Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico
Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ER do Nascimento
Full Text Available False positive serologic reactions and difficulties in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in chickens have increased lately as a result of infection by low virulent MG strains and the use of live MG vaccines in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses of SPF chickens exposed to the three commercially available live MG vaccines, and one low virulent MG strain (MG-70, contributing to the diagnosis and monitoring of MG infection in birds. Six groups of SPF chickens were used. The control group was not infected nor challenged; one group was infected with the low virulent strain MG-70 (MG-70; three groups were immunized and named after the MG vaccine used, i.e., MG-6/85, MG-ts11, and MG-F; and finally one group was infected with the virulent MG standard strain, MGR. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPDPCR was used to compare the strains to each other, to the standard MG-A5969, and to MGR. All strains were found to be genetically distinguishable from each other. Birds in the control group showed negative results throughout the experiment and showed no cross-reaction with M. synoviae in any serologic test. ELISA tests at 21 days post first exposure (P1E and seven days after the second exposure (P2E, evidenced that 25% of the MG70 birds were positive, whereas vaccine groups yielded higher positivity rate, i.e., 57%, 43% and 29% for MG-6/85, MG-ts11 and MG-F, respectively. Serum plate agglutination (SPA evidenced the first positive results at 35 days P1E on birds in the MG-F group at the rate of 100%; followed by 40% of birds in the MG-70 group at 63 days P1E. Chickens in MG-ts11 and MG 6/85 groups had identical behavior and yielded 100% positive SPA at 77 days P1E. In regard to hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 14 % of the birds in MG-F and MG-ts11 reacted at 42 days P1E, while MG-70 and MG-6/85 groups yielded positive results only after challenge; MG-70 birds reacted at 56 days P1E at the rate of
Aghomo, H O; Oduye, O O; Rupprecht, C E
The serological response of puppies from Nigeria to live Flury low egg passage (LEP) rabies vaccine was determined. Two sets of puppies were used: one set from rabies-vaccinated bitches and another set from non-vaccinated bitches. Puppies were vaccinated intramuscularly with Flury LEP strain rabies vaccine and serially bled from the 4th week to the 30th week. Serum rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were measured by a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Puppies from non-vaccinated bitches responded well to vaccination after the 4th week and through to the 10th week of age, showing a progressive increase in VNA. In contrast, puppies from vaccinated bitches responded well to rabies vaccination only at 10 weeks of age, although detectable maternal rabies VNA and rabies anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies had decreased by 6 weeks post partum.
Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara
Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain). Imm...... in the LPS of strains 1536 and 7317 were revealed. Since an antigenic determinant specific for the 9 isolates could not be demonstrated with the methods used, the strains are proposed to be designated K2:O7....
Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro
Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.
Carrasco, E.A.; Uzal, F.A.; Echaide, S.
The different serologic techniques for bovine brucellosis diagnosis have different abilities to detect antibodies after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19. The humoral response in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated by using several serologic techniques. In the experimental field of INTA, Pilcaniyeu, Rio Negro province, sixteen 5 months old heifers were vaccinated subcutaneously with a standard dose (2ml, containing 20x10 9 to 10x10 9 living organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19. Sera from all the heifers were obtained on 18 occasions (one 87 days before vaccination, one immediately before vaccination and on 16 occasions after vaccination, during 488 days) and analyzed by buffered plate antigen test, rose bengal test, standard tube agglutination test, 2-mercaptoetanol test, complement fixation test, indirect ELISA, and competitive ELISA. Prior vaccination, 100% of the heifers gave negative results in all the techniques used, while 100% of them gave positive reaction in the first sampling after vaccination to all the techniques, with the exception of standard tube agglutination test that showed agglutinating titters of 1/100 or higher (positive threshold) in only 71.4% of the heifers. The indirect ELISA technique showed a reducing percentage of positive animals up until 316 days after vaccination, after which positive results were obtained. The competitive ELISA gave positive results in a variable number of heifers up to 253 days after vaccination when 100% of the sera were negative to this technique. Buffered plate antigen test was the technique that gave positive results for a longest period, being 100% of the animals negative to this technique at 450 days after vaccination. The other serological techniques assayed gave positive results during variable periods of time, intermediate between standard tube agglutination test and buffered plate antigen test. Although the present results were obtained from a limited number of
Lillehoj, E P; Walsh, W D; Potter, T; Lee, D R; Coligan, J E; Hansen, T H
Detailed serologic and biochemical characterization of D region products of the wild-derived mouse strain B10.GAA37 (Dw16) were performed and compared with previous studies of the D region products of the H-2d,b, and q haplotypes. Serologic analysis revealed that the antigens encoded by the Dw16 region express a unique combination of specificities defined by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with established activity for the Ld and Dd molecules. Two out of five anti-Ld-reactive mAb reacted with B10.GAA37 cells, whereas one of three anti-Dd mAb showed B10.GAA37 reactivity. Sequential immunoprecipitation of B10.GAA37 antigens demonstrated the existence of at least two antigenically distinct molecules (designated Dw16 and Lw16) encoded by genes associated with the Dw16 region. Peptide map comparisons of the Dw16 and Lw16 molecules defined multiple differences in their primary protein structure, suggesting they are products of separate genes. Structural comparisons of the Lw16 and Dw16 molecules with the Ld and Dd molecules implied a) that the Dw16 and Dd regions did not result from a recent evolutionary divergence of a common primordial haplotype, and b) that the Lw16 and Dw16 molecules are more structurally homologous to each other than the Ld and Dd molecules are. Comparison of these findings with our previous studies of antigens encoded by the D regions suggest that each of these haplotypes has unique properties in terms of the number of gene products expressed and/or the structural relatedness of products of the same region.
Twedt, Robert M.; Spaulding, Procter L.; Hall, Herbert E.
Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of 79 strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus isolated from patients suffering from gastroenteric disease in Japan were compared with 17 suspected V. parahemolyticus cultures isolated from wound infections and 14 nonpathogenic vibrios isolated from an estuarine environment in the United States. These groups were differentiated on the basis of several key reactions which included: the range of growth temperature and salt tolerance; the production of catalase and acetoin; the hydrolysis of starch; the fermentation and utilization as single carbon source of sucrose, cellobiose, and arabinose; and the ability to swarm on 1% agar. The separation of the groups on the basis of cultural and biochemical analyses was confirmed by means of slide agglutinations with specific anti-K antisera. The results of this study strongly suggest that the wound infection isolates are V. parahemolyticus species which are easily distinguished from the nonpathogenic estuarine vibrios. PMID:5784207
Twedt, R M; Spaulding, P L; Hall, H E
Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of 79 strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus isolated from patients suffering from gastroenteric disease in Japan were compared with 17 suspected V. parahemolyticus cultures isolated from wound infections and 14 nonpathogenic vibrios isolated from an estuarine environment in the United States. These groups were differentiated on the basis of several key reactions which included: the range of growth temperature and salt tolerance; the production of catalase and acetoin; the hydrolysis of starch; the fermentation and utilization as single carbon source of sucrose, cellobiose, and arabinose; and the ability to swarm on 1% agar. The separation of the groups on the basis of cultural and biochemical analyses was confirmed by means of slide agglutinations with specific anti-K antisera. The results of this study strongly suggest that the wound infection isolates are V. parahemolyticus species which are easily distinguished from the nonpathogenic estuarine vibrios.
Miotto, Bruno Alonso; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Sousa, Gisele Oliveira de; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. The dog was kept in a public shelter in São Paulo city, Brazil, and presented asymptomatic urinary shedding detected by PCR. Prospective evaluation was performed to fully characterize its chronic carrier state. The dog did not present anti-Leptospira titles or clinical/laboratorial abnormalities during the evaluations; nevertheless long-term urinary shedding was confirmed by PCR and leptospires were recovered from two occasions. The isolated strain was molecularly characterized by partial 16S rRNA and secY gene sequencing and MLST analysis. Serogroup identification was performed using polyclonal antibodies. The strain was identified as Leptospira santarosai, serogroup Sejroe. This is the first evidence in the literature of the isolation of L. santarosai in dogs. Our findings show that dogs can persistently harbor leptospires other than L. interrogans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara
Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...
Haemagglutination-inhibition tests, which depend on the appearance of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum in virus infections, are in common use in the study of arthropod-borne diseases. This paper contains the results of an investigation into the appearance and pattern of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum of rhesus monkeys inoculated intracerebrally with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus during the testing of seed lots of yellow fever vaccine. These antibodies appeared on the tenth day after inoculation, and were still demonstrable four years later. In all of the eight monkeys tested complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever antigens also developed, and in six out of the eight heterologous antigens developed.
Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel
Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.
Herrera Sarrias, Marcela
Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.
Nívia Carolina Nogueira-Paiva
Full Text Available Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78 T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.
Cohen, Mark; Appleby, Brian; Safar, Jiri G
Vast evidence on human prions demonstrates that variable disease phenotypes, rates of propagation, and targeting of distinct brain structures are determined by unique conformers (strains) of pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Recent progress in the development of advanced biophysical tools that inventory structural characteristics of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain cortex of phenotypically diverse Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, revealed unique spectrum of oligomeric particles in the cortex of rapidly progressive cases, implicating these structures in variable rates of propagation in the brain, and in distict disease manifestation. Since only ∼30% of phenotypic diversity of AD can be explained by polymorphisms in risk genes, these and transgenic bioassay data argue that structurally distinct Aβ particles play a major role in the diverse pathogenesis of AD, and may behave as distinct prion-like strains encoding diverse phenotypes. From these observations and our growing understanding of prions, there is a critical need for new strain-specific diagnostic strategies for misfolded proteins causing these elusive disorders. Since targeted drug therapy can induce mutation and evolution of prions into new strains, effective treatments of AD will require drugs that enhance clearance of pathogenic conformers, reduce the precursor protein, or inhibit the conversion of precursors into prion-like states.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N
Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.
Kawahara, M; Ito, T; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Rikihisa, Y; Hata, K; Hirai, K
In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.
El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John
Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.
Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.
ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439
Christopher T. Brown
Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.
Al-Badri, Riadh; Barta, John Robert
The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation of two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima (GS and M6) were compared. Both strains had a prepatent period of approximately 120 h followed by peak oocyst shedding at 144-150 h post inoculation. Mean total oocyst output determined for each strain demonstrated that the fecundity of the M6 strain (12.8 × 10(3) ± 1.95) of E. maxima was roughly twice that of the GS strain (6.9 × 10(3) ± 3.33) when inoculated at the rate of 1,000 infective oocysts per bird. The process of oocyst sporulation was followed by repetitive sampling of sporulating oocysts at 26 °C with aeration over a 138 hour period. Sporulation was divided into five morphologically distinguishable stages whose abundance peaked at the following times during sporulation: unsporulated oocysts at 0 h; sporoblast anlagen at 18 h; sporoblasts without sporocyst walls at 22 h; and sporocysts without mature sporozoites at 38 h. The time to 50 % sporulation of E. maxima oocysts observed in the present study was approximately 53 h for both strains and all viable oocysts had completed sporulation by 60 h. In the present study, the prepatent periods, duration of oocyst shedding, and the relative kinetics of sporulation of the GS and M6 strains of E. maxima were found to be virtually identical despite the immunological distinctiveness of these two parasite strains.
Ordonez, Paula; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ding, Shan; Yoshiwara, Elena; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Takano, Juan; Chirinos, Jesus L; Watanabe, Jose; Miyagui, Juan; Hidalgo, Heriberto; Chacon, Pedro; Linares, Victor; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori
To clarify the reason for the low frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in Peru, despite the high frequency reported in neighboring countries, the distribution of the distinctive EBV (type i/XhoI+) strain in EBVaGC and a healthy population was examined. EBV polymorphisms in BamHI W1/I1 and XhoI restriction site of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1) were examined among 11 EBVaGCs and 172 healthy controls from Peru, and these frequencies were compared with those in a previous study of Chile and Colombia (n=303). The frequency of the distinctive EBV strain in EBVaGCs (55%) was significantly higher than that in controls (7%). Furthermore, the frequency of this EBV type in Peruvian controls was significantly lower than that in controls from Chile and Colombia (27%, pPeru, as compared with neighboring countries.
Dumas, Pascaline; Legeai, Fabrice; Lemaitre, Claire; Scaon, Erwan; Orsucci, Marion; Labadie, Karine; Gimenez, Sylvie; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Henri, Hélène; Vavre, Fabrice; Aury, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Philippe; Kergoat, Gael J; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle
The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well-known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pheromone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S. frugiperda, we analyze features that possibly reflect the level of post-zygotic isolation: (1) first generation (F1) hybrid lethality and sterility; (2) patterns of meiotic segregation of hybrids in reciprocal second generation (F2), as compared to the meiosis of the two parental strains. We found a significant reduction of mating success in F1 in one direction of the cross and a high level of microsatellite markers showing transmission ratio distortion in the F2 progeny. Our results support the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation between the two laboratory strains and are in accordance with the marked level of genetic differentiation that was recovered between individuals of the two strains collected from the field. Altogether these results provide additional evidence in favor of a sibling species status for the two strains.
Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to
Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram
Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0), 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6). Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP
Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; López-Lozano, Antonio; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol Alberto; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José Manuel
The abundance and significant contribution to global primary production of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have made it one of the main models in marine ecology. Several conditions known to cause strong effects on the regulation of N-related enzymes in other cyanobacteria lacked such effect in Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus sp. strain MIT9313 is one of the most early-branching strains among the members of this genus. In order to further understand the C/N control system in this cyanobacterium, we studied the effect of the absence of three key elements in the ocean, namely N, P and Fe, as well as the effect of inhibitors of the N assimilation or photosynthesis on the N metabolism of this strain. Furthermore, we focused our work in the effect of ageing, as the age of cultures has clear effects on the regulation of some enzymes in Prochlorococcus. To reach this goal, expression of the main three regulators involved in N assimilation in cyanobacteria, namely ntcA, glnB and pipX, as well as that of icd (encoding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) were analysed. Our results show that the control of the main proteins involved in the C/N balance in strain MIT9313 differs from other model Prochlorococcus strains. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van der Sar, Astrid M.; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Sparrius, Marion; Reinders, Erik; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Bitter, Wilbert
Mycobacterium marinum causes a systemic tuberculosis-like disease in a large number of poikilothermic animals and is used as a model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we infected zebra fish (Danio rerio) with different strains of M. marinum to determine the variation in
Citric acid is an important organic acid, multifunctional with a wide array of uses. The objectives of this study were the isolation and selection strains of the genus Aspergillus, investigating the solubilization of phosphate of these isolates, verifying the expression rate of genes involved in the identification of isolates, and ...
laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify
Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.
SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943
Coral reefs are crucial for the ecological sustainability of the oceans, yet, increasing sea surface temperature is threatening these ecosystems globally. Microbial communities associated with corals have become a recent research focus, as the associated microbiome may contribute to coral resilience to environmental stressors, e.g., heat stress. However, research in this area is hampered by the difficulty of working with corals. This study aims to use Aiptasia, a sea anemone, as a tractable laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify a “core” microbiome associated with heat stress acclimation, as well as host-specific differences. In general, results showed that bacterial composition associated with Aiptasia strains differs significantly with temperature. Higher bacterial diversity and richness were observed when all Aiptasia strains were placed under heat stress. Moreover, results showed an increase in beta diversity and dispersion of bacterial communities in response to heat stress. These changes in the bacterial composition are in line with the recently described “Anna Karenina principle” for animal microbiomes, which suggests that the microbiomes of unhealthy individuals vary more than healthy and stable individuals. This study further shows that while temperature had the greatest effect on structuring the bacterial compositions, there were some variations better attributed to batch and host effects. This suggests that technical aspects have to be carefully addressed in the framework of microbiome studies. Members of a putative “core” microbiome associated with 32 °C Aiptasia have been identified as indicator species of heat stress (i.e., Francisella sp.,). Previous reports have shown that these indicator taxa are associated with
Drew Robert E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domesticated animal populations often show profound reductions in predator avoidance and fear-related behavior compared to wild populations. These reductions are remarkably consistent and have been observed in a diverse array of taxa including fish, birds, and mammals. Experiments conducted in common environments indicate that these behavioral differences have a genetic basis. In this study, we quantified differences in fear-related behavior between wild and domesticated zebrafish strains and used microarray analysis to identify genes that may be associated with this variation. Results Compared to wild zebrafish, domesticated zebrafish spent more time near the water surface and were more likely to occupy the front of the aquarium nearest a human observer. Microarray analysis of the brain transcriptome identified high levels of population variation in gene expression, with 1,749 genes significantly differentially expressed among populations. Genes that varied among populations belonged to functional categories that included DNA repair, DNA photolyase activity, response to light stimulus, neuron development and axon guidance, cell death, iron-binding, chromatin reorganization, and homeobox genes. Comparatively fewer genes (112 differed between domesticated and wild strains with notable genes including gpr177 (wntless, selenoprotein P1a, synaptophysin and synaptoporin, and acyl-CoA binding domain containing proteins (acbd3 and acbd4. Conclusions Microarray analysis identified a large number of genes that differed among zebrafish populations and may underlie behavioral domestication. Comparisons with similar microarray studies of domestication in rainbow trout and canids identified sixteen evolutionarily or functionally related genes that may represent components of shared molecular mechanisms underlying convergent behavioral evolution during vertebrate domestication. However, this conclusion must be tempered by limitations
Riley, Matthew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P
Recent outbreaks of canine distemper have prompted examination of strains from clinical samples submitted to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) Clinical Virology Lab. We previously described a new strain of CDV that significantly diverged from all genotypes reported to date including America 2, the genotype proposed to be the main lineage currently circulating in the US. The aim of this study was to determine when this new strain appeared and how widespread it is in animal populations, given that it has also been detected in fully vaccinated adult dogs. Additionally, we sequenced complete viral genomes to characterize the strain and determine if variation is confined to known variable regions of the genome or if the changes are also present in more conserved regions. Archived clinical samples were genotyped using real-time RT-PCR amplification and sequencing. The genomes of two unrelated viruses from a dog and fox each from a different state were sequenced and aligned with previously published genomes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using coding, non-coding and genome-length sequences. Virus neutralization assays were used to evaluate potential antigenic differences between this strain and a vaccine strain and mixed ANOVA test was used to compare the titers. Genotyping revealed this strain first appeared in 2011 and was detected in dogs from multiple states in the Southeast region of the United States. It was the main strain detected among the clinical samples that were typed from 2011-2013, including wildlife submissions. Genome sequencing demonstrated that it is highly conserved within a new lineage and preliminary serologic testing showed significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers between this strain and the strain commonly used in vaccines. This new strain represents an emerging CDV in domestic dogs in the US, may be associated with a stable reservoir in the wildlife population, and could facilitate vaccine
Alberto J Leon
Full Text Available Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur. The host gene expression profiles of the lung tissue showed early activation of interferon responses and subsequent expression of inflammation-related genes that coincided with the clinical deterioration. Additionally, the lung tissue showed unchanged levels of lymphocyte markers and progressive downregulation of cell cycle genes and extracellular matrix components. Infection in the brain resulted in a limited breadth of the host responses, which is in accordance with the immunoprivileged status of this organ. Finally, we propose a model of the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection that integrates multiple components of the host responses.
Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.
We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This
Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.
types of PRRSV was made on a serological basis. The immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), carried out using a Danish strain (IPMA/DK) and the vaccine strain (IPMA/vac) in parallel, allows the distinction of infections with EU and US strains of PRRSV. In herds infected with the EU type, the titer...... in individual samples is higher in the IPMA/DK compared to the titer in the IPMA/vac, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US type, the titers are highest in the IPMA/vac. Furthermore, a double blocking ELISA has been developed, which enables large scale screening for and simultaneous distinction between...... ELISA-Vac), which enables us to serologically distinguish between EU and US strains of PRRSV infections. In herds infected with the Danish strain of PRRSV, most animals have a ratio below 1, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US strain most animals have a ratio above 2. The distinction between...
Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.
Andrew D Haddow
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two
Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.
Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is a unique oomycete microorganism, capable of infecting humans and animals. The organism can be phylogenetically categorized into three distinct clades: Clade-I (strains from the Americas; Clade-II (strains from Asia and Australia, and CladeâIII (strains from Thailand and the United States. Two draft genomes of the P. insidiosum Clade-I strain CDC-B5653 and Clade-II strain Pi-S are available in the public domain. The genome of P. insidiosum from the distinct Clade-III, which is distantly-related to the other two clades, is lacking. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. insidiosum strain Pi45 (also known as MCC13; isolated from a Thai patient with pythiosis; accession numbers BCFM01000001-BCFM01017277 as a representative strain of the phylogenetically-distinct Clade-III. We also report a genome-scale data set of sequence variants (i.e., SNPs and INDELs found in P. insidiosum (accessible online at the Mendeley database: http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r75799jy6c.1. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome, Sequence variant
Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Amara, Ali
The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a "gold standard" for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry
Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio
In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia
Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.
Diagnóstico sorológico da brucelose bovina em animais adultos vacinados com dose reduzida da cepa 19 de Brucella abortus Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in adult herd vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 reduced dose
Gustavo Coelho Jardim
Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho avaliou-se o uso de dose reduzida da vacina produzida com a amostra 19 de Brucella abortus, em rebanho adulto negativo para a enfermidade, por meio de técnicas de diagnóstico sorológico preconizadas pelo Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal e por um ensaio indireto de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA ID. A prova de fixação de complemento detectou 46,77% de positivos, o antígeno acidificado tamponado 67,74%, o 2-mercaptoetanol com soroaglutinação lenta 87,09% e o ELISA ID 100%. A dose reduzida interferiu no diagnóstico sorológico. Nenhuma das técnicas apresentou especificidade adequada para uso em rebanho nestas condições, até 3 meses após a vacinação.The study evaluated the use of a reduced dose of the Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, in an adult herd negative for the disease, by serological diagnostic techniques, advocated by the Brazilian Program for Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Control and Eradication, and by an indirect ELISA. The complement fixation test detecteed 46.77% positives, the rose bengal test 67.74%, the mercaptoethanol with standard agglutination test 87.09% and the ELISA ID 100%. The reduced dose influenced the serological diagnosis. None of the techniques reached a suitable specificity for use in the herd under those conditions, up to 3 months after vaccination.
Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.
Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers wer...
Kawahara, Makoto; Ito, Tadahiko; Suto, Chiharu; Shibata, Shinichiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Hata, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Katsuya
In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had...
Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.
Čejková, Darina; Strouhal, Michal; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M; Šmajs, David
Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14), 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc), 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN) strain (Bosnia A) and one strain (Cuniculi A) of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC) were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites. The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes) were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5), DAL-1 (n = 4), and SS14 (n = 7), TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1), and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5). Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K), in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY), in genes involved in cell structure (murC), translation (prfA), general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA), and in seven hypothetical genes. Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.
Serological and virological survey of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in animal reservoirs from Uruguay reveals elevated prevalences and a very close phylogenetic relationship between swine and human strains.
Mirazo, Santiago; Gardinali, Noemí R; Cecilia, D'Albora; Verger, Lorenzo; Ottonelli, Florencia; Ramos, Natalia; Castro, Gustavo; Pinto, Marcelo A; Ré, Viviana; Pisano, Belén; Lozano, Alejandra; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Arbiza, Juan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an issue of public health concern in high-income and non-endemic countries. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis of a zoonotic route as the main mode of infection in this epidemiological setting, since the transmission of genotypes HEV-3 and HEV-4 from reservoirs to humans has been demonstrated. In America, studies have confirmed the circulation of HEV in pig herds but the zoonotic role of wild boars has never been evaluated. Uruguay has a high burden of HEV- associated acute hepatitis, and a close phylogenetic relationship was observed among human HEV-3 strains and European isolates detected in swine. However in this context, swine herds have never been surveyed. Herein is reported a survey of HEV in swine herds, pigs at slaughter-house and free-living wild boar populations. Two-hundred and twenty sera and 150 liver tissue samples from domestic pigs, and 140 sera from wild boars were tested for HEV by ELISA and PCR-based approaches. All tested swine farms resulted seropositive with an overall rate of 46.8%. In turn, 22.1% of the wild boars had anti-HEV antibodies. HEV RNA was detected in 16.6% and 9.3% of liver samples from slaughter-age pigs and adult wild boars sera, respectively. Three strains from domestic pig were also amplified by nested-PCR approaches. By contrast, none of the positive samples obtained from wild boars could be confirmed by nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a very high nucleotide identity among swine strains and sequences obtained from humans in Uruguay. Results showed that HEV is widely distributed among swine herds in Uruguay. Additionally, this study evidences for the first time in the American continent that wild boar populations are a reservoir for HEV, though its zoonotic role remains to be elucidated. Altogether, data presented here suggest a high zoonotic risk of HEV transmission from swine to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits
Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco
The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches. PMID:26147218
Full Text Available Roles of nutrients and other environmental variables in development of cyanobacterial bloom and its toxicity are complex and not well understood. We have monitored the photoautotrophic growth, total microcystin concentration, and microcystins synthetase gene (mcyA expression in lab-grown strains of Microcystis NIES 843 (reference strain, KW (Wangsong Reservoir, South Korea, and Durgakund (Varanasi, India under different nutrient regimes (nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron. Higher level of nitrogen and boron resulted in increased growth (avg. 5 and 6.5 Chl a mg/L, resp., total microcystin concentrations (avg. 1.185 and 7.153 mg/L, resp., and mcyA transcript but its expression was not directly correlated with total microcystin concentrations in the target strains. Interestingly, Durgakund strain had much lower microcystin content and lacked microcystin-YR variant over NIES 843 and KW. It is inferred that microcystin concentration and its variants are strain specific. We have also examined the heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacterial bloom in Durgakund Pond and Wangsong Reservoir which were found to be enriched in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and that could influence the bloom dynamics.
Spahr, Carina; Ryll, René; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Ulrich, Rainer G; Johne, Reimar
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33.3%) and carnivores (27.0%). However, RNA of the human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 was not detected in the serum samples from suids or carnivores. Using a broad spectrum RT-PCR, a ratHEV-related sequence was identified in a sample of a female Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus). Subsequent serum samples within a period of five years confirmed a HEV seroconversion in this animal. No symptoms of hepatitis were recorded. In a follow-up investigation at the same location, closely related ratHEV sequences were identified in free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), whereas feeder rats (Rattus norvegicus forma domestica) were negative for HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. Therefore, a spillover infection of ratHEV from free-living Norway rats is most likely. The results indicate that a wide range of zoo animals can be naturally infected with HEV or HEV-related viruses. Their distinct role as possible reservoir animals for HEV and sources of HEV infection for humans and other animals remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prions (PrPSc) are molecular pathogens that are able to convert the isosequential normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a prion. The only demonstrated differences between PrPC and PrPSc is conformational, they are isoforms. A given host can be infected by more than one kind or strain of prion. F...
Poelarends, GJ; Bosma, T; Kulakov, LA; Larkin, MJ; Marchesi, [No Value; Weightman, AJ; Janssen, DB; Kulakov, Leonid A.; Larkin, Michael J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Weightman, Andrew J.
The sequences of the 16S rRNA and haloalkane dehalogenase (dhaA) genes of five gram-positive haloalkane-utilizing bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Europe, Japan, and the United States and of the archetypal haloalkane-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB13064 were compared.
Xu, Jiayi; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Lasse Tor
Zooplankton responses to toxic algae are highly variable, even towards taxonomically closely related species or different strains of the same species. Here, the individual level feeding behavior of a copepod, Temora longicornis, was examined which offered 4 similarly sized strains of toxic...... of the copepod during 4 h incubations: (i) the ‘normal’ feeding behavior, in which the feeding appendages were beating almost constantly to produce a feeding current and most (90%) of the captured algae were ingested; (ii) the beating activity of the feeding appendages was reduced by ca. 80% during the initial...... may be equally beneficial to the prey and its competitors. These behaviors were not related to lytic activity or overall paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) content and composition and suggest that other cues are responsible for the responses....
Berg, Gabriele; Martinez, Jose L
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen of environmental, mainly plant-associated origin. It is also used as a biocontrol or stress protecting agent for crops in sustainable agricultural as well as in bioremediation strategies. In order to establish effective protocols to distinguish harmless from harmful strains, our discussion must take into consideration the current data available surrounding the ecology, evolution and pathogenicity of the species complex. The mutation rate was identified as one of several possible criteria for strain plasticity, but it is currently impossible to distinguish beneficial from harmful S. maltophilia strains. This may compromise the possibility of the release and application for environmental biotechnology of this bacterial species. The close relative S. rhizophila, which can be clearly differentiated from S. maltophilia, provides a harmless alternative for biotechnological applications without human health risks. This is mainly because it is unable to growth at the human body temperature, 37(∘)C due to the absence of heat shock genes and a potentially temperature-regulated suicide mechanism.
Wendte, J M; Miller, M A; Nandra, A K; Peat, S M; Crosbie, P R; Conrad, P A; Grigg, M E
Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.
Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.
Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo
Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.
Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.
Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar
Uranium present in phosphate fertilizer contaminates agricultural land. Uranium exerts chemical toxicity to the resident biota as it induces oxidative stress by generating free radicals. Two strains of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria viz., Anabaena PCC 7120 and L-31 native to Indian paddy, regularly experience oxidative stress induced by different stresses and heavy metals. The present study investigated their response to uranium exposure at proteomic level. LD_5_0 dose for Anabaena 7120 and Anabaena L-31 was determined to be 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate exposure for 3 h. A total of 79 proteins from Anabaena 7120 and 64 proteins from Anabaena L-31 were identified by MALDI mass spectrometry, of which levels of 45 and 27 proteins respectively were found to be differentially modulated in the two strains in response to uranium exposure. The differentially expressed proteins belonged to the major functional categories of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis lead to superior uranium tolerance in Anabaena L-31 as compared to Anabaena PCC 7120
Nielsen, K; Yu, W L
To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.
Walker, Alesia; Pfitzner, Barbara; Neschen, Susanne; Kahle, Melanie; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Moritz, Franco; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Witting, Michael; Rothballer, Michael; Engel, Marion; Schmid, Michael; Endesfelder, David; Klingenspor, Martin; Rattei, Thomas; Castell, Wolfgang zu; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Hartmann, Anton; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. This study focused on gut and liver metabolomics of two different mouse strains, the C57BL/6J (C57J) and the C57BL/6N (C57N) fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, causing diet-induced obesity in C57N, but not in C57J mice. Furthermore, a 16S-ribosomal RNA comparative sequence analysis using 454 pyrosequencing detected significant differences between the microbiome of the two strains on phylum level for Firmicutes, Deferribacteres and Proteobacteria that propose an essential role of the microbiome in obesity susceptibility. Gut microbial and liver metabolomics were followed by a combinatory approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography time of tlight MS/MS with subsequent multivariate statistical analysis, revealing distinctive host and microbial metabolome patterns between the C57J and the C57N strain. Many taurine-conjugated bile acids (TBAs) were significantly elevated in the cecum and decreased in liver samples from the C57J phenotype likely displaying different energy utilization behavior by the bacterial community and the host. Furthermore, several metabolite groups could specifically be associated with the C57N phenotype involving fatty acids, eicosanoids and urobilinoids. The mass differences based metabolite network approach enabled to extend the range of known metabolites to important bile acids (BAs) and novel taurine conjugates specific for both strains. In summary, our study showed clear alterations of the metabolome in the gastrointestinal tract and liver within a HFD-induced obesity mouse model in relation to the host–microbial nutritional adaptation. PMID:24906017
Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Zaidi, Amal M; Singh, Achuit K; Briddon, Rob W
Tomato and pepper are widely grown in Oman for local consumption. A countrywide survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to collect samples and assess the diversity of begomoviruses associated with leaf curl disease of tomato and pepper. A virus previously only identified on the Indian subcontinent, chili leaf curl virus (ChLCV), was found associated with tomato and pepper diseases in all vegetable grown areas of Oman. Some of the infected plant samples were also found to contain a betasatellite. A total of 19 potentially full-length begomovirus and eight betasatellite clones were sequenced. The begomovirus clones showed >96% nucleotide sequence identity, showing them to represent a single species. Comparisons to sequences available in the databases showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (88.0-91.1%) to isolates of the "Pakistan" strain of ChLCV (ChLCV-PK), indicating the virus from Oman to be a distinct strain, for which the name Oman strain (ChLCV-OM) is proposed. An analysis for recombination showed ChLCV-OM likely to have originated by recombination between ChLCV-PK (the major parent), pepper leaf curl Lahore virus and a third strain of ChLCV. The betasatellite sequences obtained were shown to have high levels of identity to isolates of tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB) previous shown to be present in Oman. For the disease in tomato Koch's postulates were satisfied by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of virus and betasatellites clones. This showed the symptoms induced by the virus in the presence of the betasatellite to be enhanced, although viral DNA levels were not affected. ChLCV-OM is the fourth begomovirus identified in tomato in Oman and the first in Capsicum. The significance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zappa, Alessandra; Canuti, Marta; Frati, Elena; Pariani, Elena; Perin, Silvana; Ruzza, Maria Lorena; Farina, Claudio; Podestà, Alberto; Zanetti, Alessandro; Amendola, Antonella; Tanzi, Elisabetta
The discovery of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human Bocavirus (hBoV) identified the etiological causes of several cases of acute respiratory tract infections in children. This report describes the molecular epidemiology of hMPV and hBoV infections observed following viral surveillance of children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Milan, Italy. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 240 children ≤3 years of age (130 males, 110 females; median age, 5.0 months; IQR, 2.0-12.5 months) and tested for respiratory viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, by molecular methods. hMPV-RNA and hBoV-DNA positive samples were characterized molecularly and a phylogenetical analysis was performed. PCR analysis identified 131/240 (54.6%) samples positive for at least one virus. The frequency of hMPV and hBoV infections was similar (8.3% and 12.1%, respectively). Both infections were associated with lower respiratory tract infections: hMPV was present as a single infectious agent in 7.2% of children with bronchiolitis, hBoV was associated with 18.5% of pediatric pneumonias and identified frequently as a single etiological agent. Genetically distinct hMPV and hBoV strains were identified in children examined with respiratory tract infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed an increased prevalence of hMPV genotype A (A2b sublineage) compared to genotype B (80% vs. 20%, respectively) and of the hBoV genotype St2 compared to genotype St1 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Interestingly, a shift in hMPV infections resulting from A2 strains has been observed in recent years. In addition, the occurrence of recombination events between two hBoV strains with a breakpoint located in the VP1/VP2 region was identified. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.
Dezfulian, Hojabr; Batisson, Isabelle; Fairbrother, John M.; Lau, Peter C. K.; Nassar, Atef; Szatmari, George; Harel, Josée
The virulence genotype profile and presence of a pathogenicity island(s) (PAI) were studied in 18 strains of F165-positive Escherichia coli originally isolated from diseased calves or piglets. On the basis of their adhesion phenotypes and genotypes, these extraintestinal pathogenic strains were classified into three groups. The F165 fimbrial complex consists of at least two serologically and genetically distinct fimbriae: F1651 and F1652. F1651 is encoded by the foo operon (pap-like), and F16...
textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific diagnostic procedures are indispensable. Interpretation of the results of serological syphilis tests often poses problems in actual practice. Apart from possibly inadequate knowledge of the natural histor...
Futagami, Taiki; Kadooka, Chihiro; Ando, Yoshinori; Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Setoguchi, Shinji; Takamine, Kazunori; Kawai, Mikihiko; Tamaki, Hisanori
Shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled spirit. The formation of the distinguishing flavour of shochu produced in individual distilleries is attributed to putative indigenous yeast strains. In this study, we performed the first (to our knowledge) phylogenetic classification of shochu strains based on nucleotide gene sequences. We performed phylogenetic classification of 21 putative indigenous shochu yeast strains isolated from 11 distilleries. All of these strains were shown or confirmed to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sharing species identification with 34 known S. cerevisiae strains (including commonly used shochu, sake, ale, whisky, bakery, bioethanol and laboratory yeast strains and clinical isolate) that were tested in parallel. Our analysis used five genes that reflect genome-level phylogeny for the strain-level classification. In a first step, we demonstrated that partial regions of the ZAP1, THI7, PXL1, YRR1 and GLG1 genes were sufficient to reproduce previous sub-species classifications. In a second step, these five analysed regions from each of 25 strains (four commonly used shochu strains and the 21 putative indigenous shochu strains) were concatenated and used to generate a phylogenetic tree. Further analysis revealed that the putative indigenous shochu yeast strains form a monophyletic group that includes both the shochu yeasts and a subset of the sake group strains; this cluster is a sister group to other sake yeast strains, together comprising a sake-shochu group. Differences among shochu strains were small, suggesting that it may be possible to correlate subtle phenotypic differences among shochu flavours with specific differences in genome sequences. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Distinct changing profiles of hepatitis A and E virus infection among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia: The first report of the full genome sequence of a novel genotype 1 hepatitis E virus strain.
Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Primadharsini, Putu Prathiwi; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Okamoto, Hiroaki
In January 2012, Mongolia started a hepatitis A vaccination program, which has not yet been evaluated. The first occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in 2013, caused by genotype 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV), suggests the need for a routine study to monitor its prevalence. One hundred fifty-four consecutive patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute hepatitis between 2014 and 2015 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia were studied. By serological and molecular testing followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, only one patient (0.6%) was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A, caused by genotype IA hepatitis A virus (HAV), and 32 (20.8%) patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis E, caused by genotype 1 HEV. The 32 HEV isolates obtained in this study shared 99.5-100% nucleotide identity and were grouped into a cluster separated from those of subtypes 1a to 1f. Upon comparison of p-distances over the entire genome, the distances between one representative HEV isolate (MNE15-072) and 1a-1f strains were 0.071-0.137, while those between 1b and 1c were 0.062-0.070. In conclusion, the prevalence of acute hepatitis A has decreased in Mongolia since the start of the vaccination program, while the monophyletic genotype 1 HEV strain of a probably novel subtype has been prevalent. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832
Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.
Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis. Transvaal. P. R. MASON, M. R. JACOBS, P. J. FRIPP. •. In the. SUMMARY. Thirty-seven per cent of 605 samples of human sera col- lected from four ethnic groups in South Africa gave a positive Toxoplasma indir~ct fluorescent antibody test at a dilution 01 1/16 or higher. The incidences ...
A. Notowicz (Alfred)
textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...
Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.
Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross
Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.
Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément
The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross
Matthaei, Markus; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten
The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to overcome the human IFN
Full Text Available The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to
Evaluation of serologic and antigenic relationships between middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses to develop vaccine platforms for the rapid response to emerging coronaviruses.
Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gopal, Robin; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Menachery, Vineet D; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Denison, Mark R; Zambon, Maria; Baric, Ralph S
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, causing severe acute respiratory disease and pneumonia, with 44% mortality among 136 cases to date. Design of vaccines to limit the virus spread or diagnostic tests to track newly emerging strains requires knowledge of antigenic and serologic relationships between MERS-CoV and other CoVs. Using synthetic genomics and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons (VRPs) expressing spike and nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV and other human and bat CoVs, we characterize the antigenic responses (using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and serologic responses (using neutralization assays) against 2 MERS-CoV isolates in comparison with those of other human and bat CoVs. Serologic and neutralization responses against the spike glycoprotein were primarily strain specific, with a very low level of cross-reactivity within or across subgroups. CoV N proteins within but not across subgroups share cross-reactive epitopes with MERS-CoV isolates. Our findings were validated using a convalescent-phase serum specimen from a patient infected with MERS-CoV (NA 01) and human antiserum against SARS-CoV, human CoV NL63, and human CoV OC43. Vaccine design for emerging CoVs should involve chimeric spike protein containing neutralizing epitopes from multiple virus strains across subgroups to reduce immune pathology, and a diagnostic platform should include a panel of nucleocapsid and spike proteins from phylogenetically distinct CoVs.
Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.
Full Text Available Analysis of antigenic proteins in populations of terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia and populations from Japan revealed the antigenic differentiation of the examined samples into two distinct groups. Pellia megaspora from the eastern part of the USA also exhibits a significant antigenic devergence and bears the most resemblance to the group of populations of the aquatic form of P. endiviifolia from Poland and samples from Japan. The observed serological distances between terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia are of the same rank as differences between remaining species of the genus Pellia. Clarification of the nature of the detected serological differentiation in the Pellia megaspora-P, endiviifoliacomplex will require further studies.
Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed M; Naddaf, Saeed; Piazak, Norair; Moradi, Maryam; Razavi, Mohammad R; Afzali, Neda; Haeri, Ali; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Ataei, Behrouz; Khalilifard-Brojeni, Mohammad; Husseini, Sayed M; Bouloy, Michele
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but causes a serious threat to humans with a mortality rate up to 50%. Although the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmission also occurs. In the current study, we focused on CCHF in the province of Isfahan, located in the center of Iran and deemed to be the second most infected province. Human and livestock sera and resident ticks in the livestock are collected from different regions of the province and analyzed with specific IgG ELISA and RT-PCR tests. Overall, 12% and 12.7% of studied human and livestock populations were IgG positive, respectively. The genome of CCHFV was detected in 9% of ticks resident in livestock involved in this survey. The CCHFV isolates from infected ticks were genetically examined. Nucleotide sequence of the S-segment revealed that the different isolates were closely related to each other, with nucleotide sequence identities higher than 98%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a variant isolate clustered with the Iraq strain. This high proportion of IgG-positive sera and nearly high proportion of infected ticks increases the risk of CCHF outbreaks in the province and probably posits a great danger to other provinces.
Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to characterize the behavioral and metabolomic profiles of repeated administration (for 11 days of d-amphetamine (AMPH, 3 mg/kg i. p., indirect agonist of dopamine (DA, in widely used 129S6/SvEvTac (129Sv and C57BL/6NTac (Bl6 mouse strains. Acute administration of AMPH (acute AMPH induced significantly stronger motor stimulation in Bl6. However, repeated administration of AMPH (repeated AMPH caused stronger motor sensitization in 129Sv compared acute AMPH. Body weight of 129Sv was reduced after repeated saline and AMPH, whereas no change occurred in Bl6. In the metabolomic study, acute AMPH induced an elevation of isoleucine and leucine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA, whereas the level of hexoses was reduced in Bl6. Both BCAAs and hexoses remained on level of acute AMPH after repeated AMPH in Bl6. Three biogenic amines [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-AAA, kynurenine] were significantly reduced after repeated AMPH. Acute AMPH caused in 129Sv a significant reduction of valine, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C16:0, lysoPC a C18:2, lysoPC a C20:4, phosphatidylcholine (PC diacyls (PC aa C34:2, PC aa C36:2, PC aa C36:3, PC aa C36:4 and alkyl-acyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4. However, repeated AMPH increased the levels of valine and isoleucine, long-chain acylcarnitines (C14, C14:1-OH, C16, C18:1, PC diacyls (PC aa C38:4, PC aa C38:6, PC aa C42:6, PC acyl-alkyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4, PC ae C40:5, PC ae C40:6, PC ae C42:1, PC ae C42:3 and sphingolipids [SM(OHC22:1, SM C24:0] compared to acute AMPH in 129Sv. Hexoses and kynurenine were reduced after repeated AMPH compared to saline in 129Sv. The established changes probably reflect a shift in energy metabolism toward lipid molecules in 129Sv because of reduced level of hexoses. Pooled data from both strains showed that the elevation of isoleucine and leucine was a prominent biomarker of AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization
Green, Kelsie J; Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Hamasaki, Randall T; Melzer, Michael J; Karasev, Alexander V
Poha, or cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, and leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization. All six isolates induced mosaic and vein clearing in tobacco, and three of them exhibited O-serotype while the other three reacted only with polyclonal antibodies and had no identifiable serotype. Until now, PVY isolates have been broadly divided into pepper or potato adapted; however, these six PVY isolates from poha were unable to establish systemic infection in pepper and in four tested potato cultivars. Whole-genome sequences for the six isolates were determined, and no evidence of recombination was found in any of them. Phylogenetic analysis placed poha PVY isolates in a distinct, monophyletic "Poha" clade within the PVY C lineage, suggesting that they represented a novel, biologically and evolutionarily unique group. The genetic diversity within this poha PVY C clade was unusually high, suggesting a long association of PVY C with this solanaceous host or a prolonged geographical separation of PVY C in poha in Hawaii.
This article differentiates and describes the serological tests for syphilis— antitreponemal antibody tests (TPI, FTA-ABS, TPHA), non-treponemal antigen test (VDRL)—their clinical and serological correlation, the responses to therapy and the biologically false positive syndrome.
Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.
A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH
Lawrence, J A; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A P
A significant correlation was demonstrated in Friesian-cross steers between the serological response to previous vaccination with the Ball 3 strain of Cowdria ruminantium and the development of protective immunity against the Kalota isolate from Malawi. Of 10 animals which seroconverted after vac...
Sikkema, R.S. (Reina S.); G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)
textabstractAssessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The...
The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...
Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina
Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.
Jeremy M Raynes
Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.
Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming
Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zoraide N da Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and determine serologically enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains in E. coli isolates obtained from milk samples. METHODS: Ninety samples of pasteurized milk -- types B and C -- of three different commercial brands, purchased in supermarkets and bakeries in Rio de Janeiro, were examined. The amount of total and fecal coliform bacteria was estimated using the Most Probable Number technique. Mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric microorganism counts were determined by the Standard Plate Count technique. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional physiological tests. Commercial antisera were used for serological characterization of EPEC. RESULTS: The three milk brands analyzed revealed bacterial counts above the regulated values of the Brazilian government. It was found that among 208 strains of E. coli isolated, 46 (22.1% were serologically classified as EPEC. The most common EPEC serogroup was O55 (15.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from pasteurized milk represent a potential risk for children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Poliovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rickettsia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...
Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic Methods For The Definitive ... Consideringthe relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v1i3.40835.
Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P
We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV.
Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224
Jaquelline Carla Valamiel de Oliveira-Silva
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA and non-conventional (FC-ALTA serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100% phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05% and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase, associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.
Full Text Available Serological tests represent a valuable tool for the diagnosis and monitoring the syphilis treatment. Non-treponemal antibodies are nonspecific to detect the infection, but antibody titers are used to monitor the effects of syphilis treatment. A definitive diagnosis of syphilis is made using treponemal tests, because they detect specific antibodies to the treponemal strains or treponemal fragments, which cause syphilis. These tests may remain reactive for years, sometimes for life, regardless of the therapy outcome. Even after successful treatment, approximately 85% of patients remain positive for treponemal antibodies for the rest of their lives. However, treponemal tests cannot differentiate past infections from a current infection. Therefore, we use a combination of specific and non-specific tests, the two most frequently used diagnostic algorithms. The traditional algorithm begins with a non-treponemal assay, and if it is positive, the treponemal test is done. A positive treponemal test indicates syphilis. The reverse serology algorithm detects early, primary, and treated syphilis that may be missed with traditional screening. However, non-treponemal test is necessary to detect patients with active syphilis.
Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3850... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza... that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to parainfluenza...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus... consist of antigens and antisera used in various serological tests to identify antibodies to Aspergillus...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus... serological tests to identify mumps viruses from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...
Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac
Results obtained from sample testing of 1970 swines from a number of Mexican farms were analyzed. Such samples had been received in the Leptospira Lab of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de Xochimilco from 1995 to 2000. Sera with titers equal to or higher than 1:1000 were considered positive; 39,8% of the animals were seropositive (784) and the most frequent serovarieties were bratislava, 22.5%; icterohaemorrhagiae strain Palo Alto, 14,5%; portland vere strain Sinaloa ACR, 13,8%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 11,1%; grippotyphosa, 8,9%; hardjo strain H89,7.2%; tarassovi,7.1%; panama, 5.8%, pomona and hardjo, 5.1%; wolffi, 3%; shermani, 2.4%; pyrogenes, 1.2%; canicola, 0.8%; hebdomadis, 0,5%. The bratislava serovariety has been reported as the cause of reproductive failure in several countries and it holds the first place in serological studies. Therefore, the present paper provides information for stating that this is one of the most significant serovarieties in Mexico.
All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...
Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.
S.N. Naicker, J. Moodley, A. Van Middelkoop, R.C. Cooper. Abstract. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. The prevalence of ... The TPHA test is therefore advocated for screening patients for syphilis.
Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan
Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...
Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion
Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.
Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion
Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827
Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás
From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesviruses are not only infectious agents of worldwide distribution in humans, but have also been demonstrated in various non-human primates as well. Seventy-eight gibbons were subjected to serological tests by ELISA for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV. Results The prevalence of IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28.2%, 28.2%, 14.1% and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions Antigenic cross-reactivity is expected to exist between the human herpesviruses and gibbon herpesviruses. Gibbons have antibodies to human herpesviruses that may reflect zoonotic infection with human herpesviruses or infection with indigenous gibbon herpesviruses. Therefore, it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions from serological studies alone. Identification should be based on further isolation and molecular characterization of viruses from seropositive animals.
A. Yu. Galkin; A. G. Komar; A. A. Grigorenko
In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO...
The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)
A. Yu. Galkin
Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.
Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M; Pasini, R; Howell, W E; Mink, G I
Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) exists as a number of biologically distinct variants which differ in host specificity, serology, and pathology. Previous nucleotide sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of cloned reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of several biologically distinct sweet cherry isolates revealed correlations between symptom type and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 3a (putative movement protein) and 3b (coat protein) open reading frames. Based upon this analysis, RT-PCR assays have been developed that can identify isolates displaying different symptoms and serotypes. The incorporation of primers in a multiplex PCR protocol permits rapid detection and discrimination among the strains. The results of PCR amplification using type-specific primers that amplify a portion of the coat protein gene demonstrate that the primer-selection procedure developed for PNRSV constitutes a reliable method of viral strain discrimination in cherry for disease control and will also be useful for examining biological diversity within the PNRSV virus group.
Salinas-Melédez, J A; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Riojas-Valdez, V; Kawas-Garza, J; Fimbres-Durazo, H; Hernández-Vidal, G
The serological prevalence of Q fever in Mexico is unknown. A serological survey for Coxiella burnetii was undertaken on a randomly selected population of dairy cattle, beef cattle, goats and sheep flocks. Serological examination of animal sera for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii was carried out by the ELISA technique. The 28% of the dairy cattle and 10% of beef cattle examinated were antibody positive. Sera from goats and sheep also had antibodies against this rickettsia, 35% and 40% respectively.
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma... (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Toxoplasma gondii from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3165... clinical specimens or from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480... respiratory syncytial viruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140.... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250... Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270.... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus... echoviruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Entamoeba histolytica directly from clinical...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320... capsulatum from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3010... this bacterium from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...
Full Text Available Streptococcus parauberis, which is the main causative agent of streptococcosis among olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in northeast Asia, can be distinctly divided into two groups (type I and type II by an agglutination test. Here, the whole genome sequences of two Japanese strains (KRS-02083 and KRS-02109 were determined and compared with the previously determined genome of a Korean strain (KCTC 11537. The genomes of S. parauberis are intermediate in size and have lower GC contents than those of other streptococci. We annotated 2,236 and 2,048 genes in KRS-02083 and KRS-02109, respectively. Our results revealed that the three S. parauberis strains contain different genomic insertions and deletions. In particular, the genomes of Korean and Japanese strains encode different factors for sugar utilization; the former encodes the phosphotransferase system (PTS for sorbose, whereas the latter encodes proteins for lactose hydrolysis, respectively. And the KRS-02109 strain, specifically, was the type II strain found to be able to resist phage infection through the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas system and which might contribute valuably to serologically distribution. Thus, our genome-wide association study shows that polymorphisms can affect pathogen responses, providing insight into biological/biochemical pathways and phylogenetic diversity.
Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and three serologic assays for the detection of B. bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospect...
Wasley, G D
The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...
Aroussi Abdelkrim; Vignoles Philippe; Dalmay François; Wimel Laurence; Dardé Marie-Laure; Mercier Aurélien; Ajzenberg Daniel
In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii an...
Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen
An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...
Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.
The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed
10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...
Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.
Karim Yousri Welaya
Sep 10, 2014 ... Pretreatment evaluation included serological testing for HCV. FAC Adjuvant ... National Cancer Institute; IRB, Institutional Research Board; LVEF, ..... Mild Skin changes, including skin discoloration and nail changes, not ...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter... isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...
out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.
Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto
Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Results: Among the 509 donors, 295 (58% were male, and 420 (82.50% belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5% died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9% cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3% were nonreactive, 12 (2.4% donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and 1 (0.2% was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12% donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32% donors were accepted and 34 (6.67% were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00. Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00. Conclusion: The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4% and 1 (0.2%, respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling
Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological testing for Lyme borreliosis (LB is frequently requested by general practitioners for patients with a wide variety of symptoms. Methods A survey was performed in order to characterize test utilization and clinical features of patients investigated for serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. During one calendar year a questionnaire was sent to the general practitioners who had ordered LB serology from patients in three Danish counties (population 1.5 million inhabitants. Testing was done with a commercial ELISA assay with purified flagella antigen from a Danish strain of B. afzelii. Results A total of 4,664 patients were tested. The IgM and IgG seropositivity rates were 9.2% and 3.3%, respectively. Questionnaires from 2,643 (57% patients were available for analysis. Erythema migrans (EM was suspected in 38% of patients, Lyme arthritis/disseminated disease in 23% and early neuroborreliosis in 13%. Age 0-15 years and suspected EM were significant predictors of IgM seropositivity, whereas suspected acrodermatitis was a predictor of IgG seropositivity. LB was suspected in 646 patients with arthritis, but only 2.3% were IgG seropositive. This is comparable to the level of seropositivity in the background population indicating that Lyme arthritis is a rare entity in Denmark, and the low pretest probability should alert general practitioners to the possibility of false positive LB serology. Significant predictors for treating the patient were a reported tick bite and suspected EM. Conclusions A detailed description of the utilization of serology for Lyme borreliosis with rates of seropositivity according to clinical symptoms is presented. Low rates of seropositivity in certain patient groups indicate a low pretest probability and there is a notable risk of false positive results. 38% of all patients tested were suspected of EM, although this is not a recommended indication due to a low sensitivity of
Full Text Available Callithrix jacchus geoffroy marmosets (HumBol. 1812 were injected once subcutaneously with 10.000 parasites/g body weight and followed for a period of six months. The PF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. Follow-up was done through blood cultures, xenodiagnosis, serological tests, and ECG. A small number of normaI animais served as control.
Kjerulf, A; Espersen, F; Gutschik, E
A modified rat model of endocarditis with catheterization for 2 days was established in female Lewis rats using different inocula of Enterococcus faecalis (strain no. EF 19) in order to measure IgG antibodies in serum during the course of infection. Increasing the inocula intravenously resulted...
Maat, Peter; Brouwer, Eric; Hulsenboom, Esther; VanDuijn, Martijn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Smitt, Peter A E Sillevis
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are devastating neurological disorders secondary to cancer, associated with onconeural autoantibodies. Such antibodies are directed against neuronal antigens aberrantly expressed by the tumor. The detection of onconeural antibodies in a patient is extremely important in diagnosing a neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic (70% is not yet known to have cancer) and in directing the search for the underlying neoplasm. At present six onconeural antibodies are considered 'well characterized' and recognize the antigens HuD, CDR62 (Yo), amphiphysin, CRMP-5 (CV2), NOVA-1 (Ri), and Ma2. The gold standard of detection is the characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern on brain tissue sections combined with confirmation by immunoblotting using recombinant purified proteins. Since all six onconeural antibodies are usually analyzed simultaneously and objective cut-off values for these analyses are warranted, we developed a multiplex assay based on Luminex technology. Reaction of serial dilutions of six onconeural standard sera with microsphere-bound antigens showed lower limits of detection than with Western blotting. Using the six standard sera at a dilution of 1:200, the average within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 4% (range 1.9-7.3%). The average between-run within-day CV was 5.1% (range 2.9-6.7%) while the average between-day CV was 8.1% (range 2.8-11.6%). The shelf-life of the antigen coupled microspheres was at least two months. The sensitivity of the multiplex assay ranged from 83% (Ri) to 100% (Yo, amphiphysin, CV2) and the specificity from 96% (CV2) to 100% (Ri). In conclusion, Luminex-based multiplex serology is highly reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of onconeural antibodies. Conventional immunoblotting for diagnosis of onconeural antibodies in the setting of a routine laboratory may be replaced by this novel, robust technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.
Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J; Collins, M S
Eight viruses isolated in Hong Kong were shown to be serologically related. One was obtained from the tracheal swab of a chicken and four were from cloacal swabs of ducks sampled at a poultry dressing plant. Three isolations were made from samples taken at a duck farm: two from pond water and one from faeces. Representatives of these isolates were shown to be paramyxoviruses but were serologically distinct from other avian and mammalian paramyxoviruses by haemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests. Slight variations were seen in the properties of three isolates examined in detail. All three were apathogenic for chickens. The structural polypeptides of one isolate, PMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/199/77, were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seven polypeptides were detected, with mol. wt. 180000, 76000, 60000, 55000, 51000, 48000 and 40000. The isolates represent a sixth serologically distinct avian paramyxovirus group.
Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé
Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie
Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin
Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.
Full Text Available Piezoelectric biosensor was used for diagnosis of infection by Francisellatularensis subsp. holarctica in European brown hares. Two kinds of experiments wereperformed in this study. First, sera from experimentally infected European brown hares(Lepus europaeus were assayed by piezoelectric biosensor and the seventh day postinfection was found as the first one when statistically significant diagnosis of tularemia waspossible; all other sera collected from hares later than on day 7 following the infection werefound tularemia positive. Typing to classify the field strain of F. tularensis used for theexperimental infection was confirmed by proteome study. Second, sera from 35 Europeanbrown hare specimens sampled at hunting grounds and tested as tularemia positive by slowagglutination allowed diagnosis of tularemia by the piezoelectric biosensor. All these sera ofnaturally infected hares were found as tularemia positive, too. Efficacy of the piezoelectricbiosensor for the serological diagnosis of tularemia is discussed.
Kuttappan, V A; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Hargis, B M; Apple, J K; Coon, C; Owens, C M
White striping is the white striation occasionally observed parallel to the direction of muscle fibers in broiler breast fillets and thighs at the processing plant. Broiler breast fillets can be categorized as normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), or severe (SEV) based on the degree of white striping. Histologically, SEV fillets are characterized by the highest degree of degeneration of muscle fibers along with fibrosis and lipidosis when compared with NORM. The present study was undertaken to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles of broilers with NORM and SEV degrees of white striping to get more information on the systemic changes associated with the condition. Day-old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain were grown on the same diet in 6 replicate pens (n = 32 birds/pen). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the wing vein of each bird on the day before processing for analyzing hematologic and serologic profiles. At 63 d, the birds were weighed and processed in a commercial inline processing system. Weight of the butterfly fillets, liver, and abdominal fat pad were recorded. Left-side fillets were scored to obtain the degree of white striping for each bird. Representative samples for NORM (n = 24) and SEV (n = 17) categories were selected to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles. The SEV birds had greater (P white striping. The elevated serum enzyme levels confirm the muscle damage associated with the degenerative myopathy in SEV birds.
Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an important health concern in Brazil. Currently, information on the epidemiology of the disease in the rural areas of the country is lacking. METHODS: Serological and molecular techniques were used to characterize a clinical isolate of Leptospira. RESULTS: The strain CLEP 00060, isolated from a 59-year-old man in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was identified as belonging to L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the local epidemiological knowledge of leptospirosis, prevention of the disease by vaccines, and improvements in its diagnosis.
Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Wu, Rui
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.
Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China. PMID:28693301
Alam, Munirul; Islam, M. Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro
Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 199...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...
Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M
In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.
A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...
Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...
Microbiological and Serological surveillance of 24 different species of wild water birds living around water sewage plants and fresh wetland water area in Khartoum state (Sudan) were carried out in the period from September 2011 to March 2012 during ringing operation. The presence of selected avian diseases including ...
EMPIRIC TREATMENT BASED ON. HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROLOGY. CANNOT SUBSTITUTE FOR EARLY. ENDOSCOPY IN THE. MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPTIC. RURAL BLACK AFRICANS. Stephen JD O'Keefe, B Salvador, J Nainkin, S Majikir H. Stevens, A Atherstone. Background_ Evidence that chronic gastric ...
Background: Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without ...
... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...
Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya. Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Abdunaser Dayhum, Abdulwahab Kammon, Monier Sharif, Giancarlo Ferrari, Christianus Bartels, Keith Sumption, Donald P. King, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi ...
Sixty one patients with early syphilis were treated with benzathine penicillin under guide of serological analysis, the results showed that benzathine penicilline was able to cure indurated chancre and skin rashes in a month, flat condyloma in one and a half month, and PRP were all negative in 18 month
Ullman, S; Halberg, P; Wiik, A
%, anti-Scl-70 antibodies in 13% and anti-U1-RNP antibodies in 6.5%. These serological groups were associated with limited SSc, diffuse SSc, and myositis/arthritis, respectively. The most prevalent finding at first lung function test was isolated reduction of diffusion capacity (47%). Further...
Mashood, A.H.; Malik, N.; Abbasi, S.
Background: The gold standard to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis is histopathology, but there has always been a need of a rapid, reliable, cheap and convenient laboratory investigation. Serological tests fulfill the above criteria. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in detection of leishmania antibodies, in comparison with the histopathology. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 1st November 2010 to 30th June 2011. Patients and methods: The study population included the patients who were clinically diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis. All of them were biopsied and serum was sent for leishmania serology. Results: A total of 47 patients were included. They were all adult males. The histopathology was positive in 31/47 patients (65.95%), while the leishmania serology was positive in 36/47 cases (76.59%). The sensitiuites was 74.19%, specificity was 18.75%, positive predictive value has 63.88%, negative predicative value was 27% and accuracy was 55%. Conclusion: In the light of sensitivity analysis, it may be concluded that leishmania serology has moderate sensitivity and low specificity; hence it is not a reliable test for cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)
The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...
Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.
Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a ... EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions.
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3145... fluorescent dye that are used to identify coxsackievirus from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of coxsackievirus...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus... Clinical Laboratory Standards': (i) 1/LA6 “Detection and Quantitation of Rubella IgG Antibody: Evaluation... Products in the Clinical Laboratory, October 1997,” (ii) 1/LA18 “Specifications for Immunological Testing...
Dec 29, 2012 ... birth. Key words: Serological markers, hepatitis B. first infant immuniza- tion. Introduction. Universal infant immunization has been recommended since 1992 by the World ... to the inhabitants of Benin City, the capital of Edo state,. Nigeria. .... Of the 13(52%) that were done at home 5(38.5%) were carried out ...
Szymanski, W.; Jakowicki, J.
A comparison is presented of LH determinations by immunoassay and radioimmunoassay using the 125 I-labelled HCG double antibody system. The results obtained by both methods are well comparable and in normal and elevated LH levels the serological determinations may be used for estimating concentration levels found by RIA. (L.O.)
I G.R.M. Temaja, G. Suastika S.H. Hidayat & U. Kartosuwondo .
Full Text Available Antiserum production and serological assay of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB. Virus identification based on spesific reaction between antigen and antibody in serological assay has been widely applied as a tool for plant virus detection. The aims of this research is to produce antiserum of the CVB by guinea pig immunization using purified CVB of Cianjur isolate. The antiserum was used further for the serological test. Serological methods for detection of CVB were I-ELISA, TBIA, western blot and ISEM. The result showed that guinea pig immunization using 150 µg of purified virus was able to produce 10.75 ml of antiserum. The antiserum produced had high sensitivity for detection of CVB when examined by I-ELISA and TBIA. Besides its low cost, TBIA allows the samples to be blotted on the nitrocellulose membranes in the field and storage of the membranes for later processing in the laboratory. This feature makes it the metode of choice for large-scale CVB surveying.
Rider, L. G.; Gurley, R. C.; Pandey, J. P.; Garcia de la Torre, I.; Kalovidouris, A. E.; O'Hanlon, T. P.; Love, L. A.; Hennekam, R. C.; Baumbach, L. L.; Neville, H. E.; Garcia, C. A.; Klingman, J.; Gibbs, M.; Weisman, M. H.; Targoff, I. N.; Miller, F. W.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features of familial idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and to compare these with the features of sporadic IIM. METHODS: Clinical signs and symptoms, autoantibodies, HLA-DRB1 and DQA1 alleles, and GM/KM phenotypes were compared
Increasing reports of poor production associated with swine brucellosis necessitated this serological study. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of swine brucellosis in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) sera were randomly collected from porcine species between July – December, 2012 from ...
Abstract. A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total...
G. L. Katunin
Full Text Available Goal. To conduct a comparative assessment of the results of regulated serological tests obtained as a result of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis. Materials and methods. The authors examined 187 patient medical records with newly diagnosed latent syphilis in FGBU GNTsDK (State Research Center for Dermatology, Venereology and Cosmetology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, in 2006-2015. The results of patient blood tests were analyzed with the use of non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR and treponemal (passive hemagglutination test, immune-enzyme assay (IgA, IgM, IgG, IFabs, immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test serology tests. Results. According to the results of blood tests of latent syphilis patients, the largest number of positive results was obtained as a result of treponemal serology tests such as immune-enzyme assay (100%, passive hemagglutination test (100% and IFabs (100%. The greatest number of negative results was observed in non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR serology tests: in 136 (72.7% patients; evidently positive results (4+ test results were obtained in 8 (4.3% patients only. According to the results of a comparative analysis of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis obtained with the use of treponemal serology tests, the greatest number of evidently positive results (4+ was noted for the passive hemagglutination test (67.9%. Negative treponemal test results were obtained with the use of the immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test (21.9% and 11.8% of cases, respectively. Moreover, weakly positive results prevailed for the immunofluorescence test: in 65 (34.7% patients. Conclusion. These data confirm that the following treponemal tests belong to the most reliable ones for revealing patients suffering from latent syphilis: immune-enzyme assay, passive hemagglutination test and IFabs.
Poggio, T V; Jensen, O; Mossello, M; Iriarte, J; Avila, H G; Gertiser, M L; Serafino, J J; Romero, S; Echenique, M A; Dominguez, D E; Barrios, J R; Heath, D
An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84·2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94·7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Felipe da Silva Krawczak
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study was designed to assess the occurrence of co-infection or cross-reaction in the serological techniques used for detecting the anti-Leishmania spp., -Babesia canis vogeli and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in urban dogs from an area endemic to these parasites. METHODS: The serum samples from dogs were tested for the Babesia canis vogeli strain Belo Horizonte antigen and Ehrlichia canis strain São Paulo by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT and by anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody detection to assess Leishmania infection. We used the following four commercial kits for canine visceral leishmaniasis: ELISA, IFAT, Dual Path Platform (DPP (Bio Manguinhos(r/FIOCRUZ/MS and a rK39 RDT (Kalazar Detect Canine Rapid Test; Inbios. RESULTS : Of 96 serum samples submitted to serological assays, 4 (4.2% were positive for Leishmania as determined by ELISA; 12 (12.5%, by IFAT; 14 (14.6% by rK39 RDT; and 20 (20.8%, by DPP. Antibodies against Ehrlichia and Babesia were detected in 23/96 (23.9% and 30/96 (31.2% samples, respectively. No significant association was identified between the results of tests for detecting Babesia or Ehrlichia and those for detecting Leishmania (p-value>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrated co-infection with Ehrlichia or Babesia and Leishmania in dogs from Minas Gerais (Brazil; we also found that the serological tests that were used did not cross-react.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The largest known outbreak caused by a rare hybrid strain of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC (E.coli O104:H4 of serotype O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. Fenugreek sprouts acted as a transmission vehicle and were widely consumed in the outbreak area at the time of the epidemic. In total 3,842 people developed a clinical illness caused by this strain; however the rates of asymptomatic infections remain unclear. We aimed to develop a serological assay for detection of E.coli O104 LPS specific antibodies and to establish the post-outbreak levels of seropositivity among people with documented exposure to contaminated sprouts. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Developed serological assays (ELISA with 84% sensitivity, 63% specificity and Western Blot with 100% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity identified 33% (16/49 level of asymptomatic infection. Relatively small sample size and a significant time- lapse between the onset of symptoms and serum samples collection (appr. 8 weeks might explain the assay variability. No association was found between clinical or demographic characteristics and assay positivity. Larger studies are needed to understand the complexity of human immune response and factors influencing development of clinical symptoms. Development of intra-outbreak research plans will substantially aid the conduct of more thorough scientific investigation during an outbreak period.
Full Text Available In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended.
Aroussi, Abdelkrim; Vignoles, Philippe; Dalmay, François; Wimel, Laurence; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Mercier, Aurélien; Ajzenberg, Daniel
In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR) to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended. © A. Aroussi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Nakajima, Nao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Imamura, Saiki; Hirano, Fumiya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Yamamoto, Kinya; Nagai, Hidetaka; Futami, Kunihiko; Katagiri, Takayuki; Maita, Masashi; Kijima, Mayumi
Lactococcicosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Lactococcus garvieae and creates serious economic damage to cultured marine and fresh water fish industries. The use of the assay currently applied to evaluate the potency of the lactococcicosis vaccine is contingent upon meeting specific parameters after statistical analysis of the percent survival of the vaccinated yellowtail or greater amberjack fish after challenge with a virulent strain of L. garvieae. We found that measuring the serological response with a quantitative agglutinating antibody against the L. garvieae antigen (phenotype KG+) was an effective method of monitoring the potency of lactococcicosis vaccines. Vaccinated fish had significantly higher antibody titers than control fish when the L. garvieae Lg2-S strain was used as an antigen. Furthermore, the titer of the KG + agglutinating antibody was correlated with vaccine potency, and the cut-off titer was determined by comparing the data with those from the challenge test. An advantage of the proposed serology-based potency assay is that it will contribute to reduced numbers of animal deaths during vaccine potency evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.
Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini
Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Azevedo, Renata Campos; Thompson, Nathália; Gomes, Leonardo; Guida, Letícia; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes
Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity. Beyond molecular detection, all serology tests in areas where other Flavivirus circulates proved to be a difficult task due to the broad range of cross-reactivity, especially with dengue pre-exposed individuals. Altogether, lack of serological diagnostic tools brings limitations to any retrospective evaluation. Those studies are central in the context of congenital infection that could occur asymptomatically and mask prevalence and risk rates.
Full Text Available Serological markers have the features of noninvasiveness and simple operation and thus have become a research hotspot in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article briefly introduces the role of the conventional serological marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in assisting the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis of HBV-related liver cancer, as well as the clinical value of new markers such as alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and abnormal prothrombin/des-γ-carboxy prothrombin. Based on literature review, the possibility of serum Golgi protein 73 used for laboratory auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma has been denied. The results of the author′s experiment suggest that serum GP73 measurement can be used as a laboratory diagnostic index for progressive liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.
Sanzón, Fernando; Osorio, Ana M; Morales, José P; Isaza, Rodrigo; Cardona, Edgar; Moncayo, Luis C; Villota, Guido E; Zapata, Olga T; Palacio, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; Restrepo, Blanca I
The parasitic infection neurocysticercosis may give rise to a variety of psychiatric manifestations that resemble, but are different from, primary psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if among individuals from a neurocysticercosis-endemic area of Colombia who apparently had a psychiatric manifestation with associated neurological finding ('cases'), some could have been infected with Taenia solium cysticerci. This case-control study was done in individuals hospitalized in two mental institutions. The control-1 individuals were those classified with primary psychiatric disease, and the control-2 group consisted of healthy, non-hospitalized individuals. A serological test for cysticercosis was positive in 5/96 (5.1%) cases, 4/153 (2.6%) psychiatric controls, and 5/246 (2%) healthy controls. The data analysis indicated a weak association between the cases and a positive serology for neurocysticercosis (odds ratio > 2; P > 0.05). The lower education level of the cases influenced this association.
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.
Luo, Q; Li, S J; Xiao, T Y; Li, M C; Liu, H C; Lou, Y L; Wan, K L
Objective: To evaluate the serological diagnostic value of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis four new antigens Rv0432, Rv0674, Rv1566c and Rv1547. Methods: Rv0432, Rv0674, Rv1566c and Rv1547 were amplified from M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv genomic DNA by using PCR, among which Rv1547 was divided into two segments for amplification ( Rv1547-1 and Rv1547-2 ). The segments were cloned into expression vector PET-32a while the recombinant proteins were purified by affinity chromatography. Serums were incubated with BL21 (DE3) proteins. Antibodies IgG against M. tuberculosis were tested with 151 serum samples (41 healthy people and 110 TB patients) by using ELISA. The diagnostic efficiency of antigens was analyzed by means of receiver operating characteristic curve. Difference of the objective proteins in TB patients and healthy controls was compared by t -test. Results: Recombinant antigens Rv0432, Rv0674, Rv1566c, Rv1547-1 and Rv1547-2 were successfully expressed and purified. Results from ELISA showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index and area under the curve of Rv0432, Rv0674, Rv1566c, Rv1547-1 and Rv1547-2, as 43.64%-92.73%, 80.49%-92.68%, 0.92-0.94, 0.38-0.80, 0.363-0.732 and 0.649-0.915. All the objective proteins showed significantly higher antibody levels in TB patients, when compared to the healthy controls ( P <0.000 1). Conclusion: The newly identified antigens Rv0432, Rv0674, Rv1566c, Rv1547-1 and Rv1547-2 all performed well when being used for TB serological diagnosis, thus were expected to be new candidate antigens used for TB diagnosis.
Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C
In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morshed, Muhammad G; Singh, Ameeta E
Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.
Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism
Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas
Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....
Singh, Ameeta E.
Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. PMID:25428245
Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R
The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
JOSÉ ALBERSIO DE ARAUJO LIMA
Full Text Available The viruses from the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae are considered emergent pathogens, mainly because of the population explosion of their insect vectors. For this reason, more attention needs to be directed to the correct virus species identification inside the genus. The present paper had the objectives of serologically detecting a begomovirus in Macroptilium lathyroides plants in the State of Ceará, and developing biological, serological and molecular studies with a virus isolate obtained from M. lathyroides. Indirect ELISA with antiserum for Macroptilium golden mosaic virus (MaGMV demonstrated that the samples collected from M. lathyroides showing golden mosaic in the field were infected with a begomovirus. The virus isolate obtained was transmitted by grafting to eight species of the family Leguminosae, four species of Solonaceae, and one species in the family Amaranthaceae. The virus also was transmitted from M. lathyroides to M. lathyroides by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B. A DNA fragment of 1.2 kb was obtained by PCR with the primers PAL1v 1978 and PAR1c 496 for component A, and a DNA fragment of 0.5 kb was obtained with the primers PBL1v 2040 and PCR cl for component B, confirming the presence of a begomovirus infecting M. lathyroides. Molecular studies indicated that the begomovirus isolate showed 77% genomic similarity with Bean golden mosaic virus and 75% with Cowpea golden mosaic virus for their cp and rep genes, indicating the possibility that the isolate is a distinct virus species of the Begomovirus genus.
Simčič, Saša; Potočnik, Marko
Serological tests' limitations in syphilis diagnosis as well as numerous test interpretations mean that patients with discordant serology results can present diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians. We analyzed three common diagnostic algorithms for detecting suspected syphilis in high-prevalence populations in Slovenia. The prospective study included a total of 437 clinical serum samples from adults throughout Slovenia tested with Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA), and an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In addition to percent agreement, kappa coefficients were calculated as a secondary measure of agreement between the three algorithms. Overall, of 183 subjects that had seroreactive results, 180 were seroreactive in both the reverse sequence and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. The traditional algorithm had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 30.0%, the overall percent agreement between the traditional and the reverse algorithm (or the ECDC algorithm) was 87.6%, and the kappa value was 0.733. However, the reverse and ECDC algorithm failed to detect three subjects with positive serodiagnosis determined by additional confirmative treponemal assays. Our results supported the ECDC algorithm in the serodiagnosis of syphilis in high-prevalence populations and the use of nontreponemal serology to monitor the response to treatment.
O. Yu. Galkin
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze recent scientific literature, as well as national and international legislature on manifacturing process validation of biopharmaceutical production, in particular devices for serological diagnostics. Technology validation in the field of medical devices for serological diagnostics is most influenced by the Technical Regulation for Medical Devices for in vitro Diagnostics State Standards of Ukraine – SSU EN ISO 13485:2015 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Requirements for regulation”, SSU EN ISO 14971:2015 “Medical devices. Instructions for risk management”, Instruction ST-N of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine 42-4.0:2014 “Medications. Suitable industrial practice”, State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine and Instruction ICH Q9 on risk management. Current recommendations for validations of drugs manufacturing process, including biotechnological manufacturing, can not be directly applied to medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. It was shown that the specifics of application and raw materials require individual validation parameters and process validations for serological diagnostics devices. Critical parameters to consider in validation plans were provided for every typical stage of production of in vitro diagnostics devices on the example of immunoassay kits, such as obtaining protein antigens, including recombinant ones, preparations of mono- and polyclonal antibodies, immunoenzyme conjugates and immunosorbents, chemical reagents etc. The bottlenecks of technologies for in vitro diagnostics devices were analyzed from the bioethical and biosafety points of view.
Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J
Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).
Kovács, Márta; Müller, Katalin Eszter; Papp, Mária; Lakatos, Péter László; Csöndes, Mihály; Veres, Gábor
The spectrum of serological markers associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly growing. Due to frequently delayed or missed diagnoses, the application of non-invasive diagnostic tests for IBD, as well as differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), would be useful in the pediatric population. In addition, the combination of pancreatic autoantibodies and antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies/perinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) improved the sensitivity of serological markers in pediatric patients with CD and UC. Some studies suggested that age-associated differences in the patterns of antibodies may be present, particularly in the youngest children. In CD, most patients develop stricturing or perforating complications, and a significant number of patients undergo surgery during the disease course. Based on recent knowledge, serum antibodies are qualitatively and quantitatively associated with complicated CD behavior and CD-related surgery. Pediatric UC is characterized by extensive colitis and a high rate of colectomy. In patients with UC, high levels of anti-CBir1 and pANCA are associated with the development of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Thus, serologic markers for IBD can be applied to stratify IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups with respect to disease progression. In conclusion, identification of patients at an increased risk of rapid disease progression is of great interest, as the application of early and more aggressive pharmaceutical intervention could have the potential to alter the natural history of IBD, and reduce complications and hospitalizations. PMID:24803798
Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D
The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.
Eberle, Kirsten C; Neill, John D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; McGill, Jodi L; Sacco, Randy E
Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological examination of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies has been performed for screening nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and other EBV-associated diseases. Methods By using xMAP technology, we examined immunoglobulin (Ig A antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV VCA-gp125, p18 and IgA/IgG against EA-D, EBNA1 and gp78 in populations with distinct diseases, or with different genetic or geographic background. Sera from Cantonese NPC patients (n = 547 and healthy controls (n = 542, 90 members of high-risk NPC families and 52 non-endemic healthy individuals were tested. Thirty-five of NPC patients were recruited to observe the kinetics of EBV antibody levels during and after treatment. Patients with other EBV-associated diseases were collected, including 16 with infectious mononucleosis, 28 with nasal NK/T cell lymphoma and 14 with Hodgkin's disease. Results Both the sensitivity and specificity of each marker for NPC diagnosis ranged 61–84%, but if combined, they could reach to 84.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Almost half of NPC patients displayed decreased EBV immunoactivities shortly after therapy and tumor recurrence was accompanied with high EBV antibody reactivates. Neither the unaffected members from high-risk NPC families nor non-endemic healthy population showed statistically different EBV antibody levels compared with endemic controls. Moreover, elevated levels of specific antibodies were observed in other EBV-associated diseases, but all were lower than those in NPC. Conclusion Combined EBV serological biomarkers could improve the diagnostic values for NPC. Diverse EBV serological spectrums presented in populations with different EBV-associated diseases, but NPC patients have the highest EBV activity.
Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.
As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)
Hall, S Ryan; Allen, Clint T; Merati, Albert L; Mayerhoff, Ross M
Whereas mechanical (traumatic) causes of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) are identified based on history, autoimmune laryngotracheal stenosis (aLTS) and idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (iLTS) are often more difficult to differentiate. The objective of this study was to evaluate serologic testing in a large cohort of nonmechanical LTS patients to determine which tests, if any, lead clinicians to the etiology of the LTS. Retrospective chart review. This study reviewed nonmechanical LTS patients seen at a tertiary medical center from 2007 to 2014. Data were obtained on patient demographics, associated preexisting autoimmune conditions, comorbidities, intubation history, and serologic testing. Ninety-two records were reviewed. Twenty-three (25%) patients were found to have autoimmune disease; 69 (75%) met criteria for iLTS. A history of cigarette smoking was more significant in the aLTS group than the iLTS group (P testing was equivocal between the two cohorts. Differentiating iLTS from aLTS has proven difficult. The lack of information about the two entities has resulted in variability in the diagnostic workup to distinguish them. This study's finding of a more significant smoking history in the aLTS group correlates with the literature, which suggests an inflammatory effect of smoking cigarettes and an association with autoimmune disease. The only significant cohort of patients in this study found to have positive serological testing correlated with a diagnosable condition responsible for LTS was GPA patients with positive ANCA. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1408-1412, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Vipond, Caroline; Care, Rory; Feavers, Ian M
For over a hundred years Neisseria meningitidis has been known to be one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. However, effective vaccines were not developed until the latter part of the 20th century. The first of these were based on purified high molecular weight capsular polysaccharides and more recently the development of glycoconjugate vaccines has made paediatric immunisation programmes possible. The prevention of group B meningococcal disease has remained a challenge throughout this period. This review charts the history of the development of meningococcal vaccines and the importance of serological correlates of protection in their evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chow, V.T.K.; Lim, K.P.
The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox (varicella) as the primary disease and shingles (zoster) as a recurrent manifestation of infection, both being generality benign and self-limiting. While these infections may be severe in adults and even life-threatening in immunosuppressed individuals, they may be amenable to effective antiviral drugs or varicella-zoster immune globulin, provided the treatment is administered early. The prompt diagnosis of VZV infections may be accelerated by rapid, sensitive and specific molecular techniques such as amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with slower and more cumbersome tissue culture and serological procedures. Based on the VZV gene 4 which encodes a transcriptional activator, primers were designed for use in PCR to amplify a target fragment of 381 bp. Distinct diagnostic bands were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products of VZV strains isolated from II varicella and 7 zoster patients in Singapore, as well as of the Japanese vaccine Oka strain. The detection sensitivity of this PCR assay was determined to be 1 pg of purified VZV DNA equivalent to about 7,000 viral DNA copies. No target bands were amplified from negative control templates from five related human herpes-viruses and from human DNA. The specificity of the PCR products was ensured by direct cycle DNA sequencing, which revealed complete identity of the 18 VZV isolates with the published European Dumas strain. The strong sequence conservation of the target fragment renders this PCR assay highly reliable for detecting the VZV sequence. Only one VZV strain isolated from a patient with varicella during pregnancy exhibited a Gaga to GAA point mutation at codon 46 of gene 4, culminating in the non-conservative substitution of Ser with Phe. The predicted secondary structure of the mutant polypeptide portrayed a radical alteration, which may influence its function in transcriptional activation. (authors)
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.
Roffe, T.J.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.; Gidlewski, T.; Hennager, S.G.
We collected complete sets of tissues, fluids, and swabs (approx 30) from 37 Yellowstone National Park (YNP) female bison (Bison bison) killed as a result of management actions by the Montana Department of Livestock and YNP personnel. Our goal was to establish the relation between blood tests demonstrating an animal has antibody to Brucella and the potential of that animal to be infected during the second trimester of pregnancy, the time when most management actions are taken. Twenty-eight of the 37 bison were seropositive adults (27) or a seropositive calf (1). We cultured samples using macerated whole tissues plated onto 4 Brucella-selective media and incubated with added CO2 for 1 week. Specimens from 2 adult seropositive females were contaminated, thus eliminating them from our data. Twelve of the remaining 26 seropositive adult and calf female bison (46%) were culture positive for Brucella abortus from 1 or more tissues. Culture positive adult females had high serologic titers. All 11 adults measured 3+ at 1:40 for 10 of 11 (91%) animals. All culture positive female adults had either a PCFIA ???0.080 or a CF reaction ???4+ at 1:80. However 5 (36%) bison with high titers were culture negative for B. abortus. Our findings on the relation between Brucella serology and culture are similar to those reported from studies of chronically infected cattle herds.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and predisposing factors of Aspergillus infection and correlate microscopic, culture and serological findings along with drug sensitivity. METHODS: Sputum samples from 123 patients of pulmonary disease with clinical suspicion of having fungal, especially Aspergillus infections, were examined microscopically and for culture. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of itraconazole was tested against the isolates. Serum samples from these patients were tested for precipitin against Aspergillus antigen using immunodiffusion (ID technique. RESULTS: Aspergillus species were isolated in 20 (16.26% cases and Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated in 16 (80% cases. Precipitins were detected in 29 (23.58% cases. Serum samples collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as controls showed no precipitin against Aspergillus antigen galactomannan. This fungus was found to be sensitive to itraconazole with MIC range 0.125-1µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Serological tests have an edge over routine smear and culture methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis. Itraconazole is more effective than amphotericin B and fluconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis.
Ngo, Thao P H; Bartie, Kerry L; Thompson, Kim D; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Hoare, Rowena; Adams, Alexandra
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected from 27 sites within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG) 5 -PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profileobserved within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined was PFGE cluster II - (GTG) 5 -PCR type r1-16S rRNA lineage II - serotype Th (70/156 isolates examined, 45%). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.
The unavailability of serological tests for detection of several not yet characterized infectious agents transmitted by blood transfusion or by blood products prompted the development of alternative tests based on utilization of labeled nucleic acid probes specific for genomes of each of these agents. The prerequisite for the preparation of such probes is the demonstration in human plasma of nucleic acid sequences distinct from those present in host DNA or in genes of already characterized viruses occurring in plasma of infected individuals. To accomplish this, ultrasensitive tests for nucleic acids not dependent on their base sequence are needed. The authors describe a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for picogram quantities of DNA. Plasma (serum) specimens are treated with proteinase K in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and extracted with phenol. Nucleic acids are precipitated with ethanol in the presence of dextran (mol.wt. approx. 5X10 5 ) as carrier. Subsequently, DNA from the redissolved samples is adsorbed onto polylysine-coated wells of microtiter plates and detected by a double-antibody RIA using anti-DNA autoantibodies from NZB/NZW mice and 125 I-labelled antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins. DNA which did not hybridize with human DNA was detected by this method in sera containing hepatitis B virus used as a model system. (Auth.)
Tayahi, M; Gharsallah, C; Khamassy, N; Fakhfakh, H; Djilani-Khouadja, F
In Tunisia, potato virus Y (PVY) currently presents a significant threat to potato production, reducing tuber yield and quality. Three hundred and eighty-five potato samples (six different cultivars) collected in autumn 2007 from nine regions in Tunisia were tested for PVY infection by DAS-ELISA. The virus was detected in all regions surveyed, with an average incidence of 80.26%. Subsequently, a panel of 82 Tunisian PVY isolates (PVY-TN) was subjected to systematic biological, serological and molecular typing using immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a series of PVY OC - and PVY N -specific monoclonal antibodies. Combined analyses revealed ~67% of PVY NTN variants of which 17 were sequenced in the 5'NTR-P1 region to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of PVY-TN against other worldwide PVY isolates. To investigate whether selective constraints could act on viral genomic RNA, synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. Averages of all pairwise comparisons obtained in the 5'NTR-P1 region allowed more synonymous changes, suggesting selective constraint acting in this region. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a rapid expansion of PVY isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to an eventually early evolution characterizing these sequences. Genetic haplotype network topology provided evidence of the existence of a distinct geographical structure. This is the first report of such genetic analyses conducted on PVY isolates from Tunisia.
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
Garcia, Jean-Michel; Lagarde, Nadège; Ma, Edward S. K.; de Jong, Menno D.; Peiris, J. S. Malik
BACKGROUND: Novel serological methods provide alternative options for sero-diagnosis, sero-epidemiology and for determining evidence of naturally acquired or vaccine induced immunity. Micro-neutralization tests are currently the gold standard for serological studies of highly pathogenic avian
Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.
Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal
Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.
Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers
Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.
Robardet, Emmanuelle; Borel, Christophe; Moinet, Marie; Jouan, Dorothée; Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Boué, Franck; Montchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Servat, Alexandre; Gimenez, Olivier; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne
This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies
not necessarily improve sensitivity and specificity, but broaden the overall quality of existing test systems. ORF2 and ORF3-antigens are still commonly used in diagnostic assays and possibly hold the potential to serologically differentiate between genotype 1 and 3 infections. Our systematic approach is a suitable method to investigate HEV domains for their serologic antigenicity. Epitope screening of native viral domains could be a preferable tool in developing new serologic test components.
Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual
Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Gilad, Matan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit
study suggests that ELISA serology with whole promastigote antigen is not distinctive between L. infantum, L. major and L. tropica canine infections and that some L. major infections are not seropositive. PCR with DNA sequencing should be used to discriminate between canine infections with these three species.
Laurie, Karen L; Huston, Patricia; Riley, Steven; Katz, Jacqueline M; Willison, Donald J; Tam, John S; Mounts, Anthony W; Hoschler, Katja; Miller, Elizabeth; Vandemaele, Kaat; Broberg, Eeva; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Nicoll, Angus
Serological studies can detect infection with a novel influenza virus in the absence of symptoms or positive virology, providing useful information on infection that goes beyond the estimates from epidemiological, clinical and virological data. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, an impressive number of detailed serological studies were performed, yet the majority of serological data were available only after the first wave of infection. This limited the ability to estimate the transmissibility and severity of this novel infection, and the variability in methodology and reporting limited the ability to compare and combine the serological data. To identify best practices for conduct and standardisation of serological studies on outbreak and pandemic influenza to inform public policy. An international meeting was held in February 2011 in Ottawa, Canada, to foster the consensus for greater standardisation of influenza serological studies. Best practices for serological investigations of influenza epidemiology include the following: classification of studies as pre-pandemic, outbreak, pandemic or inter-pandemic with a clearly identified objective; use of international serum standards for laboratory assays; cohort and cross-sectional study designs with common standards for data collection; use of serum banks to improve sampling capacity; and potential for linkage of serological, clinical and epidemiological data. Advance planning for outbreak studies would enable a rapid and coordinated response; inclusion of serological studies in pandemic plans should be considered. Optimising the quality, comparability and combinability of influenza serological studies will provide important data upon emergence of a novel or variant influenza virus to inform public health action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.
Roberta B. Ness
Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.
Keysary, Avi; Amram, Lili; Keren, Gershon; Sthoeger, Zev; Potasman, Israel; Jacob, Amir; Strenger, Carmella; Dawson, Jacqueline E.
We conducted a retrospective serosurvey of 1,000 persons in Israel who had fever of undetermined cause to look for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies. Four of five cases with antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis were diagnosed in the summer, when ticks are more active. All patients had influenzalike symptoms with high fever. None of the cases was fatal. Three serum samples were also seroreactive for antibodies to E. canis, and one was also reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. The titer to the HGE agent in this patient was higher than the serum titer to E. chaffeensis, and the Western blot analysis also indicated that the HGE agent was the primary cause of infection. We present the first serologic evidence that the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and HGE are present in Israel. Therefore, human ehrlichiosis should be included in the differential diagnoses for persons in Israel who have been exposed to ticks and have influenzalike symptoms. PMID:10603210
Rada, Elsa; Aranzazu, Nacarid; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Borges, Rafael; Convit, Jacinto
The study was designed for evaluating immunological reactivity to various mycobacterial protein preparations using serological and cell-mediated immunological tests in patients with clinical leprosy signs, predominantly, with the multibacillary forms. All patients were adults with ages between 20 and 30 years. Fifty eight (n = 81) percent corresponded to Lepromatous Leprosy (LL), 29% (n = 41) to Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) and 10% (n = 41) to Borderline Borderline Leprosy (BB); only 3% were Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) patients: 74% males and 26% females. The most frequent reactional phenomenon was of the Erythema Nodosum (ENL) type. The mycobacterial proteins tested were: total crude Mycobacterium leprae antigens (MISA); Mycobacterium bovis (MbSA and excretion MbSA); partially purified excretion protein antigen, with a 30 kDa relative movility (Ml30); and recombinant M. leprae proteins (Mt70, Mb 65, Ml 36, 28, 18 and 10 kDa). Two of the recombinant proteins (Ml10 and Ml 36 kDa) presented a statiscally significant higher serological reactivity, directly related with a larger bacillary load (p = 0.0051 and 0.050 respectively). The 30 kDa protein was predominantly recognized by antibodies from multibacillary patients. Results show that mean antibody values were higher in non reactional patients when tested against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) when compared with the group of patients who presented reactional phenomena (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). Comparing reactional with non reactional patients, it was seen that mean antibody values against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) were higher in non reactional individuals (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). This same behavior occurred towards individual mycobacterial proteins (30, 10 and 36 kDa). The T lymphocyte prolypherative response in reactional and non reactional patients towards mycobacterial proteins (MlSA, Ml 10 kDa, MbSA, ex MbSA) was negative.
Safari Wahyu Jatmiko
Full Text Available Antibodi anti dengue bersifat autoantibodi yang bisa merusak self antigen. Respon imun humoral terhadap DENV adalah terbentuknya IgM dan IgG yang spesifik terhadap sub tipe DENV penyebab. Jika IgG dan IgM anti degue bersifat autoantibodi maka secara teoritis pasien dengan status serologis IgM (+ dan IgG + akan mempunyai profil hematologi yang lebih buruk dari pada pasien dengan IgG (+.Penelitian ini bertjuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan profil hematologi menurut status serologi pada anak terinfeksi virus dengue. Penelitian menggunakan desian analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Data diambil dari pasien anak di RSUD Surakarta dari bulan September 2016 – Januari 2017. Kriteria pasien yang diikutkan dalam penelitian adalah semua pasien anak dengan usia kurang dari 14 tahun dan memenuhi kriteria infeksi virus dengue menurut WHO 2009. Pasien dengan riwayat kelainan hematologi dan pasien dengan riwayat immunocompremised dikeluarkan dari penelitian.Hasil penelitian ditemukan 65 pasien dengan IVD yang memenuhi kriteria.Tujuh belas pasien dengan IgM dan IgG positif sedangkan sisanya hanya IgG positif Hasil penelitian perbedaan profil hematologi jumlah leukosit, trombosit, hematokrit, dan hemoglobin berdasarkan status IgM (+ IgG (+ dengan IgG (+ didapatkan nilai p masing-masing 0.833, 0,865, 0,137, 0,086, dan 0,223. Dapat disimpilkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan profil hematologi antara pasien dengan IgM (+ IgG (+ dengan pasien IgG (+. Kata Kunci: infeksi virus dengue, antibodi anti dengue, autoantibodi, profil hematologi.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Methods Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA. For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB. Results Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. Conclusion In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956–1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002–2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.
Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada
Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.
Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test
Bogdanos, Dimitrios-P; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mackay, Ian-R; Vergani, Diego
Liver-related autoantibodies are crucial for the correct diagnosis and classification of autoimmune liver diseases (AiLD), namely autoimmune hepatitis types 1 and 2 (AIH-1 and 2), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and the sclerosing cholangitis variants in adults and children. AIH-1 is specified by anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and smooth muscle antibody (SMA). AIH-2 is specified by antibody to liver kidney microsomal antigen type-1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). SMA, ANA and anti-LKM antibodies can be present in de-novo AIH following liver transplantation. PBC is specified by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) reacting with enzymes of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes (chiefly pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit) and disease-specific ANA mainly reacting with nuclear pore gp210 and nuclear body sp100. Sclerosing cholangitis presents as at least two variants, first the classical primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) mostly affecting adult men wherein the only (and non-specific) reactivity is an atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA), also termed perinuclear anti-neutrophil nuclear antibodies (p-ANNA) and second the childhood disease called autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC) with serological features resembling those of type 1 AIH. Liver diagnostic serology is a fast-expanding area of investigation as new purified and recombinant autoantigens, and automated technologies such as ELISAs and bead assays, become available to complement (or even compete with) traditional immunofluorescence procedures. We survey for the first time global trends in quality assurance impacting as it does on (1) manufacturers/purveyors of kits and reagents, (2) diagnostic service laboratories that fulfill clinicians' requirements, and (3) the end-user, the physician providing patient care, who must properly interpret test results in the overall clinical context.
Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...
Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.
Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M
Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.
Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.
Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure
International audience; We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI r...
Iqbal, S.; Fatima, S.; Raheem, A.; Khan, A. H.
Objective: To determine the percentage agreement between serology and histology for detection of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University and Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2009. Methodology: Fifty subjects were selected by non-probability purposive sampling from laboratory data who had serological testing of H. pylori IgG antibody, prior to histological evaluation of endoscopic gastric or/and duodenal biopsies. Serological Quantification of H. pylori IgG was carried out with HpG screen ELISA kit (Genesis Diagnostics, UK), using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies against H. pylori. Manufacturer's recommended cutoff value was used and results were considered positive when greater than 7 U/ml. For histological diagnosis, an expert histopathologist characterized the presence of spiral bacteria in the mucosal layer or the surface of epithelial cells on microscopic examination, as a positive test. Results: An agreement of 0.72 was found by Kappa statistics between serology and histopathology results and a good diagnostic accuracy (86%) of serological testing was observed for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: A substantial agreement was found between serology and histopathology results to detect the H. pylori infection. Laboratory-based serologic testing using ELISA technology to detect IgG antibodies is inexpensive, noninvasive and convenient method to detect the H. pylori infection in primary care setting. (author)
Juárez, M.L.; Murua, M.G.; García, M.G.; Ontivero, M.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Groot, A.T.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Gastaminza, G.; Willink, E.
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference
Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.
Pallikkuth, Suresh; De Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Rinaldi, Stefano; George, Varghese K; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pan, Li; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Pahwa, Savita
To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens. At prevaccination (T0) titers were in seroprotective range in more than 90% of participants. Antibody titers increased in all participants postvaccination but frequency of classified vaccine responders to individual or all three vaccine antigens at 3-4 weeks was higher in HIV than HIV adults with the greatest differences manifesting in the young age group. Of the three vaccine strains in TIV, antibody responses at T2 were weakest against H3N2 with those to H1N1 and B antigens dominating. Among the age groups, the titers for H1N1 and B were lowest in old age, with evidence of an age-associated interaction in HIV persons with antibody to B antigen. Greater frequencies of vaccine nonresponders are seen in HIV young compared with HIV adults and the observed age-associated interaction for B antigen in HIV persons are supportive of the concept of premature immune senescence in controlled HIV infection. High-potency influenza vaccination recommended for healthy aging could be considered for HIV adults of all ages.
Almberg, Emily S; Mech, L David; Smith, Douglas W; Sheldon, Jennifer W; Crabtree, Robert L
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [>or=1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [>or=1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [>or=5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might be expected might be useful for future management of the Northern Rocky
Full Text Available Introduction: In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods: Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190 were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion: High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (43.2% and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%, the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%, tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%, Neospora caninum (4.8%, and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%. The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%, bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%, and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%. No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females. Conclusions: Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species.
textabstractIn the previous Chapters of this dissertation the major shortcomings of the current serological tests for syphilis were investigated. These include an insufficient sensitivity and specificity, reactivity of a diagnostic test long after the syphilitic infection had been
Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo
We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3390... Neisseria spp. directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused...
Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Steen; Cowan, Susan
Serological response to treatment of syphilis with orally administered doxycycline or intramuscularly administered penicillin was assessed in patients with concurrent HIV. All HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with syphilis attending 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark were included. Odds ratios...... (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with serological outcome were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted logistic regression analysis. In total, 202 cases were treated with doxycycline or intramuscular penicillin. At 12 months, serological failure was observed in 12 cases (15......%) treated with doxycycline and in 8 cases (17%) treated with penicillin (OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.16-3.88), p = 0.76). The serological cure rate at 12 months was highest in patients with primary syphilis (100%), followed by patients with secondary (89%), early latent (71%) and late latent (67%) syphilis (p = 0...
David M Patrick
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In summer 2003, a respiratory outbreak was investigated in British Columbia, during which nucleic acid tests and serology unexpectedly indicated reactivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV.
Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi
Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE is a chronic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, which causes significant losses in goat breeding. The actual state of animal infection with SRLV is difficult to determine due to a complex pathogenesis of the virus, including factors such as delayed or intermittent seroconversion in serological tests. Several serological techniques are available for disease diagnosis, such as screening or confirmation tests, which are different in sensitivity and specificity. Regarding the choice of the test to be applied, availability of commercial immunoreagents, team training, antigen used, and cost of techniques must be considered. This review presents the serological methods available for use in different stages of CAE control and eradication programs, and management measures to be adopted in conjunction with serological diagnosis of the disease.
Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H
Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.
Full Text Available Myositis is a common clinical syndrome in advanced stages of AIDS. Trachipleistophora hominis (phylum Microspora has been detected in several cases of painful, immobilising myositis in AIDS patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and Western blotting of protein profiles separated by SDS PAGE were used to determine whether this species could be detected and differentiated by serology. Sixteen microsporidia, including several species known to infect man and species infecting fish, crustaceans and a mosquito, were used as antigen. Each species had a unique profile of SDS PAGE-separated proteins. In Western blots, mouse antiserum, raised to T. hominis and selected for its high ELISA specificity, bound to antigens ranging from less than 25 kDa to greater than 250 kDa with major bands at 39-44 kDa and 98-150 kDa on T. hominis protein profiles. The serum also recognised some high molecular weight antigens in the profiles of Vavraia culicis, Heterosporis anguillarum, and three species of Pleistophora but none in the remaining genera examined. It was concluded that ELISA and Western blotting could be used to detect and differentiate T. hominis in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with myositis. However, sera from T. hominis infected patients in the terminal stages of AIDS would not be useful for detection of infections because of a sharp decline in antibody level.
López, Gustavo E; Peña, Sabrina; Escobar, Gabriela I; Hasan, Déborah B; Lucero, Nidia E
Ovine cattle was introduced into America during the Spanish conquest with the second journey of Columbus to the Antilles and was disseminated throughout the region. In 1587, sheep were introduced into Argentina, later developing into the "Creole" breed. We selected 486 animals from different Argentine provinces with the aim of determining the serological status of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis. For the detection of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp., the Rose Bengal test (RBT) was performed as screening test while the serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2 mercapto-ethanol (2ME) were run as a confirmatory technique. Moreover, for the detection of antibodies against rough Brucella spp., we used the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) for screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA) as confirmatory assay. This study showed that the total positive percentage of brucellosis due to B. ovis was 2.9%. Excluding the animals mixed with the Suffolk breed; seropositivity would be 0.6%. All animals tested negative for brucellosis caused by B. melitensis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Background Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Serology is frequently the preferred diagnostic approach, because the pathogen is highly infectious and difficult to cultivate. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tularemia specific tests. Methods The Serazym®Anti-Francisella tularensis ELISA, Serion ELISA classic Francisella tularensis IgG/IgM, an in-house ELISA, the VIRapid® Tularemia immunochromatographic test, an in-house antigen microarray, and a Western Blot (WB) assay were evaluated. The diagnosis tularemia was established using a standard micro-agglutination assay. In total, 135 sera from a series of 110 consecutive tularemia patients were tested. Results The diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity of the tests were VIRapid (97.0% and 84.0%), Serion IgG (96.3% and 96.8%), Serion IgM (94.8% and 96.8%), Serazym (97.0% and 91.5%), in-house ELISA (95.6% and 76.6%), WB (93.3% and 83.0%), microarray (91.1% and 97.9%). Conclusions The diagnostic value of the commercial assays was proven, because the diagnostic accuracy was >90%. The diagnostic sensitivity of the in-house ELISA and the WB were acceptable, but the diagnostic accuracy was <90%. Interestingly, the antigen microarray test was very specific and had a very good positive predictive value. PMID:24885274
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.
Cao, Rui; Wang, Li-ping
To diagnose and explore the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer before symptoms occur. A total of 430 female in-patients with breast cancer of stages 0 to IIIC who came to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were studied and followed up until May 2011. Serum levels of biochemical markers for tumor and liver were measured at the time of diagnosis. Liver metastasis was more likely to occur in patients with stage III cancer or c-erbB-2-positive expression. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) levels were significantly higher in patients with liver metastasis than those without liver metastasis. Diagnostic indices of LDH, GGT, and CA153 were 174 U/L, 32 U/L, and 26.48 µg/L, respectively. The areas under the curves of LDH, GGT, and CEA were 0.795, 0.784, and 0.661, respectively, and sensitivities of parallel tests for LDH and CA153 and for GGT and CA153 were 88.6% and 85.7%, respectively. The specificity of serial tests for both pairs of enzymes was 97.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined tumor and biochemical markers could be used as indicators during screening for breast-liver metastasis
Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A
Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.
Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216. The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%, 42 kDa (64%, 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%. This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.
Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz
Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV.
Brischetto, Anna; Gassiep, Ian; Whiley, David; Norton, Robert
There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum PCR test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemiluminescence immunoassay [CMIA], Treponema pallidum particle agglutination [TPPA] assay, and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] flocculation test). A retrospective audit of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017 was conducted; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, and results from T. pallidum PCR, syphilis serology, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 PCRs. A total of 441 T. pallidum PCR tests were performed; on average, 3 T. pallidum PCRs per month were requested in 2011, and this rate increased to 17.2 requests per month in 2017. A total of 323 patients had both T. pallidum PCR and syphilis serology performed, with 67% of swabs taken from the genitals. T. pallidum PCR gave positive results for 61/323 (19%) patients; of these 61 patients, 59 (97%) also had positive syphilis serology results ( T. pallidum PCR sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 99%; positive predictive value, 97%; negative predictive value, 89%). Syphilis serology was positive for 91/323 patients (28%); of these 91 patients, 61 (66%) were also T. pallidum PCR positive (syphilis serology sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 88%; positive predictive value, 60%; negative predictive value, 99%). The Cohen's kappa value was 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the two tests. Our results show that most patients with positive T. pallidum PCR results also had positive syphilis serology. Therefore, T. pallidum PCR adds little clinical value over serology for the diagnosis of syphilis in certain clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob Hornstrup Frølunde; Rosenberg, Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of mortality. Knowledge on biomarkers may contribute to better surveillance based on the patients' risk of recurrence. Reviewing the literature, we aimed to identify serological...... and molecular biomarkers for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. METHODS: A literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and Scopus to identify observational studies evaluating serological or molecular biomarkers for recurrence of HCC after LT using adjusted analysis...
Devlin, J.G.; Redington, F.; Stephenson, M.
We report a comparison of radio-immunoassay with conventional serology in the detection of brucella abortus antibody from three laboratories. Overall agreement by Chi squared analysis is 5%. There are significant differences between laboratories and a significant number of sero negative suspect sera (from 20% - 60%) were positive by ratio-immunoassay test. We suspect that conventional serology under-reports the incidence of antibody to brucella abortus. (author)
Suleĭmanov, G D; Doan, Kh N; Le, T T; Chan, B; Chan, T U
Attempt was made to determine the value of serologic indices of malaria surveys. Following uniformed methodological and technical approaches 3 foci of P. vivax and 6 foci of P. falciparum malaria were surveyed in different endemic zones of Vietnam and the USSR. It was shown that the most objective criteria for a foci classification is its serologic mean geometric titre. The latter in its turn directly depends of transmission longevity in a foci.
Sanchini, Andrea; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias
Background: In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) neutralization test (NT) and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. Methodology/Principal findings: In 2011, the E...
Salas Alfaro, Dariana
The preparation of the inoculum of the experimental vaccine Brucella S19-Tn7-GFP is optimized for application in white animals. An associated serological test has allowed differentiating infected animals from those vaccinated with the experimental strain. The same bacteriological and biological properties of the B. abortus S19-Tn7-GFP strain have maintained in the parental vaccine strain S19 and is stable over time. A protocol for the inoculums of strain S19-Tn7-GFP is established for its preparation and use in white animals and quality control. The inoculum stability is evaluated through the simulation of conditions that can be presented in the transportation and application process in the field. An enzyme immunoassay ELISA is optimized for the detection of anti-GFP antibodies in cattle [es
Full Text Available Abstract Background Each of the pathogenic human retroviruses (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-1 has a nonhuman primate counterpart, and the presence of these retroviruses in humans results from interspecies transmission. The passage of another simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV, from apes or monkeys to humans has been reported. Mandrillus sphinx, a monkey species living in central Africa, is naturally infected with SFV. We evaluated the natural history of the virus in a free-ranging colony of mandrills and investigated possible transmission of mandrill SFV to humans. Results We studied 84 semi-free-ranging captive mandrills at the Primate Centre of the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (Gabon and 15 wild mandrills caught in various areas of the country. The presence of SFV was also evaluated in 20 people who worked closely with mandrills and other nonhuman primates. SFV infection was determined by specific serological (Western blot and molecular (nested PCR of the integrase region in the polymerase gene assays. Seropositivity for SFV was found in 70/84 (83% captive and 9/15 (60% wild-caught mandrills and in 2/20 (10% humans. The 425-bp SFV integrase fragment was detected in peripheral blood DNA from 53 captive and 8 wild-caught mandrills and in two personnel. Sequence and phylogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of two distinct strains of mandrill SFV, one clade including SFVs from mandrills living in the northern part of Gabon and the second consisting of SFV from animals living in the south. One man who had been bitten 10 years earlier by a mandrill and another bitten 22 years earlier by a macaque were found to be SFV infected, both at the Primate Centre. The second man had a sequence close to SFVmac sequences. Comparative sequence analysis of the virus from the first man and from the mandrill showed nearly identical sequences, indicating genetic stability of SFV over time. Conclusion Our results show a high
Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Betsem, Edouard; Caron, Mélanie; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Renault, Noemie; Saib, Ali; Telfer, Paul; Marx, Preston; Gessain, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad
Each of the pathogenic human retroviruses (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-1) has a nonhuman primate counterpart, and the presence of these retroviruses in humans results from interspecies transmission. The passage of another simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV), from apes or monkeys to humans has been reported. Mandrillus sphinx, a monkey species living in central Africa, is naturally infected with SFV. We evaluated the natural history of the virus in a free-ranging colony of mandrills and investigated possible transmission of mandrill SFV to humans. We studied 84 semi-free-ranging captive mandrills at the Primate Centre of the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (Gabon) and 15 wild mandrills caught in various areas of the country. The presence of SFV was also evaluated in 20 people who worked closely with mandrills and other nonhuman primates. SFV infection was determined by specific serological (Western blot) and molecular (nested PCR of the integrase region in the polymerase gene) assays. Seropositivity for SFV was found in 70/84 (83%) captive and 9/15 (60%) wild-caught mandrills and in 2/20 (10%) humans. The 425-bp SFV integrase fragment was detected in peripheral blood DNA from 53 captive and 8 wild-caught mandrills and in two personnel. Sequence and phylogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of two distinct strains of mandrill SFV, one clade including SFVs from mandrills living in the northern part of Gabon and the second consisting of SFV from animals living in the south. One man who had been bitten 10 years earlier by a mandrill and another bitten 22 years earlier by a macaque were found to be SFV infected, both at the Primate Centre. The second man had a sequence close to SFVmac sequences. Comparative sequence analysis of the virus from the first man and from the mandrill showed nearly identical sequences, indicating genetic stability of SFV over time. Our results show a high prevalence of SFV infection in a semi-free-ranging colony
Full Text Available The live B. melitensis Rev.1 strain is considered the best vaccine available for the prophylaxis of brucellosis in small ruminants, especially when used at the standard dose by the conjunctival route. In the present study a 1´ 10(9 CFU dose for both sheep and goats conjunctivally vaccinated was tested to evaluate the duration of serological responses. Conjunctival vaccination with Rev. 1 performed in adult animals induced a rapid rise in serological titres as measured by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Complement Fixation Test (CF and Modified Rose Bengal Plate Test (MRBPT. Titres then decreased and became negative in most animals by four months after vaccination (except MRBPT. The goats responded better to the vaccination than the sheep as one month after vaccination 100% of the goats revealed positive results to RB and RBM and 93.4% to FC test. The RBM was the one that detected more positive animals along the study.
He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun
of causing gastroenteritis in humans, even though 8 group A viruses (RVAs) have been identified from bats so far. In this study, another 4 RVA strains were identified, with one providing strong evidence for zoonotic transmission from bats to humans. Serological investigation has also indicated that RVA infection in bats is far more prevalent than expected based on the detection of viral RNA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Iara A. Borges
Full Text Available Since 1999 Vaccinia virus (VACV outbreaks involving bovines and humans have been reported in Brazil; this zoonosis is known as Bovine Vaccinia (BV and is mainly an occupational disease of milkers. It was only in 2008 (and then again in 2011 and 2014 however, that VACV was found causing natural infections in Brazilian equids. These reports involved only equids, no infected humans or bovines were identified, and the sources of infections remain unknown up to date. The peculiarities of Equine Vaccinia outbreaks (e.g., absence of human infection, the frequently shared environments, and fomites by equids and bovines in Brazilian farms and the remaining gaps in BV epidemiology incited a question over OPV serological status of equids in Brazil. For this report, sera from 621 equids - representing different species, ages, sexes and locations of origin within Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil – were examined for the presence of anti-Orthopoxvirus (OPV antibodies. Only 74 of these were sampled during an Equine Vaccinia outbreak, meaning some of these specific animals presented typical lesions of OPV infections. The majority of sera, however, were sampled from animals without typical signs of OPV infection and during the absence of reported Bovine or Equine Vaccinia outbreaks. Results suggest the circulation of VACV among equids of southeast Brazil even prior to the time of the first VACV outbreak in 2008. There is a correlation of OPVs outbreaks among bovines and equids although many gaps remain to our understanding of its nature. The data obtained may even be carefully associated to recent discussion over OPVs history. Moreover, data is available to improve the knowledge and instigate new researches regarding OPVs circulation in Brazil and worldwide.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients
Full Text Available A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total of 104 strains of Salmonella were isolated: 94 strains from samples of parenchymatous organs of dead chicks, 1 strain from non-hatched eggs, 3 strains from feces samples, 1 strain from samples of cloacal smears, 4 strains from samples of surface smears of maintenance objects and transport vehicles, and 1 strain from samples of beddings and shavings. Serological typization established the presence of the following serovarieties: Salmonella Enteritidis 79 strains, Salmonella Hartford 17 strains, Salmonella Typohimurium 5 strains, Salmonella Mbandaka 2 strains, and Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain. We examined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacine, norfloxacine, flumequin, erythromycin, lincospectin, colistin, fluorphenicol, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. In S. Enteritidis strains, no resistence was established to colistin, fluorphenicol and sulphamethoxasole+trimethoprim, in fact, the sensitivity to these antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was 100%. Prevalence resitence of 0.96%, in only one strain, was established for enrofloxacine. A high prevalence resistence of 33.6% was established for neomycin, while prevalence resistence of 3.86% was established for the related aminoglycozide antibiotic gentamycin. The highest prevalence resistance in S.Hartford strains was established for erythromycin, 15.38%, and streptomycin, 7.6%. Resistence of S. Tyohimurium was
Macdonald, Stuart J; Mostafa, Heba H; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KOS has been extensively used in many studies to examine HSV-1 replication, gene expression, and pathogenesis. Notably, strain KOS is known to be less pathogenic than the first sequenced genome of HSV-1, strain 17. To understand the genotypic differences between KOS and other phenotypically distinct strains of HSV-1, we sequenced the viral genome of strain KOS. When comparing strain KOS to strain 17, there are at least 1,024 small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). The polymorphisms observed in the KOS genome will likely provide insights into the genes, their protein products, and the cis elements that regulate the biology of this HSV-1 strain.
Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel
ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521
Pressman, Barry D
Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.
V. M. Yaroslavtsev
Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new
Aleksei Leonidovich Maslaynski
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a classic autoimmune disease associated with the production of wide range of autoantibodies, and their detection has diagnostic and prognostic implication. The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of antibodies against modified citrullinated vimentin (AMCV and nuclear antigen RA33 of the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF versus the value of routinely used profile of autoantibodies in diagnostic work-up of RA. Material and methods. 253 patients with RA prehistory of varying duration were included into the study group. The control group was comprised of 92 patients, including patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies and diffuse connective tissue diseases, as well as sex and age matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM and IgA RF, antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP, ACMV, anti-keratin antibodies (AKA, antibodies against RA33 antigen (ARA33 and antinuclear factor (ANF were measured in all patients and controls. Results and discussion. Diagnostic sensitivity of AMCV equaled 78%, ACCP — 77%, IgM RF — 71%, IgA RF — 43%, AKA — 43%, ARA33 — 31% and ANF — 31%. All anti-citrullinic antibodies (AKA, ACCP, ACMV were significantly more commonly associated with IgM RF. Among RF and ACCP seronegative patients ACMV were found in 24% cases with 20 IU/Ml detection threshold, and in 21% — with 30 IU/Ml, allowing to increase diagnostic specificity of the test up to 91% with the increment of diagnostic threshold. Incidence of ARA33 was not significantly different among the RF and ACCP positive or negative subgroups, thus making ARA33 an independent RA marker. Specificity of this marker was 87,9%, thus making it inferior to RF and ACCP by a composite of diagnostic characteristics. Conclusions. Integrated measurement of ACMV and ARA33 is a rational approach at the second stage of serologic testing work-up in suspected cases of RA onset, when initial RF and ACCP tests were negative.
Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee
Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.
García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando
Congenital infection is those transmitted by the mother to the fetus before delivery. It can occur transplacentally or by direct contact with the pathogen during birth or in the immediate postnatal period. Congenital infection can be due to viruses (rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, hepatitis B and C virus, human inunodeficiencia, erythrovirus B19) as bacteria (Treponema pallidum) and parasites (Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi). Serological diagnosis of congenital infection is based on both the knowledge of infectious serology in the mother, including the systematic serological screening and diagnostic aspects of the determination of IgM and confirmatory methods, IgG avidity tests, establishment of antibody profiles, and in the diagnosis the neonate. Serological diagnosis of congenital infection in the newborn is mainly based on the detection of specific IgM usually by immunoenzymatic assays or immunochemiluminescence techniques. In some instances it is important to perform the serological follow up of the newborn to confirm the congenital infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis present in the Mediterranean area. Canidae (dog and fox constitute the main reservoir hosts for the parasite, whilst wild rodents or the cat can be carriers of the protozoan and are considered as secondary potential reservoirs. This paper describes a case of disseminated feline leishmaniosis with cutaneous (ulcerative, visceral (spleen and lymph nodes and blood involvement in a FIV-FelV positive cat. The microscopic identification of the Leishmania infection was initially made on a skin biopsy of the temporal area, where a squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The diagnosis of the disease was achieved by several serological techniques (ELISA, IFAT and Western-blot. The strain was obtained by blood culture, characterized by electrophoresis of isoenzymes and identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Since the infection due to L. infantum is a zoonosis, the potential feline reservoir should be more investigated. Serological analysis by Western blot on domestic cats provides a useful tool. In veterinary practice, feline leishmaniosis should be systematically included in the differential diagnosis when compatible cutaneous lesions are present, especially in the endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.
Diagnosis Infeksi Streptococcus suis serotipe-2 pada Babi Secara Serologi dengan Muramidase Released Protein (SEROLOGICALLY DIAGNOSE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE-2 INFECTION IN PIGS BASED ON MURAMIDASE RELEASED PROTEIN
Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia
Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a bacterial pathogen causing disease of pigs that characterized by meningitis,bronchopneumonia, arthritis, pericarditis, polyserositis and septicaemia. S. suis especially serotype 2 caninfect human (zoonotic with a special symptom of meningitis. The aim of this research was to detect S.suis infection based on muramidase released protein (MRP, as an important virulence marker of S. suis.S. suis serotype 2 strain P171 with phenotype of MRP+EF+ was used in this research. The MRP antigen wasextracted using lysozyme and separated by using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE. Balb/c mice were imunized with 136 kDa MRP to produce antibody against MRP. Theantibody was evaluated by using enzyme linkage immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results of the researchshowed that the antibody against MRP with molecular weight of 136 kDa could be produced on Balb/Cmice with the highest absorbance of 3,889 and could be used to detect field sera from infected pigs with200x dilution using ELISA antigen capture. Antibody against MRP could detect serologically of S. suisinfection in pigs in Papua with 50% seropositivy by using ELISA antigen capture and 40% by using dot blot.
Raul J. S. Girio
Full Text Available The efficiency of four Leptospira biflexa strains (Buenos Aires, Patoc 1, Rufino and São Paulo as single antigen in the serodiagnosis in guinea-pigs experimentally infected with seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, tarassovi and wolffi was evaluated by the microscopic agglutination test. The four saprophytic strains were not able to reveal antibody titres in sera of guinea-pigs experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Serological cross-reactions were observed between strains Patoc 1 and São Paulo and between serovars wolffi and hardjo.
Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a serious foodborne zoonotic disease. It is an important threat to public health in both developing and developed countries. Human infections are strongly associated with consuming undercooked meat containing infective Trichinella larvae. The development of serological tools has enabled seroepidemiological studies and contributed to our knowledge on the importance of this parasite. Serological tests can also help the diagnosis of parasite infections in humans and the surveillance of animals. Generally speaking, serological techniques include detection methods for specific antibodies and for circulating parasite antigens in the serum or tissue fluids. Here, we present a comprehensive review of various methods used in the detection of antibodies against Trichinella and circulating parasite antigens in animals and humans.
Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.
Background Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics might
Emily S Almberg
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray wolves (Canis lupus were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans, and red fox (Vulpes vulpes serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%, canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5-0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [>or=1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5-1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [>or=1.6 yrs]: 83%, and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6-4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [>or=5 yrs]: 87% suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals' odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future
Almberg, E.S.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.; Sheldon, J.W.; Crabtree, R.L.
Background: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991–2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, identify associated risk factors, and examine evidence for disease-induced mortality among wolves for which there were survival data. We found high, constant exposure to canine parvovirus (wolf seroprevalence: 100%; coyote: 94%), canine adenovirus-1 (wolf pups [0.5–0.9 yr]: 91%, adults [≥1 yr]: 96%; coyote juveniles [0.5–1.5 yrs]: 18%, adults [≥1.6 yrs]: 83%), and canine herpesvirus (wolf: 87%; coyote juveniles: 23%, young adults [1.6–4.9 yrs]: 51%, old adults [≥5 yrs]: 87%) suggesting that these pathogens were enzootic within YNP wolves and coyotes. An average of 50% of wolves exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum, although individuals’ odds of exposure tended to increase with age and was temporally variable. Wolf, coyote, and fox exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was temporally variable, with evidence for distinct multi-host outbreaks in 1999 and 2005, and perhaps a smaller, isolated outbreak among wolves in the interior of YNP in 2002. The years of high wolf-pup mortality in 1999 and 2005 in the northern region of the park were correlated with peaks in CDV seroprevalence, suggesting that CDV contributed to the observed mortality. Conclusions/Significance: Of the pathogens we examined, none appear to jeopardize the long-term population of canids in YNP. However, CDV appears capable of causing short-term population declines. Additional information on how and where CDV is maintained and the frequency with which future epizootics
Karen R Steingart
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global tuberculosis epidemic results in nearly 2 million deaths and 9 million new cases of the disease a year. The vast majority of tuberculosis patients live in developing countries, where the diagnosis of tuberculosis relies on the identification of acid-fast bacilli on unprocessed sputum smears using conventional light microscopy. Microscopy has high specificity in tuberculosis-endemic countries, but modest sensitivity which varies among laboratories (range 20% to 80%. Moreover, the sensitivity is poor for paucibacillary disease (e.g., pediatric and HIV-associated tuberculosis. Thus, the development of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is imperative. Immune-based tests are potentially suitable for use in low-income countries as some test formats can be performed at the point of care without laboratory equipment. Currently, dozens of distinct commercial antibody detection tests are sold in developing countries. The question is "do they work?" METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to assess the accuracy of commercial antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies from all countries using culture and/or microscopy smear for confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible. Studies with fewer than 50 participants (25 patients and 25 control participants were excluded. In a comprehensive search, we identified 68 studies. The results demonstrate that (1 overall, commercial tests vary widely in performance; (2 sensitivity is higher in smear-positive than smear-negative samples; (3 in studies of smear-positive patients, Anda-TB IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay shows limited sensitivity (range 63% to 85% and inconsistent specificity (range 73% to 100%; (4 specificity is higher in healthy volunteers than in patients in whom tuberculosis disease is initially suspected and subsequently ruled out; and (5 there are insufficient data to determine the accuracy of most
Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...
Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.
Bernard, Alexia; Kodjikian, Laurent; Abukhashabh, Amro; Roure-Sobas, Chantal; Boibieux, Andre; Denis, Philippe; Broussolle, Christiane; Seve, Pascal
To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in patients with uveitis and to assess the value of Borrelia burgdorferi serological testing. Retrospective study on all patients with uveitis who were referred to our tertiary hospital were serologically tested for Lyme in our laboratory between 2003 and 2016. Screening consisted of determining B. burgdorferi serum IgG and IgM by ELISA method. The patient's serology was considered as positive if the ELISA-positive result in IgM and/or IgG was confirmed by an immunoblot positive in IgM and/or IgG. Lyme-associated uveitis was diagnosed based on serological results as well as response to antibiotics and exclusion of other diagnosis. Of the 430 patients with uveitis (60% women, mean age 49 years) fulfilling inclusion criteria, 63 (14.7%) had an ELISA-positive serology, confirmed by immunoblot for 34 patients (7.9%). The diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis was finally retained in seven patients (1.6%). These patients reported either a previous exposure including tick bite or forest walks (n=5), symptoms suggestive of Lyme disease (n=5) and resistance to local and/or systemic steroids (n=7). Among the remaining 27 positive patients, 22 had other established aetiologies and 5 other were unclassified. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi among our patients with uveitis was 7.9% compared with 6 to 8.5% in the general French population which leads to a low predictive value of serological testing. Its use should be reserved for patients with unexplained uveitis, an exposure history, systemic findings suggestive of Lyme disease and steroids resistance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen; Álvarez-Castillo, M Carmen; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro
In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months. The association between HIV-serology requesting and the sociodemographic and clinical practice characteristics of the professionals was quantified using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) according to logistic regression. 264 surveys (59.5% physicians). Eighty-two point two percent of medical and 18.7% of nursing professionals reported requesting at least one HIV-serology in the last 12 months (median: 15 and 2 HIV-serology request, respectively). The doctors associated the request with: being male (aOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 0.82-10.56), being trained in pre-post HIV test counselling (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.84-6.93) and the nurses with: age (13 years; aOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.07-8.52). It is necessary to promote HIV testing and training in pre-post HIV test counselling for medical and nursing professionals in primary care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Akter, Selina; Azmuda, Nafisa; Sultana, Munawar; Weill, François-Xavier; Khan, Sirajul Islam; Grimont, Patrick A D; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre
An environmental freshwater bacterial isolate, DM104, appearing as Shigella-like colonies on selective agar plates was found to show strong and specific serological cross-reactivity with Shigella dysenteriae type 4. Biochemical identification according to the analytical profile index, molecular serotyping by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster (rfb-RFLP), together with phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and multi-locus sequence analysis, identified the isolate as Escherichia albertii. rfb-RFLP of DM104, revealed a profile different from that of S. dysenteriae type 4. However, western blot analysis of extracted lipopolysaccharides demonstrated strong cross-reactivity with S. dysenteriae type 4 using specific monovalent antisera and a lipopolysaccharide gel banding profile similar to that of S. dysenteriae type 4. The observed O-antigen cross-reaction between an E. albertii isolate and S. dysenteriae extends our knowledge of the extent of O-antigen cross-reaction within the Escherichia/Shigella group of organisms, and offers the possibility of using DM104 and similar cross-reacting strains as shigellosis vaccine candidates.
Wimsatt, J; Jay, M T; Innes, K E; Jessen, M; Collins, J K
To determine efficacy and safety of a commercial modified-live canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine used for prophylaxis in domestic ferrets. Sixteen 16-week-old neutered male ferrets. Equal groups of ferrets were inoculated subcutaneously at 16 and 20 weeks of age with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or a vaccine derived from the Onderstepoort CDV strain and attenuated in a primate cell line. Live virulent CDV was administered to all ferrets intranasally and orally 3 weeks after the second inoculation. Clinical signs and body weights were monitored regularly during the study. Blood samples for serologic examination were drawn prior to each inoculation, before challenge exposure, and 10, 15, and 21 days after exposure. Blood samples for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were obtained 5 days after the first vaccination, and 5, 10, 15, and 21 days after challenge exposure. After challenge exposure, control ferrets had significantly more clinical signs and weight loss, compared with vaccinates. All vaccinated ferrets survived, whereas all control ferrets died. The RT-PCR assay was successful in detecting CDV in blood and fresh or formalin-fixed tissues from infected ferrets. Findings suggest that the vaccine when given SC to domestic ferrets as directed is safe and protective against challenge exposure with virulent CDV. The RT-PCR assay may simplify detection of CDV in fresh and fixed tissues.
Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.
Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.
by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found......A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year...
Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.
Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J
Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. 130.16 Section 130.16 Animals... USER FEES § 130.16 User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding...
Ito, Akira; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Davaasuren, Anu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Minoru; Bat-Ochir, Oyun-Erdene; Ayushkhuu, Tsendjav; Gonchigsengee, Nyamkhuu; Li, Tiaoying; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Davaajav, Abmed; Boldbaatar, Chinchuluun; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa
Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally distributed cestode zoonosis that causes hepatic cysts. Although Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major causative agent of CE worldwide, recent molecular epidemiological studies have revealed that E. canadensis is common in countries where camels are present. One such country is Mongolia. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-three human hepatic CE cases that were confirmed histopathologically at the National Center of Pathology (NCP) in Ulaanbaatar (UB) were identified by analysis of mitochondrial cox 1 gene as being caused by either E. canadensis (n = 31, 72.1%) or E. granulosus s.s. (n = 12, 27.9%). The majority of the E. canadensis cases were strain G6/7 (29/31, 93.5%). Twenty three haplotypes were identified. Sixteen of 39 CE cases with data on age, sex and province of residence were citizens of UB (41.0%), with 13 of the 16 cases from UB caused by E. canadensis (G6/7) (81.3%). Among these 13 cases, nine were children (69.2%). All pediatric cases (n = 18) were due to E. canadensis with 17 of the 18 cases (94.4%) due to strain G6/7. Serum samples were available for 31 of the 43 CE cases, with 22 (71.0%) samples positive by ELISA to recombinant Antigen B8/1 (rAgB). Nine of 10 CE cases caused by E. granulosus s.s. (90.0%) and 13 of 20 CE cases by E. canadensis (G6/7) (65.0%) were seropositive. The one CE case caused by E. canadensis (G10) was seronegative. CE cases caused by E. granulosus s.s. showed higher absorbance values (median value 1.131) than those caused by E. canadensis (G6/7) (median value 0.106) (p = 0.0137). Conclusion/Significance The main species/strains in the study population were E. canadenis and E. granulossus s.s. with E. canadensis the predominant species identified in children. The reason why E. canadensis appears to be so common in children is unknown. PMID:24945801
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL have been recorded in the Jenin District based on their clinical appearance. Here, their parasites have been characterized in depth. Methods Leishmanial parasites isolated from 12 human cases of CL from the Jenin District were cultured as promastigotes, whose DNA was extracted. The ITS1 sequence and the 7SL RNA gene were analysed as was the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA sequence. Excreted factor (EF serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE were also applied. Results This extensive characterization identified the strains as Leishmania tropica of two very distinct sub-types that parallel the two sub-groups discerned by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT done previously. A high degree of congruity was displayed among the results generated by the different analytical methods that had examined various cellular components and exposed intra-specific heterogeneity among the 12 strains. Three of the ten strains subjected to MLEE constituted a new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307, and seven belonged to the known zymodeme MON-137. Ten of the 15 enzymes in the profile of zymodeme MON-307 displayed different electrophoretic mobilities compared with the enzyme profile of the zymodeme MON-137. The closest profile to that of zymodeme MON-307 was that of the zymodeme MON-76 known from Syria. Strains of the zymodeme MON-307 were EF sub-serotype A2 and those of the zymodeme MON-137 were either A9 or A9B4. The sub-serotype B4 component appears, so far, to be unique to some strains of L. tropica of zymodeme MON-137. Strains of the zymodeme MON-137 displayed a distinctive fragment of 417 bp that was absent in those of zymodeme MON-307 when their kDNA was digested with the endonuclease RsaI. kDNA-RFLP after digestion with the endonuclease MboI facilitated a further level of differentiation that partially coincided with the geographical distribution of the human cases from which the strains
The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....
Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor M; Baneth, Gad
Canine filarioids are important nematodes transmitted to dogs by arthropods. Diagnosis of canine filariosis is accomplished by the microscopic identification of microfilariae, serology or PCR for filarial-DNA. The aim of this study was to evaluate a molecular assay for the detection of canine filariae in dog blood, to compare its performance to other diagnostic techniques, and to determine the relationship between microfilarial concentration and infection with other vector-borne pathogens. Blood samples from 146 dogs from Costa Rica were subjected to the detection of canine filarioids by four different methods: the microhematocrit tube test (MCT), Knott's modified test, serology and a high resolution melt and quantitative real-time PCR (HRM-qPCR). Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens was also evaluated. Fifteen percent of the dogs were positive to Dirofilaria immitis by at least one of the methods. The HRM-qPCR produced distinctive melting plots for the different filarial worms and revealed that 11.6% of dogs were infected with Acanthocheilonema reconditum. The latter assay had a limit of detection of 2.4x10⁻⁴ mf/μl and detected infections with lower microfilarial concentrations in comparison to the microscopic techniques and the serological assay. The MCT and Knott's test only detected dogs with D. immitis microfilaremias above 0.7 mf/μl. Nevertheless, there was a strong correlation between the microfilarial concentration obtained by the Knott's modified test and the HRM-qPCR (r = 0.906, p HRM-qPCR showed the most sensitive and reliable performance in the detection of blood filaroids in comparison to the Knott's modified test, the MCT test and a serological assay.
Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi
Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.
Ho-Yen, D O
Clinical and serological data from 100 patients who had a Downey lymphocytosis of ≥ 40% of all white cells were assessed over three years. All had clinical evidence of infectious mononucleosis, suggesting that Downey lymphocytosis of ≥ 40% is specific for the illness. PMID:6414623
The prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 antibodies among Nigerian cattle was determined using complement fixation (CF) and neutralization tests (NT) in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The two serological tests were very specific and sensitive enough to ...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0165] Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological Reagents; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; correction...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying John Cunningham Virus (JCV) serological reagents into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.
Jelsma, Tinka; wal, van der Fimme J.; Fijten, Helmi; Dailly, Nicolas; Dijk, van Evert; Loeffen, Willie L.
Most serological assays detect antibody responses in biological samples through affinity of serum antibodies for antigens provided in the assay. Certain antigens, however, may be difficult to produce and/or may contain unwanted epitopes. In these cases, a practical alternative may be the use of
Donald R Duerksen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low bone density and osteoporosis have been demonstrated in celiac disease populations in Europe, South America and the United States. Serological testing with tissue transglutaminase (TTG and immunoglobulin A endomysial (EMA antibodies is highly specific for celiac disease, while antigliadin antibody (AGA testing is less specific.
Eun, Hyo Won; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Kim, Jeong Kon; Kim, Jung Hoon
To correlate serologic test and pathologic findings with change of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasound (US) in patients with chronic renal failure. From January 1995 to April 2000, among eight hundred eighty four patients with kidney transplantation due to chronic renal failure, sixty seven patients who underwent US-guided liver biopsy were selected. Change of liver echogenicity on US was analyzed, and this change was compared with serologic test and pathologic findings. Among sixty seven patients, pathologic findings of thirty four patients with the normal liver echogenicity on US revealed normal in 15 patients (44%), viral hepatitis in 18 (53%), and liver cirrhosis in one patient (3%). Meanwhile, twenty seven patients with chronic liver disease on US were pathologically confirmed as normal in 13 patients (48%), viral hepatitis in 11 (40%), liver cirrhosis in four patients (11%); six patients with cirrhotic change on US, liver cirrhosis in four patients (67%) and viral hepatitis on two patients (33%). Serologic test of thirty four patients with the normal liver echogenicity on US showed positive HBs Ag in 17 patients (50%), positive anti-HCV Ab in 11 (32%), positive in both HBs Ag and anti-HCV Ab in one (3%), and normal result in five patients (15%). In patients with chronic renal failure, it is nor enough to determine the presence of liver disease only based on change of echogenicity on US. A careful correlation with serologic test and, if needed, pathologic confirmation are recommended for the accurate preoperative evaluation of the liver.
Full Text Available In the last years the trend of centralizing small laboratories in large reference centers led to a careful evaluation of the diagnostic profiles. In the serology laboratory of Microbiology Unit, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy the choice has been to combine random access analyzers (ARCHITECT Abbott and ELISA analyzers (BEPIII Dade Behring.
Canetta, Sarah E; Bao, Yuanyuan; Co, Mary Dawn T; Ennis, Francis A; Cruz, John; Terajima, Masanori; Shen, Ling; Kellendonk, Christoph; Schaefer, Catherine A; Brown, Alan S
The authors examined whether serologically confirmed maternal exposure to influenza was associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorder in the offspring and with subtypes of bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. The study used a nested case-control design in the Child Health and Development Study birth cohort. In all, 85 individuals with bipolar disorder were identified following extensive ascertainment and diagnostic assessment and matched to 170 comparison subjects in the analysis. Serological documentation of maternal exposure to influenza was determined using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. No association was observed between serologically documented maternal exposure to influenza and bipolar disorder in offspring. However, maternal serological influenza exposure was related to a significant fivefold greater risk of bipolar disorder with psychotic features. The results suggest that maternal influenza exposure may increase the risk for offspring to develop bipolar disorder with psychotic features. Taken together with earlier associations between prenatal influenza exposure and schizophrenia, these results may suggest that prenatal influenza is a risk factor for psychosis rather than for a specific psychotic disorder diagnosis.
Dard, C; Bailly, S; Drouet, T; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Brenier-Pinchart, M P; Pelloux, H
Serological investigation of Toxoplasma gondii can answer many questions about toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Along these lines, studies on serum storage in biobanks need to be performed especially in terms of determining the impact of storage on relevance of sera analysis after freezing. This study assessed the impact of long-term sera storage on the stability of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins. The stability of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM was studied in 244 and 242 sera respectively, stored at -20°C from one month to ten years. ELISA-immunoassay (Vidas®, bioMérieux) was used for initial and post-storage analyses. Linear models for repeated measures and subgroup analyses were performed to assess the effect of storage duration and sample characteristics on immunoglobulins stability. Until ten years, the variability attributed to storage (maximum 8.07% for IgG, 13.17% for IgM) was below the variations inherent to the serological technique and allowed by quality assurance systems (15%). Subgroup analysis reported no variation attributed to sera storage. Serological interpretation was modified for 3 sera (1.2%) tested for IgM, all stored more than seven years. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins can reliably be measured for at least up to six years of storage with no modification of interpretation of toxoplasmosis serologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Davidson, Karina W; Epling, John W; García, Francisco A R; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Pignone, Michael P; Silverstein, Michael; Tseng, Chien-Wen
Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States, occurring in almost 1 in 6 persons aged 14 to 49 years. Infection is caused by 2 subtypes of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2. Antiviral medications may provide symptomatic relief from outbreaks but do not cure HSV infection. Neonatal herpes infection, while uncommon, can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. To update the 2005 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for genital herpes. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy, benefits, and harms of serologic screening for HSV-2 infection in asymptomatic persons, including those who are pregnant, as well as the effectiveness and harms of preventive medications and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce future symptomatic episodes and transmission to others. Based on the natural history of HSV infection, its epidemiology, and the available evidence on the accuracy of serologic screening tests, the USPSTF concluded that the harms outweigh the benefits of serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. The USPSTF recommends against routine serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. (D recommendation).
Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa
Full Text Available Reye's syndrome is an infrequently diagnosed medical condition affecting mainly children. The etiology, epidemiology and natural history of Reye's syndrome have been cloudily written in footnotes of medical books and exotic papers since the initial description in early 1950s. We report here a case of adult Reye's syndrome associated with serologic evidence of parvovirus B19 infection.
These samples were subjected to the different serological tests including Rose Bengal plate antigen test, Tube Agglutination test, Rivanol test, Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis of the obtained results in different cattle groups was ...
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...
Brucellosis is of serious economic importance in livestock and in humans. There are batteries of serological tests developed and in use for the diagnosis of brucellosis in human and livestock Brief history, merits and demerits of some of these test are enumerated in this review. The purpose of the review is to bring together in ...
Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal
Full Text Available Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and antigen preparations are used and the few attempts to standardize the routine serological methods have not succeeded.We compared the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the "reference" titers. Each center then applied its own antigen preparation and serological routine test, either semiquantitative double immunodifusion or counterimmmunoelectrophoresis, in the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regard to the "reference" titers. Titers were transformed into scores: 0 (negative, 1 (healing titers, 2 (active disease, low titers and 3 (active disease, high titers according to each center's criteria. Major discordances were considered between scores indicating active disease and scores indicating negative or healing titers; such discordance when associated with proper clinical and other laboratorial data, may correspond to different approaches to the patient's treatment. Surprisingly, all centers exhibited a high rate of "major" discordances with a mean of 31 (20% discordant scores. Alternatively, when the scores given by one center to their own sera were compared with the scores given to their sera by the remaining five other centers, a high rate of major discordances was also found, with a mean number of 14.8 sera in 30 presenting a discordance with at least one other center. The data also suggest that centers that used CIE and pool of isolates for antigen preparation performed better.There are inconsistencies among the laboratories that are strong enough to result in conflicting information regarding the patients' treatment. Renewed efforts should be promoted to improve standardization of the serological diagnosis of PCM.
Lantos, Paul M; Branda, John A; Boggan, Joel C; Chudgar, Saumil M; Wilson, Elizabeth A; Ruffin, Felicia; Fowler, Vance; Auwaerter, Paul G; Nigrovic, Lise E
Lyme disease is diagnosed by 2-tiered serologic testing in patients with a compatible clinical illness, but the significance of positive test results in low-prevalence regions has not been investigated. We reviewed the medical records of patients who tested positive for Lyme disease with standardized 2-tiered serologic testing between 2005 and 2010 at a single hospital system in a region with little endemic Lyme disease. Based on clinical findings, we calculated the positive predictive value of Lyme disease serology. Next, we reviewed the outcome of serologic testing in patients with select clinical syndromes compatible with disseminated Lyme disease (arthritis, cranial neuropathy, or meningitis). During the 6-year study period 4723 patients were tested for Lyme disease, but only 76 (1.6%) had positive results by established laboratory criteria. Among 70 seropositive patients whose medical records were available for review, 12 (17%; 95% confidence interval, 9%-28%) were found to have Lyme disease (6 with documented travel to endemic regions). During the same time period, 297 patients with a clinical illness compatible with disseminated Lyme disease underwent 2-tiered serologic testing. Six of them (2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7%-4.3%) were seropositive, 3 with documented travel and 1 who had an alternative diagnosis that explained the clinical findings. In this low-prevalence cohort, fewer than 20% of positive Lyme disease tests are obtained from patients with clinically likely Lyme disease. Positive Lyme disease test results may have little diagnostic value in this setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ana Luiza de Castro Conde Toscano
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the evolution of serological markers among HIV and hepatitis B coinfected patients, with emphasis on evaluating the reactivation or seroreversion of these markers. METHODS The study population consisted of patients met in an AIDS Outpatient Clinic in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included in the analysis all HIV-infected and who underwent at least two positive hepatitis B surface antigen serological testing during clinical follow up, with tests taken six months apart. Patients were tested with commercial kits available for hepatitis B serological markers by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Clinical variables were collected: age, sex, CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, alanine aminotransferase level, exposure to antiretroviral drugs including lamivudine and/or tenofovir. RESULTS Among 2,242 HIV positive patients, we identified 105 (4.7% patients with chronic hepatitis B. Follow up time for these patients varied from six months to 20.5 years. All patients underwent antiretroviral therapy during follow-up. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, 58% were hepatitis B “e” antigen positive at the first assessment. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen occurred in 15% (16/105 of patients with chronic hepatitis B, and 50% (8/16 of these patients presented subsequent reactivation or seroreversion of hepatitis B surface antigen. Among hepatitis B “e” antigen positive patients, 57% (35/61 presented clearance of this serologic marker. During clinical follow up, 28.5% (10/35 of those who initially cleared hepatitis B “e” antigen presented seroreversion or reactivation of this marker. CONCLUSIONS Among HIV coinfected patients under antiretroviral therapy, changes of HBV serological markers were frequently observed. These results suggest that frequent monitoring of these serum markers should be recommended.
Full Text Available West Nile Fever is a zoonotic disease caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus, WNV. By its clinical sensitivity to the disease, the horse is a useful sentinel of infection. Because of the virus' low-level, short-term viraemia in horses, the primary tools used to diagnose WNV are serological tests. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs were held in 2010 and 2013 to evaluate WNV serological diagnostic tools suited for the European network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs for equine diseases. These ILPTs were designed to evaluate the laboratories' and methods' performances in detecting WNV infection in horses through serology. The detection of WNV immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies by ELISA is widely used in Europe, with 17 NRLs in 2010 and 20 NRLs in 2013 using IgG WNV assays. Thanks to the development of new commercial IgM capture kits, WNV IgM capture ELISAs were rapidly implemented in NRLs between 2010 (4 NRLs and 2013 (13 NRLs. The use of kits allowed the quick standardisation of WNV IgG and IgM detection assays in NRLs with more than 95% (20/21 and 100% (13/13 of satisfactory results respectively in 2013. Conversely, virus neutralisation tests (VNTs were implemented in 33% (7/21 of NRLs in 2013 and their low sensitivity was evidenced in 29% (2/7 of NRLs during this ILPT. A comparison of serological diagnostic methods highlighted the higher sensitivity of IgG ELISAs compared to WNV VNTs. They also revealed that the low specificity of IgG ELISA kits meant that it could detect animals infected with other flaviviruses. In contrast VNT and IgM ELISA assays were highly specific and did not detect antibodies against related flaviviruses. These results argue in favour of the need for and development of new, specific serological diagnostic assays that could be easily transferred to partner laboratories.
Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui
In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.
The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de
Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V
The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).
Ralf B. Wehrspohn
Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.
Sanei, B; Barnes, H J; Vaillancourt, J P; Leyc, D H
During an epidemic of mycoplasmosis in chicken and turkey flocks in North Carolina between 1999 and 2001, isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) from affected flocks were characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and eight distinct RAPD types were identified. MG RAPD type B accounted for more than 90% of the isolates and was associated with moderate-to-severe clinical signs and mortality. The virulence of MG RAPD type B for chickens and turkeys was compared with sham-inoculated negative controls and MG S6 (a virulent strain)-inoculated positive controls. Clinical signs occurred in chickens and turkeys inoculated with either MG RAPD type B or MG S6. However, they were not as frequent or severe as those seen in naturally affected flocks, and there was no mortality in the experimental groups. Based on gross and microscopic findings, MG RAPD type B was equal to or more virulent than MG S6. All MG-inoculated birds were culture and PCR positive at 7 and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Among serological tests, the serum plate agglutination test was positive for the majority of chickens and turkeys (58%-100%) infected with either strain of MG at both 7 and 14 days PI. The hemagglutination inhibition test was negative for all birds at 7 days PI and positive for a few chickens (8%-17%) and several turkey sera (40%-60%) at 14 days PI. Only a single serum was positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (an MG S6-infected turkey) at 14 days PI.
Background Celiac disease is present in ~1% of the general population in the United States and Europe. Despite the availability of inexpensive serologic screening tests, ~85% of individuals with celiac disease remain undiagnosed and there is an average delay in diagnosis of symptomatic individuals with celiac disease that ranges from ~5.8-11 years. This delay is often attributed to the use of a case-based approach for detection rather than general population screening for celiac disease, and deficiencies at the level of health care professionals. This study aimed to assess if patient-centered barriers have a role in impeding serologic screening for celiac disease in individuals from populations that are clinically at an increased risk for celiac disease. Methods 119 adults meeting study inclusion criteria for being at a higher risk for celiac disease were recruited from the general population. Participants completed a survey/questionnaire at the William K. Warren Medical Research Center for Celiac Disease that addressed demographic information, celiac disease related symptoms (gastrointestinal and extraintestinal), family history, co-morbid diseases and conditions associated with celiac disease, and patient-centered barriers to screening for celiac disease. All participants underwent serologic screening for celiac disease using the IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA tTG) and, if positive, testing for IgA anti-endomysial antibody (IgA EMA) as a confirmatory test. Results Two barriers to serologic testing were significant across the participant pool. These were participants not knowing they were at risk for celiac disease before learning of the study, and participants not knowing where to get tested for celiac disease. Among participants with incomes less than $25,000/year and those less than the median age, not having a doctor to order the test was a significant barrier, and this strongly correlated with not having health insurance. Symptoms and co
The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....
Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.
The ability to link microbial community structure to function has long been a primary focus of environmental microbiology. With the advent of community genomic and proteomic techniques, along with advances in microscopic imaging techniques, it is now possible to gain insights into the organismal and functional makeup of microbial communities. Biofilms growing within highly acidic solutions inside the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, Redding, California) exhibit distinct macro- and microscopic morphologies. They are composed of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life, including archaea, bacteria and eukarya. The proportion of each organismal type depends on sampling location and developmental stage. For example, mature biofilms floating on top of acid mine drainage (AMD) pools exhibit layers consisting of a densely packed bottom layer of the chemoautolithotroph Leptospirillum group II, a less dense top layer composed mainly of archaea, and fungal filaments spanning across the entire biofilm. The expression of cytochrome 579 (the most highly abundant protein in the biofilm, believed to be central to iron oxidation and encoded by Leptospirillum group II) is localized at the interface of the biofilm with the AMD solution, highlighting that biofilm architecture is reflected at the functional gene expression level. Distinct functional partitioning is also apparent in a biological wastewater treatment system that selects for distinct polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Community genomic data from " Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" dominated activated sludge has enabled high mass-accuracy shotgun proteomics for identification of key metabolic pathways. Comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins suggests distinct partitioning of protein variants involved in both core-metabolism and specific metabolic pathways among the dominant population and closely related species. In addition, strain- resolved proteogenomic analysis of the AMD biofilms
Jones, M K; Iwanejko, L A; Longden, M S
Plasmid analysis of over 120 strains of Clostridium perfringens, isolated during food-poisoning incidents and from animal carcasses and food constituents with no association with food poisoning, showed the potential of plasmid profiling as a means of differentiating epidemiologically related strains. On average 65% of freshly isolated strains contained one or more plasmids which could be used in the analysis. Comparison of profiles of strains from unrelated sources or unrelated strains from the same source showed a particularly wide variety of plasmid profiles. Thus the possibility that epidemiologically-unrelated strains might possess similar profiles appears to be very low in this organism. Analysis of serologically-related strains from the same source revealed similar plasmid profiles in all the plasmid-bearing strains examined. A high proportion (71%) of fresh and well-characterized food-poisoning strains possessed plasmids of 6.2 kb in size (compared with 19% of non-food-poisoning strains). The possible role of these plasmids is discussed, since the structural gene encoding the enterotoxin type A was not present on any of the plasmids in the food-poisoning strains tested.
Elizabeth B Liu
Full Text Available In November of 2007 a human adenovirus (HAdV was isolated from a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL sample recovered from a biopsy of an AIDS patient who presented with fever, cough, tachycardia, and expiratory wheezes. To better understand the isolated virus, the genome was sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic and phylogenomic analysis. The results suggest that this novel virus, which is provisionally named HAdV-D59, may have been created from multiple recombination events. Specifically, the penton, hexon, and fiber genes have high nucleotide identity to HAdV-D19C, HAdV-D25, and HAdV-D56, respectively. Serological results demonstrated that HAdV-D59 has a neutralization profile that is similar yet not identical to that of HAdV-D25. Furthermore, we observed a two-fold difference between the ability of HAdV-D15 and HAdV-D25 to be neutralized by reciprocal antiserum indicating that the two hexon proteins may be more similar in epitopic conformation than previously assumed. In contrast, hexon loops 1 and 2 of HAdV-D15 and HAdV-D25 share 79.13 and 92.56 percent nucleotide identity, respectively. These data suggest that serology and genomics do not always correlate.
Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.
phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including...... some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity....
Dickerson, Faith; Origoni, Andrea; Schweinfurth, Lucy A B; Stallings, Cassie; Savage, Christina L G; Sweeney, Kevin; Katsafanas, Emily; Wilcox, Holly C; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert
Persons with serious mental illness are at high risk for suicide, but this outcome is difficult to predict. Serological markers may help to identify suicide risk. We prospectively assessed 733 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 483 with bipolar disorder, and 76 with major depressive disorder for an average of 8.15 years. The initial evaluation consisted of clinical and demographic data as well as a blood samples from which immunoglobulin G antibodies to herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were measured. Suicide was determined using data from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard regression models examined the role of baseline variables on suicide outcomes. Suicide was associated with male sex, divorced/separated status, Caucasian race, and elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Increasing levels of CMV antibodies were associated with increasing hazard ratios for suicide. The identification of serological variables associated with suicide might provide more personalized methods for suicide prevention.
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.
Leeflang, M M G; Ang, C W; Berkhout, J
-eight studies evaluating an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent assay (ELISA) or an immunoblot assay against a reference standard of clinical criteria were included. None of the studies had low risk of bias for all QUADAS-2 domains. Sensitivity was highly heterogeneous, with summary estimates: erythema migrans 50 % (95......BACKGROUND: Interpretation of serological assays in Lyme borreliosis requires an understanding of the clinical indications and the limitations of the currently available tests. We therefore systematically reviewed the accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe....... We used a hierarchical summary ROC meta-regression method for the meta-analyses. Potential sources of heterogeneity were test-type, commercial or in-house, Ig-type, antigen type and study quality. These were added as covariates to the model, to assess their effect on test accuracy. RESULTS: Seventy...
Turnbull, P C; Doganay, M; Lindeque, P M; Aygen, B; McLaughlin, J
Results are presented from a number of epidemiological studies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) based on the purified anthrax toxin antigens, protective antigen, lethal factor and oedema factor. Studies on sera from a group of 62 human anthrax patients in Turkey and from cattle in Britain following two unrelated outbreaks of anthrax show that EIA using protective antigen can be a useful diagnostic aid and will detect subclinical infections in appropriate circumstances. A serological survey on wildlife in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, where anthrax is endemic, showed that naturally acquired anthrax-specific antibodies are rare in herbivores but common in carnivores; in carnivores, titres appear to reflect the prevalence of anthrax in their ranges. Problems, as yet unresolved, were encountered in studies on sera from pigs following an outbreak of anthrax on a farm in Wales. Clinical details, including treatment, of the human and one of the bovine outbreaks are summarized and discussed in relation to the serological findings.
Christiansen, Mette; Samuelsen, Betina; Christiansen, Lene
BACKGROUND: To date more than 100 variant D types have been reported and the frequencies vary among populations. Blood donor typing should reveal all donors expressing D antigens, while patient typing should prevent the development of anti-D in patients with a D- or variant D blood type. Serotyping...... is the standard method to assign transfusion strategies, whereas molecular classification offers a more specific grouping of weak and partial D. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donor and patient samples with discrepant results of D phenotyping were collected to investigate the frequency of weak D subtypes...... in Denmark and to evaluate currently used serologic methods. RESULTS: Nine different weak D types were identified among the 101 samples. Weak D Types 1, 2, and 3 constituted 80 percent of the analyzed samples and 10 percent of the samples identified as weak D from serology were actually partial D. CONCLUSION...
Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei
To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.
Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.
Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556
David A. Baker
Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate pregnant women's willingness to undergo HSV type-specific serologic testing and factors affecting willingness in an obstetrics/gynecology ambulatory unit. Methods. At prenatal Visit 1, pregnant women (n=303 with no history of HSV-2 were tested for HSV-1/HSV-2 before and after they received counseling on genital and neonatal herpes. Results. In both the Unwilling Subgroup and the group that changed from being willing to being unwilling, the most common reasons for choosing not to be tested were not being at risk for genital herpes, being tested is too personal, and concern about what will be done with the results. Of the 134 participants in the Willing/Tested Subgroup, 27 (20% were HSV-2 seropositive and 81 (60% were HSV-1 seropositive. Conclusions. These results support the feasibility of HSV serologic testing and counseling in pregnant women.
Varan, Aiden K; Lederman, Edith R; Stous, Shanon S; Elson, Diana; Freiman, Jennifer L; Marin, Mona; Lopez, Adriana S; Stauffer, William M; Joseph, Rachael H; Waterman, Stephen H
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. During 2014 to 2015, adult ICE detainees at a California facility were invited to complete a survey concerning self-reported varicella history and risk factors. Participants underwent serological testing for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG; susceptible individuals were offered varicella vaccination. Among 400 detainees with available serology results, 48 (12%) were susceptible to varicella. Self-reported varicella history was negatively associated with susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [0.07, 0.35]). Among 196 detainees reporting a positive history, 95% had VZV IgG levels suggestive of varicella immunity. Among 44 susceptible detainees offered vaccination, 86% accepted. Given relatively high varicella susceptibility, targeted screening and vaccination among ICE detainees lacking a positive history might reduce varicella transmission risks.
Majumdar, Kaushik; Sakhuja, Puja; Puri, Amarender Singh; Gaur, Kavita; Haider, Aiman; Gondal, Ranjana
Coeliac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy diagnosed on the basis of ESPGHAN criteria and clinical response to gluten-free diet (GFD). Histological abnormalities on liver biopsy have been noted in CD but have seldom been described. To assess the histological spectrum of 'coeliac hepatitis' and possibility of reversal of such features after a GFD. Twenty-five patients with concomitant CD and hepatic derangement were analysed for clinical profile, laboratory investigations and duodenal and liver biopsy. A histological comparison of pre- and post-GFD duodenal and liver biopsies was carried out, wherever possible. Fifteen patients presenting with CD subsequently developed abnormal liver function tests; 10 patients presenting with liver disease were found to have tissue positive transglutaminase in 70% and antigliadin antibodies in 60%. Serological markers for autoimmune liver disease (AILD) were positive in eight patients. Liver histology ranged from mild reactive hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, steatosis to cirrhosis. Liver biopsies after a GFD were available in six cases, of which five showed a decrease in steatosis, portal and lobular inflammation and fibrosis score. Coeliac hepatitis could be a distinct entity and the patients may present with either CD or secondary hepatic derangement. Evaluation for the presence of CD is recommended for patients presenting with AILD, unexplained transaminasaemia or anaemia. This is one of the very few studies demonstrating the continuum of liver histological changes in 'coeliac hepatitis'. Trial of a GFD may result in clinicopathological improvement of 'coeliac hepatitis'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase is the single most efficient serological test for the diagnosis of celiac disease. It is well known that immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase levels correlate with the degree of intestinal damage, and that values can fluctuate in patients over time. Serological testing can be used to identify symptomatic individuals that need a confirmatory biopsy, to screen at-risk populations or to monitor diet compliance in patients previously diagnosed with celiac disease. Thus, interpretation of serological testing requires consideration of the full clinical scenario. Antigliadin tests are no longer recommended for the diagnosis of classical celiac disease. However, our understanding of the pathogenesis and spectrum of gluten sensitivity has improved, and gluten-sensitive irritable bowel syndrome patients are increasingly being recognized. Studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of antigliadin serology in the diagnosis of gluten sensitivity.
Girjes, A A; Hugall, A F; Timms, P; Lavin, M F
While several diseases associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection have been reported in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala), it is still unclear whether one or more chlamydial strains are responsible. In this study, we provide evidence, obtained by restriction enzyme and gene probe analysis, that two quite distinct strains of C. psittaci infect koalas; one strain was isolated from the conjunctivae, and the other was isolated from the urogenital tract and the rectum. A gene probe, pFEN207, containing the coding sequence for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the chlamydial genus-specific lipopolysaccharide antigen, and a separate probe, pCPML-4N, prepared from a DNA fragment of a koala-infecting strain of C. psittaci, were used to determine the patterns of hybridization in the koala-infecting strains; these patterns were found to be quite distinct from those observed with C. psittaci isolates from other animals. We also demonstrated by hybridization analysis with an avian strain plasmid that all three koala urogenital isolates contain a plasmid and that there is no evidence for the presence of a homologous plasmid in any of the ocular isolates. Images PMID:3397180
Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.
By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854
Almberg, Emily S.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.
BACKGROUND: Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. In 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sympatric wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) serologic data from YNP, spanning 1991-2007, to identify long-term patterns of pathogen exposure, i...
Barbero, Erika M; McNally, Shawna L; Donohue, Michael C; Kagnoff, Martin F
Background Celiac disease is present in ~1% of the general population in the United States and Europe. Despite the availability of inexpensive serologic screening tests, ~85% of individuals with celiac disease remain undiagnosed and there is an average delay in diagnosis of symptomatic individuals with celiac disease that ranges from ~5.8-11 years. This delay is often attributed to the use of a case-based approach for detection rather than general population screening for celiac disease, and ...
Guellec, Dewi; Narbonne, Valérie; Cornec, Divi; Marhadour, Thierry; Varache, Sophie; Dougados, Maxime; Daurès, Jean Pierre; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Saraux, Alain
Objectives Lyme disease may be considered by rheumatologists in patients with recent-onset arthritis, even in the absence of suggestive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic impact of routine Lyme serology in a French cohort of patients with recent-onset arthritis affecting at least 2 joints. Methods We performed an ancillary study of a French prospective multicentre cohort established to monitor clinical, biological and radiographic data in patients with inflammatory arthritis in at least 2 joints, lasting for 6 weeks to 6 months. Borrelia IgM and IgG antibodies were sought routinely at baseline, using ELISA tests, independently from the physician's strategy for detecting a spirochetal infection. We recorded the proportion of patients with a final diagnosis of Lyme arthritis and evaluated the diagnostic performance of Lyme serology in this particular context. The clinical and biological characteristics of patients according to the Lyme serology results were analysed. Results Of 810 patients, 657 (81.1%) were negative for IgM and IgG antibodies, 91 (11.2%) had only IgM antibodies, 49 (6%) had only IgG antibodies, and 13 (1.6%) had IgG and IgM antibodies. Thus, 7.6% had IgG positivity, consistent with exposure to Borrelia infection. IgG positivity was significantly more prevalent in the North and North-East regions of France (χ2=14.6, pLyme arthritis. Conclusions This study does not support routine Lyme serological testing in patients with recent-onset inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 1 joint. PMID:26819751
Full Text Available This study reports the epidemiological, pathological and mycological findings of cutaneous pythiosis in cattle in southern Brazil. 23 calves, that were kept next to a river with extensive marshy regions, presented ulcerated cutaneous lesions in thoracic and pelvic limbs, sometimes extending to the ventral thoracic region. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomas in the superficial and deep dermis. The Grocott-Methenamine silver, immunohistochemistry anti-Pythium insidiosum, ELISA serology and molecular characterization demonstrated the agent P. insidiosum in these cases.
Galo, Saira Saborío; González, Karla; Téllez, Yolanda; García, Nadezna; Pérez, Leonel; Gresh, Lionel; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Ángel
To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA) for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM) to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014-2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA). For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%-95.9%. Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.
Saira Saborío Galo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Methods Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014–2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA. For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. Results All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%–95.9%. Conclusion Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.
Conclusion: This study showed no significant difference in serologic examination re-sults in PCOS versus non PCOS patients. The finding of high prevalence of H.Pylori IgG and IgA positive levels in both PCOS and non PCOS patients can be probably re-lated to the high prevalence of H.Pylori infection or exposure in Iranian population and therefore suggest an issue for further investigation.
Kokkola, Arto; Rautelin, Hilpi; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Sipponen, Pentti; Färkkilä, Martti; Haapiainen, Reijo; Kosunen, Timo U.
Patients with atrophic corpus gastritis and elevated Helicobacter pylori antibody titers but 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) and histology results negative for H. pylori were randomized into eradication therapy or follow-up only. Antibody levels decreased significantly in six out of seven patients in the eradication group, while in the follow-up group, the titers declined in only one out of eight patients. In patients with atrophic corpus gastritis, positive serology results may indicate an on...
Yasmine R Vieira
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Recently, investigations in a swine herd identified evidence of the existence of a novel member of the Hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular markers of Hepadnavirus circulation in Brazilian domestic swine and wild boar herds, and to evaluate the identity with HBV and other Hepadnaviruses reported previously. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. For the study, 376 swine were screened for hepatitis B virus serological markers. Analyses were performed in serum samples using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (DiaSorin® for anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs. Reactive and undetermined swine serum samples were selected to perform DNA viral extraction (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen®, partial genome amplification and genome sequencing. [b]Results[/b]. From 376 swine samples analysed, 28 (7.45% were reactive to anti-HBc, 3 (0.80% to HBsAg and 6 (1.6% to anti-HBs. Besides, more 17 (4.52% swine samples analyzed were classified in the grey zone of the EIA test to anti-HBc and 2 (0.53% to HBsAg. From 49 samples molecularly analyzed after serological trial, 4 samples showed a positive result for the qualitative PCR for Hepadnavirus. Phylogenetic reconstruction using partial genome sequencing (360 bp of 3 samples showed similarity with HBV with 90.8–96.3% of identity. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Serological and molecular data showed evidence of the circulation of a virus similar to hepatitis B virus in swine.
Julia De Luca Maccarini
Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.
Gudrun Stephanie Freidl
Full Text Available Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.
Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane
Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671
Stoianova, L G; Egorov, N S; Fedorova, G B; Katrukha, G S; Netrusov, A I
Bacteriocins formed by four strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis have been studied and compared: 729 (a natural strain isolated from milk), 1605 (a mutant of strain 729), F-116 (a recombinant obtained by fusing of protoplasts of the two related strain 729 and 1605), and a nisin-forming strain obtained by adaptive selection at Moscow State University. Antimicrobial activity studies revealed differences between the strains in the effects on individual groups of microorganisms; the activities of the strains were also distinct from that of Nisaplin (a commercial preparation of the bacteriocin nisin). Methods for isolation and purification of bacteriocins have been developed, making it possible to obtain individual components of antibiotic complexes as chromatographically pure preparations. Bacteriocins formed by the strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis have been identified and differences in their biological and physicochemical properties, established. A novel potent broad-spectrum antibiotic substance distinct from nisin has been isolated from the recombinant strain F-116.
Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M
We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.
Katz, Kent D; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Lahr, Brian D; Melton, L Joseph; Krause, Patricia K; Maggi, Kristine; Talley, Nicholas J; Murray, Joseph A
The prevalence of diagnosed celiac disease is celiac disease and the utility of screening in the general adult population of a geographically isolated area. Serum tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgA) were measured in volunteer health-care participants aged ≥ 18 years at the annual Casper, Wyoming, Blue Envelope Health Fair blood draw. Subjects with positive tTG-IgA tests had their endomysial IgA antibodies checked. Double positives were offered endoscopy with small bowel biopsy. All subjects completed a short gastrointestinal (GI) symptom questionnaire. A total of 3,850 residents of the Natrona County had serologic evaluation for celiac disease, 34 of whom tested positive for both tTG and endomysial antibody (EMA) IgA. Excluding three individuals with previous diagnosis of celiac disease, the overall prevalence of positive celiac serology in this community sample was 0.8%. All 31 subjects were offered a small bowel biopsy. Of the 18 biopsied subjects, 17 (94%) had at least partial villous atrophy. Symptoms that were reported by the fair attendees did not predict positivity. Screening for celiac disease was widely accepted in this preventative health-care setting. Undiagnosed celiac disease affects 1 in 126 individuals in this Wyoming community. Most were asymptomatic or had atypical presentations. Serologic testing can readily detect this disease in a general population.
Full Text Available A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis, 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus, nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV], Bluetongue virus (BTV, Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1, and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3. Sera were also ELISA tested for Pestivirus antigen. Tissue samples including spleen, liver, lung, tonsils, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and white blood cells (WBCs were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PPRV, Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV, Pestivirus, BTV, Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 and BHV-1. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against PPRV (17%, Pestiviruses (2% and BTV (2%. No antibodies were detected for BHV-1 or PI3, and no Pestivirus antigen was detected. PCR results were positive for PPRV (7.8%, FMDV (11%, BTV (3%, OvHV-2 (31% and BHV-1 (1.5%. None of the samples were positive for Pestiviruses.
Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J
During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.
Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia; Maldonado-González, Monserrat; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy; Panduro, Arturo
Viral hepatitis in children is a major public health problem worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C infections in Mexican children diagnosed with hepatitis during a five-year period. A total of 31,818 children admitted to a tertiary level hospital in Mexico from 2005 to 2009 were evaluated for hepatitis. Hepatitis was found in 215 (0.7%) of the children. Serum samples from hepatitis-positive children were screened for anti-HAV IgM, HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HCV. HAV was the leading cause of viral hepatitis (81%), followed by HBV and HCV (3.1 and 2%, respectively), whereas no serological marker was observed in 13.9% of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, when children were categorized by age, a significant increase in anti-HAV detection was observed in school-aged children (7-11 years old) (p hepatitis A is the most prevalent viral hepatitis infection detected in children, followed by HBV and HCV. In addition, the high percentage of hepatitis infections without a known etiological agent and the serological test limitations require the detection of occult HBV, HCV and hepatitis E infections. The age-dependent vulnerability of groups with HAV infections emphasizes the importance of HAV vaccination in young children in Mexico.
Fabri, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho; Carvalho, Ana Paula Mendes; Vieira, Nayara Figueiredo; Bueno, Isabela de Caux; Rodrigues, Rayssa Nogueira; Monteiro, Thayenne Barrozo Mota; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Duthie, Malcolm S; Lana, Francisco Carlos Félix
An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I), ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1), and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID). From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management.
Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho Fabri
Full Text Available Abstract: An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I, ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1, and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID. From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management.
Benavides, J. A.; Caillaud, D.; Scurlock, B. M.; Maichak, E. J.; Edwards, W.H.; Cross, Paul C.
Serological data are one of the primary sources of information for disease monitoring in wildlife. However, the duration of the seropositive status of exposed individuals is almost always unknown for many free-ranging host species. Directly estimating rates of antibody loss typically requires difficult longitudinal sampling of individuals following seroconversion. Instead, we propose a Bayesian statistical approach linking age and serological data to a mechanistic epidemiological model to infer brucellosis infection, the probability of antibody loss, and recovery rates of elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We found that seroprevalence declined above the age of ten, with no evidence of disease-induced mortality. The probability of antibody loss was estimated to be 0.70 per year after a five-year period of seropositivity and the basic reproduction number for brucellosis to 2.13. Our results suggest that individuals are unlikely to become re-infected because models with this mechanism were unable to reproduce a significant decline in seroprevalence in older individuals. This study highlights the possible implications of antibody loss, which could bias our estimation of critical epidemiological parameters for wildlife disease management based on serological data.
Sudipta Sekhar Das
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS primary or secondary represents approximately 16-32% of autoimmune hemolytic anemia cases. Most patients present with mild, chronic hemolytic anemia with exacerbation of the condition in the cold environment. Red cell transfusions are only indicated when there is a life-threatening anemia causing crisis. We studied the clinical and serological characterization of CAS with the aim that the information gained from this study would help in proper diagnosis and management of these patients. Materials and Methods: The prospective study included nine patients who were admitted with severe anemia. Detailed work-up were conducted to establish the diagnosis, severity of in vivo hemolysis and transfusion management. Results: All patients presented with pallor, weakness, fatigue and painful fingers and toes with exacerbation of symptoms in winter months. Secondary CAS was observed in three patients suffering from malignant lymphoma. Red cells of all patients were coated with complements (C3 more specifically C3d. In one patient suffering from malignant lymphoma, the cold autoagglutinin titer was as high as 4096. Autoantibody in seven patients was specific to "I" antigen and one to "i" antigen. Conclusions: We conclude that detailed clinical and serological characterization is needed to diagnose and manage CAS. Whereas avoidance of cold exposure is the primary therapy, but no critical patient should be denied blood transfusion due to serological complications. All transfusion services should follow the correct protocol to maximize blood safety in CAS.
Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira
A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected with T. solium from those infected with T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E
Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Many of parasite agent cause diseases damaging the liver. The parasite infections settled the liver give rise to focal mass named as reactive hyperplasia or granulomatous reactions in this organ. Some of parasites caused focal mass in liver are cystic echinococ, Fasciola hepatica and Entamoeba histolytica. The diagnoses of these parasites which are localized to liver have been carried out with serological methods (Indirect hemagglutination (IHA, Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technic (IFAT and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and radiological imaging. In this study, we was aimed to investigating of prevalence with serological methods of parasite diseases like cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis and amebic liver abscess in patients determined preliminary diagnosis mass with radiological imaging Methods: For this study, One hundred patient’s sera were included to investigation. It were investigated E.histolytica antibody with IHA method, anti-echinococcus IgG antibody with IFAT method and anti-fasciolia hepatica IgG antibody with ELISA method in sera of patient’s determined mass preliminary diagnosis with radiological imaging. Results: It were encountered these parasite in 27% of patients who determined mass preliminary diagnosis. It was determined in 1% E.histolytica, 13% Cystic echinococcus and 13% Fasciola hepatica seropositive of patients. Conclusion: The patients detected mass preliminary in liver should be evaluated for these parasites. We believe that will not be enough only radiological imaging in identification of these parasitic infections and should definitely need to be supported with a serological test.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Dengue is an endemic and epidemic disease of the tropical and subtropical regions. Between September & October 2012, there was an established outbreak of dengue in Hoskote, near Bangalore. Dengue results in serositis, which can be imaged by ultrasonography. OBJECTIVE To correlate the USG findings with the serological tests in paediatric and adult patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS 110 patients with clinical suspicion of dengue fever during the above period underwent serological tests-NS1, IgM and IgG and were evaluated with USG of the abdomen and thorax. The USG findings were correlated with serological tests. RESULTS 67 Patients were seropositive, 43 were seronegative. The USG findings in seropositive paediatric patients (n=32 and adult patients (n=35 respectively were gall bladder (GB wall edema-27 & 31, hepatomegaly-12 &14, ascites-16 & 12, splenomegaly- 15 & 9, right pleural effusion-14 & 13, left and bilateral pleural effusion-7 & 5. CONCLUSION In our study GB wall edema significantly correlated with seropositivity (p value=0.032. Thus ultrasound is an efficient screening tool in a case of dengue outbreak.
Marta Koper; Agnieszka B. Serwin; Anna Baran; Iwona Flisiak
Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS) in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, pe...
Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.
we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert......, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a world-widely distributed zoonosis. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from contaminated water or soil. The availability of genomic sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni opened up opportunities to identify genetic diversity among different pathogenic strains of L. interrogans representing various kinds of serotypes (serogroups and serovars. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis was used to compare the gene content of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai with that of other 10 L. interrogans strains prevailed in China and one identified from Brazil using a microarray spotted with 3,528 protein coding sequences (CDSs of strain Lai. The cutoff ratio of sample/reference (S/R hybridization for detecting the absence of genes from one tested strain was set by comparing the ratio of S/R hybridization and the in silico sequence similarities of strain Lai and serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. Among the 11 strains tested, 275 CDSs were found absent from at least one strain. The common backbone of the L. interrogans genome was estimated to contain about 2,917 CDSs. The genes encoding fundamental cellular functions such as translation, energy production and conversion were conserved. While strain-specific genes include those that encode proteins related to either cell surface structures or carbohydrate transport and metabolism. We also found two genomic islands (GIs in strain Lai containing genes divergently absent in other strains. Because genes encoding proteins with potential pathogenic functions are located within GIs, these elements might contribute to the variations in disease manifestation. Differences in genes involved in O-antigen biosynthesis were also identified for strains belonging to different serogroups, which offers an opportunity for future development of genomic typing tools for serological classification
Yang, Yonghai; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Aiping; Wei, Rongjie; Wei, Baiqing; Wang, Zuyun
To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010. Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals. 37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayan at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla solaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayan in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures. From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very
Jett, J. R., Jr.
Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.
Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.
Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.
Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.
Avery N Gilbert
Full Text Available The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL, RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.
Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Šantak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata
Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes. PMID:18616793
Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Santak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata
The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.
DiVerdi, Joseph A.
The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526
Leon, A.J. (Alberto J.); Borisevich, V. (Viktoriya); Boroumand, N. (Nahal); Seymour, R. (Robert); Nusbaum, R. (Rebecca); Escaffre, O. (Olivier); Xu, L. (Luoling); Kelvin, D.J. (David J.); B. Rockx (Barry)
textabstractHenipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and
assessed sociodemographics, travel history, sex- work history, and activity for SWs and sexual -activity history for IDUs, past and current drug-use...behaviors, past and current STI symptoms, condom (men and women) and contraceptive (women only) use, and knowledge about HIV. SW participants received a...32.7 years. Most were married (72.7%) and had >6 years of formal education (72.7%). The mean reported duration of injecting was 2.45 years (SD¼ 1.63
May 28, 2014 ... synthase in lactic acid production by A. niger and with the ... A number of microorganisms, including both bacteria and fungi, possess the capacity ..... citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and ...
Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.
Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane
Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.
Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C
Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.
Nguyen, Ngoc-Loi; Yu, Woon-Jong; Yang, Hye-Young; Kim, Jong-Geol; Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Roh, Seong-Woon; Rhee, Sung-Keun
Aerobic methane oxidation is a key process in the global carbon cycle that acts as a major sink of methane. In this study, we describe a novel methanotroph designated EMGL16-1 that was isolated from a freshwater lake using the floating filter culture technique. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolate was found to be closely related to the genus Methylomonas in the family Methylococcaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria with 94.2-97.4% 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylomonas type strains. Comparison of chemotaxonomic and physiological properties further suggested that strain EMGL16-1 was taxonomically distinct from other species in the genus Methylomonas. The isolate was versatile in utilizing nitrogen sources such as molecular nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, urea, and ammonium. The genes coding for subunit of the particulate form methane monooxygenase (pmoA), soluble methane monooxygenase (mmoX), and methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF) were detected in strain EMGL16-1. Phylogenetic analysis of mmoX indicated that mmoX of strain EMGL16-1 is distinct from those of other strains in the genus Methylomonas. This isolate probably represents a novel species in the genus. Our study provides new insights into the diversity of species in the genus Methylomonas and their environmental adaptations.
Zhu, You-Liang; Sun, Zhao-Yan, E-mail: email@example.com [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Lu, Zhong-Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)
Although multiple overstretched DNA states were identified in experiments, the mechanism of the emergence of distinct states is still unclear. Molecular dynamics simulation is an ideal tool to clarify the mechanism, but the force loading rates in stretching achieved by conventional all-atom DNA models are much faster, which essentially affect overstretching states. We employed a modified coarse-grained DNA model with an unprecedented low loading rate in simulations to study the overstretching transitions of end-opened double-stranded DNA. We observed two-strand peeling off for DNA with low stability and the S-DNA with high stability under tension. By introducing a melting-forbidden model which prevents base-pair breaking, we still observed the overstretching transition induced by the formation of S-DNA due to the change of dihedral angle. Hence, we confirmed that the competition between the two strain-softening manners, i.e., base-pair breaking and dihedral angle variation, results in the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states.
Nunes Luiz R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH, identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly
Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Ziemann, Oliver; Kornhuber, Malte; Emmer, Alexander; Quäschling, Ulf; Schob, Stefan; Surov, Alexey
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in several muscle disorders. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an imaging modality, which can reflect microstructural tissue composition. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is used to quantify the random motion of water molecules in tissue. Purpose To investigate ADC values in patients with myositis and non-inflammatory myopathy and to analyze possible associations between ADC and laboratory parameters in these patients. Material and Methods Overall, 17 patients with several myositis entities, eight patients with non-inflammatory myopathies, and nine patients without muscle disorder as a control group were included in the study (mean age = 55.3 ± 14.3 years). The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in every case. DWI was obtained in a 1.5-T scanner using two b-values: 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 . In all patients, the blood sample was acquired within three days to the MRI. The following serological parameters were estimated: C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and myoglobine. Results The estimated mean ADC value for the myositis group was 1.89 ± 0.37 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s and for the non-inflammatory myopathy group was 1.79 ± 0.33 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. The mean ADC values (1.15 ± 0.37 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) were significantly higher to unaffected muscles (vs. myositis P = 0.0002 and vs. myopathy P = 0.0021). There were no significant correlations between serological parameters and ADC values. Conclusion Affected muscles showed statistically significantly higher ADC values than normal muscles. No linear correlations between ADC and serological parameters were identified.
Conroy, Niall; Vlack, Susan; Williams, Julian M; Patten, John J; Horvath, Robert L; Lambert, Stephen B
Australia uses a protocol combining human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), with the aim of achieving an antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml, as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, as soon as possible. We present the course of PEP administration and serological testing for four men with complex requirements. Following dog bites in Thailand, two men (62 years old, 25 years old) received no HRIG and had delayed vaccine courses: 23 days between dose two and three, and 18 days between dose one and two, respectively. Both seroconverted following dose four. Another 62-year-old male, who was HIV-positive (normal CD4 count), also suffered a dog bite and had delayed care receiving i.m. rabies vaccine on days six and nine in Thailand. Back in Australia, he received three single and one double dose i.m. vaccines followed by another double dose of vaccine, delivered intradermally and subcutaneously, before seroconverting. A 23-year-old male with a history of allergies received simultaneous HRIG and vaccine following potential ABLV exposure, and developed rash, facial oedema and throat tingling, which was treated with a parenteral antihistamine and tapering dose of steroids. Serology showed he seroconverted following dose four. These cases show that PEP can be complicated by exposures in tourist settings where reliable prophylaxis may not be available, where treatment is delayed or deviates from World Health Organization recommendations. Due to the potentially short incubation time of rabies/ABLV, timely prophylaxis after a potential exposure is needed to ensure a prompt and adequate immune response, particularly in patients who are immune-suppressed or who have not received HRIG. Serology should be used to confirm an adequate response to PEP when treatment is delayed or where a concurrent immunosuppressing medical condition or therapy exists.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia uses a protocol combining human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG and rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP of rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV, with the aim of achieving an antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml, as per World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, as soon as possible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the course of PEP administration and serological testing for four men with complex requirements. Following dog bites in Thailand, two men (62 years old, 25 years old received no HRIG and had delayed vaccine courses: 23 days between dose two and three, and 18 days between dose one and two, respectively. Both seroconverted following dose four. Another 62-year-old male, who was HIV-positive (normal CD4 count, also suffered a dog bite and had delayed care receiving i.m. rabies vaccine on days six and nine in Thailand. Back in Australia, he received three single and one double dose i.m. vaccines followed by another double dose of vaccine, delivered intradermally and subcutaneously, before seroconverting. A 23-year-old male with a history of allergies received simultaneous HRIG and vaccine following potential ABLV exposure, and developed rash, facial oedema and throat tingling, which was treated with a parenteral antihistamine and tapering dose of steroids. Serology showed he seroconverted following dose four. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These cases show that PEP can be complicated by exposures in tourist settings where reliable prophylaxis may not be available, where treatment is delayed or deviates from World Health Organization recommendations. Due to the potentially short incubation time of rabies/ABLV, timely prophylaxis after a potential exposure is needed to ensure a prompt and adequate immune response, particularly in patients who are immune-suppressed or who have not received HRIG. Serology should be used to confirm an adequate response to PEP when treatment is delayed or where a concurrent
Helb, Danica A; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Felgner, Philip L; Skinner, Jeff; Hubbard, Alan; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Kamya, Moses R; Beeson, James G; Tappero, Jordan; Smith, David L; Crompton, Peter D; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Drakeley, Christopher J; Greenhouse, Bryan
Tools to reliably measure Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) exposure in individuals and communities are needed to guide and evaluate malaria control interventions. Serologic assays can potentially produce precise exposure estimates at low cost; however, current approaches based on responses to a few characterized antigens are not designed to estimate exposure in individuals. Pf-specific antibody responses differ by antigen, suggesting that selection of antigens with defined kinetic profiles will improve estimates of Pf exposure. To identify novel serologic biomarkers of malaria exposure, we evaluated responses to 856 Pf antigens by protein microarray in 186 Ugandan children, for whom detailed Pf exposure data were available. Using data-adaptive statistical methods, we identified combinations of antibody responses that maximized information on an individual's recent exposure. Responses to three novel Pf antigens accurately classified whether an individual had been infected within the last 30, 90, or 365 d (cross-validated area under the curve = 0.86-0.93), whereas responses to six antigens accurately estimated an individual's malaria incidence in the prior year. Cross-validated incidence predictions for individuals in different communities provided accurate stratification of exposure between populations and suggest that precise estimates of community exposure can be obtained from sampling a small subset of that community. In addition, serologic incidence predictions from cross-sectional samples characterized heterogeneity within a community similarly to 1 y of continuous passive surveillance. Development of simple ELISA-based assays derived from the successful selection strategy outlined here offers the potential to generate rich epidemiologic surveillance data that will be widely accessible to malaria control programs.
El-Kholy, Amany Aly; El-Rachidi, Nevine Gamal El-din; El-Enany, Mervat Gaber; AbdulRahman, Eiman Mohammed; Mohamed, Reem Mostafa; Rizk, Hussien Hasan
Conventional diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is based mainly on culture-dependent methods that may fail because of antibiotic therapy or fastidious microorganisms. We aimed to evaluate the added values of serological and molecular methods for diagnosis of infective endocarditis. One hundred and fifty-six cases of suspected endocarditis were enrolled in the study. For each patient, three sets of blood culture were withdrawn and serum sample was collected for Brucella, Bartonella and Coxiella burnetii antibody testing. Galactomannan antigen was added if fungal endocarditis was suspected. Broad range PCR targeting bacterial and fungal pathogens were done on blood culture bottles followed by sequencing. Culture and molecular studies were done on excised valve tissue when available. One hundred and thirty-two cases were diagnosed as definite IE. Causative organisms were detected by blood cultures in 40 (30.3 %) of cases. Blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) represented 69.7 %. Of these cases, PCR followed by sequencing on blood and valvular tissue could diagnose five cases of Aspergillus flavus. Eleven patients with BCNE (8.3 %) were diagnosed as zoonotic endocarditis by serology and PCR including five cases of Brucella spp, four cases of Bartonella spp and two cases of Coxiella burnetii. PCR detected three cases of Brucella spp and two cases of Bartonella spp, while cases of Coxiella burnetii were PCR negative. The results of all diagnostic tools decreased the percentage of non-identified cases of BCNE from 69.7 to 49.2 %. Our data underline the role of serologic and molecular tools for the diagnosis of blood culture-negative endocarditis.
Rodak, L; Smid, B; Valicek, L; Jurak, E [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)
Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples using ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC.
Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.; Jurak, E.
Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples usiOg ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC. (B.S.)
Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian
was a specific and sensitive method for detecting specific antibodies, and may be a good alternative to the existing serological tests for L intracellularis. It may be usable for diagnosis of proliferative enteropathy and for determination of a herd's epidemiologic status....... experimentally infected pigs and 62 serum samples from naturally infected pigs the sensitivity of the ELISA was calculated to 98.0%. The specificity of the test was 99.3%, calculated on the basis of 273 serum samples collected in six herds free of L. intracellularis after medicated eradication. The novel ELISA...
Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory
Full Text Available The electronic structure characteristics of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias are studied using first-principles density functional theory. The unique wire-like structure leads to distinct spatial distribution of carriers, which can be tailored by applying tensile and compressive strains, as well as by an electric bias. Our results indicate that the combined effect of strain and electric bias leads to tunable electronic structures that can be used for piezo-electric devices.
Full Text Available The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL remains challenging, due to the limited sensitivity of microscopy, the poor performance of serological methods in immunocompromised patients and the lack of standardization of molecular tests. The aim of this study was to implement a combined diagnostic workflow by integrating serological and molecular tests with standardized clinical criteria. Between July 2013 and June 2015, the proposed workflow was applied to specimens obtained from 94 in-patients with clinical suspicion of VL in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy. Serological tests and molecular techniques were employed. Twenty-one adult patients (22% had a confirmed diagnosis of VL by clinical criteria, serology and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction; 4 of these patients were HIV-positive. Molecular tests exhibited higher sensitivity than serological tests for the diagnosis of VL. In our experience, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was insufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for the diagnosis of VL caused by L. infantum in Italy. However, as molecular tests are yet not standardized, further studies are required to identify an optimal screening test for Mediterranean VL.
Tipu, Hamid Nawaz; Bashir, Muhammad Mukarram; Noman, Muhammad
Serology and DNA techniques are employed for Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) typing in different transplant centers. Results may not always correlate well and may need retyping with different technique. All the patients (with aplastic anemia, thalassemia, and immunodeficiency) and their donors, requiring HLA typing for bone marrow transplant were enrolled in the study. Serological HLA typing was done by complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity while DNA-based typing was done with sequence specific primers (SSP). Serology identified 167 HLA A and 165 HLA B antigens while SSP in same samples identified 181 HLA A and 184 HLA B alleles. A11 and B51 were the commonest antigens/alleles by both methods. There were a total of 21 misreads and 32 dropouts on serology, for both HLA A and B loci with HLA A32, B52 and B61 being the most ambiguous antigens. Inherent limitations of serological techniques warrant careful interpretation or use of DNA-based methods for resolution of ambiguous typing.
Márcia M Ferreira-Silva
Full Text Available Epidemiological screening combined with serological tests has become an important tool at blood banks for the characterization of donors with or without Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Thus, the objective of the present study was to describe the sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of blood donors with non-negative serology for T. cruzito determine possible risk factors associated with serological ineligibility. Sociodemographic and epidemiological data were collected by analysis of patient histories and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively using absolute and relative frequencies and odds ratio (OR evaluation. The frequency of serological ineligibility was 0.28%, with a predominance of inconclusive reactions (52% and seropositivity among first-time donors (OR = 607, donors older than 30 years (OR = 3.7, females (OR = 1.9, donors from risk areas (OR = 4 and subjects living in rural areas (OR = 1.7. The risk of seropositivity was higher among donors who had contact with the triatomine vector (OR = 11.7 and those with a family history of Chagas disease (OR = 4.8. The results demonstrate the value of detailed clinical-epidemiological screening as an auxiliary tool for serological definition that, together with more specific and more sensitive laboratory methods, will guarantee a higher efficacy in the selection of donors at blood centres.
Ortalli, Margherita; Attard, Luciano; Vanino, Elisa; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Rossini, Giada; Cagarelli, Roberto; Pierro, Anna; Billi, Patrizia; Mastroianni, Antonio; Di Cesare, Simona; Codeluppi, Mauro; Franceschini, Erica; Melchionda, Fraia; Gramiccia, Marina; Scalone, Aldo; Gentilomi, Giovanna A.; Landini, Maria P.
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains challenging, due to the limited sensitivity of microscopy, the poor performance of serological methods in immunocompromised patients and the lack of standardization of molecular tests. The aim of this study was to implement a combined diagnostic workflow by integrating serological and molecular tests with standardized clinical criteria. Between July 2013 and June 2015, the proposed workflow was applied to specimens obtained from 94 in-patients with clinical suspicion of VL in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy. Serological tests and molecular techniques were employed. Twenty-one adult patients (22%) had a confirmed diagnosis of VL by clinical criteria, serology and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction; 4 of these patients were HIV-positive. Molecular tests exhibited higher sensitivity than serological tests for the diagnosis of VL. In our experience, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was insufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for the diagnosis of VL caused by L. infantum in Italy. However, as molecular tests are yet not standardized, further studies are required to identify an optimal screening test for Mediterranean VL. PMID:28832646
Mahapatra, Mana; Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; Paton, D J; Srinivasan, V A; Parida, Satya
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Van Parys Alexander
Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.
Voronina, Olga L.; Kunda, Marina S.; Aksenova, Ekaterina I.; Ryzhova, Natalia N.; Semenov, Andrey N.; Petrov, Evgeny M.; Didenko, Lubov V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Ananyina, Yuliya V.; Gintsburg, Alexandr L.
Background and Aim. Leptospira, the causal agent of leptospirosis, has been isolated from the environment, patients, and wide spectrum of animals in Russia. However, the genetic diversity of Leptospira in natural and anthropurgic foci was not clearly defined. Methods. The recent MLST scheme was used for the analysis of seven pathogenic species. 454 pyrosequencing technology was the base of the whole genome sequencing (WGS). Results. The most wide spread and prevalent Leptospira species in Russia were L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii. Five STs, common for Russian strains: 37, 17, 199, 110, and 146, were identified as having a longtime and ubiquitous distribution in various geographic areas. Unexpected properties were revealed for the environmental Leptospira strain Bairam-Ali. WGS of this strain genome suggested that it combined the features of the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains and may be a reservoir of the natural resistance genes. Results of the comparative analysis of rrs and rpoB genes and MLST loci for different Leptospira species strains and phenotypic and serological properties of the strain Bairam-Ali suggested that it represented separate Leptospira species. Conclusions. Thus, the natural and anthropurgic foci supported ubiquitous Leptospira species and the pool of genes important for bacterial adaptivity to various conditions. PMID:25276806
Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael
Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.
... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...
Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.
Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth
There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.
Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan
Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.
Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian
This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...
Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)
This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)
Harrington, C.S.; On, Stephen L.W.
Phylogenetic relationships of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies were examined by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequence similarities among C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains exceeded 99.0 %, but values among C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strains ranged from 96...... of the genus Campylobacter, emphasizing the need for multiple strain analysis when using 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons for taxonomic investigations........4 to 100 %. Sequence similarites between strains representing the two different subspecies ranged from 95.7 to 99.0 %. An intervening sequence was identified in certain of the C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains. C. hyointestinalis strains occupied two distinct branches in a phylogenetic analysis...
Fening, Joseph Opoku
This study reports investigation of the biodiversity of bradyrhizobia isolates that nodulate cowpea in Ghanaian soils. As a prelude, some components of nitrogen fixation of cowpea in the various soils were examined through: (1) assessment of the natural nodulation of 45 cowpea cultivars in 20 soils sampled from 5 ecozones (coastal savanna, tain forest, semi deciduous forest, forest savanna transition and guinea savanna), (2) determination of the numbers of bradyrhizobial isolates in the soils and (3) determination of the response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilization. The results of the ability of 45 cowpea cultivars to nodulate naturally in different soil types showed large variability among the cultivars. Counts of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population in the soils showed that most of the soils in Ghana harbour large populations of bradyrhizobia (in the range of 0.6 x 10 to 31 x 10 3 ) capable of nodulating cowpea. Response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilizer differed in the different soils. In general all the cultivars showed significant responses to increasing levels of nitrogen, an indication that nitrogen fixation was not supplying the plants with all the external nitrogen required for maximum yield. A combination of morpho-physiological and molecular analysis was used to assess the diversity of the bradyrhizobia isolates. A total of 100 isolates were assessed. The results of the morpho physiological analysis indicated that cowpea is nodulated by both fast and slow growing rhizobia. The results also showed that the isolates were versatile and could survive under different soil conditions particularly acidity and salt stress. A cross inoculation study of the isolates with nine legume species produced seven major groupings with 28 subgroups based on distinct nodulation patterns. Results of the serology (ELISA) assay indicated that only a small fraction of the isolates reacted strongly with antisera of each other. The greater proportion showed no cross reactivity
Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fevers (HF caused by viruses and bacteria are a major public health problem in China and characterized by variable clinical manifestations, such that it is often difficult to achieve accurate diagnosis and treatment. The causes of HF in 85 patients admitted to Dandong hospital, China, between 2011-2012 were determined by serological and PCR tests. Of these, 34 patients were diagnosed with Huaiyangshan hemorrhagic fever (HYSHF, 34 with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS, one with murine typhus, and one with scrub typhus. Etiologic agents could not be determined in the 15 remaining patients. Phylogenetic analyses of recovered bacterial and viral sequences revealed that the causative infectious agents were closely related to those described in other geographical regions. As these diseases have no distinctive clinical features in their early stage, only 13 patients were initially accurately diagnosed. The distinctive clinical features of HFRS and HYSHF developed during disease progression. Enlarged lymph nodes, cough, sputum, and diarrhea were more common in HYSHF patients, while more HFRS cases presented with headache, sore throat, oliguria, percussion pain kidney area, and petechiae. Additionally, HYSHF patients displayed significantly lower levels of white blood cells (WBC, higher levels of creations kinase (CK and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, while HFRS patients presented with an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CREA. These clinical features will assist in the accurate diagnosis of both HYSHF and HFRS. Overall, our data reveal the complexity of pathogens causing HFs in a single Chinese hospital, and highlight the need for accurate early diagnosis and a better understanding of their distinctive clinical features.
Blanco, Silvia; Fuenzalida, Loreto; Bas, Albert; Prat, Cristina; Ramírez, Aida; Matas, Lurdes; Rodrigo, Carlos; Ausina, Vicente
Two commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (a real-time PCR [Cepheid] and an oligochromatographic test [Speed-oligo]) and 1 serology test (Serodia-Myco II) for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum samples were studied. Among the 145 samples, 32 serum pairs were serologically positive for M. pneumoniae. Of these, in 30 nasopharyngeal aspirates, M. pneumoniae was detected using the real-time PCR assay and 25 using Speed-oligo, corresponding to a sensitivity of 93.7% and 78.1%, respectively. Among the 94 samples with negative serology, we only obtained 1 positive result by real-time PCR assay. In the group of samples from healthy children, no positive results were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Indriani Dalimunthe, Cici; Tistama, Radite; Wahyuni, Sri
The Conventional detection of White Root Disease (Rigidoporus microporus, WRD) still uses the visual method based on an abnormal color of leaf or mycelium growth on the tap root neck. The method was less effective and less efficient. The serological technique uses yolk chicken antibodies induced by immunization with mycelium extract. The purpose of this research was to examine the consistency of selected antibodies in detecting root fungi at various soil types in the rubber plantations. This research used a Completely Randomized Design non-factorial with twelve (12) treatments and two (2) replications. The results showed that the antibodies could detect WRD in various soils types. The serological detection was higher precisely than visual observation. The development of WRD mycelium varies depending on the soil types and it was different in the each estate area. In addition, this research is expected to get a serology kit to detect early symptoms of WRD in the rubber plants.
Drew, M L; Jessup, D A; Burr, A A; Franti, C E
A retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in California from 1977 to 1989 was done. Samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to Brucella spp. Twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (Sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (Ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) blacktail deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) samples were considered reactors. Suspect serologic reactions occurred in three of 619 (0.5%) desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and one of 355 (0.3%) California mule deer samples. Brucellosis is not considered an important wildlife health problem in California except in feral swine.
Bousema, Teun; Youssef, Randa M; Cook, Jackie; Cox, Jonathan; Alegana, Victor A; Amran, Jamal; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris
Areas in which malaria is not highly endemic are suitable for malaria elimination, but assessing transmission is difficult because of lack of sensitivity of commonly used methods. We evaluated serologic markers for detecting variation in malaria exposure in Somalia. Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax was not detected by microscopy in cross-sectional surveys of samples from persons during the dry (0/1,178) and wet (0/1,128) seasons. Antibody responses against P. falciparum or P. vivax were detected in 17.9% (179/1,001) and 19.3% (202/1,044) of persons tested. Reactivity against P. falciparum was significantly different between 3 villages (p<0.001); clusters of seroreactivity were present. Distance to the nearest seasonal river was negatively associated with P. falciparum (p = 0.028) and P. vivax seroreactivity (p = 0.016). Serologic markers are a promising tool for detecting spatial variation in malaria exposure and evaluating malaria control efforts in areas where transmission has decreased to levels below the detection limit of microscopy.
E. V. Vasilyeva
Full Text Available Abstract. The four chimeric recombinant antigens CBD-CFP10, CBD-ESAT6, ESAT6-CFP10 and CBD-P38 contained aminoacid sequences of full-size proteins ESAT6, CFP10 and matured protein P38 of M. tuberculosis, joined with aminoacid sequences of cellulose bind domain of endogluconase A (CBD from Cellumonas fimi have been obtained by gene engineering methods. Recombinant proteins were purified by affine chromatography in column with Ni-NTA-sepharose 6В-CL and as PPDN-3 were used for detection of their antigenic activity in indirect ELISA for TB serological diagnostics. The sera from patients with lung tuberculosis (n = 321, from persons who had professional contacts with TB patients (n = 42, from healthy blood donors (n = 366 and from patients with lung diseases of non-TB etiology were tested. It was detected that there was positive correlation between antibodies level for all studied antigens compared by pair. It has been demonstrated that although antigens were different by antigenic and immunobiological characteristics they add each other in the content of antigenic diagnostics compositions. Thus, all these antigens can be used in the test kits for serological diagnostics of TB. Using of these antigens will allow to detect persons infected by TB and patients with active tuberculosis.
Gulseren, Duygu; Süzük-Yıldız, Serap; Çelebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk
Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans. We aimed to evaluate clinical findings and risk factors of patients with cutaneous anthrax infection and report anti-lethal factor (LF) IgG and anti-protective antigen (PA) IgG titers in the serologic diagnosis of disease. In this study, serum samples of 18 cutaneous anthrax patients were collected and anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twelve (67%) males and 6 (33%) females, with a mean age of 36.06 ± 16.58 years were included in the study. Risk factors identified in the patient population studied were slaughtering (28%), flaying (56%), chopping meat (67%), burying diseased animal corpses (17%) and milking (6%) livestock. Black eschar formation (94%), pruritus (78%) and painful lymphadenopathy (61%) were first three common clinical signs and symptoms, respectively. Fourteen (78%) patients produced a positive IgG response against PA, 11 (61%) patients produced against LF. Three (17%) patients had no response to either antigen. A detailed history of contact with sick animals or animal products along with clinical findings should be taken at the first step for the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax infection. Serologic detection of anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG with ELISA may be useful auxillary method for establishing the diagnosis.
Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela D; Seetulsingh-Goorah, Sharmila P
The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; ppoor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.
Susheela D Biranjia-Hurdoyal
Full Text Available The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit.Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%, followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%. The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value.The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.
Coller, Kelly E; Butler, Emily K; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Rodgers, Mary A; Cassidy, Michael; Gersch, Jeffrey; McNamara, Anne L; Kuhns, Mary C; Dawson, George J; Kaptue, Lazare; Bremer, Birgit; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cloherty, Gavin A
Worldwide, an estimated 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected people are coinfected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV infection leads to increased mortality over HBV mono-infection, yet HDV diagnostics are not widely available. Prototype molecular (RNA) and serologic (IgG) assays were developed for high-throughput testing on the Abbott m2000 and ARCHITECT systems, respectively. RNA detection was achieved through amplification of a ribozyme region target, with a limit of detection of 5 IU/ml. The prototype serology assay (IgG) was developed using peptides derived from HDV large antigen (HDAg), and linear epitopes were further identified by peptide scan. Specificity of an HBV negative population was 100% for both assays. A panel of 145 HBsAg positive samples from Cameroon with unknown HDV status was tested using both assays: 16 (11.0%) had detectable HDV RNA, and 23 (15.7%) were sero-positive including the 16 HDV RNA positive samples. Additionally, an archival serial bleed panel from an HDV superinfected chimpanzee was tested with both prototypes; data was consistent with historic testing data using a commercial total anti-Delta test. Overall, the two prototype assays provide sensitive and specific methods for HDV detection using high throughput automated platforms, allowing opportunity for improved diagnosis of HDV infected patients.
Ayala Vasquez, Mariluz; Gonzalez Jaimes, Paola; Gutierrez, Pablo Andres; Cotes, Jose Miguel; Marin Montoya, Mauricio
Tomato tree (Solanum betaceum) is an andean fruit which, due to its high nutricious value and unique organoleptic properties, has very good potential for industrial processing and international marketing. In Antioquia, Colombia, this crop faces several phytosanitary problems, of which viral infections by species of the Potyvirus genus are the most limiting. In this work, potyvirus incidence levels were evaluated in seven regions of the Antioquia province using the ELISA assay. The taxomical identity of two potyvirus associated with this crop was also determined. Serological tests demonstrate the overall presence of potyvirus in six regions, with incidence levels above 80%. The only exception was the municipality of Jardin with an incidence of only 8%. Serological test specific to PVY virus, revealed its presence in many of the infected plants. DNA sequencing of RTPCR amplicons also showed the presence of a new potyvirus for which we propose the name Tamarillo Leaf Malformation Virus (TaLMV). However, to corroborate this taxonomical hypothesis it is necessary to complete the genome sequence of TaLMV. This research represents an important advance in the knowledge of viruses infecting tomato tree. However, future investigations are required to deepen further into the individual effects of each virus as well as the transmission mechanisms and interactions with different varieties of tomato tree.
Full Text Available Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV, 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV. There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: ‘GF 305’, ‘Tuleu dulce’ and ‘Vânăt de Italia’, have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples.On biological indicator ‘Vânăt de Italia’ and ‘Tuleu dulce’ not appeared symptoms for ‘Centenar’variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on ‘GF 305’ indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by ‘Vânăt de Italia’ biological indicator.
M. A. Lauricella
Full Text Available This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT and hemagglutination test (IHAT were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT and direct agglutination test (DAT were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1 parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134; (2 non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285; (3 dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6; (4 non-infected dogs (n = 56 which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA, one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.
Lo, Shih-Yen; Ku, Chia-Wen; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Li, Yi-Hwei; Yu, Jui-Hung; Lin, Hsien-Hong; Lua, Ahai C; Lee, Ming-Liang
To investigate the prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and compare the serologic responses to various GBV-C/HGV markers in eastern Taiwan aborigines. We used RT-PCR and anti-HGenv u-plate to investigate the prevalence of GBV-C/HGV in eastern Taiwan aborigines. We also used ELISA, dot blot assay, and Western blot to detect the serologic responses to various GBV-C/HGV markers. The prevalence of GBV-C/HGV RNA in the general population of eastern Taiwan aborigines is about 5% (17/317), while 14% (43/317) have anti-E2 antibodies. There were no significant differences in antibody titer against one consensus core peptide (PPSSAAACSRGSPR) between GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -negative sera. Only 23 of 42 serum samples positive in the anti-HGenv u-plate EIA assay were positive (55%) in the dot blot assay. No positive signal was detected by Western blot using either recombinant NS3 or commercial E2 proteins. Antibodies against one consensus core peptide (PPSSAAACSRGSPR) may not constitute a good marker for the detection of GBV-C/HGV viremia. For the detection of anti-E2 antibodies, the anti-HGenv u-plate assay is more sensitive than the dot blot assay. Western blot assay is not a sensitive method for detecting GBV-C/HGV infection.
Guatteo, R; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F
To describe both shedding and serological patterns following abortions detected as being associated with Coxiella burnetii (Cb), 24 cows experiencing an abortion due to Cb were followed over a one month period. Samples taken on the day of abortion (D0) were followed 3-fold by weekly samplings from day 14 (D14) to D28 after the abortion. Milk and vaginal mucus were collected at each weekly sampling and tested using real-time PCR while blood samples were collected 2-fold on D21 and D28 and tested using ELISA. We found a very short duration of C. burnetii shedding in vaginal mucus after abortion, highlighting the need to collect samples as rapidly as possible following an abortion to avoid false negative results. In contrast with previous results, concomitancy of vaginal and mucus shedding was frequent, especially for cows shedding a high bacterial load on DO leading to the hypothesis that the clinical onset of the infection influences the modalities of Cb shedding. Lastly, serological results indicating a lack of sensitivity to detect Cb shedder cows (especially for cows for which Ct values were high) suggest that ELISA is not a useful tool to diagnose abortions at the individual level. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Oliveira, Pérola; de Carvalho, Daniel Rocha; Brandi, Ivar Viana; Pratesi, Riccardo
Comorbidity of celiac disease with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system has been reported since the 1960s. The objective of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of celiac disease in the largest series of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or myelitis. A prevalence study was conducted with patients evaluated at Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals between March 2012 and September 2013. They were previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or idiopathic myelitis. The serum levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were assessed. Of the 379 patients evaluated, 249 (65.70%) were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, 37 (9.56%) with neuromyelitis optica, and 96 (24.54%) with idiopathic myelitis. Two patients (0.53%), one with multiple sclerosis and other with myelitis, tested positive for both antibodies. Our study do not confirm the relationship between celiac serological antibodies with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and inflammatory myelitis of an unknown etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
S. T. BADAR1, M. SIDDIQUE, R. ALI1 AND M. H. RASOOL
Full Text Available A serological survey was conducted to see the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome (EDS virus in breeders and commercial layers in Mansehra district. A total of 50 flocks including broiler breeder (30, layer breeder (10 and commercial layers (10 were surveyed from September, 2002 to March, 2003. Paired serum samples were collected at random from 20 birds in each flock at fortnight interval and screened through haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. In broiler breeders, out of 30 flocks, 12(40% were serologically positive for EDS. In layer breeders and commercial layers, 30 and 20% flocks were found to be seropositive, respectively. On the basis of age, maximum seroprevalence (42.85% was observed in birds between 21-40 weeks of age. The seroprevalence was 33.33% in 1-20 weeks, 26.66% in 41-60 weeks and 25.00 % in 61 weeks and above old birds. No specific clinical signs were observed in all three types of birds. A drop in egg production (22.555% was observed in seropositive flocks along with misshapen soft shelled, shell-less and non-pigmented eggs. Based on these findings, the farmers were advised to vaccinate their flocks against EDS between 14-16 weeks of age using killed adjuvanted vaccines.
Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah
Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.
Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.
The radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH) was performed in 6 women treated with monopausal gonadotropin - because of amenorrhoe. The observations of the course of treatment demonstrated different concentration of LH in women treated because of primary and secondary amenorrhoe. In cases of primary amenorrhoe increase of the LH concentration appeared in the form of ovulation peak being closely correlated with the first injection of Biogonadyl (HCG) preparation. Different observations were made in the secondary amenorrhoe group, where urinary LH increase proceeded for some hours the adminstration of the exogenous chrionic gonadotropin. This may prove the induction of ovulation without the participation of HCG, as an effect of the menopausal gonadotropin (Menogonadyl) with established 1:1 ratio of FSH:LH. In the examined group of women with secondary amenorrhoe the radioimmunologic assay demonstrated persisting through several days high levels of urinary LH - undetectable by serological methods. In 4 cases corpus luteum appeared in the course of treatment - confirmed by cytologic examination and by determination of urainary pregnandiol activity. (author)
Full Text Available The diagnosis of dourine can be difficult because the clinical signs of this disease in horses are similar to those of surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi. Moreover, T. equiperdum and T. evansi are closely related and, so far, they cannot be distinguished using serological tests. In a previous work, the T. equiperdum protein pattern recognized by antibodies from dourine-infected horses and the humoral immune response kinetics were investigated by immunoblotting assay; a total of 20 sera from naturally and experimentally infected horses and from healthy animals were tested. Immunoblotting analysis showed that antibodies from infected horses specifically bind T. equiperdum low molecular weight proteins (from 16 to 35 kDa, which are not recognized by antibodies from uninfected horses. In this work, we tested other 615 sera (7 from naturally infected horses and 608 sera from healthy horses and donkeys: results confirmed the data obtained previously. In addition, six SDS-PAGE bands with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 37 kDa were analyzed by mass spectrometry, in order to identify immunogenic proteins that could be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of dourine. A total of 167 proteins were identified. Among them, 37 were found unique for T. equiperdum. Twenty-four of them could represent possible candidate diagnostic antigens for the development of serological tests specific for T. equiperdum.
Jackson, L M
The cost of providing medical care is ever-increasing but the resources available are at best static. Major savings can be made by reducing inappropriate investigations. Using serological testing for organisms causing atypical pneumonia as an example, we examined the appropriateness of requests and also physicians\\' understanding of the test. Of 119 patients tested, only 3 had titres indicative of acute infection. Most patients were tested within 2 days of hospital admission, before receipt of results excluding more likely diagnoses. Forty-five patients had no current or recent respiratory symptoms, in whom infection was highly unlikely. Titres were most often requested by the least experienced members of the clinical team. Of 70 patients with an acute illness in whom a definitive diagnosis, bacteriological or otherwise, was not made, in only 9 was a convalescent specimen sent for follow-up titres. Most requests for serology for organisms causing atypical pneumonia were inappropriate. Furthermore, in the majority of cases the test was incorrectly used.
Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori occurs in 50% of the world population, and is associated with the development of ulcer and gastric cancer. Serological diagnostic tests indicate an H. pylori infection by detecting antibodies directed against H. pylori proteins. In addition to line blots, multiplex assay platforms provide smart solutions for the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses towards several H. pylori proteins. We used seven H. pylori proteins (FliD, gGT, GroEL, HpaA, CagA, VacA, and HP0231 and an H. pylori lysate for the development of a multiplex serological assay on a novel microfluidic platform. The reaction limited binding regime in the microfluidic channels allows for a short incubation time of 35 min. The developed assay showed very high sensitivity (99% and specificity (100%. Besides sensitivity and specificity, the technical validation (intra-assay CV = 3.7 ± 1.2% and inter-assay CV = 5.5 ± 1.2% demonstrates that our assay is also a robust tool for the analysis of the H. pylori-specific antibody response. The integration of the virulence factors CagA and VacA allow for the assessment of the risk for gastric cancer development. The short assay time and the performance of the platform shows the potential for implementation of such assays in a clinical setting.
Poyraz, Mürüvvet; Matur, Zeliha; Aysal, Fikret; Tüzün, Erdem; Hanoğlu, Lütfü; Öge, A Emre
Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27-65 years old) were investigated. All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain. Antibodies to uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex proteins were found in 2 patients and to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in 1 patient. None of the patients had a tumor. Most of the patients revealed prolonged after-discharges following tibial nerve stimulation. Nerve conduction studies and R-R interval variability tests were normal, whereas sympathetic skin responses were increased in amplitude in 3 seronegative patients. Five patients showed favorable response to carbamazepine or pregabalin treatment, whereas 1 VGKC-antibody-positive patient was resistant to carbamazepine and immunosuppressant treatment. Neuropathic pain and VGKC-complex antibodies may be encountered in CFS patients. Although autonomic symptoms are commonly found in CFS, routine autonomic system tests which are done in electrophysiology laboratories might yield normal results.
Rahman, M.; Akhtar, G.N.; Rashid, S.; Lodhi, Y.
Objective: To assess the risk of transmission of malaria through blood transfusion, and compare efficacy of testing by immuno chromatographic (ICT) devices vis a vis peripheral blood film (PBF). Results: Amongst healthy blood donors we did not find even a single case of malaria and there was no report of persistent post transfusion pyrexia. We are unable to comment on species frequency in blood donors. However, amongst known patients of malaria we found a higher frequency of Plasmodium viax(P.v) as compared to Plasmodium falciparum(P.f). Testing by serological method, helped us to diagnose 5% of our patients who were missed by peripheral blood films. Conclusion: Between properly selected voluntary non-remunerated blood donors the incidence of malaria transmission is zero and the blood is safe for transfusion. Serological testing shows good correlation with peripheral blood film detection. In fact, it can detect the disease even when film detection has been unsuccessful. If proper donor selection criteria are observed there is little risk of transmitting malaria through transfusion. However, as the donor pool in the Service is not necessarily totally the of voluntary non-remunerated donors and substantive numbers of replacement/first time, occasionally uneducated/unaware donors, are being bled, screening for malaria will not be totally unrewarding. (author)
Marcel Gonçalves Maciel
Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.
Demelza Jane Ireland
Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks gestation. Ureaplasma sp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganism in amniotic fluid of preterm pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intraamniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms is key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars and the timing, magnitude and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.
Baptiste, Diouf Jean; Djibril, Diallo; Assane, Sylla; Ngagne, Mbaye; Baly, Ouattara; Ousmane, Ndiaye
As part of its Plan to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, Senegal has adopted, since 2012, WHO's B + option, which consists of systematic triple therapy for HIV-positive pregnant women associated with breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis for their infants. Our study aims to analyze the risks of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the nutritional outcome of infants undergoing B + option. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study at the King Baudouin health center in Guédiaway from 1 September 2012 to 30 April 2015. All infants whose mothers were on triple therapy, undergoing protected breastfeeding, ARV prophylaxis and serological test at 14th months were included in the study. The parameters studied were mother's age and serological profile, father's serological status, the sharing of the status within the couple, infant nourishing, infant ARV prophylaxis, nutritional status at 6 and 12 months and serological status of the infant at 14 months. Out of the 126 infants undergoing PMTCT program, 42 or 33.33% of infants following the B + guidelines were included in the study. The age of mothers ranged from 15 to 42 years, with an average age of 31 years. The majority of mothers (88.1%) carried type 1 virus and 11.9% carried type 2 virus; 20 couples (47.62%) were sero-concordant, 14 were serodifferent, while the serological status was unknown or not investigated in 8 fathers (19.05%). A significant difference between fathers' serological profile and the sharing status (p option is an effective strategy to reduce the MTCT rate. However, early malnutrition in children requires nutritional support for breastfeeding mothers as well as a good psychosocial support.
Dorny, P; Dermauw, V; Van Hul, A; Trevisan, C; Gabriël, S
Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonosis included in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases. Accurate diagnostic tools for humans and pigs are needed to monitor intervention outcomes. Currently used diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis all have drawbacks. Serological tests are mainly confronted with problems of specificity. More specifically, circulating antigen detecting tests cross-react with Taenia hydatigena and the possibility of transient antigens as a result of aborted infections is suspected. Furthermore, the hypothesis has been raised that hatched ingested eggs of other Taenia species may lead to a transient antibody response or to the presence of circulating antigen detectable by serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. Here we describe the results of a study that consisted of oral administration of Taenia saginata eggs to five piglets followed by serological testing during five weeks and necropsy aiming at studying possible cross reactions in serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. The infectivity of the eggs was verified by in vitro hatching and by experimental infection of a calf. One piglet developed acute respiratory disease and died on day 6 post infection. The remaining four piglets did not show any clinical signs until euthanasia. None of the serum samples from four piglets collected between days 0 and 35 post infection gave a positive reaction in the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and in a commercial Western blot for antibody detection. In conclusion, this study showed that experimental exposure of four pigs to T. saginata eggs did not result in positive serologies for T. solium. These results may help interpreting serological results in monitoring of T. solium control programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natale, A; Bucci, G; Capello, K; Barberio, A; Tavella, A; Nardelli, S; Marangon, S; Ceglie, L
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the complement fixation test (CFT) with respect to ELISA for the serological diagnosis of Q fever and to assess the role of serology as a tool for the identification of the shedder status. During 2009-2010, sera from 9635 bovines and 3872 small ruminants (3057 goats and 815 sheep) were collected and analyzed with CFT and ELISA. In addition, 2256 bovine, 139 caprine and 72 ovine samples (individual and bulk tank milk samples, fetuses, vaginal swabs and placentae) were analyzed with a real-time PCR kit. The relative sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CFT with respect to ELISA were Se 26.56% and Sp 99.71% for cattle and Se 9.96% and Sp 99.94% for small ruminants. To evaluate the correlation between serum-positive status and shedder status, the ELISA, CFT and real-time PCR results were compared. Due to the sampling method and the data storage system, the analysis of individual associations between the serological and molecular tests was possible only for some of the bovine samples. From a statistical point of view, no agreement was observed between the serological and molecular results obtained for fetus and vaginal swab samples. Slightly better agreement was observed between the serological and molecular results obtained for the individual milk samples and between the serological (at least one positive in the examined group) and molecular results for the bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. The CFT results exhibited a better correlation with the shedder status than did the ELISA results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod
and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...
Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.
The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…
Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao
In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…
David W Dowdy
Full Text Available Undiagnosed and misdiagnosed tuberculosis (TB drives the epidemic in India. Serological (antibody detection TB tests are not recommended by any agency, but widely used in many countries, including the Indian private sector. The cost and impact of using serology compared with other diagnostic techniques is unknown.Taking a patient cohort conservatively equal to the annual number of serological tests done in India (1.5 million adults suspected of having active TB, we used decision analysis to estimate costs and effectiveness of sputum smear microscopy (US$3.62 for two smears, microscopy plus automated liquid culture (mycobacterium growth indicator tube [MGIT], US$20/test, and serological testing (anda-tb ELISA, US$20/test. Data on test accuracy and costs were obtained from published literature. We adopted the perspective of the Indian TB control sector and an analysis frame of 1 year. Our primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted. We performed one-way sensitivity analysis on all model parameters, with multiway sensitivity analysis on variables to which the model was most sensitive. If used instead of sputum microscopy, serology generated an estimated 14,000 more TB diagnoses, but also 121,000 more false-positive diagnoses, 102,000 fewer DALYs averted, and 32,000 more secondary TB cases than microscopy, at approximately four times the incremental cost (US$47.5 million versus US$11.9 million. When added to high-quality sputum smears, MGIT culture was estimated to avert 130,000 incremental DALYs at an incremental cost of US$213 per DALY averted. Serology was dominated by (i.e., more costly and less effective than MGIT culture and remained less economically favorable than sputum smear or TB culture in one-way and multiway sensitivity analyses.In India, sputum smear microscopy remains the most cost-effective diagnostic test available for active TB; efforts to increase access to quality-assured microscopy
Christensen, N H
To investigate the serological status of Old English Game (OEG) cockerels for a range of infectious diseases of poultry. Standard methods were used to screen serum collected from approximately 200 birds during routine dubbing operations, in 2004 and 2005. There was no serological evidence of infection with Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, or Salmonella Pullorum. Antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis (AE) virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were detected. The disease status of OEG birds is similar to that of commercial poultry.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is considered as an emerging foodborne pathogen. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize virulent strains of Cronobacter sakazakii from food samples of Bangladesh. RESULT: Six (6 Cronobacter sakazakii was isolated and identified from 54 food samples on the basis of biochemical characteristics, sugar fermentation, SDS-PAGE of whole cell protein, plasmid profile and PCR of Cronobacter spp. specific genes (esak, gluA, zpx, ompA, ERIC, BOX-AIR and sequencing. These strains were found to have moderately high antibiotic resistance against common antibiotics and some are ESBL producer. Most of the C. sakazakii isolates were capable of producing biofilm (strong biofilm producer, extracellular protease and siderophores, curli expression, haemolysin, haemagglutinin, mannose resistant haemagglutinin, had high cell surface hydrophobicity, significant resistance to human serum, can tolerate high concentration of salt, bile and DNase production. Most of them produced enterotoxins of different molecular weight. The isolates pose significant serological cross-reactivity with other gram negative pathogens such as serotypes of Salmonella spp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. They had significant tolerance to high temperature, low pH, dryness and osmotic stress. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be given in ensuring hygiene in production and post-processing to prevent contamination of food with such stress-tolerant virulent Cronobacter sakazakii.
Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea
The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations
Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Jae-Hyung
Prevotella intermedia has long been known to be as the principal etiologic agent of periodontal diseases and associated with various systemic diseases. Previous studies showed that the intra-species difference exists in capacity of biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and serological reaction among P. intermedia strains. Here we report the genome sequence of P. intermedia SUNY aB G8-9K-3 (designated ATCC49046) that displays a relatively high antimicrobial resistant and biofilm-forming capacity. Genome sequencing information provides important clues in understanding the genetic bases of phenotypic differences among P. intermedia strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nazipi, Seven; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kristian; Scavenius, Carsten
Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study......, we identified the HYL of P. acnes and investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Investigations include the generation of a P. acneshyl knockout mutant and HYL activity assays to determine the substrate range and formed products. We found that P. acnes employs two distinct variants...... of the observed differences between P. acnes phylotype IA and IB/II strains. Whereas type IA strains are primarily found on the skin surface and associated with acne vulgaris, type IB/II strains are more often associated with soft and deep tissue infections, which would require elaborate tissue invasion...
A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...