limits of normality for Toxocara ELISA values, based upon their log-normalized distribution in a presumptive "non-toxocariasis" sub-population. Only 1.8% of urban subjects of medium-high socio-economic level were considered to be clearly positive in Toxocara ELISA, compared to 20.0% of urban slum dwellers, 25.6% rural subsistence farmers and 34.9% Amazon Indians. As the test was performed using excretory-secretory antigen, and under conditions of competitive inhibition by soluble extracts of non-homologous parasites, co-infection by common intestinal helminths, protozoa or other organisms did not give rise to false positive results. However, strong cross-reactivity with Onchocerca volvulus may have influenced the prevalence figure obtained for the Amazon Indians. These results indicate that T. canis is yet another parasite that is widely distributed in economically underprivileged tropical populations.

  2. [Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the child population of Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nestor A; Salvador, Alexandra; Vargas, Paola E; Zapatier, Jorge A; Alvarez, José

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies among the children population of Ecuador and the possible relation with the presence of recurring gastrointestinal symptoms. Children randomly selected from different geographical areas were included and the presence of serum antibodies was tested using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The gastrointestinal symptoms between patients with serum antibodies and those without serum antibodies were analyzed, excluding children who had not been treated for intestinal parasites before. A total of 257 children was studied, with a mean age of 8.3 years (age range between 6 months and 16 years). A seroprevalence of 63.03% was found, the most affected being the children from the Andes mountains, in the range 0 to 4 years old. A significant relation was found between the presence of anti-Hp antibodies and symptoms (p=0.001). There is a high prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies among the Ecuadorian children, related with the presence of recurring gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  4. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  5. Housing consumption and urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Young, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa places immense pressure on urban services to meet the needs of the burgeoning urban population. Although several country- or city-level reports offer insight into the housing challenges of specific places, little is known about regional patterns affecting housing markets. This lack of clear knowledge on the relative importance of the factors influen...

  6. House of tomorrow today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, J.J.N.; Ham, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The House of Tomorrow Today is a project focussing on a healthy, energy producing dwelling to be realized with today¿s proven technology. The project aims at an energy plus level based on the principles as formulated in SmartBuilding (Slimbouwen) [1] ActiveHouse [2] and HoTT [3] It can be seen as

  7. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  8. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  9. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  10. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, and Helicobacter pylori in Rural Communities of the Bolivian Chaco, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolmi, Irene; Spinicci, Michele; Mayaregua, David Rojo; Barahona, Herlan Gamboa; Mantella, Antonia; Lara, Yunni; Roselli, Mimmo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Corti, Giampaolo; Tolari, Francesco; Pinckert, Joaquín Monasterio; Dalton, Harry R; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    In the Bolivian Chaco, south-east of Bolivia, studies conducted over the past three decades reported hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Helicobacter pylori seroprevalences above 90% and 60%, respectively. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence was previously found to be 6-7% but is probably an underestimate because of the poor sensitivity of the assays used. In November 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 263 healthy volunteers from two rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco, aiming to reassess HAV, HEV, and H. pylori seroprevalence 10-20 years following the previous surveys. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence was 95%, with universal exposure after the first decade of life; HEV seroprevalence was considerably higher (31-35%) than that previously reported; H. pylori seroprevalence was 59%, with an age-dependent distribution. The high prevalence of these infections suggests that major efforts are still needed to reduce fecal-oral transmission and to improve human health in the Bolivian Chaco.

  11. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  12. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  13. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... characteristics which in the long run have proven to be unfortunate both in terms in terms of durability and architectural quality. Today there is a focus on the development of more open and functionally non-determined housing. A number of new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen reveal a variety...... of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...

  14. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges' comments. The purpose of this report is to assess the energy performance of the 2011 EVHA winners as well as align the EVHA Program with the Building America Program.

  15. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population. Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5 than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9. The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1 in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7 in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.

  16. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhussein Shakurnia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...... differences in antibody seroprevalences among communal land goats from the different agro-ecological zones (Natural regions IIb and III: 80 and 96.7%, respectively; Natural region IV: 65.9%; Natural region V: 45%; and Natural region III had a significantly higher seroprevalence than IV and V. The highest...... in sheep from a large commercial farm (10%) was significantly lower than that of sheep reared under the communal grazing system (80%). Overall, significantly higher proportions of seropositive animals had antibody titres of 1:50 (34.2% of 225) and 1:100 (44% of 225) as compared to the 9.8% and 12...

  18. HIV seroprevalence among hospital workers in Kinshasa, Zaire: lack of association with occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J.M.; Francis, H.; Quinn, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study of seroprevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus involving 2384 (96%) of Mama Yemo Hospital's (Kinshasa, Zaire) 2492 personnel found 152 (6.4%) to be seropositive. Prevalence was higher among women than among men (8.1% vs 5.2%); in women peak seroprevalence (13.9%) occurred in 20 to 29-year-olds. Workers most likely to be seropositive were those who were relatively young, those who were unmarried, those reporting a blood transfusion or hospitalization during the previous ten years, and those receiving medical injections during the previous three years. Medical, administrative, and manual workers had similar seroprevalence (6.5%, 6.4%, and 6.0%, respectively), and seropositivity was not associated with any measure of patient, blood, or needle contact. These findings are consistent with other hospital-based studies indicating low risks for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

  19. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  20. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  1. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  2. Comparison of chromatography and Sep-pak methods for estimating the radiochemical purity of I-123 and I-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG), synthesised in house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine (I-123 or I-131) labelled mlBG has been prepared routinely in-house in a number of radiopharmacy laboratories. The radiochemical purity can be estimated by several methods. Available literature suggests that the results of chronatographic analysis are comparable with electrophoresis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods which are considered as gold-standard procedures. However, due to the cost involved with these equipments most of the radiopharmacy laboratories are not fortunate enough to have them. The present study compares the validity of reverse-phase Sep-pak cartridge method against chromatographic technique. We analysed twenty four preparations of mIBG by both Sep-pak and chromatography methods (20 batches of I-123 mD3G and 4 batches of I-131 mIBG). Chromatographic analysis, which takes >2hrs, was performed with Whatman No 1/ n-butanol: acetic acid: water (60:15:25 v/v) and the activity associated with the peaks for free iodine and I-123 mD3G were measured. Sep-pak cartridge method, which takes less than 10 min, was performed as follows: the cartridge was activated by injecting 5 mL ethanol (200% pure) followed by flushing with 5mL distilled water. A sample (0.1mL) of radioiodine labelled mD3G was applied to the column and was eluted with 5mL distilled water. Subsequently two aliquots of 5mL solution containing tetrahydrofuran: (0.1M) sodium dihydrogen phosphate (25:75v/v) were passed through and the activity in each elute was measured. Analysing the results by Student's paired t-test for I-123 mlBG using the Sep-pak method gave a mean + SD of 98.8+ 0.6 % which correlated well (r 2 = 0.780) with the results obtained by the chromatographic method 99.3+0.5% (p <0.05). The results obtained for free I-123 by the two methods were 1.09 + 0.56% and 0.6 + 0.5% (p <0.05) respectively. The parameters did not differ significantly when I-131, instead of I-123, was used to synthesise mIBG. The results clearly indicate that the Sep

  3. Seroprevalence and Associated Factors of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types among Men in the Multinational HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Rollison, Dana E; Wang, Wei; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Recently a 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) prophylactic vaccine was licensed. Seroprevalence prior to vaccine dissemination is needed for monitoring vaccine effectiveness over time. Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of 9vHPV types in men. To investigate the seroprevalence of 9vHPV vaccine types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment were tested for antibodies against nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based multiplex serologic assay. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence and logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with seropositivity of type-specific and grouped (i.e. 9vHPV, high-risk 9vHPV, low risk 9vHPV, and five-additional) HPV types. Overall, 28.3% of men were seropositive for at least one of the 9vHPV vaccine types, 14.0% for at least one of the seven high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and 11.2% for at least one of the five high-risk types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) not included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and 17.4% for at least one of the low-risk types (6/11). In multivariate analyses, odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for country of residence, age, marital status, smoking, number of anal sex lifetime partners, compared to men with no anal sex lifetime partners, men with ≥2 partners were more likely to be seropositive for grouped HPV [(9vHPV: AOR 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.54), (high-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.18; 95%CI: 1.05-4.50) and (low-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.12; 95%CI: 1.12-4.03)], and individual HPV types 6, 16, 33 and 58 with AORs ranging from 2.19 to 7

  4. Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Jia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV seroprevalence data have not previously been reported for different geographical regions of China. This study investigated the cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in Chinese women. Methods Population-based samples of women were enrolled from 2006 to 2007 in 3 rural and 2 urban areas of China. Each consenting woman completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum antibodies were detected using a competitive Luminex immunoassay that measures antibodies to type-specific, neutralizing epitopes on the virus-like particles. Results A total of 4,731 women (median age 35, age range 14-54 were included, of which 4,211 were sexually active women (median age 37 and 520 virgins (median age 18. Low risk HPV 6 was the most common serotype detected (7.3%, followed by HPV 16 (5.6%, HPV 11 (2.9%, and HPV 18 (1.9%. Overall HPV seroprevalence to any type was significantly higher among sexually active women (15.8% than virgins (2.5% (P = 0.005. Overall seroprevalence among sexually active women gradually increased with age. Women from rural regions had significantly lower overall seroprevalence (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, versus metropolitan regions, P  = 4 partners versus 1 partner, P  Conclusions HPV seroprevalence differed significantly by age, geography, and sexual behavior within China, which all should be considered when implementing an optimal prophylactic HPV vaccination program in China.

  5. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran.

  6. Housing And Mounting Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  7. Poliovirus seroprevalence before and after interruption of poliovirus transmission in Kano State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Verma, Harish; Craig, Kehinde T; Nwaze, Eric; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Gwarzo, Garba Dayyabu; Gajida, Auwalu U; Weldon, William C; Steven Oberste, M; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W

    2016-09-30

    In September 2015, Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries after more than 12months had passed since the detection of last wild poliovirus case in the country on 24 July 2014. We are presenting here a report of two polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in September 2013 and October 2014, respectively, in the Kano state of northern Nigeria. Health facility based seroprevalence surveys were undertaken at Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. Parents or guardians of children aged 6-9months, 36-47months, 5-9years and 10-14years in 2013 and 6-9months and 19-22months (corresponding to 6-9months range at the time of 2013 survey) in 2014 presenting to the outpatient department, were approached for participation, screened for eligibility and asked to provide informed consent. A questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected for polio neutralization assay. Among subjects aged 6-9months in the 2013 survey, seroprevalence was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51-66%) to poliovirus type 1, 42% (95% CI 34-50%) to poliovirus type 2, and 52% (95% CI 44-60%) to poliovirus type 3. Among children 36-47months and older, seroprevalence was 85% or higher for all three serotypes. In 2014, seroprevalence in 6-9month infants was 72% (95% CI 65-79%) for type 1, 59% (95% CI 52-66%) for type 2, and 65% (95% CI 57-72%) for type 3 and in 19-22months, 80% (95% CI 74-85%), 57% (49-63%) and 78% (71-83%) respectively. Seroprevalence was positively associated with history of increasing oral poliovirus vaccine doses. There was significant improvement in seroprevalence in 2014 over the 2013 levels indicating a positive impact of recent programmatic interventions. However the continued low seroprevalence in 6-9month age is a concern and calls for improved immunization efforts to sustain the polio-free Nigeria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  10. Radon concentration distribution mapping in a small detached house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, Monika; Moravcsik, Attila; Holy, Karol; Hutka, Miroslav; Hola, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Radon activity concentration was investigated in an older, single storey detached house. The rooms of the house are in contact with the bedrock. The house is fitted with plastic windows and populated mostly during the summer. Integral (Raduet) and continuous (AlphaGUARD) methods were used to measure the radon activity concentration. Average radon and thoron activity concentrations in the house were 150 Bq/m 3 and 40 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was significant only during the summer months when a decrease of radon activity concentration was recorded due to an increased ventilation rate. In the autumn and winter months, the impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was relatively small - up to 20 %. The increases in radon activity concentration after the room had been thoroughly ventilated were analysed in order to estimate the ventilation rate and the rate of radon supply into the house. (orig.)

  11. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A structural model for the housing and credit markets in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Nobili; Francesco Zollino

    2012-01-01

    We estimate a fully-fledged structural system for the housing market in Italy, taking into account the multi-fold link with bank lending to both households and construction firms. The model allows the house supply to vary in the short run and the banking sector to affect the equilibrium in the housing market, through its effect on housing supply and demand. We show that house prices react mostly to standard drivers such as disposable income, expected inflation and demographic pressures. Lendi...

  13. City of Ljubljana: Its housing, population and housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Filipovič

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of key aspect of housing in Municipality of Ljubljana. The characteristics of households, of housing and their relation influence the housing situation in the city. Characteristic of housing refer mainly to quality of the dwellings, affordability and correspondence to the wishes of the inhabitants. The second important dimensions are households and their characteristics. In Europe and Slovenia increase in number of household can be observed, which in turn are becoming smaller. The housing policy has a role in establishing a balance between households and housing, i.e. ensuring that housing corresponds to the needs of individual households and to their number. For achieving this, knowledge and appropriate data are of vital importance. In the article we present the results of the Housing survey 2005. We observe housing conditions in a comparative perspective (Ljubljana in comparison to Maribor, Slovenia and selected European cities and according to three dimensions: housing fund, households and housing conditions.

  14. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  15. HDV Seroprevalence in HBsAg Positive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A. R.; Mahmood, K.; Butt, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of HDV seroprevalence and the demographic characteristics or HBsAg-HDV positive patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Medical Unit-III, Karachi, from March 2007 to April 2011. Methodology: Patients with positive HBsAg were included in the study. Those having co-infection with HCV or HIV, autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, Wilson's disease and haemochromatosis were excluded. After detailed history and physical examination all the patients underwent laboratory workup including complete blood count, liver function test, viral profile (HAV, HCV, HIV and anti-HDV) and prothrombin time. While in selected patients, HBc (core) antibodies, ultrasound abdomen, serum iron profile, ANA and liver biopsy were also carried out whenever needed to establish a clinical stage of liver disease. Results: There were 374 patients with 266 (71.1%) males and 108 (28.9%) females with overall mean age of 31.64 +- 8.66 years. Overall frequency of anti-HDV antibodies positivity was found in 28.1% (n = 105) patients. HDV seropositivity was slightly more prevalent in males as compared to females (28.57% vs. 26.57%). HDV seropositivity frequency was significantly higher in patients who presented with acute hepatitis/hepatic failure as compared to other clinical diagnoses (p = 0.027) and in those sub-sets of patients who had raised ALT levels (p = 0.012). Conclusion: There was a high frequency of HDV seropositivity in the studied population particularly in males with acute hepatitis or hepatic failure, having raised ALT levels. The emphasis should be on preventive measures taken by other countries to reduce the prevalence of these treatment challenging infections. (author)

  16. Seroprevalence of human fascioliasis in Van province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yılmaz, Hasan; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Çiçek, Mutalip

    2015-05-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a rare zoonotic parasite that infects the liver of many mammals including humans. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of fascioliasis in Van province by ELISA (antibody detection) on the assumption that not all cases could be detected by stool examination alone. A total of randomly selected 1,600 patients, directed from affiliated outpatient clinics to Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 44.44±19.00 years. Blood samples were collected from all the patients, and their stool samples were examined. For the stool examination, native-lugol and sedimentation (in formalin-ethyl acetate) methods were employed. ELISA for F. hepatica was performed on the blood samples from all patients. Seropositive patients were treated with triclabendazole. F. hepatica was detected by ELISA in 89 (5.6%) of the 1,600 patients, but eggs were identified on the stool examination in only 29 (1.8%) patients. The prevalence of F. hepatica was higher in females (7.2%) than in males (4.2%) and was higher in the ≥36-year age group (6.7%) than in the ≤35-year age group (4.4%). Abdominal pain (93.3%), fatigue (88.8%), and weight loss (69.7%) were the most common symptoms. Eosinophilia was present in 89.9% of the patients. All seropositive patients had a history of eating raw aquatic plants. Stool examination alone is not sufficient to diagnose F. hepatica. Serological tests such as ELISA must be used together with stool examination.

  17. Seroprevalence of Babesia microti in Individuals with Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Sabino R; Tria, Laurel P; Gucwa, Azad L

    2016-12-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease (TBD) caused by Babesia microti, an intracellular parasite of red blood cells. Currently, it is the highest ranked pathogen transmitted by blood transfusion. Most healthy individuals infected with B. microti are asymptomatic, but may be at risk for chronic infection. Similar to Lyme disease transmitted by Borrelia burgdorferi, B. microti is spread by Ixodes scapularis ticks. The rate of coinfection with these TBDs in humans is unclear as most studies have focused their prevalence in ticks or rodent reservoirs. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of B. microti infection in individuals who tested positive for Lyme disease. Serum samples obtained from 130 subjects in New York were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against B. microti. Overall, 26.9% of the serum samples tested were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies against B. microti, suggesting exposure to TBD. Individuals who tested positive for Lyme disease as determined by two-tiered serological testing and the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies directed against B. burgdorferi, were significantly increased for antibodies directed against B. microti (28.6%; p Lyme disease-negative control group had only 6.7% of samples seropositive for B. microti. These findings suggest the need for more extensive studies investigating infection rates with multiple TBDs in areas where they are endemic and further support for the need to implement an FDA-approved screening test for blood products to help prevent transfusion-transmitted babesiosis.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  19. The Connection Between House Price Appreciation and Property Tax Revenues*

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Byron F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two aspects of the connection between property tax revenues and house prices. First, I estimate the elasticity of property tax revenues with respect to house prices. This elasticity does not necessarily equal one as governments may adjust effective tax rates to offset changes in property values. Second, I examine the timing of the relationship. Institutional features of the property tax make it unlikely that changes in house prices will immediately influence tax revenues. ...

  20. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  1. Finn Juhl's House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.; Ottensten, Lizette

    Introduction to the architecture, interior design and design items of the Danish designer Finn Juhl's own house, built 1942 in Ordrup, north of Copenhagen. The interior setting is interpreted on the background of Juhl's many writings on design....

  2. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  3. The Eco House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbett, A. (Leicester Ecology Trust (United Kingdom))

    The Eco House is a former park keeper's lodge on the periphery of Leicester's largest public park. Taken over by Leicester Ecology Trust in 1990, the Eco House was a successor to the Trust's earlier low energy house. This has been a local authority decant house, retrofitted to show the potential for increased energy efficiency in older buildings. Many of the ideas from the earlier project were adopted by the new with a widening of its remit to include all matters of environmental concern connected with people's homes. So in addition to energy efficiency, other issues addressed include conservation of resources, wildlife, organic gardening, food production, water, environmental consumerism, recycling and health. Given that the use of energy is regarded by many environmentalists to be the single most important environmental issue today, and one which is easiest for households to address, it remains the project's dominant theme. (author)

  4. Allegheny County Housing Tenure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Home ownership provides a number of financial, social, and health benefits to American families. Especially in areas with housing price appreciation, home ownership...

  5. House of Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    only the benefits of living close to the family. The Aarhus Municipality project "House of Generations" is a vision for creating a framework for relationships across all generations, for meaningful encounters and for rewarding neighbourliness. Three of Aarhus Municipality's magistrate departments...... participate in the project: Health and Care, Children and Youth, and Social Conditions and Employment. A public housing association that provides student dorms also participates in the project. The physical framework will be a building with a total area of approx. 25,000 m², located at Pier 4, at Aarhus......' harbour areas. The building will be a multi-generational house comprising a mixture of flexible public housing units for students, the elderly and residents who require care (elderly disabled people and people with acquired brain injuries). The building will be connected with common areas located in close...

  6. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  7. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  8. access to adequate housing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola Smit

    chauffeurs and restaurant/hotel workers approached the Development Action ..... 10 Ibid. 11 Budget speech by LN Sisulu, Minister of Housing, 28 May 2008, available at .... exorbitantly high property prices in the Cape Town CBD and environs, ...

  9. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  10. Radiation protection housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, A

    1975-04-10

    The radiation protection housing consists of a foot rim with castor swivel wheels, a tubular frame tapering off at the top, and a crown. In the upper part of the tubular frame a lead glass window is permanently installed. The sides are covered with radiation attenuating curtains of leaded rubber. The housing has the shape of a truncated pyramid which can be dismantled into its constituent parts. It is used for protection from radiation encountered in X-ray facilities in dental radiology.

  11. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy

  12. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  13. Housing and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  15. Implementation of natural ventilation in pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't C.E.

    1994-01-01

    A description of experimental work and discussion on implementation of natural ventilation in pig houses is given. A literature review describes the state of the art, animal growth data are given. It includes characterization of ventilation openings, a technique to estimate the ventilation

  16. Housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    This paper summarises the state-of-the-art in housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations based on a survey conducted among almost all housing associations. We address the question what the current developments are in housing management and maintenance practice in the

  17. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  18. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Nadège Caboré

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT, tetanus toxin (TT, pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn. The in-house pentaplex MIA showed a good correlation with commercial ELISAs with correlation coefficients between 0.89 for PT and 0.98 for TT. Intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. A total of 670 anonymized serum samples collected in 2012 in Belgian adults (ages 20–29.9 years were analyzed. Geometric mean concentrations (GMC were 0.2 (0.13–0.29 IU/mL for DT, 0.63 (0.45–0.82 IU/mL for TT, 3.9 (2.6–5.8 IU/mL for PT, 16.3 (11.7–22.7 IU/mL for FHA and 15.4 (10.1–23.6 IU/mL for Prn. Antibody concentrations were below the protective level of 0.1 IU/mL in 26.4% of the sera for DT and in 8.6% of the sera for TT. Anti-PT IgG concentrations indicative of recent pertussis infection (>125 IU/mL were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

  19. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies--targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches--supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery.

  20. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  1. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.V.; Hoi, L.T.; Thuong, N.T.H.; Toan, T.K.; Huong, T.T.K.; Hoa, T.M.; Fox, A.; Kinh, N.V.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Bryant, J.E.; Nadjm, B.

    2017-01-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG

  2. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the

  3. Seroprevalence of Poliovirus Antibodies in the United States Population, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Curns, Aaron T; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven

    2016-08-05

    Polio is eliminated in the United States, with the last indigenous transmission occurring in 1979. However, global eradication of polio has not yet been completed, so importation of poliovirus into the U.S. is still possible. Specimens from the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed to evaluate population seroprevalence and assess overall risk from a poliovirus importation. We evaluated prevalence of serum antibodies to all three poliovirus types using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2009-2010. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 93.9 % for type 1, 97.0 % for type 2, and 83.1 % for type 3. Seroprevalence was higher for type 2 compared to the other types (p poliovirus in the US population during 2009-2010. While there were observed differences by serotype with type 2 having the highest seroprevalence and type 3 having the lowest, consistent with previous observations, no large immunity gaps to poliovirus suggesting an imminent substantial population risk from a poliovirus importation were observed at a population level.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  5. Sero-prevalence of immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the sero-prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), namely immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C and syphilis among blood donors. Setting: The study was carried in the blood bank at ElObeid Teaching Hospital. Material and methods: The study included 260 blood ...

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors for infection with equine coronavirus in healthy horses in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, L.J.; James, K.; Mapes, S.M.; Theelen, M.J.P.; Pusterla, N.

    2017-01-01

    Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an enteric pathogen of foals and has only recently been associated with infections in adult horses. Seroprevalence data is needed to better understand the epidemiology of ECoV in adult horses, evaluate diagnostic modalities and develop preventive measures. The

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  8. Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis in the Mexican population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Glez, C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Rojas, R; DeAntonio, R; Romano-Mazzotti, L; Cervantes, Y; Ortega-Barría, E

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-95 years (January-October 2010) and analysed to assess the seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in Mexico. Subjects' gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database. A total of 3344 subjects (median age 29 years, range 1-95 years) were included in the analysis. Overall, BP seroprevalence was 47.4%. BP seroprevalence was significantly higher in males (53.4%, P = 0.0007) and highest in children (59.3%) decreasing with advancing age (P = 0.0008). BP seroprevalence was not significantly different between regions (P = 0.1918) and between subjects of socioeconomic status (P = 0.0808). Women, adolescents and young adults were identified as potential sources of infection to infants. Booster vaccination for adolescents and primary contacts (including mothers) for newborns and infants may provide an important public health intervention to reduce the disease burden.

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468

  10. Low sero-prevalence of hepatitis delta antibodies in HIV/ hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /198, 3.2% (95% CI 1.14-6.92%), associated with male gender and a duration of more than 5 years since HIV diagnosis. Conclusions: The sero-prevalence of HDV antibodies among the HIV/HBV co-infected patients is low in a Ugandan urban ...

  11. Is seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors changing in Northern Pakistan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; But, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors in 2009 and comparing with the seroprevalence in 2014. Study Design: Cross sectional study with retrospective data collection. Place and Duration of Study: Foundation University Medical College and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi. Data in 2009 and in 2014 were collected. Material and Methods: The blood samples collected from individuals from Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Azad Kashmir and Northern Punjab including Rawalpindi-Islamabad and comprised 3776 (in the year 2009) and 6740 (in the year 2014) adults ranging from 18 to 60 years who reported to Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi voluntarily or as a compulsion to donate blood for their patients. Results: During 2009, there were 71 (1.88 percent) and 113 (2.99 percent) donors positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti hepatitis C virus (Anti HCV) respectively out of a total of 3776 donors whereas during 2014 there were 106 (1.57 percent) and 174 (2.58 percent) donors positive for HBsAg and anti HCV respectively out of a total donors of 6740. There was no statistical significant difference between the year (2009 and 2014) and seroprevalence of HBsAg (p=0.239) and HCV positive donors (p=0.215). Conclusion: There is no significant change in seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors during 2014 as compared to 2009 in Northern Pakistan. (author)

  12. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc López-Roig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1 in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis. Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57% was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%. The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence. However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  13. Seroprevalence dynamics of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in a multispecies bat colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-09-04

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%-26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%-20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  14. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea R.R.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.

  15. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country.

  16. Sero-prevalence study of bluetongue infection in sheep and goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bluetongue is an infectious, a non-contagious, arthropod borne viral disease of ruminants and has been reported from most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Seroprevalence study was carried from July, 2013 to January, 2015 to understand bluetongue virus infection in selected areas of sheep and

  17. Seroprevalence of HTLV -I/II amongst Blood Donors in Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples ...

  18. HIV-1 seroprevalence and subtypes in police recruits from Afar regional state, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zewde, Ayele; Bahiru, Seifu; Sanders, Eduard; Tilahun, Tesfaye; Beyene, Asfaw; Alebachew, Mengiste; Schaap, Ab; Wolday, Dawit; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2002-01-01

    Surveillance for HIV-1 prevalence and subtypes in Afar Region, Ethiopia was performed among police recruits in the year 2000, by unlinked anonymous testing. Of 408 samples tested, 26 (6.4%) appeared positive for HIV-1 antibodies. There was a trend for higher HIV-1 seroprevalence in women (9.5%,

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Haveman, R.; Swart, A.; Mensink-Beerepoot, M.E.; Hofhuis, A.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was

  20. sero-prevalence of human parvovirus b19 among patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Conclusion: Seroprevalence to B19 among patients was low leaving a large proportion of the population especially women in Kano still ... transient anaemia amongst healthy adults, aplastic crises in ... Confidence Interval (CI). .... findings of Ooi et al in Malaysia (11), Salimi et al in Iran (5) .... age/young adults in Shiraz, Iran.

  1. Sero-prevalance of anti-R7V antibody in HIV infected patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seroprevalence of Anti-R7V antibody was therefore investigated in HIV patients attending clinic within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and compared with HIV negative patients. Correlation between the presence of the antibody and the clinical status of patients was also investigated. The HIV positive patients were ...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  3. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  5. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  6. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  7. Housing and family: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Lauster, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Housing Studies special issue 'Housing and Family'. The issue consists of a collection of papers in which a number of connections between housing and family issues are highlighted. Three themes are addressed: the influence of the family of origin on housing characteristics

  8. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S.; Pahud, Barbara A.; Weldon, William C.; Curns, Aaron T.; Oberste, M. Steven; Harrison, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012–2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%–96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6–10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2–3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2–3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4–6 y. PMID:28059613

  9. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  10. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  11. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  12. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  13. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    -profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus among people living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Mitiko Tengan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the immunosuppression induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV accelerates the natural history of liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV, with 3- to 5-fold higher odds of coinfected individuals developing cirrhosis. However, estimates of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C among people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLHA in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are widely variable. Methods We performed a systematic review to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV among PLHA. We searched studies on HIV and HCV infections in LAC included in the PubMed, LILACS and Embase databases in December of 2014 with no time or language restrictions. The following combinations of search terms were used in the PubMed and Embase databases: (HIV OR Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus OR AIDS OR HTLV OR Human Immunodeficiency Virus OR Human T Cell AND (HCV OR HEPATITIS C OR HEPATITIS C VIRUS OR HEPACIVIRUS AND (name of an individual country or territory in LAC. The following search terms were used in the LILACS database: (HIV OR AIDS OR Virus da Imunodeficiencia Humana AND (HCV OR Hepatite C OR Hepacivirus. An additional 11 studies were identified through manual searches. A total of 2,380 publications were located, including 617 duplicates; the remaining articles were reviewed to select studies for inclusion in this study. Results A total of 37 studies were selected for systematic review, including 23 from Brazil, 5 from Argentina, 3 from Cuba, 1 from Puerto Rico, 1 from Chile, 1 from Colombia, 1 from Mexico, 1 from Peru and 1 from Venezuela. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV infection varied from 0.8 to 58.5 % (mean 17.37; median 10.91, with the highest in Argentina and Brazil and the lowest in Venezuela and Colombia. Conclusions Investigation of HCV infection among PLHA and of HIV infection among people living with HCV is highly recommended because it allows for better

  15. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  16. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  17. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  18. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  19. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 among Hispanics in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M; Romaguera, R A; Valentine, J; Tao, G

    2011-07-01

    To examine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among Hispanics in the USA, we used the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the seroprevalence of HSV-2 between Hispanic persons of Mexican heritage and non-Mexican heritage aged 14-44 years, from survey years 2007-2008. The overall HSV-2 seroprevalence among Hispanics aged 14-44 years was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2, 20.1) in the USA. HSV-2 seroprevalence was significantly lower among Mexican Americans than among other Hispanics (11.7% vs. 27.8%, P heritage and non-Mexican heritage suggested that targeting specific subgroups of Hispanics for preventive interventions may be a strategy to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 and HIV among Hispanics in the USA.

  20. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Hsu, Ling C; Vittinghoff, Eric; Vu, Annie; Bamberger, Joshua D; Katz, Mitchell H

    2009-07-07

    Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p Homelessness increased the risk of death (adjusted relative hazard [RH] 1.20; 95% confidence limits [CL] 1.03, 1.41). Homeless persons with AIDS who obtained supportive housing had a lower risk of death than those who did not (adjusted RH 0.20; 95% CL 0.05, 0.81). Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.

  1. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Seventh-Day Adventists and other groups in Maryland. Lack of association with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R J; Russell, R G; O'Donnoghue, J M; Wasserman, S S; Lefkowitz, A; Morris, J G

    1990-11-01

    To evaluate the possible role of diet in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori, we compared H pylori seroprevalence among Seventh-Day Adventists (who are vegetarian and abstain from alcohol, caffeine, and meat; n = 94) and two non-Seventh-Day Adventist control groups (n = 168). With the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay H pylori antigen prepared in a French pressure cell, we found no difference in seroprevalence among these groups; however, seropositivity strongly correlated with age and black race.

  2. Ventilation techniques and radon in small houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Graeffe, G.; Janka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor radon is the main cause of radiation exposure in Finland. The National Board of Health set the recommended concentration limits in 1986: an action level of 800 Bq/m 3 and a planning value of 200 Bq/m 3 for new buildings. The 800 Bq/m 3 concentration is estimated to be exceeded in 1.4% of the housing. This rather high number has motivated a number of studies concerning countermeasures against radon in existing houses. The purpose of this study was to find out possible remedial actions against radon using standard ventilation techniques. The ventilation rates were not increased over 0.71/h in order to have a realistic view about the possibilities of the state-of-the-art techniques. Special attention was given to methods which would be generally applicable to a large number of dwellings already existing. Results are reported of a pilot study with six small houses with established high radon concentrations

  3. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  4. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...

  7. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  8. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  9. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  10. Interactive Mold House Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  11. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  12. The Chinese House Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  13. Housing and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    OECD economies, in aggregate, have been sluggish; unemployment remains high in several countries, and minimal gross domestic product gains are forecast for the Euro area through 2016. Recession, sovereign debt problems and lethargic economies continue to constrain Europe’s housing construction market; no improvement is expected before 2015 or...

  14. Consumption and Savings of First Time House Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    We characterize savings behavior around the point of the first house purchase. Using a panel data set with income and wealth information on Danish first-time house owners we document that households save for the down payment, mortgage to the limit, run down liquid assets at purchase, and adjust...... to adverse income shocks occurring just after the purchase by reducing consumption. We build a model that replicates these observations, show that the preference parameters are identified from the data, and estimate them. Based on the estimated model house buying significantly reduces the ability to smooth...

  15. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  16. Calculation of the BREN house shielding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The BREN house transmission experiments provide an excellent set of measurements to validate the calculational procedures that will be used to derive house shielding estimates for the revised dosimetry of the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs. The BREN experiments were performed in realistic full scale models of Japanese residences. Although the radiation spectra and relative intensities of neutrons and gamma rays incident on the houses from the HPRR and the 60 Co source are not appropriate for direct application to the A-bomb survivors, they cover the full energy range of importance. The codes and calculations required to compare with BREN experiments are the same as those needed for the A-bomb dosimetry. They consist of a two-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculation of the free field coupled to an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation in detailed house geometry. The agreement obtained between calculations and the experiments is excellent for neutrons and 60 Co gamma rays. Every house transmission calculation spanning simple to complex configurations and detector locations for the 60 Co and HPRR was within an acceptable margin of error. The gamma-ray TF calculations for the reactor source did not agree well with the experiments. Analysis of this discrepancy, however, strongly indicates that the problem probably does not reside in the calculational procedure but in the measurements themselves. In conclusion, it is believed that the excellent agreement of our calculations with the BREN experiments validates the calculational procedure which is planed to be applied o estimating the house shielding for survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs. Certainly, the calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki will involve modifications to the code used for the computations reported here, but to the extent that these modifications involve increased calculational complexity to treat more realistic materials and configurations, the benchmark established by these

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Fascioliasis in Yaks, Bos grunniens, from Three Counties of Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens , from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica . The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.

  18. Seroprevalence screening for the West Nile virus in Malaysia's Orang Asli population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Suria; Radzi, Siti Fatimah Muhd; Lani, Rafidah; Sieng, Khor Chee; Rahim, Nurul Farhana Abdul; Hassan, Habibi; Li-Yen, Chang; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-12-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. WNV is preserved in the environment through cyclic transmission, with mosquitoes, particularly Culex species, serving as a vector, birds as an amplifying host and humans and other mammals as dead-end hosts. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the prevalence of the WNV antibody in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to screen for the seroprevalence of the WNV in Malaysia's Orang Asli population. Serum samples of 742 Orang Asli were collected in seven states in peninsular Malaysia. The samples were assessed to determine the seroprevalence of WNV immunoglobulin (Ig)G with the WNV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. For each individual, we documented the demographic factors. Anti-dengue and anti-tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA were also performed to rule out a cross reaction. All statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, Inc.); p values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The serosurvey included 298 men (40.16%) and 444 women (59.84%) of Malaysia's Orang Asli. Anti-WNV IgG was found in 9 of the 742 samples (1.21%). The seroprevalence was 0.67% (2 of 298) in men and 1.58% (7 of 444) in women. The presence of anti-WNV IgG was found not to be associated with gender but, however, did correlate with age. The peak seroprevalence was found to be 2.06% (2 of 97) in individuals between 30 to 42 years of age. No previous studies have examined the seroprevalence of the WNV antibody in the human population in Malaysia, and no clinical reports of infections have been made. Screening for the WNV seroprevalence is very significant because of many risk factors contribute to the presence of WNV in Malaysia, such as the abundance of Culex mosquitoes as the main vector and a high degree of biodiversity, including migratory birds that serve as a reservoir to the virus.

  19. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  20. Spatial evaluation and modeling of Dengue seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM.Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007 and during the epidemic (February through April 2008. Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before-after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not, and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue seroprevalence hotspots located at the

  1. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.608 Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  2. Is there a Housing Bubble in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yener

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a notable housing price inflation in aggregate/local levels in Turkey during the last few years. Although the country’s economic fundamentals remain strong, the probability of a housing bubble is a heated debate among market participants. This timely investigation brings greater clarity to whether the Turkish housing market is in a bubble. The study uses a multi-strand approach to dissect the bubble over the period of Jan. 2010 - Dec. 2014. First, monthly/annual price-to-income and monthly price-to-rent ratios are examined for the national Turkish as well as regional Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara housing markets. Second, an extended CASE and SHILLER (2003 model is applied assessing the interdependence between housing prices and a series of explanatory variables. Lastly, the Right Tail Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Rtadf test is performed to support the overall analysis. This study finds that neither affordability ratios nor regression estimates support the existence of the bubble in Turkey.

  3. Sources of radioactive contamination inside houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    People may be exposed at home to multiple sources of nuclear radiation such as gamma, beta and alpha rays emitters. House atmosphere is polluted with nuclear radiation from water pollutants and rocks used in the construction. Radon is the only radioactive non-metallic element. Environmental organizations estimated that all houses contain varying concentrations of radon gas, and the residents are exposed to levels of radon over the years. The source of radon in houses is uranium, which may be found in rocks of the house, soil of the garden, water of the deep artesian wells and building materials, especially granite rocks. Breathing air that contains high levels of radon causes lung cancer. Radon is the second cause of lung disease after smoking. There are many means to reduce house pollution including: utilisation of air filters to remove contaminated dust particles, keep residential areas away from the establishments that use nuclear technology or embedded by nuclear waste, avoid using materials made from asbestos in construction works and proper use and disposal of chemicals and medicines containing radioactive isotopes. (author)

  4. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  5. Assessment of housing design decisions in informal housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid urbanisation of cities in developing countries has witnessed a growth in the volume of housing construction in the urban areas. The demand for housing and the inability of government to meet this demand has encouraged the growth of informal housing. The concept of healthy buildings is of great importance, ...

  6. [Current seroprevalence, vaccination and predictive value of liver enzymes for hepatitis B among refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Annika; Solbach, Philipp; Cornberg, Markus; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Behrens, Georg M N; Jablonka, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Currently only vague estimates exist for the seroprevalence and vaccination status for viral hepatitis B (HBV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. In a cross-sectional study in 793 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection (HBsAg, anti-HBc) and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, bilirubin, γGT, alkaline phosphatase) were performed in August 2015 at six reception centers in northern Germany. In 258 patients anti-HBs antibodies were assessed additionally. Of the tested refugees, 76.7 % were male, the median age was 28.8 ± 11.4 years, and 7.8 % were children under the age of 18. The overall prevalence of HBsAg and total anti-HBc was 2.3 % and 14.0 % respectively (2.5 % and 14.5 % in men; 1.2 % and 13.5 % in women). Prevalence was highest in 35 to 49-year-old patients for HBsAg (3.1 %) and for refugees over 50 years for anti-HBc (38 %). No immunity to Hepatitis B was found in 62 %, 18.6 % had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B, while 50 % of children aged up to 15 years (n = 12) had been vaccinated. Positive predictive values of elevated AST and ALT for detection of HBsAg was 0 and 0.016, respectively. Only two patients with a positive HBsAg had elevated transaminases. This study showed a high prevalence of HBsAg in a German refugee sample in comparison to the general German population. Liver enzymes are not an appropriate tool for screening for hepatitis B virus infection.

  7. Seroprevalence and Incidence of hepatitis E in blood donors in Upper Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Fischer

    Full Text Available In recent years various studies showed, that hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many developed countries. Therefore, HEV infections might bear a transmission risk by blood transfusions. The clinical relevance still requires further investigations. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of acute HEV infections in Upper Austrian blood donors as well as a risk estimation of this transfusion-related infection.A total of 58,915 blood donors were tested for HEV RNA using a commercial HEV RT-PCR Kit. 7 of these donors (0.01% were PCR-positive with normal laboratory parameters in absence of clinical signs of hepatitis. Viral load determined by quantitative real-time PCR showed a HEV nucleic acid concentration of 2,217 293,635 IU/ml. At follow-up testing (2-11 weeks after donation all blood donors had negative HEV RNA results. Additionally, genotyping was performed by amplification and sequencing of the ORF1 or ORF2 region of the HEV genome. All HEV RNA positive donor samples revealed a genotype 3 isolate. For the antibody screening, anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Follow up serological testing revealed that no donor was seropositive for HEV IgM or IgG antibodies at time of donation. Moreover, we verified the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 1,203 of the HEV RNA negative tested blood donors. Overall 13.55% showed positive results for anti-HEV IgG.In the presented study, we investigated HEV infections in blood donations of Upper Austria over 1 year. We concluded that 1 out of 8,416 blood donations is HEV RNA positive. Seroprevalence of anti HEV IgG results in an age-related increase of 13.55%. Therefore, based on this data, we recommend HEV-PCR screening to prevent transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion.

  8. The impact of social housing on the labour market status of the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim

    2003-01-01

    . The type of house construction and the exact location of all houses were determined. In a multivariate analysis, distance of less than 750 meters between a house and the main vector-breeding site was strongly associated with the presence of Anopheles culicifacies in the house (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, 95......The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period...

  10. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  11. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  12. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  13. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  14. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  15. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  16. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the beaches of Normandy, from t... [...] Read Article House Doubles Down on Commitment to Veterans 08 Nov ... R-Tenn.) released the following statement after the House of Representatives passed nine veterans bills Tuesday and ...

  17. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in Korean cattle - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Kwak, Dongmi; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2017-12-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular parasite that is transmitted by direct contact or via mechanical transmission by flies as vectors. Besnoitiosis causes economic losses in the cattle industry and is regarded as a re-emerging disease in Europe. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti in Korean cattle using a commercial ELISA kit. Among 558 serum samples, 19 (3.4%) tested seropositive for B. besnoiti. The statistically significant risk factors included age (≥ 2 years), sex (castrated males), and region (lower latitudes) (P cattle reared in Korea. Thus, the practice of intensive cattle husbandry and the regionally different seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in cattle in Korea warrant routine monitoring and vector control to reduce economical losses due to bovine besnoitiosis in the country.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D L; Ulrey, W A; Guthrie, J M; Kwok, O C H; Cox, J J; Maehr, D S; Dubey, J P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a significant worldwide parasitic protozoan. In the present study, prevalence of antibodies of T. gondii was examined from 29 free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from south-central Florida where the host species was listed as state threatened during this project. Overall T. gondii prevalence was found to be 44.8%, specifically 46.2% in male and 43.8% in female U. americanus , using a modified agglutination test (1:25 titer). Seroprevalence differences between sexes were not significant (P > 0.05). Results of the present study add supportive data to the growing body of evidence suggesting that U. americanus has one of the highest T. gondii seroprevalences among all known intermediate hosts. In addition, our data emphasize the importance of understanding parasitic disease dynamics from a conservation perspective.

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, S.T.; Khan, A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  1. A review of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious diseases of cats in Canada. Prevalence data are necessary to define prophylactic, management, and therapeutic measures for stray, feral and owned cats. Recently, comprehensive data on the seroprevalence of retrovirus infections of cats in Canada have become available and are reviewed. Further investigation into geographic variations in retrovirus seroprevalence within Canada is warranted, and may provide information to improve recommendations for testing and prevention. As well, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, as well as to provide information on disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in hospitalized Danish patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Wantzin, P; Skøt, J

    1995-01-01

    Health care workers are at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections. To assess the risk of exposure to hepatitis B or C in the case of occupational blood exposure, we determined the seroprevalence of these infections in 466 patients admitted to a Copenhagen university hospital. Serological markers...... for hepatitis B or C were detected in 56 patients (12.0%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 0.9% and 1.5% respectively. HCV RNA, indicating ongoing hepatitis C, was found in five of seven anti-HCV-positive patients by polymerase chain reaction. The serological findings had not previously been...... diagnosed in 4 of 10 potentially infectious patients and only 6 of 10 patients belonged to high-risk groups. In conclusion, health care workers should be aware of the potential the occupational risk of hepatitis B and C even in a low-prevalence country like Denmark. Management of health care workers after...

  3. A dataset of housing market and self-attitudes towards housing location choices in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed R

    2017-04-01

    A survey, of sample size 224, is designed to include the different related-factors to housing location choice, such as; socioeconomic factors, housing characteristics, travel behavior, current self-selection factors, housing demand and future location preferences. It comprises 16 questions, categorized into three different sections; socioeconomic (5 Questions), current dwelling unit characteristics (7 Questions), and housing demand characteristics (4 Questions). The first part, socioeconomic, covers the basic information about the respondent, such as; age, gender, marital status, employment, and car ownership. While the second part, current dwelling unit characteristics, covers different aspect concerning the residential unit typology, financial aspects, and travel behavior of the respondent. It includes the tenure types of the residential unit, estimation of the unit price (in the case of ownership or renting), housing typologies, the main reason for choosing the unit, in case of working, the modes of travel to work, and time to reach it, residential mobility in the last decade, and the ownership of any other residential units. The last part, housing demand characteristics, covers the size of the demand for a residential unit, preference in living in a certain area and the reason to choose it, and the preference of residential unit׳s tenure. This survey is a representative sample for the population in Alexandria, Egypt. The data in this article is represented in: How do people select their residential locations in Egypt? The case of Alexandria; JCIT1757.

  4. A dataset of housing market and self-attitudes towards housing location choices in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey, of sample size 224, is designed to include the different related-factors to housing location choice, such as; socioeconomic factors, housing characteristics, travel behavior, current self-selection factors, housing demand and future location preferences. It comprises 16 questions, categorized into three different sections; socioeconomic (5 Questions, current dwelling unit characteristics (7 Questions, and housing demand characteristics (4 Questions. The first part, socioeconomic, covers the basic information about the respondent, such as; age, gender, marital status, employment, and car ownership. While the second part, current dwelling unit characteristics, covers different aspect concerning the residential unit typology, financial aspects, and travel behavior of the respondent. It includes the tenure types of the residential unit, estimation of the unit price (in the case of ownership or renting, housing typologies, the main reason for choosing the unit, in case of working, the modes of travel to work, and time to reach it, residential mobility in the last decade, and the ownership of any other residential units. The last part, housing demand characteristics, covers the size of the demand for a residential unit, preference in living in a certain area and the reason to choose it, and the preference of residential unit׳s tenure. This survey is a representative sample for the population in Alexandria, Egypt. The data in this article is represented in: How do people select their residential locations in Egypt? The case of Alexandria; JCIT1757.

  5. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  6. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    consumption in the building sector. This planned transformation towards a more energy-efficient building mass involves changes in the building envelope and, as such, is likely to influence the experience of the built environment dramatically, both interior and exterior. Recent research shows, however...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  7. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAO Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure and litter conditions (new or built-up. The environment of six commercial broiler houses was evaluated internal and external NH3 concentrations. Ventilation rates were recorded to estimate ammonia emission rates. The efficiency of circulation and exhaust fans was assessed, and higher ventilation rates were determined in negative-pressure houses due to the higher flow of the fans. Houses with new litter increased ammonia emission rates along the rearing period, indicating the relationship between gas emissions, bird age and ventilation rates, and presented a typical curve of NH3 emission increase. Negative-pressure houses with built-up litter presented higher emission rates during the first rearing week due to the high NH3 concentration during the brooding period, when the ventilation rates required to maintain chick thermal comfort are low. Although the results of the present study indicate an advantage of the positive-pressure systems as to gas emissions, further research is needed reduce gas emissions in broiler houses with negative-pressure systems.

  8. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittinghoff Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. Methods The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Results Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p Conclusion Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertug, Sema; Okyay, Pinar; Turkmen, Munevver; Yuksel, Hasan

    2005-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. The mean age of 389 (92.9%) of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001) and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042). No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water) supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkmen Munevver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. Method The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. Results The mean age of 389 (92.9% of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001 and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042. No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. Conclusion One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  11. Molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae from seroprevalent commercial breeder farms at Chittagong district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Inkeyas Uddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Worldwide, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry, especially for chicken and turkey. It causes respiratory tract infection and infectious sinusitis. The study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of MS infection with associated risk factors and identification of MS organism in unvaccinated flocks of commercial breeder farms of the Chittagong district, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 365 serum samples were collected and tested for MS using serum plate agglutination (SPA test for determination of MS seroprevalence. On the other hand, tracheal swabs were collected from each seropositive flocks for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine the presence of MS organism. Results: Among the farms, the highest prevalence was found to be 69% and the lowest prevalence was 28% with the average 60%. The seroprevalence of MS infection in breeder farms was highest 70% with the flock size >10,000 birds, whereas it was lowest 57% in the flocks ranging from 4000 to 7000. According to age group, the prevalence was found highest 70% in >60 weeks age group of birds and lowest 42% in 10-19 weeks group. The seroprevalence of MS in winter season was found as highest as 64%, whereas it was found lowest 60% in the summer season. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05 difference in the winter, summer, and rainy season. To confirm the presence of MS in the samples, PCR test was applied using specific primers to amplify a 214 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. In PCR, all seropositive flocks showed a positive result for MS. Conclusion: As the plate agglutination test result showed 100% similar with PCR result, it can be suggested that agglutination test is better than molecular and culture techniques for MS detection and it is also cheaper and less time-consuming method.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUU, Aya; YOKOTA, Shin-ichi; ITO, Keiko; MASATANI, Tatsunori

    2017-01-01

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalen...

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Results Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus wer...

  14. Seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Robert, Nadia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Lonzer, Johann; Meli, Marina L; Bay, Gert; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2010-02-01

    Cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. One reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. Data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV], puma lentivirus, feline leukemia virus, and rabies virus) in 68 free-ranging cheetahs on east-central Namibian farmland, 24 nonvaccinated Namibian captive cheetahs, and several other wild carnivore species and conducted necropsies of cheetahs and other wild carnivores. Eight of 11 other wild carnivores were seropositive for at least one of the viruses, including the first record of an FIV-like infection in a wild felid west of the Kalahari, the caracal (Felis caracal). Seroprevalences of the free-ranging cheetahs were below 5% for all nine viruses, which is significantly lower than seroprevalences in nonvaccinated captive cheetahs and those for five of seven viruses in previously studied free-ranging cheetahs from north-central Namibia (L. Munson, L. Marker, E. Dubovi, J. A. Spencer, J. F. Evermann, and S. J. O'Brien, J. Wildl. Dis. 40:23-31, 2004). There was no clinical or pathological evidence of infectious diseases in living or dead cheetahs. The results suggest that while free-ranging wild carnivores may be a source of pathogens, the distribution of seroprevalences across studies mirrored local human population density and factors associated with human habitation, probably reflecting contact opportunities with (nonvaccinated) domestic and feral cats and dogs. They also suggest that Namibian cheetahs respond effectively to viral challenges, encouraging consistent and sustainable conservation efforts.

  15. Seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Thalwitzer, S; Wachter, B; Robert, N; Wibbelt, G; Müller, T; Lonzer, J; Meli, M L; Bay, G; Hofer, H; Lutz, H

    2010-01-01

    Cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. One reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. Data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline...

  16. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  17. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  18. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas-Mexico Border, 2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dengue fever is both endemic and underrecognized along a section of the southern Texas–Mexico border, and low income is a primary risk factor for infection. As part of a special section on Global Poverty and Human Development, Dr. Joan Marie Brunkard discusses a dengue seroprevalence survey in this region and what can be done to help prevent infection and to identify and treat those who are infected.

  19. Seroprevalence of Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 and incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nategh Rakhshandeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seroepidemiological surveys show that the prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection mostly varies in various geographical areas and reflects the local incidence of classic and endemic KS, being widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean countries and uncommon in the USA and Northern Europe. In the Middle East only few populations, such as Ashkenazi and Sephardic groups in Israel, have been adequately evaluated for HHV-8 seroprevalence. Among Iranian population a striking higher seroprevalence of HHV8 has been reported among haemodialysis (16.9%, renal transplant recipients (25% and HIV (45.7% patients compared to blood donors (2%. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is the rarest cancer in Iran, with an annual age-standardized incidence varying from 0.10 to 0.17 per 100,000 in males and from 0.06 to 0.08 per 100,000 in females. KS, however, is one of the most important malignancies in Iranian renal transplanted patients affecting up to 2.4% of organ recipients. The epidemiology of HHV8 and KS in Iran needs further evaluation. While the high prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in HIV positive and haemodialysis individuals may be attributed to high-risk sexual behavior and polytransfusions, respectively, unknown determinants may be responsible for high seroprevalence of HHV8 and high incidence of KS in solid organ recipients. A global survey on HHV8 seroprevalence in Iran is mandatory to define co-factors associated with HHV8 infection and KS risk in the general Iranian population and in specific patient groups.

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection on pig farms in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Wang, Zhengsong; Feng, Huihui; Fang, Rui; Nie, Hao; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes severe diseases in mammals, including humans, around the world. In China, pork is the main meat source; accordingly, T. gondii in pigs is considered an important source for human toxoplasmosis. Understanding the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pig farms is thus important for control of the disease in humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epizootiology of T. gondii infections in pig farms in central China by assessing the seroprevalence and risk factors of this disease. In the present study, 3,558 sera samples were collected from pigs in 37 large-scale pig farms in this region and tested by AG-ELISA. The total seroprevalence was 24.5%, with the greatest prevalence in breeding pigs. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis suggest that high frequency of the contact of pigs with cats (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), high density of pig breeding (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), the presence of mosquitoes and flies (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), semi-patency pens (P ≤ 0.05; IC 95%), and low frequency of scavenging (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) were all associated with seroprevalence. In addition, the use of sulfonamides (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) significantly decreased seroprevalence. This is the first report of anti- T. gondii antibodies in pigs on large-scale pig farms in central China. The findings will provide useful information for designing control strategies of toxoplasmasis in pig farms.

  1. Evolution of hepatitis A virus seroprevalence among HIV-positive adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Yin; Cheng, Chien-Yu; Li, Chia-Wen; Yang, Chia-Jui; Tsai, Mao-Song; Tang, Hung-Jen; Lin, Te-Yu; Wang, Ning-Chi; Lee, Yi-Chien; Lin, Shih-Ping; Huang, Yu-Shan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ko, Wen-Chien; Cheng, Shu-Hsing; Lee, Yuan-Ti; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004–2007 and 2012–2016. Methods Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012–2016 cohort). A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify independent variables associated with HAV seropositivity. Comparisons of HAV seroprevalences and associated clinical characteristics were made between this 2012–2016 cohort and a previous cohort of 1580 HIV-positive patients in 2004–2007 (2004–2007 cohort). Results Of the 2,860 HIV-positive patients between 2012 and 2016, the overall HAV seropositivity rate was 21.2% (605/2860), which was independently associated with an older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], per 1-year increase, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11–1.15) and co-infection with hepatitis B virus (AOR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.08–1.93). Residence in southern Taiwan (AOR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72) was inversely associated with HAV seropositivity. The overall HAV seroprevalence in the 2012–2016 cohort was significantly lower than that in the 2004–2007 cohort (21.2% vs 60.9%, pa country without nationwide childhood vaccination program against HAV. PMID:29036227

  2. ELISA-seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; Shoukry, Nahla M; Hassan, Aly Awad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the important zoonotic parasites of worldwide. In this paper the seroprevalence of T. gondii in draught horses (3-15 years) including 90 males and 10 females in the first half of the year 2009 was studied. The result showed that the overall ELISA-T. gondii antibodies were 25% of the horses in Greater Cairo, 50% (females) and 22.2% (males).

  3. Seroprevalences to Viral Pathogens in Free-Ranging and Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian Farmland▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Robert, Nadia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Lonzer, Johann; Meli, Marina L.; Bay, Gert; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. One reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. Data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV], puma lentivirus, feline leukemia virus, and rabies virus) in 68 free-ranging cheetahs on east-central Namibian farmland, 24 nonvaccinated Namibian captive cheetahs, and several other wild carnivore species and conducted necropsies of cheetahs and other wild carnivores. Eight of 11 other wild carnivores were seropositive for at least one of the viruses, including the first record of an FIV-like infection in a wild felid west of the Kalahari, the caracal (Felis caracal). Seroprevalences of the free-ranging cheetahs were below 5% for all nine viruses, which is significantly lower than seroprevalences in nonvaccinated captive cheetahs and those for five of seven viruses in previously studied free-ranging cheetahs from north-central Namibia (L. Munson, L. Marker, E. Dubovi, J. A. Spencer, J. F. Evermann, and S. J. O'Brien, J. Wildl. Dis. 40:23-31, 2004). There was no clinical or pathological evidence of infectious diseases in living or dead cheetahs. The results suggest that while free-ranging wild carnivores may be a source of pathogens, the distribution of seroprevalences across studies mirrored local human population density and factors associated with human habitation, probably reflecting contact opportunities with (nonvaccinated) domestic and feral cats and dogs. They also suggest that Namibian cheetahs respond effectively to viral challenges, encouraging consistent and sustainable conservation efforts

  4. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  5. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  6. Actual proof study of energy autonomous house; Energy jiritsu house no jissho jikken. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzawa, O; Masuzawa, C

    1997-11-25

    A discussion was given on an `energy autonomous house` which utilizes more effectively photovoltaic power generation, solar heat and light in designing a wooden house to be built by using the conventional construction method. According to the plan, photovoltaic power generation modules and heat collectors are installed superimposed on a roof facing south. Heat-collected air is sent below the floor and the heat is stored in the concrete in winter, utilized as the floor heating type room heater. The hot air is used for hot water supply in other seasons. The building is of two stories with a total area of 118 m {sup 2}, and the photovoltaic generation capacity is 3.48 kW. The photovoltaic generation amount was calculated from insolation forecasted by the AMEDAS system, and energy balance of this house was estimated. The result therefrom may be summarized as follows: total energy supplied reached 11.6 Gcal, signifying that about 10.8% of the energy irradiated onto the building is utilized; ratio of the photovoltaic and solar heat utilization is 27% versus 73%; and energy consumption in this house was estimated and calculated from actual results, airtightness and adiabatic performance of old houses, whereas the energy autonomous rate has reached 92.8%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  8. Analysis of USAREUR Family Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Standard Installation/Division Personnel System SJA ................ Staff Judge Advocate SPSS ............... Statistical Package for the...for Projecting Family Housing Requirements. a. Attempts to define USAREUR’s programmable family housing deficit Sbased on the FHS have caused anguish ...responses using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) computer program. E-2 ANNEX E RESPONSE TO ESC HOUSING QUESTIONNAIRE Section Page I

  9. Belgrade: Waning houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Milica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In some streets of Belgrade we can still find old houses, which hold an ancient dream of dignity, comfort and beauty. They probably live their last days, staring somewhere in the distance - into foggy spaces of their forgetfulness. They stand in fragile rows, increasingly dilapidated disappearing one by one, pretty and sad in their loneliness. They fade attacked by winds, by sunshine, by rains, sorrowed by coldness of their empty rooms. We have no right to let them disappear without any remembrance, to allow them to vanish from of our lives, because - if that happens - that will make poorer both our legacy and us for the future. Thus, we must find ways to hold these old houses, to read and understand their messages, to keep the prints of their spirit and shapes. How to achieve that? If it is true that the beauty of the landscape is hidden in the eyes, which look at it, then drawing is certainly one of the modes to record the wonderful secret of these pretty old houses, silently disappearing from the urban life.

  10. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  11. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  12. Community seroprevalence survey for yaws and trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Naomi; Rainima-Qaniuci, Merelesita; Yalen, Chelsea; Macleod, Colin; Nakolinivalu, Apisalome; Migchelsen, Stephanie; Roberts, Chrissy H; Butcher, Robert; Kama, Mike; Mabey, David; Marks, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3. A total of 607 children from 305 households across 23 villages were recruited into the survey. On skin examination, no child had clinical evidence of yaws, and the TPPA assay was negative in all children (0%, 95% CI 0.0-0.6). The seroprevalence of Pgp3 antibodies was 20.9% (95% CI 17.8-24.6%). In this study there was neither clinical nor serological evidence that transmission of yaws was ongoing. The Pgp3 seroprevalence pattern was consistent with either low level transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis or exposure to C. trachomatis in the birth canal which is consistent with a survey conducted in the same region in 2013. These data suggest neither yaws nor ocular chlamydia infection are a significant public health problem in the Western Division of Fiji. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Ma, Mei; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D; Zhang, Yue; Su, Rui; Wang, Mingxu; Gu, Wei; Li, Ling

    2017-06-06

    Background : Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old ( n = 755) from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results : Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52-92.83) in our sample. Compared with children whose mother's highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.8), high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-7.7), and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-9.3). Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions : Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother's education and vaccine dose.

  14. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in an urban district of Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Osorio, Lyda; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2017-06-12

    Few studies have addressed Leptospira seroprevalence and risk factors in urban populations in Colombia. This study aimed to determine seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in inhabitants of an urban district of Cali, Colombia. We collected sociodemographic and environmental data, as well as blood samples, from 353 subjects selected through a multistage cluster sampling design. We performed microagglutination test for the eight main Leptospira serogroups circulating in the region, considering a cut-off titer of ≥ 1:100. Most participants were female (226, 64.8%), with mean age 41.4 years, and 89 (32.6%) lived in low-low socioeconomic stratum (SES-1). Overall seroprevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.3%-14.4%). Factors associated with Leptospira infection were SES 1, older age, single marital status, ethnic groups (Afro-Colombian and white/mestizo), school students, absence of toilet, barefoot walking, travel outside Cali in the previous month, and absence of skin and mucous-membrane lesions in the previous month. Our study suggests domestic and peridomiciliary transmission of Leptospira likely related to activities of daily living and inadequate environmental conditions. SES-1 is a major factor associated with Leptospira infection (adjusted OR = 4.08; 95%CI: 2.54-6.53; p Leptospira infection in the study area. Epidemiological surveillance, improvement of environmental and sanitary conditions in various SES-1 areas, and community educational campaigns are recommended.

  15. Sero-prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus among blood donors in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahat Batool Rizvi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV infection can cause severe illness and even death among immunocompromised patients; therefore, the spread of CMV through blood products should be prevented. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in Pakistan to determine the seroprevalence of CMV in general population as well as among blood donors. The goal of this study was to determine CMV seropositivity among blood donors at the blood bank of INMOL Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: A sero-epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted. Sera from 91 blood donors were screened for CMV specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based kit. Results: The CMV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 89 blood donors, which gave seroprevalence rate of 97.8%. The statistical analysis of results was done using pearson chi-square test and appeared non-significant with values 0.625 and 0.705 for different age groups and blood groups of donors. Conclusion: Because of high seroprevalence in this study area, an adequate supply of CMV seronegative blood is difficult to maintain. Therefore, we propose that the future strategies for the prevention of post-transfusion CMV infection in recipients should include the transfusion of leukoreduced blood products. Further a prospective study with much greater population can be done to identify major causative risk factors for such highest prevalence rate.

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-20

    Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, and 158 of 974 (16.22%) white yaks were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were evaluated by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Region, gender and age of white yak were left out of the final model, due to its insignificance in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). However, season was considered as a major risk factor associated with C. abortus infection in white yaks. To our knowledge, this is the first survey of C. abortus seroprevalence in white yaks in China, which extends the host range for C. abortus and has important implications for public health and the local Tibetan economy.

  17. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old (n = 755 from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results: Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52–92.83 in our sample. Compared with children whose mother’s highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7–2.8, high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–7.7, and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2–9.3. Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions: Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother’s education and vaccine dose.

  18. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in harbor seals in Alaska, USA, with age, regional, and reproductive comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover-Miller, A; Dunn, J L; Field, C L; Blundell, G; Atkinson, S

    2017-09-20

    Populations of harbor seal Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska have dramatically declined during the past 4 decades. Numbers of seals in Glacier Bay, in southeast Alaska, USA, have also declined despite extensive protection. Causes of the declines and slow recovery are poorly understood. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that adversely affects reproduction in many domestic species. We measured the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in 554 harbor seals in 3 Alaska locations: Prince William Sound (PWS), Glacier Bay (GB), and Tracy Arm Fords Terror (TAFT) Wilderness Area. Objectives included testing for regional, sex, age, and female reproductive state differences in Brucella antibody seroprevalence, persistence in titers in recaptured seals, and differences in titers between mother seals and their pups. Overall, 52% of adults (AD), 53% of subadults (SA), 77% of yearlings (YRL), and 26% of Brucella. Results show higher seroprevalence (64%) for AD and SA seals in the depressed and declining populations in PWS and GB than in TAFT (29%). Lactating females were less likely to be seropositive than other AD females, including pregnant females. Further research is needed to seek evidence of Brucella infection in Alaskan harbor seals, identify effects on neonatal viability, and assess zoonotic implications for Alaska Natives who rely on harbor seals for food.

  19. Seroprevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei among Adults in Coastal Areas in Southwestern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalwaje Eshwara Vandana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although melioidosis, is an important disease in many Southeast Asian countries and Australia, there is limited data on its prevalence and disease burden in India. However, an increase in case reports of melioidosis in recent years indicates its endemicity in India.A population-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of B. pseudomallei by indirect haemagglutination assay and to investigate the associated risk determinants. Subjects were 711 adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in Udupi district, located in south-western coast of India.Overall, 29% of the study subjects were seropositive (titer ≥20. Females were twice as likely to be seropositive compared to males. Rates of seroprevalence were similar in farmers and non-farmers. Besides gardening, other factors including socio-demographic, occupational and environmental factors did not show any relationship with seropositive status.There is a serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei among adults in India. While the bacterium inhabits soil, exposure to the agent is not limited to farmers. Non-occupational exposure might play an important role in eliciting antibody response to the bacterium and may also be an important factor in disease causation.

  20. Neighborhood choices, neighborhood effects and housing vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Morris A.; Gregory, Jesse; Hartley, Daniel A.; Tan, Kegon T. K.

    2017-01-01

    We study how households choose neighborhoods, how neighborhoods affect child ability, and how housing vouchers influence neighborhood choices and child outcomes. We use two new panel data sets with tract-level detail for Los Angeles county to estimate a dynamic model of optimal tract-level location choice for renting households and, separately, the impact of living in a given tract on child test scores (which we call "child ability" throughout). We simulate optimal location choices and change...

  1. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  2. Role of Serial Polio Seroprevalence Studies in Guiding Implementation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kehinde TemilolaOluwa; Verma, Harish; Iliyasu, Zubairu; Mkanda, Pascal; Touray, Kebba; Johnson, Ticha; Walla, Abdullahi; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G; Yehualashet, Yared G; Abba, Bashir; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Takane, Marina; Sutter, Roland W; Nsubuga, Peter; Muhammad, Ado J G; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Nigeria was one of 3 polio-endemic countries before it was de-listed in September 2015 by the World Health Organization, following interruption of transmission of the poliovirus. During 2011-2014, Nigeria conducted serial polio seroprevalence surveys (SPS) in Kano Metropolitan Area, comprising 8 local government areas (LGAs) in Kano that is considered very high risk (VHR) for polio, to monitor performance of the polio eradication program and guide the program in the adoption of innovative strategies. Study subjects who resided in any of the 8 local government areas of Kano Metropolitan Area and satisfied age criteria were recruited from patients at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital (Kano) for 3 seroprevalence surveys. The same methods were used to conduct each survey. The 2011 study showed seroprevalence values of 81%, 75%, and 73% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, among infants aged 6-9 months age. Among children aged 36-47 months, seroprevalence values were greater (91%, 87%, and 85% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively).In 2013, the results showed that the seroprevalence was unexpectedly low among infants aged 6-9 months, remained high among children aged 36-47 months, and increased minimally among children aged 5-9 years and those aged 10-14 years. The baseline seroprevalence among infants aged 6-9 months in 2014 was better than that in 2013. The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  3. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV infection among clients of the nation's longest-standing statewide syringe exchange program: A cross-sectional study of Community Health Outreach Work to Prevent AIDS (CHOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Thomas P; Katz, Alan R; Lenze, Stacy M; Lusk, Heather M; Li, Dongmei; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2017-10-01

    The Community Health Outreach Work to Prevent AIDS (CHOW) Project is the first and longest-standing statewide integrated and funded needle and syringe exchange program (SEP) in the US. Initiated on O'ahu in 1990, CHOW expanded statewide in 1993. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to characterize risk behaviors associated with infection among clients of a long-standing SEP through the analysis of the 2012 CHOW evaluation data. A cross-sectional sample of 130 CHOW Project clients was selected from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. Questionnaires captured self-reported exposure information. HIV and HCV antibodies were detected via rapid, point-of-care FDA-approved tests. Log-binomial regressions were used to estimate prevalence proportion ratios (PPRs). A piecewise linear log-binomial regression model containing 1 spline knot was used to fit the age-HCV relationship. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV was 67.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=59.5-75.8%). HIV seroprevalence was 2.3% (95% CI=0-4.9%). Anti-HCV prevalence demonstrated age-specific patterns, ranging from 31.6% through 90.9% in people who inject drugs (PWID) HIV prevalence compared with HCV prevalence reflects differences in transmissibility of these 2 blood-borne pathogens and suggests much greater efficacy of SEP for HIV prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.617 Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  5. Is Housing a Health Insult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-05-26

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people's whole housing 'bundles'. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing 'insults to health'-an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health.

  6. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith H. Carter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine

  7. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection

  9. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  10. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes...... an investigation of the indoor air quality, relative humidity and air change rate in eight Danish houses. The houses were selected as they are all having recurrent problems with condensation on the windows. The houses were built between 1930 and 2007. Some of them have been only slightly renovated where others......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...

  11. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  12. HBsAg seroprevalence in students for college entrance examination from 2006 to 2014 in Qidong of Jiangsu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Zhengping

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the HBsAg seroprevalence in the young generation in Qidong of Jiangsu Province, China. MethodsA total of 15 534 students for college entrance examination from 2006 to 2014 were randomly selected from three secondary schools in Qidong as student group. Some of them had hepatitis B vaccination at birth. A total of 1208 adults who had their routine checkups in our hospital from 2007 to 2013 were selected as adult group. It was confirmed that all of them did not have hepatitis B vaccination at birth. Serum HBsAg levels of the two groups were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the seroprevalence was analyzed. Comparison of data between the two groups was made by chi-square test. Results In the 9 years from 2007 to 2013, the seroprevalence rates of HBsAg in the student group were 4.2%(75/1794, 4.3%(77/1797, 4.4%(82/1858, 4.3%(82/1903, 3.4%(56/1627, 2.6%(46/1768, 1.6%(29/1778, 1.6%(27/1642, and 1.8%(24/1367, respectively. The mean HBsAg seroprevalence of the student group was 3.2%(498/15534, significantly lower compared with 7.1% (86/1208 of the adult group (χ2= 59.986, P<0.001. In both of the student group and the adult group, the males had a significantly higher HBsAg seroprevalence than the females (χ2=10.521, P=0.001; χ2=8.452, P=0.004 and the values were 3.7%(266/7236 vs 2.8%(229/8298 and 8.8%(66/750 vs 4.4%(20/458, respectively. Among male subjects, the HBsAg seroprevalence of the adult group was 2.4 times that of the student group; among female subjects, the HBsAg seroprevalence of the adult group was 1.6 times that of the student group. ConclusionIn the recent 9 years from 2006 to 2014, the HBsAg seroprevalence in students for college entrance examination declined continuously. The goal set by the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region in 2010 had been achieved ahead of the schedule that the HBsAg seroprevalence should be controlled below 2% in children aged less than 5.

  13. Social House Refurbishment

    OpenAIRE

    DONET CLIMENT, MARIA

    2012-01-01

    The building is located in urban Horsens on CHR. M. Østergaardsvej. Originally it was designed as part of a bigger social housing project and executed in 1956 by architect J. Broch Christensen. The project consisted of 7 very similar blocks but we are mainly focusing on block 6. The original design of the buildings was a traditional danish design with external bricks and roof tiles - all in red. Inside, the apartments were quite typical of that time. Our concept for the new building is to m...

  14. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Tibetan Sheep and Yaks in Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China, and tested for BTV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence of BTV was 17.34% (654/3771), with 20.3% (443/2187) in Tibetan sheep and 13.3% (211/1584) in yaks. In the Tibetan sheep group, the seroprevalence of BTV in Luqu, Maqu, Tianzhu, and Nyingchi Prefecture was 20.3%, 20.8%, 20.5%, and 19.1%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BTV in different season groups varied from 16.5% to 23.4%. In the yak group, BTV seroprevalence was 12.6%, 15.5%, and 11.0% in Tianzhu, Maqu, and Luqu counties, respectively. The seroprevalence in different seasons was 12.6%, 15.5%, 15.4%, and 9.0% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The season was the major risk factor concerning BTV infection in yaks ( P Tibetan sheep and yaks provides baseline information for controlling BT in ruminants in western China.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 24 CFR 3500.7 - Good faith estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith estimate. 3500.7 Section 3500.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.7 Good faith estimate. (a) Lender to provide. (1...

  17. 24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible housing. 982.352 Section 982.352 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  18. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary...

  19. 24 CFR 1007.20 - Eligible housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible housing. 1007.20 Section 1007.20 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  20. 20 CFR 654.407 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 654.407 Section 654.407 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.407 Housing. (a) Housing... occupants against the elements. (b) Housing shall have flooring constructed of rigid materials, smooth...