WorldWideScience

Sample records for series nuclides annual

  1. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  2. U-Th series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of U and Th series nuclides is being conducted on sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Uranium concentrations as a function of depth have been determined, as well as changes in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. The geochemical behavior of uranium in shelf sediments is discussed

  3. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, A. van der.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes the analytical and technical procedures that are required for routine application of both the 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium dating method for peat and the 210 Pb dating method for lake sediments. Its principal aim is to test, refine and discuss the reliability and validity of these methods. On the other hand, the analytical procedures that were introduced open a wide range of other interesting fields of research that are not necessarily restricted to geological problems only. Chapter 5 reports an obviously not foreseen application: detection of alpha emitting nuclides released in the first weeks of May, 1986 during the accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR. 128 refs.; 43 figs.; 15 tabs

  4. Geochemical behaviour of natural uranium-series nuclides in geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Recent research and investigation show that the Tono uranium deposit and its natural uranium-series nuclides have been preserved, without any significant changes like re-migration or reconcentration, throughout geological events such as upheaval-submergence, marine transgression-regression, and faulting which can readily change geological, hydrogeological, and geochemical conditions. This situation might have come about as a result of being kept in a geometrical closure system, with reducing and milk alkalic geochemical conditions, from the hydrogeological and geochemical point of view. (author)

  5. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in erupting magmas from Izu arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Jun; Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive disequilibria among U-series nuclides are observed in the magmas from volcanoes in the world. Basaltic products from Izu arc volcanoes, including Izu-Oshima and Fuji volcanoes, show 230 Th 238 U and 226 Ra> 230 Th disequilibria, indicating that the addition of U-and Ra-rich fluid from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at the magma genesis. The disequilibria of 226 Ra> 230 Th in the erupting magmas suggest that the timescale from magma genesis to the eruption may be less than 8000 years. (author)

  6. The oceanic chemistry of the U- and Th-series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: input and removal of U- and Th-series nuclides in the oceans; uranium (input to the oceans; in the coastal ocean; in the open ocean; in sediment pore water; removal from the oceans; sources and sinks of 234 U in the oceans); thorium (scavenging in the deep sea; 230 Th and 231 Pa balance; removal from the coastal and surface ocean); Ra-226 and Ra-228; radon (in surface waters; near bottom 222 Rn as a tracer for vertical mixing); lead-210; polonium-210. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of mass transport property using natural uranium-series and thorium-series nuclides in the Toki Granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Katsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host crystalline rock at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. The project proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation Phase', 'Phase II: Construction Phase' and 'Phase III: Operation Phase'. As a part of the Phase III investigation, the mass transport property has been evaluated by using natural uranium-series and thorium-series nuclides in the Toki Granite. In this report, the compilation of existing data and preliminary evaluation was carried out. (author)

  8. The behavior of U- and Th-series nuclides in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, D.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater has long been an active area of research driven by its importance both as a societal resource and as a component in the global hydrological cycle. Key issues in groundwater research include inferring rates of transport of chemical constituents, determining the ages of groundwater, and tracing water masses using chemical fingerprints. While information on the trace elements pertinent to these topics can be obtained from aquifer tests using experimentally introduced tracers, and from laboratory experiments on aquifer materials, these studies are necessarily limited in time and space. Regional studies of aquifers can focus on greater scales and time periods, but must contend with greater complexities and variations. In this regard, the isotopic systematics of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the U- and Th- decay series have been invaluable in investigating aquifer behavior of U, Th, and Ra. These nuclides are present in all groundwaters and are each represented by several isotopes with very different half-lives, so that processes occurring over a range of time-scales can be studied (Table 1⇓). Within the host aquifer minerals, the radionuclides in each decay series are generally expected to be in secular equilibrium and so have equal activities (see Bourdon et al. 2003). In contrast, these nuclides exhibit strong relative fractionations within the surrounding groundwaters that reflect contrasting behavior during release into the water and during interaction with the surrounding host aquifer rocks. Radionuclide data can be used, within the framework of models of the processes involved, to obtain quantitative assessments of radionuclide release from aquifer rocks and groundwater migration rates. The isotopic variations that are generated also have the potential for providing fingerprints for groundwaters from specific aquifer environments, and have even been explored as a means for calculating groundwater ages.

  9. Analyses of uranium series nuclides by alpha spectrometer on the uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismawati, T.

    2000-01-01

    The research is one of the program which was planned by PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation). In this research the analyses of the uranium series nuclide of rock samples from uranium Tono deposit, Japan have been carried out. The 17 samples were collected from Tsukiyoshi Fault, at Gallery X on Shaft 2 consist of granite, sedimentary rocks and fault area. The aim of the research is to determine the area of U accumulation, equilibrium and leaching. The samples were treated by chemical reagent, separated by ion exchange resin and extracted by organic compounds. The uranium and thorium were deposited on the stainless steel plate surface by the electrolysis process. The activity of uranium and thorium was determined by alpha spectrometer. From the analyses data have been obtained that shows that the maximum activity of 238 U is 3.6798±0.1873 Bq/g, activity 234 U is 3.5450±0.1805 Bq/g and activity 230 Th is 3.6720±0.1868 Bq/g. The ratio figure 234 U/ 238 U versus 2 34 U / 2 30 T h has been drawn. As the conclusion, 6 samples point (No.3, 5, 8, 11, 13 and 16) lied in or on the boundary of the uranium accumulation area, 7 samples (No. 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17) are very close to the equilibrium position, 4 points (No. 1, 2, 7, and 14) in the leaching process. (author)

  10. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study of the behavior of nuclides in natural water systems is divided into studies of atmospheric aerosols, soils, groundwater, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones, the carbon cycle and the growth rates of marine organisms

  11. Atmospheric dust contribution to budget of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles. The Mount Cameroon volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F. J.; Innocent, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles is developed today for constraining time scale of soil and weathering profile formation (e.g., Chabaux et al., 2008). These studies require the understanding of U-series nuclides sources and fractionation in weathering systems. For most of these studies the impact of aeolian inputs on U-series nuclides in soils is usually neglected. Here, we propose to discuss such an assumption, i.e., to evaluate the impact of dust deposition on U-series nuclides in soils, by working on present and paleo-soils collected on the Mount Cameroon volcano. Recent Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic analyses performed on these samples have indeed documented significant inputs of Saharan dusts in these soils (Dia et al., 2006). We have therefore analyzed 238U-234U-230Th nuclides in the same samples. Comparison of U-Th isotopic data with Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data indicates a significant impact of the dust input on the U and Th budget of the soils, around 10% for both U and Th. Using Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of Saharan dusts given by Dia et al. (2006) we estimate U-Th concentrations and U-Th isotope ratios of dusts compatible with U-Th data obtained on Saharan dusts collected in Barbados (Rydell H.S. and Prospero J.M., 1972). However, the variations of U/Th ratios along the weathering profiles cannot be explained by a simple mixing scenario between material from basalt and from the defined atmospheric dust pool. A secondary uranium migration associated with chemical weathering has affected the weathering profiles. Mass balance calculation suggests that U in soils from Mount Cameroon is affected at the same order of magnitude by both chemical migration and dust accretion. Nevertheless, the Mount Cameroon is a limit case were large dust inputs from continental crust of Sahara contaminate basaltic terrain from Mount Cameroon volcano. Therefore, this study suggests that in other contexts were dust inputs are lower, or the bedrocks more concentrated in U and Th

  12. Uranium and thorium nuclides series determined in medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Francisconi, L.; Damatto, S. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years the study of medicinal plants has become the focus of ever more extensive research all over the world due to their diversity and potential as source of medicinal products. According to the World Health Organization approximately 80% of world population makes use of medicinal herbs due to their believed therapeutic action. Besides being used as medicine, medicinal plants are also largely used as dietary supplements. The presence of radionuclides in plants constitutes one of the main pathways for their transfer to man. The amount of radioactive nuclides from U and Th series in edible vegetables are relatively well known since they have been the main concern of research conducted worldwide. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have been neglected in these studies, possibly because the ingestion of radioactive material through their consumption has not been recognized or was considered insignificant. The objective of the present study was to determine the content of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in 25 species of medicinal plants used in Brazil, both as medicine and as dietary supplement. The medicinal plant samples were obtained in specialized pharmacies and drugstores. The raw plant and their extracts, produced as recommended by the National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses for the determination of U and Th and by Total Alpha and Beta Counting after Radiochemical Separation for determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. In the raw plants the activity concentrations varied from 0,08 Bq kg{sup -1} to 8,0 Bq kg{sup -1} for thorium, from < LID to 22 Bq kg{sup -1} for uranium, from 1,8 Bq kg{sup -1} to 12 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 33 Bq kg{sup -1} to 74 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and from 10 Bq kg{sup -1} to 120 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. In the extracts, the activity concentrations varied from 9 mBq kg{sup -1} to 137 mBq kg{sup -1} for Th

  13. U- and Th-series nuclides in settling particles: implications to sediment transport through surface waters and interior ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal is a unique ocean basin receiving large quantities of fresh water and sediment supply from several rivers draining the Indian subcontinent. The annual flux of suspended sediments discharged into the Bay of Bengal is one billion tons, about one-tenth of the global sediment discharge into the ocean. The water and sediment discharge to the Bay, show significant seasonal variation, with maximum transport coinciding with the SW-monsoon (July-September). Earlier studies on the distribution of clay minerals in sediments have led to the suggestion that the sediments of the western Bengal Fan are mainly derived from the Peninsular rivers, whereas rest of the Fan sediments is influenced by the Himalayan rivers. Settling fluxes of particulate matter through the water column of the Bay of Bengal show seasonal trends resulting from monsoon enhanced sediment supply via rivers and biological processes in the water column. It is, thus, important to understand the influence of the seasonally varying particle fluxes on the solute-particle interactions and chemical scavenging processes in the surface and deep waters of the Bay of Bengal. In this context, measurements of U- and Th-series nuclides in the settling particles are most relevant. The radionuclide fluxes ( 230 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in the settling particles provide insight into the role of their removal by vertical particle flux and/or lateral transport (removal at the ocean boundaries). A study carried out in the Northern Bay of Bengal documents that the authigenic flux of 230 Th, as measured in sediment trap samples from deep waters, is balanced by its production in the overhead water column. The sediment mass flux, Al and 228 Th fluxes are similar in the settling particles through shallow and deep waters, suggesting predominant removal by vertical particle flux in the North Bay of Bengal. In the Central Bay, particulate mass, Al and 228 Th fluxes are higher in the trap material from deep waters relative

  14. 238U decay series nuclides in the northeastern Arabian Sea: scavenging rates and cycling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Ramesh, R.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    1994-01-01

    The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between 234 Th- 238 U, 210 Po- 210 Pb and 210 Pb- 226 Ra has been measured in four vertical profiles from the northeastern Arabian Sea, a region characterized by oxygen deficient and denitrification layers at intermediate depths. The most common feature of the data is that the dissolved concentrations of the daughter nuclides are considerably less than those of their parents, exceptions being the near equilibrium or excess concentrations of 210 Po (relative to 210 Pb) at ∼ 100 m and that of 210 Pb relative to 226 Ra in surface waters. These results suggest that scavenging of dissolved 234 Th, 210 Po and 210 Pb occurs throughout the water column in the northeastern Arabian Sea. (Author)

  15. Discussion on effective utilization of nuclear fuel based on peculiar property of the fifth unstable nuclide series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    2000-01-01

    Based on a peculiar property of the Fifth Unstable Nuclide Series (FUNS) in developing stage, namely the transformation rate of parent fuel- 238 U consumption to fission production being increased with the fuel's reactor core life, it was shown that the used fuel taken out from the reactor core of PWR could be used again as PWR fuel, and the post processing for the used fuel needed only to de-contaminate the fission products from the used fuel and then to rebuild it into its normal form. Scheme A discussed the condition of using such rebuilt used fuel in PWR. Another peculiar property of FUNS is characterized by the fact that the equilibrium saturate concentrations of the derived nuclides in FUNS are different for different types of reactor. It is well known that the saturate concentration of 239 Pu in PWR is much larger than that in HWR. Scheme B i.e. a method of using the rebuilt used fuel from PWR to replace the natural uranium fuel for HWR was discussed

  16. Fate of nuclides in natural-water systems. Annual progress report, October 1, 1981-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of 210 Pb and 7 Be at New Haven, CT, and Bermuda were determined and compared with model fluxes. The reliability of these radionuclides as tracers for other chemical species injected into the atmosphere by human activity was therefore tested. The distribution of 10 Be in soil profiles was studied. The initial aim was to use the standing crop of 10 Be in the soil to obtain an exposure age of the surface. Dated surfaces (i.e. raised coastal terraces, dated volcanic flows, etc) showed that 10 Be does not totally accumulate in the soils but is mobilized. The mean residence time appears to be about 20,000 years. In a related study a number of the members of the 238 U and 232 Th decay series nuclides were measured in the major ground water aquifer types in Connecticut. Using 222 Rn as a flux indicator it was possible to determine the adsorption and desorption coefficients, distribution coefficients and retardation factors of Ra, Pb, and Th in these aquifers. The study of the transport of nuclides by the Connecticut River and the study of the Amazon River plume were completed. Also completed was one of the most intensive studies of the behavior of natural radionuclides and plutonium in an estuarine system, the Long Island Sound, by analyzing two nearshore sites (SACHEM and FOAM) to complement the deep water sites (NWC and DEEP). The chronologies of accumulation, bioturbation, human disturbance and physical change were established for these varied environments

  17. Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers.

  18. Release of uranium decay-series nuclides from Florida phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, P.A.; Deetae, S.; Burnett, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on Florida phosphate rock to help understand the release of natural decay-series radionuclides into associated groundwaters. The authors have analyzed all isotopes with half-lives longer than a few days in samples of both weathered and unweathered phosphate rock previously separated into seven size classes. Samples which have been subjected to intense weathering display higher specific activities than relatively fresh materials with the highest activities in weathered samples occurring in the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra which is close to unity. Unweathered samples show exactly the reverse behavior. This is probably a result of 222 Rn diffusion and subsequent adsorption onto fine particles. Mass balance calculations of total activities by summation of the activities measured within each individual size class produce lower results compared to those actually measured in bulk samples of the phosphatic materials. This apparent loss may be due either to loss of very fine-grained, high-activity particles or actual solution of these radionuclides into the deionized water used during the wet seiving process

  19. Geochemical behavior of uranium and thorium series nuclides. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    Data are reported from measurements of the content of 228 Ra and 226 Ra in samples of ground water collected in Texas and samples of seawater from the Gulf of Mexico off the Texas coast. Results of measurements of the content of 226 Ra, 238 U, and total U in samples of livestock feed supplements and the content of 226 Ra and U in phosphate fertilizers from plants in Florida and North Carolina are also reported. (U.S.)

  20. SERI Biomass Program. FY 1983 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.; McIntosh, R.P.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1983. The SERI Biomass Program consists of three elements: Aquatic Species, Anaerobic Digestion, and Photo/Biological Hydrogen. Each element has been indexed separately. 2 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  1. Regolith formation rate from U-series nuclides: Implications from the study of a spheroidal weathering profile in the Rio Icacos watershed (Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaux, F.; Blaes, E.; Stille, P.; di Chiara Roupert, R.; Pelt, E.; Dosseto, A.; Ma, L.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    A 2 m-thick spheroidal weathering profile, developed on a quartz diorite in the Rio Icacos watershed (Luquillo Mountains, eastern Puerto Rico), was analyzed for major and trace element concentrations, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios and U-series nuclides (238U-234U-230Th-226Ra). In this profile a 40 cm thick soil horizon is overlying a 150 cm thick saprolite which is separated from the basal corestone by a ˜40 cm thick rindlet zone. The Sr and Nd isotopic variations along the whole profile imply that, in addition to geochemical fractionations associated to water-rock interactions, the geochemical budget of the profile is influenced by a significant accretion of atmospheric dusts. The mineralogical and geochemical variations along the profile also confirm that the weathering front does not progress continuously from the top to the base of the profile. The upper part of the profile is probably associated with a different weathering system (lateral weathering of upper corestones) than the lower part, which consists of the basal corestone, the associated rindlet system and the saprolite in contact with these rindlets. Consequently, the determination of weathering rates from 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra disequilibrium in a series of samples collected along a vertical depth profile can only be attempted for samples collected in the lower part of the profile, i.e. the rindlet zone and the lower saprolite. Similar propagation rates were derived for the rindlet system and the saprolite by using classical models involving loss and gain processes for all nuclides to interpret the variation of U-series nuclides in the rindlet-saprolite subsystem. The consistency of these weathering rates with average weathering and erosion rates derived via other methods for the whole watershed provides a new and independent argument that, in the Rio Icacos watershed, the weathering system has reached a geomorphologic steady-state. Our study also indicates that even in environments with differential

  2. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium series nuclides and of plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This project focussed on the question of the transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River and the subsequent fate of that material when it entered the ocean. Samples were collected from the Mississippi and its tributaries, and from other rivers spanning a gradation in climate from the arid Rio Grande region to the subtropical Suwannee River. Plutonium analyses of water and of suspended and bottom sediments were complemented with Fe, Mn, Al, CaCO 3 , and organic matter measurements. Analyses of uranium and thorium isotopes, 210 Pb, and 226 Ra were made to serve both as tracers for transport processes, and (for the reactive nuclides) as steady state chemical analogues for plutonium

  3. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  4. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  5. Comparison of annual maximum series and partial duration series methods for modeling extreme hydrologic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter F.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Two different models for analyzing extreme hydrologic events, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a generalized Pareto distribution for modeling threshold exceedances corresponding to a generalized extreme value......). In the case of ML estimation, the PDS model provides the most efficient T-year event estimator. In the cases of MOM and PWM estimation, the PDS model is generally preferable for negative shape parameters, whereas the AMS model yields the most efficient estimator for positive shape parameters. A comparison...... of the considered methods reveals that in general, one should use the PDS model with MOM estimation for negative shape parameters, the PDS model with exponentially distributed exceedances if the shape parameter is close to zero, the AMS model with MOM estimation for moderately positive shape parameters, and the PDS...

  6. Chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Horiguchi, T.; Yamada, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this chart, four colors are use to classify nuclides according to their half-lives. The different symbols are also to show the decay modes and their percentage in each nuclide. Four tables are provided on the back of the chart. Table 1 is the ordinary periodic Table. Table 2 provides fundamental constants used for nuclear physics. Tables 3 lists the physical constants (mean density, ionization potential, melting point, and boiling point) of all elements. Table 4 provides the gamma-ray intensity standards. Half-lives, energy, relative intensity, and intensity per decay are list for 33 nuclides. (J.P.N.)

  7. Statistical attribution analysis of the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihua; Jiang, Cong; Du, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Time-varying moments models based on Pearson Type III and normal distributions respectively are built under the generalized additive model in location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) framework to analyze the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River. The detection of nonstationarities in hydrological time series (annual runoff, precipitation and temperature) from 1960 to 2009 is carried out using a GAMLSS model, and then the covariate analysis for the annual runoff series is implemented with GAMLSS. Finally, the attribution of each covariate to the nonstationarity of annual runoff is analyzed quantitatively. The results demonstrate that (1) obvious change-points exist in all three hydrological series, (2) precipitation, temperature and irrigated area are all significant covariates of the annual runoff series, and (3) temperature increase plays the main role in leading to the reduction of the annual runoff series in the study basin, followed by the decrease of precipitation and the increase of irrigated area.

  8. NNDC Chart of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has recently developed an interactive chart of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, that provides nuclear structure and decay data. Since its implementation, it has proven to be one of the most popular web products. The information presented is derived from the ENSDF and Nuclear Wallet Card databases. Experimentally known nuclides are represented by a cell in chart with the number of neutrons on the horizontal axis and the number of protons on the vertical axis. The color of the cell is used to indicate the ground state half-life or the ground state predominant decay mode. (author)

  9. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  11. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Amaris; Humberto Ávila; Thomas Guerrero

    2017-01-01

    Context: Climate change effects, human interventions, and river characteristics are factors that increase the risk on the population and the water resources. However, negative impacts such as flooding, and river droughts may be previously identified using appropriate numerical tools. Objectives: The annual volume (Millions of m3/year) time series of the Magdalena River was analyzed by an ARIMA model, using the historical time series of the Calamar station (Instituto de Hidrología, Meteoro...

  12. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  13. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Amaris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The simulated results obtained with the ARIMA model compared to the observed data showed a fairly good adjustment of the minimum and maximum magnitudes. This allows concluding that it is a good tool for estimating minimum and maximum volumes, even though this model is not capable of simulating the exact behaviour of an annual volume time series.

  14. NUCLIDES 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides have many applications in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. For basic information on such radioactive materials, the Chart of the Nuclides has proved to be an indispensable tool for obtaining data on radionuclides and working out qualitatively decay schemes and reaction paths. These Charts are, however, of limited use when one requires quantitative information on the decaying nuclide and its daughters. This was the motivation for the development of the NUCLIDES 2000 software package. The radioactive decay data used in NUCLIDES 2000 is based on the Joint Evaluated File (Jeff) version 2.2. The present version of the program contains decay data on approximately 2700 radionuclides. (authors)

  15. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  16. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  17. Modelling of extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia based on annual maximum and partial duration series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Shinyie, Wendy Ling; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two series of data for extreme rainfall events are generated based on Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Methods, derived from 102 rain-gauge stations in Peninsular from 1982-2012. To determine the optimal threshold for each station, several requirements must be satisfied and Adapted Hill estimator is employed for this purpose. A semi-parametric bootstrap is then used to estimate the mean square error (MSE) of the estimator at each threshold and the optimal threshold is selected based on the smallest MSE. The mean annual frequency is also checked to ensure that it lies in the range of one to five and the resulting data is also de-clustered to ensure independence. The two data series are then fitted to Generalized Extreme Value and Generalized Pareto distributions for annual maximum and partial duration series, respectively. The parameter estimation methods used are the Maximum Likelihood and the L-moment methods. Two goodness of fit tests are then used to evaluate the best-fitted distribution. The results showed that the Partial Duration series with Generalized Pareto distribution and Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation provides the best representation for extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia for majority of the stations studied. Based on these findings, several return values are also derived and spatial mapping are constructed to identify the distribution characteristic of extreme rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia.

  18. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal temperature series in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2017-06-01

    Most of the trend analysis that has been conducted has not considered the existence of a change point in the time series analysis. If these occurred, then the trend analysis will not be able to detect an obvious increasing or decreasing trend over certain parts of the time series. Furthermore, the lack of discussion on the possible factors that influenced either the decreasing or the increasing trend in the series needs to be addressed in any trend analysis. Hence, this study proposes to investigate the trends, and change point detection of mean, maximum and minimum temperature series, both annually and seasonally in Peninsular Malaysia and determine the possible factors that could contribute to the significance trends. In this study, Pettitt and sequential Mann-Kendall (SQ-MK) tests were used to examine the occurrence of any abrupt climate changes in the independent series. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature series suggested that most of the change points in Peninsular Malaysia were detected during the years 1996, 1997 and 1998. These detection points captured by Pettitt and SQ-MK tests are possibly related to climatic factors, such as El Niño and La Niña events. The findings also showed that the majority of the significant change points that exist in the series are related to the significant trend of the stations. Significant increasing trends of annual and seasonal mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in Peninsular Malaysia were found with a range of 2-5 °C/100 years during the last 32 years. It was observed that the magnitudes of the increasing trend in minimum temperatures were larger than the maximum temperatures for most of the studied stations, particularly at the urban stations. These increases are suspected to be linked with the effect of urban heat island other than El Niño event.

  19. 1{sup st} annual workshop proceedings of the collaborative project ''Fast/instant release of safety relevant radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel'' (7{sup th} EC FP CP FIRST-Nuclides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Duro, Lara; Valls, Alba (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The EURATOM FP7 Collaborative Project ''Fast / Instant Release of Safety Relevant Radionuclides from Spent Nuclear Fuel (CP FIRST-Nuclides)'' started in January 1, 2012 and extends over 3 years. The European nuclear waste management organisations contributing to the Technology Platform ''Implementing Geological Disposal (IGD-TP)'' considered the fast / instant release of safety relevant radionuclides from high burn-up spent nuclear fuel as one of the key topics in the deployment plan. For this reason, the CP FIRST-Nuclides deals with understanding the behaviour of high burn-up uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) spent nuclear fuels in deep geological repositories. The fast / instant release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel was investigated in a series of previous European. In addition, there were several studies mainly of the French research programs that investigated and quantified the rapid. However, several important issues are still open and consequently, the CP FIRST-Nuclides aims on covering this deficiency of knowledge, determining, for example, the ''instant release fraction (IRF)'' values of iodine, chlorine, carbon and selenium that are still largely unknown. Fuel elements from different Light Water Reactors (LWRs), with different enrichments, burn-up and average power rates need to be disposed of in Europe. This waste type represents one of the sources for the release of radionuclides after loss of integrity of a disposed canister. The quantification of time dependent release of radionuclides from spent high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel is required for safety analyses. The first release fraction consists of radionuclides in gaseous form, and those showing a high solubility in groundwater. LWRs use conventional oxide fuels with initial enrichments of up to 5 wt.% {sup 235}U for reaching average burn-up of ≤ 60 GWd/t{sub HM}. During the use of UO{sub 2} in a reactor, a significantly higher burn-up takes

  20. STATIONARITY OF ANNUAL MAXIMUM DAILY STREAMFLOW TIME SERIES IN SOUTH-EAST BRAZILIAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damázio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/cadest.2014.18302The paper presents a statistical analysis of annual maxima daily streamflow between 1931 and 2013 in South-East Brazil focused in detecting and modelling non-stationarity aspects. Flood protection for the large valleys in South-East Brazil is provided by multiple purpose reservoir systems built during 20th century, which design and operation plans has been done assuming stationarity of historical flood time series. Land cover changes and rapidly-increasing level of atmosphere greenhouse gases of the last century may be affecting flood regimes in these valleys so that it can be that nonstationary modelling should be applied to re-asses dam safety and flood control operation rules at the existent reservoir system. Six annual maximum daily streamflow time series are analysed. The time series were plotted together with fitted smooth loess functions and non-parametric statistical tests are performed to check the significance of apparent trends shown by the plots. Non-stationarity is modelled by fitting univariate extreme value distribution functions which location varies linearly with time. Stationarity and non-stationarity modelling are compared with the likelihood ratio statistic. In four of the six analyzed time series non-stationarity modelling outperformed stationarity modelling.Keywords: Stationarity; Extreme Value Distributions; Flood Frequency Analysis; Maximum Likelihood Method.

  1. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  2. Seasonal and annual precipitation time series trend analysis in North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Jha, Manoj K.

    2014-02-01

    The present study performs the spatial and temporal trend analysis of the annual and seasonal time-series of a set of uniformly distributed 249 stations precipitation data across the state of North Carolina, United States over the period of 1950-2009. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test, the Theil-Sen approach (TSA) and the Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) test were applied to quantify the significance of trend, magnitude of trend, and the trend shift, respectively. Regional (mountain, piedmont and coastal) precipitation trends were also analyzed using the above-mentioned tests. Prior to the application of statistical tests, the pre-whitening technique was used to eliminate the effect of autocorrelation of precipitation data series. The application of the above-mentioned procedures has shown very notable statewide increasing trend for winter and decreasing trend for fall precipitation. Statewide mixed (increasing/decreasing) trend has been detected in annual, spring, and summer precipitation time series. Significant trends (confidence level ≥ 95%) were detected only in 8, 7, 4 and 10 nos. of stations (out of 249 stations) in winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively. Magnitude of the highest increasing (decreasing) precipitation trend was found about 4 mm/season (- 4.50 mm/season) in fall (summer) season. Annual precipitation trend magnitude varied between - 5.50 mm/year and 9 mm/year. Regional trend analysis found increasing precipitation in mountain and coastal regions in general except during the winter. Piedmont region was found to have increasing trends in summer and fall, but decreasing trend in winter, spring and on an annual basis. The SQMK test on "trend shift analysis" identified a significant shift during 1960 - 70 in most parts of the state. Finally, the comparison between winter (summer) precipitations with the North Atlantic Oscillation (Southern Oscillation) indices concluded that the variability and trend of precipitation can be explained by the

  3. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  4. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  5. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  6. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  7. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  8. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Benchmarking a geostatistical procedure for the homogenisation of annual precipitation series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caineta, Júlio; Ribeiro, Sara; Henriques, Roberto; Soares, Amílcar; Costa, Ana Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The European project COST Action ES0601, Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME), has brought to attention the importance of establishing reliable homogenisation methods for climate data. In order to achieve that, a benchmark data set, containing monthly and daily temperature and precipitation data, was created to be used as a comparison basis for the effectiveness of those methods. Several contributions were submitted and evaluated by a number of performance metrics, validating the results against realistic inhomogeneous data. HOME also led to the development of new homogenisation software packages, which included feedback and lessons learned during the project. Preliminary studies have suggested a geostatistical stochastic approach, which uses Direct Sequential Simulation (DSS), as a promising methodology for the homogenisation of precipitation data series. Based on the spatial and temporal correlation between the neighbouring stations, DSS calculates local probability density functions at a candidate station to detect inhomogeneities. The purpose of the current study is to test and compare this geostatistical approach with the methods previously presented in the HOME project, using surrogate precipitation series from the HOME benchmark data set. The benchmark data set contains monthly precipitation surrogate series, from which annual precipitation data series were derived. These annual precipitation series were subject to exploratory analysis and to a thorough variography study. The geostatistical approach was then applied to the data set, based on different scenarios for the spatial continuity. Implementing this procedure also promoted the development of a computer program that aims to assist on the homogenisation of climate data, while minimising user interaction. Finally, in order to compare the effectiveness of this methodology with the homogenisation methods submitted during the HOME project, the obtained results

  10. Evaluating the coefficients of autocorrelation in a series of annual run-off of the Far East rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakharyuk, A V

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the coefficients of autocorrelation in series of annual river run-off based on group analysis using data on the distribution law of sampling correlation coefficients of temporal series subordinate to the III type Pearson's distribution.

  11. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  12. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  13. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, Tor

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  14. Multiple causes of nonstationarity in the Weihe annual low-flow series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bin; Xiong, Lihua; Chen, Jie; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Lingqi

    2018-02-01

    Under the background of global climate change and local anthropogenic activities, multiple driving forces have introduced various nonstationary components into low-flow series. This has led to a high demand on low-flow frequency analysis that considers nonstationary conditions for modeling. In this study, through a nonstationary frequency analysis framework with the generalized linear model (GLM) to consider time-varying distribution parameters, the multiple explanatory variables were incorporated to explain the variation in low-flow distribution parameters. These variables are comprised of the three indices of human activities (HAs; i.e., population, POP; irrigation area, IAR; and gross domestic product, GDP) and the eight measuring indices of the climate and catchment conditions (i.e., total precipitation P, mean frequency of precipitation events λ, temperature T, potential evapotranspiration (EP), climate aridity index AIEP, base-flow index (BFI), recession constant K and the recession-related aridity index AIK). This framework was applied to model the annual minimum flow series of both Huaxian and Xianyang gauging stations in the Weihe River, China (also known as the Wei He River). The results from stepwise regression for the optimal explanatory variables show that the variables related to irrigation, recession, temperature and precipitation play an important role in modeling. Specifically, analysis of annual minimum 30-day flow in Huaxian shows that the nonstationary distribution model with any one of all explanatory variables is better than the one without explanatory variables, the nonstationary gamma distribution model with four optimal variables is the best model and AIK is of the highest relative importance among these four variables, followed by IAR, BFI and AIEP. We conclude that the incorporation of multiple indices related to low-flow generation permits tracing various driving forces. The established link in nonstationary analysis will be beneficial

  15. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, R.Y.; Blattmann, H.

    1986-02-01

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  16. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soti, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond [Nucleonica GmbH, c/o European Commission, Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  17. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  18. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  19. Evaluation of nuclides with closely spaced values of depletion constants in transmutation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.S.

    1977-01-01

    New method of calculating nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is developed in this thesis. Method is based on originally derived recurrence formulas for expansion series of depletion functions and on originally obtained, nonsingular, Bateman coefficients. Explicit expression for the nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is obtained. This expression can be used as it stands for arbitrary values of nuclides depletion constants. By computing hypothetical transmutation chains and neptunium series, method is compared with the Bateman analytical solution, with the approximate solutions and with the matrix exponential method. It comes out that the method presented in this thesis is suitable for calculating very long depletion chains even in the case of some closely spaced and/or equal values of nuclide depletion constants. Though, presented method is of great practical applicability in a number of nuclear physics problems that are dealing with the nuclide transmutations: starting from the studies of the stellar evolution up to the design of nuclear reactors (author) [sr

  20. International chart of the nuclides. 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golashvili, T.V.; Kupriyanov, V.M.; Lbov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Chart of Nuclides - 2001 has been developed taking into account the data obtained in 1998-2001. Unlike widespread nuclide charts the present Chart of Nuclides contains EVALUATED values of the main characteristics. These values are supplied with the standard deviations. (author)

  1. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  2. A nuclide transfer model for barriers of the seabed repository using response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide transfer by utilizing mass transfer coefficient and barrier response function defined for each barrier is proposed, by which the final nuclide transfer rate into the sea water can be evaluated. When simple and immediate quantification of the nuclide release is necessary in the conservative aspect, using this kind of approach may be advantageous since each layered barrier can be treated separately from other media in series in the repository system, making it possible to apply separate solutions in succession to other various media. Although one disadvantage is that while flux continuity can be maintained at the interface by using the exit nuclide flux from the first medium as the source flux for the next one, there may be no guarantee for concentration continuity, this problem could be eliminated assuming that there is no boundary resistance to mass transfer across the interface. Mass transfer coefficient can be determined by the assumption that the nuclide concentration gradient at the interface between adjacent barriers remains constant and barrier response function is obtained from an analytical expression for nuclide flow rate out of each barrier in response to a unit impulse into the barrier multiplied by mass transfer coefficient. Total time-dependent nuclide transfer rate from the barrier can then be obtained by convoluting the response function for the barrier with a previously calculated set of time-varying input of nuclide flow rate for the previous barrier. 18 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  3. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  4. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  5. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  6. Annual Progress Report, 1975. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Included in this second annual report on the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) 1974-75 plan of work are data re: orientation visits; regional workshops; technical consultants; liaison with regional agencies and organizations; information dissemination; annual evaluation; functional networks in the areas of land use issues, citizen…

  7. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (1). General introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The field migration test using TRU nuclide was carried out as a cooperative research project between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CIRP (China Institute for Radiation Protection). This report introduced the out-line of the field migration test and described the outline of the series of 'Field Test on Migration of TRU-nuclide' and main results as a summary report. (author)

  8. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  9. Alberta oil and gas industry: Annual statistics for 1997. Statistical series number 98-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents annual statistics for the Alberta oil and gas industry for the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent; gas; ethane; propane; butanes; NGL mixes; and sulfur. Figures are given for deliveries and prices for the current year and also historically (1987--1996). Figures are also provided for the number of wells drilled during the year, meters drilled, and the annual well count

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  11. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  13. Universal Esperanto Association. Annual Report 1975-1976. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universal Esperanto Association, Rotterdam (Netherlands).

    The Universal Esperanto Association publishes an annual report each year, covering April-to-April, in Esperanto. This volume presents an edited English summary of the 1975-1976 report, the aim of which is to describe UEA activities and to inform the non-speaker of the language and culture of Esperanto as they relate to the UEA's program. The…

  14. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  15. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  16. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  17. Natural radio-nuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorin, O.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of radio-nuclides in Switzerland's drinking water. The article describes research done into the natural radioactivity to be found in various drinking water samples taken from the public water supply in the Canton of Grisons in eastern Switzerland. The various natural nuclides to be expected are listed and the methods used to take the samples are described. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of sketches showing the geographical distribution of the nuclide samples. Diagrams of the cumulative frequency of the quantities of nuclides found are presented, as are such diagrams for the yearly radioactive doses that the population is exposed to. The results and their consequences for the water supply are discussed in detail and further investigations to be made in the region are proposed

  18. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  19. A Study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the properties of geochemical reactions and sorption of high-level radionuclides (U, Th, Am, and Np), constructed databases for the geochemical reactions and sorption of the high-level radionuclides, and developed application methodologies of the databases. For the investigation on the nuclide migration and retardation through fractured rocks in KURT, in-situ solute migration system and on-line monitoring system were installed. The migration and retardation behaviors of nuclides were investigated annually for non-sorbing, simply sorbing and multi-valent sorbing nuclides, respectively, and interactions with fracture-filling materials were also analyzed. Besides, researches difficult to perform in KURT were carried out in foreign underground research facilities as joint studies for nuclide and colloid migration. The results from domestic and foreign underground facilities were compared each other and the reliability of the domestic results were assured from this. Diffusion depths of high-level radionuclides into rock matrix were measured in KURT conditions and their diffusion properties were analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the effects of bio-mineralization and redox reactions of a nuclide and microbe on nuclide behaviors were carried out to study the effects of combined interactions between minerals and microbes on the radionuclide migration and retardation

  20. Local tissue distribution of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional tissue-section autoradiography of alpha-emitting actinide elements may require prohibitively long exposure times. Neutron-induced or fission-track autoradiography can be used for fissile nuclides such as 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu to circumvent this difficulty. The detection limit for these nuclides is about 4 x 10 -13 (weight fraction). This paper describes a specific technique for determining their microdistribution with histologically stained tissue sections

  1. Trend Analysis of Monthly and Annual Temperature Series of Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The monthly average temperature series of Quetta – Pakistan from 1950 – 2000 is examined. A straight line is fitted to the data and seasonal variation and trend in temperature for each month of the year were obtained. An overall model is constructed as large variations in the monthly slopes were observed. In order to describe the seasonal pattern and trend in temperature, corresponding to the different months, both sine/cosine waves and sine/cosine waves multiplied by the time were included in the model as independent variables. The lag-1 autocorrelation was found in the residual of the model and hence another model was fitted to the pre-whiten series that shows a good fit ( and is free from correlated residuals. Both parametric and non-parametric tests applied to each month temperature show significant trend in all months except February and March.

  2. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  3. Inhomogeneities detection in annual precipitation time series in Portugal using direct sequential simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caineta, Júlio; Ribeiro, Sara; Costa, Ana Cristina; Henriques, Roberto; Soares, Amílcar

    2014-05-01

    Climate data homogenisation is of major importance in monitoring climate change, the validation of weather forecasting, general circulation and regional atmospheric models, modelling of erosion, drought monitoring, among other studies of hydrological and environmental impacts. This happens because non-climate factors can cause time series discontinuities which may hide the true climatic signal and patterns, thus potentially bias the conclusions of those studies. In the last two decades, many methods have been developed to identify and remove these inhomogeneities. One of those is based on geostatistical simulation (DSS - direct sequential simulation), where local probability density functions (pdf) are calculated at candidate monitoring stations, using spatial and temporal neighbouring observations, and then are used for detection of inhomogeneities. This approach has been previously applied to detect inhomogeneities in four precipitation series (wet day count) from a network with 66 monitoring stations located in the southern region of Portugal (1980-2001). This study revealed promising results and the potential advantages of geostatistical techniques for inhomogeneities detection in climate time series. This work extends the case study presented before and investigates the application of the geostatistical stochastic approach to ten precipitation series that were previously classified as inhomogeneous by one of six absolute homogeneity tests (Mann-Kendall test, Wald-Wolfowitz runs test, Von Neumann ratio test, Standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) for a single break, Pettit test, and Buishand range test). Moreover, a sensibility analysis is implemented to investigate the number of simulated realisations that should be used to accurately infer the local pdfs. Accordingly, the number of simulations per iteration is increased from 50 to 500, which resulted in a more representative local pdf. A set of default and recommended settings is provided, which will help

  4. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ulsig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI, which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MODIS-based estimates of phenology in an evergreen conifer forest. Timings of the start and end of the growing season (SGS and EGS were derived from a 13-year-long time series of PRI and NDVI based on a MAIAC (multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction processed MODIS dataset and standard MODIS NDVI product data. The derived dates were validated with phenology estimates from ground-based flux tower measurements of ecosystem productivity. Significant correlations were found between the MAIAC time series and ground-estimated SGS (R2 = 0.36–0.8, which is remarkable since previous studies have found it difficult to observe inter-annual phenological variations in evergreen vegetation from satellite data. The considerably noisier NDVI product could not accurately predict SGS, and EGS could not be derived successfully from any of the time series. While the strongest relationship overall was found between SGS derived from the ground data and PRI, MAIAC NDVI exhibited high correlations with SGS more consistently (R2 > 0.6 in all cases. The results suggest that PRI can serve as an effective indicator of spring seasonal transitions, however, additional work is necessary to confirm the relationships observed and to further explore the usefulness of MODIS PRI for detecting phenology.

  5. Nuclides 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides on CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Nuclides 2000' software package is an electronic chart of the nuclides, available on CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows operating systems, which offers extensive basic information on physics and radiology of the familiar nuclides. Moreover, 'Nuclides 2000' contains codes for a number of applications which allow the required data to be computed quickly and reliably by means of interactive user guidance. The data and codes are supplemented by information in the format of contributions on the history of radioactivity and radiochemistry, and on subjects of interest in physics, such as C-14 dating and the generation of Ti-44 in a supernova, and by a link collection of Internet addresses. As a detailed database, 'Nuclides 2000' can be used for teaching, research, and for practical applications. (orig.) [de

  6. Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Romagnan

    Full Text Available Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes and larger (i.e. macroplankton organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available. Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

  7. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  8. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  9. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  10. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  11. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  12. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  13. Chart of the nuclides - Strasbourg 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Data were compiled for a nuclide chart over the last two years. The compilation is complete to the end of September 1990. The chart includes about 30000 data. Decay modes are represented by colours. Announcement capabilities and prices are given. (G.P.) 3 refs

  14. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  15. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  16. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  17. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  18. Mapping Canopy Damage from Understory Fires in Amazon Forests Using Annual Time Series of Landsat and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Hurtt, George C.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Understory fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. The annual extent of fire-damaged forest in Amazonia remains uncertain due to difficulties in separating burning from other types of forest damage in satellite data. We developed a new approach, the Burn Damage and Recovery (BDR) algorithm, to identify fire-related canopy damages using spatial and spectral information from multi-year time series of satellite data. The BDR approach identifies understory fires in intact and logged Amazon forests based on the reduction and recovery of live canopy cover in the years following fire damages and the size and shape of individual understory burn scars. The BDR algorithm was applied to time series of Landsat (1997-2004) and MODIS (2000-2005) data covering one Landsat scene (path/row 226/068) in southern Amazonia and the results were compared to field observations, image-derived burn scars, and independent data on selective logging and deforestation. Landsat resolution was essential for detection of burn scars less than 50 ha, yet these small burns contributed only 12% of all burned forest detected during 1997-2002. MODIS data were suitable for mapping medium (50-500 ha) and large (greater than 500 ha) burn scars that accounted for the majority of all fire-damaged forest in this study. Therefore, moderate resolution satellite data may be suitable to provide estimates of the extent of fire-damaged Amazon forest at a regional scale. In the study region, Landsat-based understory fire damages in 1999 (1508 square kilometers) were an order of magnitude higher than during the 1997-1998 El Nino event (124 square kilometers and 39 square kilometers, respectively), suggesting a different link between climate and understory fires than previously reported for other Amazon regions. The results in this study illustrate the potential to address critical questions concerning climate and fire risk in Amazon forests by

  19. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Therapeutic result of radioactive nuclide 90Sr/90Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanchao; Li Yuying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: Sixty patients with BPH were treated with a course of transurethral radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy. Results: The severity of BPH was assessed with four parameters: maximal flow rate (MFR), volume of residual urine (VRU), international prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and volume (size) of prostate. In this series, the total effective rate was 93.33% with no treatment- related mortality. Favorable changes of the parameters after a course of radioactive nuclide therapy were significant. Conclusion: Radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy for patients with BPH was safe, easily performed and quite effective. This procedure is worth popularizing in appropriate patients. (authors)

  2. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Flux library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group fluxes, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Cross Section library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group cross section, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Decay Data library: Format: special format, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). REAC2 calculates the change in composition of materials in a radiation field and related activation quantities. It is best suited to problems where many variables (e.g. materials, facilities or locations within facilities, power histories) are to be investigated. Where very accurate results are needed, the user must access the accuracy of the cross section base (e.g. source, flux weighting) as in the use of any neutronics code. REAC2 consists of three programs - SREAC, SLSTCOM, and SLIB. SREAC calculates the transmutation of nuclides in a radiation field. SLSTCOM reads the output file produced by SREAC and produces listings of

  3. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  4. Overview of Task 4 nuclide transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A multi-year program plan is presented to collect the necessary data on nuclide sorption-desorption interactions with geologic media. Detailed activities which need to be performed in each of the six subtasks are described. The general areas in which each subcontractor performed work in FY 77 were presented in the overview. Detailed technical discussions of each subcontractor's work will be presented in ensuing presentations

  5. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  6. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  7. Time series evaluation of landscape dynamics using annual Landsat imagery and spatial statistical modeling: Evidence from the Phoenix metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Rey, Sergio J.; Li, Wenwen

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization is a natural and social process involving simultaneous changes to the Earth's land systems, energy flow, demographics, and the economy. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization is increasingly important for policy formulation, decision making, and natural resource management. A combination of satellite remote sensing and patch-based models has been widely adopted to characterize landscape changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the validity of this type of framework in identifying long-term changes, especially subtle or gradual land modifications is seriously challenged. In this paper, we integrate annual image time series, continuous spatial indices, and non-parametric trend analysis into a spatiotemporal study of landscape dynamics over the Phoenix metropolitan area from 1991 to 2010. We harness local indicators of spatial dependence and modified Mann-Kendall test to describe the monotonic trends in the quantity and spatial arrangement of two important land use land cover types: vegetation and built-up areas. Results suggest that declines in vegetation and increases in built-up areas are the two prevalent types of changes across the region. Vegetation increases mostly occur at the outskirts where new residential areas are developed from natural desert. A sizable proportion of vegetation declines and built-up increases are seen in the central and southeast part. Extensive land conversion from agricultural fields into urban land use is one important driver of vegetation declines. The xeriscaping practice also contributes to part of vegetation loss and an increasingly heterogeneous landscape. The quantitative framework proposed in this study provides a pathway to effective landscape mapping and change monitoring from a spatial statistical perspective.

  8. Some problems in utilization system of FP nuclides and actinides in the high level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Katsuaki; Emura, Satoru

    1974-01-01

    There are three nuclides of sup(134/137)Cs for irradiation sources, 90 Sr for radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and 238 Pu for cardiac pacemakers, as the nuclides for which considerable demand is expected in near future among those contained in reprocessed high level liquid wastes. Technical problems are first described from the viewpoint of utilization system. Then the control system of reprocessed high level wastes is expained. Finally, economic possibility and problems in their utilization are discussed. Being in competition with 60 Co, the price of sup(134/137)Cs will be lower than that of 60 Co after a decade. The annual demand in 1985 may be 6.1 x 10 6 Ci. The conclusive factor of 90 Sr market price is hard to get because it finds no strong competitive nuclides. It may be about 20 yen/Ci after ten years. Demand is expected to be approximately 1.2 x 10 7 Ci/year. However it is pretty hard to pay the cost of group separation and solidification, storage and conversion to products with such gain. It is estimated that the balance of income and outgo would be almost profitable, if the utilization of FP nuclides would progress and the demand three times as large as this assumption would be developed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  10. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  11. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  12. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  13. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  14. Numerical solution of stiff burnup equation with short half lived nuclides by the Krylov subspace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Sugimura, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The Krylov subspace method is applied to solve nuclide burnup equations used for lattice physics calculations. The Krylov method is an efficient approach for solving ordinary differential equations with stiff nature such as the nuclide burnup with short lived nuclides. Some mathematical fundamentals of the Krylov subspace method and its application to burnup equations are discussed. Verification calculations are carried out in a PWR pin-cell geometry with UO 2 fuel. A detailed burnup chain that includes 193 fission products and 28 heavy nuclides is used in the verification calculations. Shortest half life found in the present burnup chain is approximately 30 s ( 106 Rh). Therefore, conventional methods (e.g., the Taylor series expansion with scaling and squaring) tend to require longer computation time due to numerical stiffness. Comparison with other numerical methods (e.g., the 4-th order Runge-Kutta-Gill) reveals that the Krylov subspace method can provide accurate solution for a detailed burnup chain used in the present study with short computation time. (author)

  15. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  16. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  17. Changes in the Amplitude and Phase of the Annual Cycle: quantifying from surface wind series in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is not only reflected in the changes in annual means of climate variables but also in the changes in their annual cycles (seasonality), especially in the regions outside the tropics. Changes in the timing of seasons, especially the wind season, have gained much attention worldwide in recent decade or so. We introduce long-range correlated surrogate data to Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method, which represent the statistic characteristics of data better than white noise. The new method we named Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Long-range Correlated noise (EEMD-LRC) and applied to 600 station wind speed records. This new method is applied to investigate the trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of China's daily mean surface wind speed for the period 1971-2005. The amplitude of seasonal variation decrease significantly in the past half century over China, which can be well explained by Annual Cycle component from EEMD-LRC. Furthermore, the phase change of annual cycle lead to strongly shorten of wind season in spring, and corresponding with strong windy day frequency change over Northern China.

  18. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  19. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crehan, James E., Ed.

    This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of…

  1. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides

  2. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  3. SKB annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1992. Lectures and publications during 1992 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 4. Part 5 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1992. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1992 in total 1684 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) has been received. Transportation from the nuclear site to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste -SFR- was taken in operation in April 1988. At the end of 1992 a total of 11000 m 3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. The total cost for R and D during 1992 was 192.3 MSEK of which 24.8 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: groundwater movements, bedrock stability, groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration, method and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock, characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel, properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing, radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations, development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models, construction of an underground research laboratory. Cost calculations for the total nuclear waste management system, including decommissioning of all reactors, are updated annually. The total cost is estimated to 55 billion SEK

  4. LIS/OTD 2.5 DEGREE LOW RESOLUTION ANNUAL CLIMATOLOGY TIME SERIES V2.3.2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The product is a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg gridded composite of daily time-series of total (IC+CG) lightning bulk production, expressed as a flash rate density (fl/km2/day),...

  5. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  6. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  7. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  8. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Ulsig, Laura; Nichol, Caroline J.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Mammarella, Ivan; Levula, Janne; Porcar-Castell, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MO...

  9. Detecting inter-annual variations in the phenology of evergreen conifers using long-term MODIS vegetation index time series.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulsig, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This study investigates the potential of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of ...

  10. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  11. Square chart of nuclides with the best coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    2001-01-01

    It analyzes upper limiting feature of even Z=60-82 in different charts of nuclides. It has illustrated that the break line of upper limiting Z=60-82 in the chart of nucleus with proton number Z and neutron number N, parameters Z and H (=N-Z), two new parameters S(=2Z-N) and H, and parameters K (=S-H) and H, in proper order, it shows that the break line trends from the left lower to the right upper, the line alternates with horizontal and vertical, and the line trends from the right lower to the left upper. Here it finds that the square chart of nuclides places the middle among these charts. It shows that nuclei distribution is concentrated, so are scope of whole region of nuclides in the different charts of nuclides

  12. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  13. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  14. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  15. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  16. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.; Sheppard, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  17. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  18. Finite medium Green's function solutions to nuclide transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oston, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Current analytical techniques for predicting the transport of nuclides in porous materials center on the Green's function approach - i.e., determining the response characteristics of a geologic pathway to an impulse function input. To data, the analyses all have set the boundary conditions needed to solve the 1-D transport equation as though each pathway were infinite in length. The purpose of this work is to critically examine the effect that this infinite pathway assumption has on Green's function models of nuclide transport in porous media. The work described herein has directly attacked the more difficult problem of obtaining suitable Green's functions for finite pathways whose dimensions, in fact, may not be much greater than the diffusion length. Two different finite media Green's functions describing the nuclide mass flux have been determined, depending on whether the pathway is terminated by a high or a low flow resistance at the outlet end. Pulse shapes and peak amplitudes have been computed for each Green's function over a wide range of geohydrologic parameters. These results have been compared to both infinite and semi-infinite medium solutions. It was found that predicted pulse shapes are quite sensitive to selection of a Green's function model for short pathways only. For long pathways all models tend toward a symmetric Gaussian flux-time history at the outlet. Thus, the results of our previous waste transport studies using the infinite pathway assumption are still generally valid because they always included at least one long pathway. It was also found that finite medium models offer some unique computational advantages for evaluating nuclide transport in a series of connecting pathways

  19. Contents and daily intakes of gamma-ray emitting nuclides, 90Sr, and 238U using market-basket studies in japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Iijima, Ikuyo; Isomura, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the contents of radionuclides in foods marketed in Japan and their daily intakes and exposure doses in adults, we performed market-basket studies concerning radionuclide intakes. The study period was 2003-2005, and the studies were performed in 13 cities in Japan. Foods including drinking water were divided into 14 food groups, and samples were prepared by common cooking procedures. γ-ray emitting nuclides (an artificial radionuclide, radioactive Cs, and natural radionuclides, 40 K and U series such as 214 Bi, and 212 Pb, and Th series) were measured in each food group, and artificial radionuclides, 90 Sr and 238 U, were measured in a mixed sample of 13 food groups excluding drinking water. The daily intakes in adults were calculated from the concentrations of the radionuclides and mean daily consumption of foods and drinking water. The daily 137 Cs and 40 K intakes (mBq/person · day) in the 13 cities were 12.5- 90 Sr intake from the food groups excluding drinking water was 20.8-53.6, with a mean of 39.2 (mBq/person · day) (deviation of the mean: 23%). Similarly, the daily 238 U intake was 5.9-31.1, with a mean of 12.6 (mBq/person · day) (deviation: 60%), showing a more than 5-fold difference between the minimum and maximum values, and there were regional differences. Since the contents of the U series, such as 214 Bi and 212 Pb, and Th series were lower than the lower detection limits in many samples, their daily intakes were not calculated. Regarding the daily intake of 137 Cs from each food group, the intakes from fish and shellfish, milk, meat/eggs, and mushrooms/seaweed tended to be higher. The daily 40 K intake from each food group varied among the areas, but the total intake from the 14 food groups was similar in all 13 cities. 40 K from these foods accounted for most of the annual effective dose (μSv/person · year) of γ-ray emitting nuclides, and the doses of 40 K, 90 Sr, and 238 U were 130-217, 0.21-0.55, and 0.10-0.51, respectively

  20. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  1. A study on the stochastic model for nuclide transport in the fractured porous rock using continuous time Markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung

    1995-02-01

    As a newly approaching model, a stochastic model using continuous time Markov process for nuclide decay chain transport of arbitrary length in the fractured porous rock medium has been proposed, by which the need for solving a set of partial differential equations corresponding to various sets of side conditions can be avoided. Once the single planar fracture in the rock matrix is represented by a series of finite number of compartments having region wise constant parameter values in them, the medium is continuous in view of various processes associated with nuclide transport but discrete in medium space and such geologic system is assumed to have Markov property, since the Markov process requires that only the present value of the time dependent random variable be known to determine the future value of random variable, nuclide transport in the medium can then be modeled as a continuous time Markov process. Processes that are involved in nuclide transport are advective transport due to groundwater flow, diffusion into the rock matrix, adsorption onto the wall of the fracture and within the pores in the rock matrix, and radioactive decay chain. The transition probabilities for nuclide from the transition intensities between and out of the compartments are represented utilizing Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, through which the expectation and the variance of nuclide distribution for each compartment or the fractured rock medium can be obtained. Some comparisons between Markov process model developed in this work and available analytical solutions for one-dimensional layered porous medium, fractured medium with rock matrix diffusion, and porous medium considering three member nuclide decay chain without rock matrix diffusion have been made showing comparatively good agreement for all cases. To verify the model developed in this work another comparative study was also made by fitting the experimental data obtained with NaLS and uranine running in the artificial fractured

  2. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  3. Improvement of WWW chart of the nuclides interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsutomu; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The booklet 'chart of the nuclides' is issued every 4 years since 1976 from Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The chart of the nuclides for WWW (World Wide Web) was developed in 1999 in order to be available from the Internet browser. The Internet connection speeds, browser functions and JavaScript libraries has, however, progressed at present compared with the Internet technology in those days. In connection with the release of the 2014 edition of the chart of the nuclides, the interface of the WWW chart of the nuclides has been improved by introducing new Internet technologies aiming at enhancing convenience on accessibilities via browsers. We introduced a scrolling screen that would make capabilities of easy screen movement on a map with the addition of the drag scrolling function. Considering smart phone access, the light-weight edition which introduced automatic switch was prepared. The new system results in reduction in access time and usefulness in mobile environment. The method of making figures of the chart was reconsidered due to addition of new decay schemes to the 2014 edition. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) was adopted so as to make figures easily. It is concluded that the accessibilities of WWW chart of the nuclides are substantially improved from the previous version by introducing the new technologies. (author)

  4. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  5. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  6. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  7. Nuclide migration from a bedrock repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the migration of radionuclides from a repository for spent, unprocessed fuel is presented. The study makes use of a unidimensional dispersion model developed at BNWL. The results show that a number of nuclides decay significantly during the migration. The doses to future man was calculated in a separate study performed at Studsvik. The dose calculations are based on the activity in-flows, presented in this report, and show that the predominant dose contribution comes from the nuclide radium-226. This nuclide is formed mainly by the decay of uranium-238 which means that the main part of the dose would arise even from a repository for non-irradiated fuel

  8. The stochastic nuclide transport model for buffer/backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liping; Han Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, study on nuclide migration law in geological disposal repository of high level waste is assumed buffer/backfill layer to be continuous medium, utilized the continuity equation, equation of state, the equations of motion, etc, formed a set of theory and method to estimate nuclide concentration distribution in buffer/backfill layer, and provided an important basis for nuclide migration rules of repository. However, it is necessary to study the buffer/backfill layer microstructure and subtly describe the pore structure and fracture system of the buffer/backfill layer, and reflect the changes in connectivity and in different directions of the buffer/backfill layer. Through using random field theory, the nuclide transport for the buffer/backfill layer in geological disposal repository of nuclear waste is described in the paper. This paper mainly includes that, t represents the time, ξ t ⊂ Z d = d represents the integer lattice, Z represents collectivity integers, d = l, 2, 3, for instance, d = 2, Z d = {(m, n) : m, n ∈ Z} the state point of ξ t is typically considered to be occupied by the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer, ξ t also represents random set in the diagram of two dimensional integer lattice, namely, t ∈ [0, T], {ξ t ,0 ≤ t ≤ ⊂ T} Consequently, according to the stochastic process obtained above, the changes of the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer or the buffer/backfill laboratory materials in the repository with the time can be known. (authors)

  9. Measurements of transuranium nuclides in the environment at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gessellschaft fuer Strehlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Work on environmental transuranium nuclides at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich, is briefly described and standard needs are discussed. Fallout plutonium measurements in air dust and precipitation samples started in 1970/1971. The procedure is outlined and results are presented as annual mean and sum values, respectively. Since 1973, transuranium nuclides in primary coolant, stack effluent air and waste-water samples from nuclear power stations are measured. Nuclides detected are 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and/or 241 Am, 242 Cm and 244 Cm. Examples of alpha particle spectra are given. Needs for standards in environmental transuranium analysis are discussed. (author)

  10. Inter-annual variability in the thermal structure of an oceanic time series station off Ecuador (1990-2003) associated with El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Vargas, José; Schneider, Wolfgang; Abarca del Río, Rodrigo; Martínez, Rodney; Zambrano, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    Previously unpublished data (1990-2003) from a marine station located 20 km off the coast of Ecuador (Station La Libertad, 02°12'S, 080°55'W) are employed to investigate oceanic inter-annual variability in the far eastern equatorial Pacific, and its relation to the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. La Libertad is the only time series station between the Galapagos Islands and the South American coast, the region most affected by El Niño events (El Niño 2 region, 0-5°S, 90°W-80°W). Although configured and serviced differently, station La Libertad can be looked at as an eastern extension of the TAO/TRITON monitoring system, whose easternmost mooring is located at 95°W, 1550 km offshore. This study of El Niño's impact on the thermocline and its relationship to sea surface temperature revealed anomalies in the thermocline at station La Libertad some 2-4 months before their appearance at the sea surface. Inter-annual variability, namely quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations, accounts for roughly 80% of the total variance in temperature anomalies observed in the water column at station La Libertad. The coincidence in both phase and amplitude of these inter-annual oscillations explains the strength of El Niño events in the water column off La Libertad. We further show that anomalies in heat content appear 8-9 weeks earlier at 140°W in the equatorial Pacific (6550 km away from the coast) than at the coast itself. The arrival of El Niño, which has important regional social consequences as well as those for local fisheries, could therefore be predicted in the sub-surface waters off Ecuador by using these anomalies as a complementary index. In addition, the speed of the eastward propagation of these El Niño-associated anomalies' suggests the possible participation of higher-order baroclinic mode Kelvin waves and associated interaction processes in the eastern Pacific, which should be further investigated.

  11. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  13. An analysis of the correlation between dust storms in Korea and 137Cs nuclide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-won; Kim, Jeong-hun; Shin, Sang-hwa; Hwang, Joo-ho

    2008-01-01

    Dust storms occur in Korea during spring time when fine dust is blown in from the far western regions of western China and Mongolia. A fine powdery dust is blown up into the sky and enters the upper reaches of the atmosphere where it is carried easterly across China then slowly falls to the ground on the Korean peninsula and Japan. The dust originates mostly in the Gobi dessert of China, as well as the yellow earth regions in the middle and upper streams of the Yellow river in China. Previous studies on dust storms have been limited to following or estimating their courses, distribution and frequency, or distribution of the heavy metals they transmit. However, since radionuclides exist in the dust, they must also exist in the dust storms. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of :1 37 Cs nuclide concentration based on a count of annual dust storm occurrence in the city of Suwon, South Korea and assessed seasonal differences of 137 Cs nuclide concentration

  14. A nuclear data library for activity determinations of selected nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the GAMLIB 1-5 library, which is used in the calculation of the activity of radionuclides present in the gamma-ray spectra of irradiated neutron fluence detectors. The library contains all constants needed to calculate the activity for reactions normally applied in neutron fluence determinations, performed in irradiation experiments in the HFR. It also contains the nuclide constants for the activity calculation of gamma-ray measurements of U and Pu samples. The library consists of two kinds of tables, the first containing gamma-ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities with their uncertainties and the nuclide code, the other the nuclide code, decay constant, gamma -ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities. No cross-section data are stored in this library. All the relevant dat of the Nuclear Data Guide (Dordrecht, Kluwer 1989) have been used as base for this library. Other data have been obtained from recent literature. This library comprises 155 nuclides and 1115 gamma-ray energies. (author). 9 refs

  15. FISPIN - a computer code for nuclide inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.

    1979-10-01

    The code is used for assessment of three groups of nuclides, the actinides, the fission products, and structural materials. The methods of calculation are described, together with the input and output of the code and examples of both. Recommendations are given for the best use of the code. (author)

  16. Retardation of escaping nuclides from a final depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1977-09-01

    study has been made on retardation of radionuclides in various materials, which could be suited for use in the final repository. A literature survey has shown that except for Cs and Sr very little is known on ion exchange equilibria in ground water surroundings. Measurements were made to determine equilibrium data for Cs, Sr, Eu and U in five natural zeolites, which could be used as filling material. Diffusivities in zeolite particles and bbeds as well as clay beds were also determined. With the aid of these data the function of the ion exchange barrier was investigated. The barrier is so short that the nuclide transport is by diffusion. An 0.2 m barrier of a zeolite will delay Cs and Sr so long that they will decay totally. Am 241 will also be considerably delayed. An 0.2 m clay-quartz barrier will have very little effect on these nuclides. A 1 m clay-quartz barrier will have about the same effect as an 0.2 m zeolite barrier. Most other nuclides have so long lives that they will only be delayed, but not sufficiently long to decay. He rock itself interacts with many of the radionuclides. A simple model has been made to describe the nuclide retardation and dispersion in fissured rock. With the aid of this, tracer experiments in actual underground rock have been analysed

  17. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  18. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  19. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  20. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  1. Cosmogenic nuclide shielding corrections determined via MCNPX radiation transport and spallation cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    tabulated throughout the atmosphere. These results are then folded with estimated cross sections [6,7] to produce nuclide production potential as a function of both angle as well as altitude. Initial results indicate a change in the angular distribution of the production potential with altitude. Final results and discussion will be presented at the conference. This work was supported by the NSF CRONUS-Earth project. References [1] T. J. Dunai. Cosmogenic nuclides: principles, concepts and applications in the Earth Surface Sciences, First (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010), [2] D. Lal, Annual Review of Earth Planet Science. 16. (1988) 355-388 [3] J. Gosse and F. Phillips, Quaternary Science Reviews. 20. (2001) 1475-1560 [4] N. C. Conversi and P. Rothwell, Il Nuovo Cimento. 12. (1954) 191-210 [5] E. Heidbreder, K. Pinkau, C. Reppin and V. Schönfelder, Journal of Geophysical Research. 76. (1971) 2905 [6] K. Nishiizumi, K. C. Welten, H. Matsumura, M. Caffee, K. Ninomiya, T. Omoto, R. Nakagaki, T. Shima, N. Takahashi, S. Sekimoto, H. Yashima, S. Shibata, K. Bajo, K. Nagao, N. Kinoshita, M. Imamura, J. Sisterson and A. Shinohara, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 73. (2009) A945 [7] R. C. Reedy. personal communication

  2. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  3. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  4. Comparison and Evaluation of Annual NDVI Time Series in China Derived from the NOAA AVHRR LTDR and Terra MODIS MOD13C1 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2017-06-06

    Time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from multiple satellite sensors are crucial data to study vegetation dynamics. The Land Long Term Data Record Version 4 (LTDR V4) NDVI dataset was recently released at a 0.05 × 0.05° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. In this study, annual NDVI time series that are composited by the LTDR V4 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI datasets (MOD13C1) are compared and evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2014 in China. The spatial patterns of the NDVI generally match between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. The transitional zone between high and low NDVI values generally matches the boundary of semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A significant and high coefficient of determination is found between the two datasets according to a pixel-based correlation analysis. The spatially averaged NDVI of LTDR V4 is characterized by a much weaker positive regression slope relative to that of the spatially averaged NDVI of the MOD13C1 dataset because of changes in NOAA AVHRR sensors between 2005 and 2006. The measured NDVI values of LTDR V4 were always higher than that of MOD13C1 in western China due to the relatively lower atmospheric water vapor content in western China, and opposite observation appeared in eastern China. In total, 18.54% of the LTDR V4 NDVI pixels exhibit significant trends, whereas 35.79% of the MOD13C1 NDVI pixels show significant trends. Good agreement is observed between the significant trends of the two datasets in the Northeast Plain, Bohai Economic Rim, Loess Plateau, and Yangtze River Delta. By contrast, the datasets contrasted in northwestern desert regions and southern China. A trend analysis of the regression slope values according to the vegetation type shows good agreement between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. This study demonstrates the spatial and temporal consistencies and discrepancies between the AVHRR LTDR and MODIS MOD13C1 NDVI

  5. Performance of a nuclide identification of HYPERGAM on the IAEA 2002 test spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. G.; Jung, N. S.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D.; Park, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the γ-ray spectrum analysis software is the ability to identify radionuclides on the spectrum, and to determine activity of each radionuclide. Rapid determination and a low number of missing and false hit are required to the γ-ray spectrum analysis software to be useful. HyperGam has been developed to analyze an HPGe γ-ray spectrum by Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. Through a series of subsequent studies, the on-line analysis as well as the off-line analysis was possible. In addition, the automatic algorithm of nuclide identification has been developed to identify the peaks on the spectrum considering with yield, efficiency, energy and peak area of the γ-ray line from radionuclide. In this study, the performance of the nuclide identification of HyperGam is tested by using the IAEA 2002 set of test spectra and is compared to the well-known γ-ray spectrum analysis software

  6. Runoff and sediment yield model for predicting nuclide transport in watersheds using BIOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    The environmental risk simulation model BIOTRAN was interfaced with a series of new subroutines (RUNOFF, GEOFLX, EROSON, and AQUIFER) to predict the movement of nuclides, elements, and pertinent chemical compounds in association with sediments through lateral and channel flow of runoff water. In addition, the movement of water into and out of segmented portions of runoff channels was modeled to simulate the dynamics of moisture flow through specified aquifers within the watershed. The BIOTRAN soil water flux subroutine, WATFLX, was modified to interface the relationships found in the SPUR model for runoff and sediment transport into channels with the particle sorting relationships to predict radionuclide enrichment and movement in watersheds. The new subroutines were applied specifically to Mortandad Canyon within Los Alamos National Laboratory by simultaneous simulation of eight surface vegetational subdivisions and associated channel and aquifer segments of this watershed. This report focuses on descriptions of the construction and rationale for the new subroutines and on discussing both input characteristics and output relationships to known runoff events from Mortandad Canyon. Limitations of the simplified input on model behavior are also discussed. Uranium-238 was selected as the nuclide for demonstration of the model because it could be assumed to be homogeneously distributed over the watershed surface. 22 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Utilizing Monte-Carlo radiation transport and spallation cross sections to estimate nuclide dependent scaling with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J.

    2010-12-01

    possible sampling altitude), the apparent attenuation lengths become 171 g/cm2, 174 g/cm2 and 165 g/cm2 respectively, a difference of +/-5%. Based on this preliminary data, there may be up to 6% error in production rate scaling. Proton spallation is a small, yet important component of spallation events. This data will be also be presented along with the neutron results. While the differences between attenuation length for individual nuclides are small at sea-level, they are systematic and exacerbate with altitude. Until now, there has been no numeric analysis of this phenomenon, therefore the global scaling schemes for CNs have been missing an aspect of physics critical for achieving close agreement between empiric calibration data and physics based models. [1] T. J. Dunai, "Cosmogenic Nuclides: Principles, Concepts and Applications in the Earth Surface Sciences", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010 [2] D. Lal, Annual Rev of Earth Planet Sci, 1988, p355-388 [3] J. Gosse and F. Phillips, Quaternary Science Rev, 2001, p1475-1560 [4] F. Phillips et al.,(Proposal to the National Science Foundation), 2003 [5] K. Nishiizumi etal., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009, p2163-2176 [6] R. C. Reedy, personal com.

  8. Capability of minor nuclide confinement in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Mineo, Hideaki; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    Experiment with spent fuels has started with the small scale reprocessing facility in NUCEF-BECKY αγ cell. Primary purpose of the experiment is to study the capability of long-lived nuclide confinement both in the PUREX flow sheet applied to the large scale reprocessing plant and also in the PARC (Partitioning Conundrum key process) flow sheet which is our proposal as a simplified reprocessing of one cycle extraction system. Our interests in the experiment are the behaviors of minor long-lived nuclides and the behaviors of the heterogeneous substances, such as sedimentation in the dissolver, organic cruds in the extraction banks. The significance of those behaviors will be assessed from the standpoint of the process safety of reprocessing for high burn-up fuels and MOX fuels. (author)

  9. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-01-01

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  10. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  11. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant

  12. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  13. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  14. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zhdanov, S. [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1997-11-01

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semiempirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  17. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Widen, H.

    1991-05-01

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  18. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  19. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  20. Numerical dating of a Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex at the northern end of Silver Lake playa, Mojave Desert, California: A comparison of the applicability of radiocarbon, luminescence, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide, electron spin resonance, U-series and amino acid racemization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L.A.; Bright, Jordon; Finkel, R.C.; Jaiswal, M.K.; Kaufman, D.S.; Mahan, S.; Radtke, U.; Schneider, J.S.; Sharp, W.; Singhvi, A.K.; Warren, C.N.

    2007-01-01

    A Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex on the northern shore of Pleistocene Lake Mojave of southeastern California, USA was studied with the goal of comparing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon, luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide (TCN) surface exposure, amino acid racemization (AAR) and U-series dating methods. The pattern of ages obtained by the different methods illustrates the complexity of processes acting in the lakeshore environment and highlights the utility of a multi-method approach. TCN surface exposure ages (mostly ???20-30 ka) record the initial erosion of shoreline benches, whereas radiocarbon ages on shells (determined in this and previous studies) within the spit, supported by AAR data, record its construction at fluctuating lake levels from ???16 to 10 ka. Luminescence ages on spit sediment (???6-7 ka) and ESR ages on spit shells (???4 ka) are anomalously young relative to radiocarbon ages of shells within the same deposits. The significance of the surprisingly young luminescence ages is not clear. The younger ESR ages could be a consequence of post-mortem enrichment of U in the shells. High concentrations of detrital thorium in tufa coating spit gravels inhibited the use of single-sample U-series dating. Detailed comparisons such as this provide one of the few means of assessing the accuracy of Quaternary dating techniques. More such comparisons are needed. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  1. Computer programs to make a Chart of the nuclides for WWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Horiguchi, Takayoshi

    1999-06-01

    Computer programs to make a chart of the nuclides for World Wide Web (WWW) have been developed. The programs make a data file for WWW chart of the nuclides from a data file containing nuclide information in the format similar to ENSDF, by filling unknown half-lives with calculated ones. Then, the WWW chart of the nuclides in the gif format is created from the data file. The programs to make html files and image map files, to select a chart of selected nuclides, and to show various information of nuclides are included in the system. All the programs are written in C language. This report describes the formats of files, the programs and 1998 issue of Chart of the Nuclides made by means of the present programs. (author)

  2. Natural and artificial nuclides in Salesópolis reservoir by gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Semmler, Renato; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Rocha, Flávio R.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br, E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural radioactivity is ubiquitous in the environment mainly due to the presence of the nuclides from the uranium and thorium series and {sup 40}K. Although in the South Hemisphere nuclear tests have been fewer in number than that in the North, artificial radionuclides can also be found spread at ground level. In this study, the activity concentrations of natural nuclides from the uranium and thorium series, {sup 40}K and the artificial {sup 137}Cs were determined in a sediment core with 42 cm depth collected in the middle of the Salesópolis reservoir, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city (SPMR). The Usina Parque Rio Tietê reservoir belongs to the Alto do Tietê system for the capture, storage and treatment of water for SPMR. Therefore, the quality of the water and sediments of this dam is of great importance. The activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Samples were measured and saved at regular intervals at a maximum of 160 000 seconds. The gross area were determined for each peak and plotted against time and the counting rate was obtained by the slope of the curve. Background and reference materials were also counted and treated in the same way. Results showed that {sup 226}Ra varied from 45 to 116 Bq kg{sup -1}; {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 165 Bq kg{sup -1}; {sup 40}K, from 155 to 1 187 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs varied from 0.3 to 7 Bq kg{sup -1}. The methodology applied for determining low levels of {sup 137}Cs in sediment proved to be efficient and reproducible. (author)

  3. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  4. Natural and artificial nuclides in Salesópolis reservoir by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Semmler, Renato; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Rocha, Flávio R.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T.

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is ubiquitous in the environment mainly due to the presence of the nuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40 K. Although in the South Hemisphere nuclear tests have been fewer in number than that in the North, artificial radionuclides can also be found spread at ground level. In this study, the activity concentrations of natural nuclides from the uranium and thorium series, 40 K and the artificial 137 Cs were determined in a sediment core with 42 cm depth collected in the middle of the Salesópolis reservoir, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city (SPMR). The Usina Parque Rio Tietê reservoir belongs to the Alto do Tietê system for the capture, storage and treatment of water for SPMR. Therefore, the quality of the water and sediments of this dam is of great importance. The activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Samples were measured and saved at regular intervals at a maximum of 160 000 seconds. The gross area were determined for each peak and plotted against time and the counting rate was obtained by the slope of the curve. Background and reference materials were also counted and treated in the same way. Results showed that 226 Ra varied from 45 to 116 Bq kg -1 ; 228 Ra, from 80 to 165 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, from 155 to 1 187 Bq kg -1 and 137 Cs varied from 0.3 to 7 Bq kg -1 . The methodology applied for determining low levels of 137 Cs in sediment proved to be efficient and reproducible. (author)

  5. Evolution of the Sunspot Number and Solar Wind B Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Herbst, Konstantin

    2018-03-01

    The past two decades have witnessed significant changes in our knowledge of long-term solar and solar wind activity. The sunspot number time series (1700-present) developed by Rudolf Wolf during the second half of the 19th century was revised and extended by the group sunspot number series (1610-1995) of Hoyt and Schatten during the 1990s. The group sunspot number is significantly lower than the Wolf series before ˜1885. An effort from 2011-2015 to understand and remove differences between these two series via a series of workshops had the unintended consequence of prompting several alternative constructions of the sunspot number. Thus it has been necessary to expand and extend the sunspot number reconciliation process. On the solar wind side, after a decade of controversy, an ISSI International Team used geomagnetic and sunspot data to obtain a high-confidence time series of the solar wind magnetic field strength (B) from 1750-present that can be compared with two independent long-term (> ˜600 year) series of annual B-values based on cosmogenic nuclides. In this paper, we trace the twists and turns leading to our current understanding of long-term solar and solar wind activity.

  6. Calculation device for amount of heavy element nuclide in reactor fuels and calculation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Munenari.

    1995-01-01

    When there are two or more origins of deuterium nuclides in reactor fuels, there are disposed a memory device for an amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin in a noted fuel segment at a certain time point, a device for calculating the amount of nuclides for every origin and current neutron fluxes in the noted fuel segment, and a device for separating and then displaying the amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. Equations for combustion are dissolved for every origin of the deuterium nuclides based on the amount of the deuterium nuclides for every origin and neutron fluxes, to calculate the current amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. The amount of deuterium nuclides originated from uranium is calculated ignoring α-decay of curium, while the amount of deuterium nuclides originated from plutonium is calculated ignoring the generation of plutonium formed from neptunium. Deuterium nuclides can be measured and controlled accurately for every origin of the reactor fuels. Even when nuclear fuel materials have two or more nationalities, the measurement and control thereof can be conducted for every country. (N.H.)

  7. Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive nuclide chart, and a command line interface. The nuclide chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the nuclides and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  8. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  9. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37 A r, 41 C a, 49 V , 53 M n, 55 F e,59 N i, 68Ge,82 S r, 97 T c, 118 T e, 131 C s, 137 L a, 140 N d, 157 T b, 165 E r, 193 p t, 194 H g, and 205 P h The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  10. On the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in cometary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Englert, P.A.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Arnold, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in cometary material will help to define the recent surface history of the comet and its exposure to cosmic rays. In particular, the rates for the removal or mixing of surface material could be studied, and any variations in cosmic-ray intensity implied by the data could be used to infer orbital changes during the last few million years. The measurement of the shorter-lived isotopes poses technical challenges that should be addressed now. The measurement of longer-lived isotopes will be straightforward provided that rates of mass loss are not too high. 46 refs., 2 figs

  11. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.I.; Christman, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  12. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  13. Multi-pathway model of nuclide transport in fractured media and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Yang Zeping; Li Jinxuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to know the law of nuclide transport in fracture system, the basic differential equations of nuclide transport in fracture and matrix were obtained based on the dual media theory, and the general analytic solutions of nuclide transport in single fractured media with exponential attenuation source in fracture were deduced by Laplace transform, and one-dimensional multi-pathway model of nuclide transport was proposed based on dual media theory and stochastic distribution of fracture parameters. The transport of Th-229, Cs-135 and Se-79 were simulated with this model, the relative concentration of these nuclides in fracture system were predicted. Further more, it was deduced that aperture and velocity can distinctly influence transport of nuclide by comparing with the results which were simulated by single fracture model. (authors)

  14. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  15. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239,240/Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239,240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout /sup 239,240/Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Some significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from the adjacent coastal waters may well be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides in Hudson sediments do not appear to be significantly altered by physical mixing processes in the sediment in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/y. Transport of fallout radionuclides from the drainage basin to the tidal Hudson appears to have decreased much faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Activities of 60 Co in New York harbor sediments in 1984 averaged considerably higher than in 1979 and 1981, suggesting releases of this nuclide to the Hudson comparable to the first five years of reactor operations. 12 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. Activities of several other nuclides of interest in radioactive waste management ( 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 231 Pa) were also found to be orders of magnitude greater in high carbonate waters than in other natural waters

  17. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachihara, Hidekazu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  18. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  19. The clinical application of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Tang Mingdeng; Lin Duanyu; Ni Leichun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphoma. Methods: 71 cases of patients were diagnosed by pathology as malignant lymphoma, among whom there were 8 cases of Hodgkin disease (HL) and 63 cases of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). The examinations were performed from 2.5 to 6 hours later after the intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MDP (555-925 MBq). Results: 31 cases were bone-infiltrating lesions, including 3 cases of HL and 28 cases of NHL. The total number of the focus was 103, except 2 cases of bone lack, including 35 foci in vertebral column (34.65%), 30 foci in limb and joint (29.70%), 14 foci in rib (13.86%), 13 foci in elvis (12.0%), 5 foci in skull (4.95%) and 4 foci in sternum (3.96%). Conclusion: The nuclide bone imaging has a high value in the clinical stage, therapeutic observation and prognosis of bone-infiltrating malignant lymphoma. (authors)

  20. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)

  1. Comparative test on nuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Wu Qinghua; Wang Zhiming; Hao Janzhong; Ji Shaowei; Guo Liangtian; Guo Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the influence of different tracer source layer material on nuclide migration behavior, the comparative test on stable elements Sr, Nd and Ce migration in aerated loess zone was carried out using loess and arenaceous quartz as the tracer source layer materials respectively. The test lasted 470 days. During the test, four times of sampling were done. The testing results indicate that under artificial sprinkling of 5 mm/h and 3 h/d, Nd and Ce not only in loess tracer source layer but also in arenaceous quartz tracer source layer did not obviously downwards migrated. Concentration peak of Sr for loess layer migrated down about 15 cm in 470 d (mass center moved down about 10 cm) but for arenaceous quartz layer the concentration peak of Sr did not obviously migrated down (mass center moved down about 2.7 cm). The test results show that very thin arenaceous quartz layer with thickness of 7 mm is also able to shield unsaturated water flow obviously. This is the main reason why the nuclides in arenaceous quartz layer migrate down slowly

  2. Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.

  3. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  4. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  5. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  6. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  7. The Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series Using Regression, Correlation and Cointegration with an Application to Annual Mean Temperature and Sea Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    There are simple well-known conditions for the validity of regression and correlation as statistical tools. We analyse by examples the effect of nonstationarity on inference using these methods and compare them to model based inference. Finally we analyse some data on annual mean temperature...... and sea level, by applying the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, which explicitly takes into account the nonstationarity of the variables....

  8. The analysis of nonstationary time series using regression, correlation and cointegration – with an application to annual mean temperature and sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    There are simple well-known conditions for the validity of regression and correlation as statistical tools. We analyse by examples the effect of nonstationarity on inference using these methods and compare them to model based inference. Finally we analyse some data on annual mean temperature...... and sea level, by applying the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, which explicitly takes into account the nonstationarity of the variables....

  9. Estimating extreme dry-spell risk in the Middle Ebro valley (Northeastern Spain). a comparative analysis of partial duration series with a General Pareto distribution and annual maxima series with a Gumbel distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente-Serrano, S.; Beguería, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses fifty-year time series of daily precipitation in a region of the middle Ebro valley (northern Spain) in order to predict extreme dry-spell risk. A comparison of observed and estimated maximum dry spells (50-year return period) showed that the Generalised Pareto (GP)

  10. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1979-01-01

    Results of estuarine and coastal studies in the Long Island Sound and the New York Bight areas are summarized briefly. 234 Th and 228 Th were used to determine the residence time of thorium in the water column as a function of distance from the Long Island-New Jersey coast. Results indicate that virtually all of the 234 Th is taken to the sediment column on a very short time scale. Paths for the redistribution of metals in the sediment column are outlined. Studies on the sources and properties of organic carbon delivered to the estuarine systems are reviewed briefly

  11. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    Directly or indirectly man's spewing of his wastes into the coastal zone is coupled to his use of energy. The act of supplying energy for his ongoing activities is capable also of supplying some of the potentially most deleterious components to the coastal zone. Results are reported from studies of the pattern of physical and biological activity in the estuary which controls the distribution and possible neutralization of potential pollutants. Sediment chronologies applicable to aqueous repositories were established in order to identify the effects due to man and to assess the changing intensity of his activities over time. Natural and manmade radionuclides have been commonly used to identify age with depth in the sediment pile, but we find that processes other than sediment accumulation confound the record. Biological and physical disruptions that alter the record of radionuclides in a sediment from that expected from the source were studied in Long Island Sound using the natural radionuclides 234 Th and 210 Po and trace elements Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni. The uptake and retention of these elements in mussels was studied

  12. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki.

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ( 19 F+ 209 Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient 228 U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by 19 F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous γ-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  13. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.N.; Kadenko, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  15. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  16. Difficulty in the usage of nuclides in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, the uses of radioisotopes in hospitals are increasing year after year. Therefore, the problems of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are important. The liquid and gaseous wastes with radioactivity concentrations below the maximum permissible levels are allowed to be disposed of on the sites by the law. However, high-level liquid wastes and solid wastes cannot be disposed of on the sites. These wastes stored in steel drums are collected by Japan Radioisotope Association, and finally treated and disposed of on the site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The nuclides used in hospitals are principally Tc-99m, and also 131 I, 198 Au, 125 I and 3 H. The following matters are described: the present situation, radioactive wastes from medical treatments, and the management of radioactive solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from hospitals. (J.P.N.)

  17. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  18. DECSERVIS-2: A tool for natural decay series mass flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzam, Saad; Suksi, Juhani; Ammann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    After the publication of 'DECSERVIS: a tool for radioactive decay series visualisation' we have further developed our DECSERVIS software. With the new tool DECSERVIS-2 one can simulate radioactive decay chains in open systems, i.e. when the concentrations of nuclides change also due to mass flows. Decay chains can be simulated under continuous and successive nuclide mass flow events into and out from the system and in freely determined time intervals. Simulation output for the entire decay chain (nuclide activity, mass, number of nuclides, nuclide ratios) can be presented as a function of time with various graphical presentations such as solid curve and column diagrams or animation. In this paper we introduce DECSERVIS-2 and demonstrate its use with simulation examples. DECSERVIS-2 is easy to use and has been designed with an eye on the demands of teaching.

  19. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  20. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  1. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography, 1939--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, D.R.; Karlstrom, K.I.; Fowler, J.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1975-04-01

    A bibliography of more than 1300 references on accelerator-produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine is presented. The information is arranged by subject and by specific nuclide. An author index is included. Appendices are provided of medical uses of specific elements and of radioisotopes not included in the main bibliography. (U.S.)

  2. Institut fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1984-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and speeches. The work concern fast chemical separations, the detection of short-lived nuclides, mass separations, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear fission, heavy ion research, superheavy elements, radionuclide ecology, and the operation of the TRIGA Mainz reactor. (HSI) [de

  3. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundelöf

    Full Text Available Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series.

  4. Monitoring of Radio-nuclides in the Vicinities of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants in 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.-P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    2000-03-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances round Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 2002-2004 in accordance with the regular environmental monitoring programmes. Altogether, some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environs of the two power plants. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air and deposition samples taken from the close vicinities of the power plants. At Loviisa, observations were made in two; at Olkiluoto in three aerosol samples during the reporting period. Except for the naturally occurring beryllium-7, the concentrations of all radionuclides in the air samples were very low; from few microbequerels to few tens of microbequerels per cubic metre. A similar pattern was tenable for the deposition samples as well. The activity concentrations of cobalt-60 of local origin were at their highest 0.3 bequerels per square metre in one sample taken from Loviisa and in one sample taken from Olkiluoto. No traces of local discharge nuclides were detected in foodstuffs, drinking water or garden products. In mushrooms and wild berries picked up in 2004 from the Loviisa area, only Chernobyl-derived caesium isotopes and natural potassium-40 were detected. Local discharge nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments, which effectively accumulate radioactive substances. Besides tritium originating from local discharges, the most significant artificial radionuclide in the samples taken from the aquatic environs of the power plants was still caesium-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident (potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radionuclide). Elevated tritium concentrations were more frequent in the water samples from Loviisa. In indicator organisms and sinking matter, the observed concentrations of local discharge nuclides were generally somewhat higher and

  5. Distrinution and properties of nuclides in fission by means of on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir-El, Y.

    1977-07-01

    This work determines the independent yield distribution fo the alkali elements' fission products. The results were analyzed by especially developed equations and half-lives were calculated using a computer program which fits a series of exponentials to the activity decay curve by the least squares method. Independent yields were determined by use of calculated correction factors and by normalization against a known independent yield. The three nuclides 147 Ba, 148 Ba, and 149 La were indentified fot the first time in this work and their half-lives were determined Comparison with calculated values, within the framework of beta decay theory, gave in all cases agreement better than an order of magnitude. Extrapolation of the experimental curve and prediction of values which have not yet been measured are now possible. Independent yield distributions of rubidium and cesium include values for 99 Rb, 147 Cs and 148 Cs determined for the first time. The last two isotopes were identified fot the first time in the present work. A model was developed to interpretthe heavy wing phenomenon based on statistical considerations and onbasic properties of prompt neutron emission in fission. The width parameter of the independent yield distribution calculated according to the propsed model is in very good agreement with the width parameter of a Gaussian fitted to the measured distribution. (B.G.)

  6. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Nuclide release from the near-field of a L/ILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Pers, K.

    1986-12-01

    For Project Gewaehr 1985, the release of nuclides from a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is calculated. The calculations are made for a reference design repository located in the marl host rock at the Oberbauen Stock reference site. The results are limited to the release of the nuclides from the waste through the engineered barriers into the surrounding host rock and will, therefore, constitute a source term for the far-field and biosphere calculations. The most probable nuclide transport mechanism is diffusion and releases are thus influenced by the nuclide diffusivities in the barriers, nuclide sorption and nuclide solubility limits. Degradation of the engineered concrete barriers is taken into account. The effects of convective flow through the barriers are described elsewhere. A near-field release model is presented. It consists of a set of computer programs suited to handel different repository designs, solubility limitations and the different waste categories. The release calculations were made for a base case in which best estimates of the parameters were used. Sensitivity to the choice of the most important parameters was tested by parameter variations. The numerical models used were checked by comparative calculations with different codes and similar data. The results of the base calculations show that near-field barriers will cause both a delay of the release to the far-field and a reduced rate of release. The sorbed nuclides, comprising the actinides and some activation and fission products, will be delayed by 10'000 years and have a maximum release rate of less than 10 -3 Ci/a each. The non-sorbed nuclides are delayed by only about 100 years and the maximum release rate is less than 10 -2 Ci per year and nuclide. The parameter variations and the design model tests gave only limited deviations from the base case results. (author)

  9. Fission-nuclide concentrations of ambient aerosol separated by size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csepregi, T.; Kovacs, L.; Maschek, I.; Szterjopulos, K.

    1984-01-01

    Examinations were carried on the radionuclides in aerosol deposited on filters of an air-conditioning plant with high air flow rate. For nuclide concentration of ambient air qualitative and quantitative analyses were made by gamma spectrometry. Methods have been developed for sample preparation, size fractionation by sedimentation technique and measurement of air flow. The collected aerosol particles was separated into five size fractions from 1 to 5 μm and the aerosol fractions were analysed. The mass/size distribution of the particles processed by sedimentation has been compared with that of the ambient aerosol separated by a slot impactor Hungarian type. Because the aggregation caused by the resuspensationtechnique would be assumed, electronmicrophotos were made on processed and unprocessed aerosols. On the basis of them the particle aggregation may be negligible. Otherwise, the derivation of concentration needs to know the exact air volume. For this aim the technical parameters of the aerodynamic system have also been measured in two different ways. The paper reports on the size dependence of fission products originating from the present global late fallout for a two years monitoring period. The results are compared with the daily beta activity concentration of aerosol samples taken by an other sampling unit. (Author)

  10. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  11. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  12. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  13. User manual of nuclide dispersion in phreatic aquifers model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifers (DRAF) model was developed in the 'Division Estudios Ambientales' of the 'Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' (1991), for the Safety Assessment of Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Afterwards, it was modified in several opportunities, adapting it to a number of application conditions. The 'Manual del usuario del codigo DRAF' here presented is a reference document for the use of the last three versions of the code developed for the 'Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear' between 1995 and 1996. The DRAF model solves the three dimension's solute transport equation for porous media by the finite differences method. It takes into account the advection, dispersion, radioactive decay, and retention in the solid matrix processes, and has multiple possibilities for the source term. There are three versions of the model, two of them for the saturated zone and one for the unsaturated zone. All the versions have been verified in different conditions, and have been applied in exercises of the International Atomic Energy Agency and also in real cases. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of actinide and strontium nuclides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively fast and simple separation procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and strontium radionuclides. Most of the isotopes of these elements are long-lived, pure alpha and beta emitters regarded as 'difficult to determine' ones in the literature. Our major goal was to develop a combined procedure capable for the analysis of all these nuclides in the same sample aliquot so that correlations can be revealed without the errors arising due to inhomogeneity of samples when the radionuclides are determined from different sub-samples. The combined procedure has the advantage that sample destruction becomes simpler and faster, too. The chemical procedure consists of co-precipitations for the pre-concentration of groups of chemically similar elements and extraction chromatographic separations for the purification of individual elements. By means of pre-concentration relatively big samples can be treated offering the possibility of low activity measurements that cannot be performed by analysing small sample amounts. Pre-concentration techniques were always chosen in order to improve the selectivity of the following separation steps. (authors)

  15. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  16. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  17. A comprehensive fuel nuclide analysis at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, H.J.; Koch, L.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of spent fuel can be determined by various methods. They rely partially on different information. Therefore the synopsis of the results of all methods permits a detection of systematic errors and their explanation. Methods for determining the masses of fuel nuclides at the reprocessing input point range from pure calculations (shipper data) to mere experimental determinations (volumetric analysis). In between, a mix of ''fresh'' experimental results and ''historical'' data is used to establish a material balance. Deviations in the results obtained by the individual methods can be attributed to the information source, which is unique for the method in question. The methodology of the approach consists of three steps: by paired comparison of the operator analysis (usually volumetric or gravimetric) with remeasurements the error components are determined on a batch-by-batch basis. Using the isotope correlation technique the operator data as well as the remeasurements are checked on an inter-batch basis for outliers, precision and bias. Systematic errors can be uncovered by inter-lab comparison of remeasurements and confirmed by using historical information. Experience collected during the reprocessing of LWR fuel at two reprocessing plants prove the flexibility and effectiveness of this approach. An example is presented to demonstrate its capability in detecting outliers and determining systematic errors. (author)

  18. PRODUCTION AND RECOIL LOSS OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES IN PRESOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3 He, 6,7 Li, and 21,22 Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3 He and 21 Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2 σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  19. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  20. Separation of mobile long-lived nuclides in a simplified reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1997-01-01

    Enhancing confinement efficiency of long-lived nuclides in a simplified Purex process is the primary subject of our PARC (Partitioning Conundrum Key) R and D project. Nuclides focused here are all susceptible to diffuse into the environment and highly concerned as potential hazard among the long-lived nuclides in spent fuels. New functions in PARC concept are designed to mitigate the environmental impacts of reprocessing wastes and also to improve the economy of reprocessing in the future. Experimental work has been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. (author)

  1. A model on valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fujine, Sachio; Yoshida, Zenko; Maeda, Mitsuru; Motoyama, Satoshi.

    1998-02-01

    A mathematical model was developed to evaluate the valence state of TRU nuclides in reprocessing process solutions. The model consists of mass balance equations, Nernst equations, reaction rate equations and electrically neutrality equations. The model is applicable for the valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in both steady state and transient state conditions in redox equilibrium. The valence state which is difficult to measure under high radiation and multi component conditions is calculated by the model using experimentally measured data for the TRU nuclide concentrations, nitric acid and redox reagent concentrations, electrode potential and solution temperature. (author)

  2. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  3. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...

  4. Effects of soil properties on natural radio-nuclides concentration in arid environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.M.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.; Al-Saif, A.S.; Diab, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from an arid environment in the central region of Saudi Arabia, 28 samples from selected 14 locations in an agricultural farm. Two samples, one from cultivated land and the second from uncultivated land, of the same origin were collected from each location. This work aims at investigating the changes of soil properties due to dry-land use and its effects on naturally occurring radio-nuclides (NOR) concentration and distribution. The specific activity, in Bq/kg, of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 228 gRa ( 232 Th series), 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using calibrated gamma-ray spectrometer. The soil physical and chemical properties [e.g. pH, EC, particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand percentages), CaCO 3 %, soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and soluble anions (CO 3 , HCO 3 , Cl and SO 4 )] were determined. The radium equivalent activity, in Bq/kg, and absorbed dose rate one meter above the ground, in nGy/y, were calculated. Generally, there are not noticeable changes in soil properties due to agricultural activities or strong correlations between soil properties and NOR specific activities. That could be due to the sandy nature of the soil and the effects of adsorption-filtration processes on the behavior and the distribution pattern of NOR in arid environment. Therefore, the environmental impacts of different man-made activities on underground resources should be carefully considered due to the possible filtration behavior of different pollutants in dry-land environment. (author)(tk)

  5. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established

  6. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  7. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  8. Nuclide identifier and grat data reader application for ORIGEN output file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Isnaeni

    2011-01-01

    ORIGEN is a one-group depletion and radioactive decay computer code developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORIGEN takes one-group neutronics calculation providing various nuclear material characteristics (the buildup, decay and processing of radioactive materials). ORIGEN output is a text-based file, ORIGEN output file contains only numbers in the form of group data nuclide, nuclide identifier and grat. This application was created to facilitate data collection nuclide identifier and grat, this application also has a function to acquire mass number data and calculate mass (gram) for each nuclide. Output from these applications can be used for computer code data input for neutronic calculations such as MCNP. (author)

  9. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  10. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  11. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  12. International program to improve decay data for transactinium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmer, R.G.; Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ - and α - emission probabilities for selected transactinium nuclides of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for /sup 232, 233, 235/U, /sup 238, 239, 240, 241/Pu, 229 Th and 233 Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. γ measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235 U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241 Pu and 233 U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 235 U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results. 20 refs

  13. Some notes on experiments measuring diffusion of sorbed nuclides through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Various experimental techniques for measuring the important parameters governing diffusion of sorbed nuclides through water-saturated porous media are described, and the particular parameters obtained from each technique are discussed. Recent experiments in which diffusive transport takes place more rapidly than expected are reviewed. The author recommends that through-transport diffusion experiments are the most satisfactory method of determining whether this arises from surface diffusion of sorbed nuclides. (author)

  14. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  15. The extraction behavior of some noticeable nuclides in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, T.; Sasao, N.; Ozawa, M.; Yamana, H.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction behavior of some TRU nuclides and Ru-106 were investigated on the basis of the process analytical data obtained during this decade of the hot operation in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Some characteristics of their extraction behavior under Tokai-flowsheet became clear. They were explainable by the chemical features of these nuclides in conjunction with the chemical conditions of the process. Some extraction-simulation calculations were performed to supplement the understanding of their characteristic behaviors

  16. Device for determining the gross weight, dose rate, surface contamination and/or nuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Barrels with low nuclide inventories (about 1E6 Bq) and with high inventories (1E13 Bq) are inspected with the barrel inspection system. The system provides a rotating plate, which is part of some scales and a measuring sensor arrangement for this purpose. The surface contamination and nuclide inventories of the 200 litre barrels can be calculated from the weight and radiation detector values. (DG) [de

  17. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  18. Removal of round off errors in the matrix exponential method for solving the heavy nuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many nodal codes for core simulation adopt the micro-depletion procedure for the depletion analysis. Unlike the macro-depletion procedure, the microdepletion procedure uses micro-cross sections and number densities of important nuclides to generate the macro cross section of a spatial calculational node. Therefore, it needs to solve the chain equations of the nuclides of interest to obtain their number densities. There are several methods such as the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the chain linearization method (CLM) for solving the nuclide chain equations. The former solves chain equations exactly even when the cycles that come from the alpha decay exist in the chain while the latter solves the chain approximately when the cycles exist in the chain. The former has another advantage over the latter. Many nodal codes for depletion analysis, such as MASTER, solve only the hard coded nuclide chains with the CLM. Therefore, if we want to extend the chain by adding some more nuclides to the chain, we have to modify the source code. In contrast, we can extend the chain just by modifying the input in the MEM because it is easy to implement the MEM solver for solving an arbitrary nuclide chain. In spite of these advantages of the MEM, many nodal codes adopt the chain linearization because the former has a large round off error when the flux level is very high or short lived or strong absorber nuclides exist in the chain. In this paper, we propose a new technique to remove the round off errors in the MEM and we compared the performance of the two methods

  19. Study of the acceleration of nuclide burnup calculation using GPU with CUDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okui, S.; Ohoka, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The computation costs of neutronics calculation code become higher as physics models and methods are complicated. The degree of them in neutronics calculation tends to be limited due to available computing power. In order to open a door to the new world, use of GPU for general purpose computing, called GPGPU, has been studied [1]. GPU has multi-threads computing mechanism enabled with multi-processors which realize mush higher performance than CPUs. NVIDIA recently released the CUDA language for general purpose computation which is a C-like programming language. It is relatively easy to learn compared to the conventional ones used for GPGPU, such as OpenGL or CG. Therefore application of GPU to the numerical calculation became much easier. In this paper, we tried to accelerate nuclide burnup calculation, which is important to predict nuclides time dependence in the core, using GPU with CUDA. We chose the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method to solve the nuclide burnup equation. The nuclide burnup calculation and the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method were suitable to the first step of introduction CUDA into numerical calculation because these consist of simple operations of matrices and vectors of single precision where actual codes were written in the C++ language. Our experimental results showed that nuclide burnup calculations with GPU have possibility of speedup by factor of 100 compared to that with CPU. (authors)

  20. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  1. Status of determining transuranic nuclides speciation in aqueous solution with laser spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Chen Xi; Long Haoqi; Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about speciation of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution is a basis for understanding the chemical and migration behavior of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution. The speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration is complicated in near neutral aqueous solutions, including change of oxidation state, complexation and colloid generation, etc. The concentrations of transuranium in near neutral aqueous solution usually below the sensitivity range of method such as conventional absorption spectroscopy. The radioactive analysis method has a very low detection limits for radionuclides, however, it wouldn' t allow the direct measurement of the transuranic species. In contrast with these methods, laser spectroscopy is an ideal method with high sensitivity, and non-contact and non-destructive for determining the speciation of transuranic nuclides. This paper summarizes the status and application of LIPAS (Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectrometry), LIBD (Laser-induced Breakdown Detection) and TRLFS (Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectrometry) to determine the speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration in aqueous solutions. (authors)

  2. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  3. Study on sorption capacity of synthetic zeolite for simulated nuclide Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Yi Facheng

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of understanding the functionary order of simulated nuclide Cs + and Synthetic Zeolite (ZF), the sorption equilibrium time and sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF are studied with the intermittence method. The difference of temperature, pH value, Cs + concentration and medium on sorption capacity and sorption ratio are investigated. The results show that the sorption complexion of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF in the same concentration solution are sorption equilibrium quantity in range of 155-190 mg/g in different temperatures and that in range of 165-190 mg/g in different pH values and that in range of 120-210 mg/g in different media; and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is the same to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, but their changing range are wider than that of sorption equilibrium quantity; equilibrium adsorption quantity in range of 180-380 mg/g in different concentration solutions, and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is opposite to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, and more-over, their changing range are wider than that of the sorption equilibrium quantity. Sorption equilibrium time of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF is about ten to fifteen days. So the changing range of sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF with conditions effects is smaller and the sorption equilibrium time is also less and ZF preferably absorbs Cs in radiation wastes and thus consumedly reduces the effect of radwaste on the environment. (authors)

  4. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many sample are

  5. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides 99-109 Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides 112,114-121,123 Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides 114,120,122-124,126,128 Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of 99 Cd and 123 Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of 100 Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119 Ag and 123 Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119 Ag and 123 Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH + ] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass 96 Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of 100 In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of the rp process that will enable a more reliable determination of

  6. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  7. Metrological aspects of radiochemical methods for determining activity of gamma-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the problem of metrological compatibility of the two stages in the radiochemical method of determining the activity of a gamma-emitting nuclide: chemical isolation of the nuclide and radiometric measurement of its activity. The authors show that preparation of the specimen in liquid form provides for important advantages compared with the traditional application of the solid residue onto a flat substate. The work here is of interest for analytical chemists who are involved with determination of the activity of gamma emitting nuclides such as Ru 103, Rh 106, Sn 113, Cs 134, Cs 137, La 140, Ce 141, Ce 144, Hg 203, Na 24, Mn 54, Fe 59, Co 60, Zn 65, Zr 95, and Nb 95, for example, in waste water or in emissions to the atmosphere, with the goal of protecting the environment

  8. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1978-04-01

    An approach to extend the present ORNL sensitivity program to include functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field is developed. An adjoint equation for the nuclide field was derived previously by using generalized perturbation theory; the present derivation makes use of a variational principle and results in the same equation. The physical significance of this equation is discussed and compared to that of the time-dependent neutron adjoint equation. Computational requirements for determining sensitivity profiles and uncertainties for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density vector are developed within the framework of the existing FORSS system; in this way the current capability is significantly extended. The development, testing, and use of an adjoint version of the ORIGEN isotope generation and depletion code are documented. Finally, a sample calculation is given which estimates the uncertainty in the plutonium inventory at shutdown of a PWR due to assumed uncertainties in uranium and plutonium cross sections. 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. Standards of compounds labeled with positron nuclides approved as established techniques for medical use (2001 revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The subcommittee on Medical Application of Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides, Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association, revised the Standards in the title for their manufacturing, quality, manufacturing work environment etc. The facilities must have the individual committee for the organization and its responsibility is for the control and hygiene in manufacturing the nuclides, for the quality control and for the medical use. Based on this, the Standard defined such pharmaceutical items as the general rule; gas agents and injection formulations; test methods involving γ-ray measurement including spectrometry and derived determination, determination with well-type scintillation counter and ionization chamber, method to measure half-time and determination of the nuclide purity; individual definition of [ 18 F]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 15 O gas and 15 O-carbon monoxide and 15 O-carbon dioxide; and guideline of manufacturing the nuclides and its environment involving monitoring and records. (K.H.)

  10. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods: The clinical state of the protection of radioactive 131 I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results: The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion: The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained. (authors)

  11. Systematics of criticality data of special actinide nuclides deduced through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution

  12. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  13. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Nortier, F.M.; Phillips, D.R.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Kitten, J.J.; Pitt, L.R.; Salazar, L.L.; Valdez, F.O.; Peterson, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides 68 Ge, 82 Sr, 109 Cd and 88 Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40 MBq to 75 GBq. (orig.)

  14. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  15. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  16. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, D.; Knapp, V.

    1988-01-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  17. Applications of in situ cosmogenic nuclides in the geologic site characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosse, J.C.; Harrington, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The gradual buildup of rare isotopes from interactions between cosmic rays and atoms in an exposed rock provides a new method of directly determining the exposure age of rock surfaces. The cosmogenic nuclide method can also provide constraints on erosion rates and the length of time surface exposure was interrupted by burial. Numerous successful applications of the technique have been imperative to the complete surface geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high level nuclear waste repository. In this short paper, we summarize the cosmogenic nuclide method and describe with examples some the utility of the technique in geologic site characterization. We report preliminary results from our ongoing work at Yucca Mountain

  18. Aircraft-borne spectrometry - a fast method for nuclide-specific measurement of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Schweiger, M.; Thomas, M.; Endrulat, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    An airworthy gamma spectrometer system for fast and large-area, nuclide-specific measurement of the soil contamination is described. The system encompasses an ultrapure germanium detector combined with a computer-controlled multichannel analyser system. The development from the laboratory system to an industrial-scale measuring system is explained. The practical testing is explained and first results are reported, obtained from measuring flights for the nuclide-specific determination of the soil contamination in the free State of Bavaria. (orig.) [de

  19. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  1. GAUSS VIII: a computer program for the nuclide activity analysis of γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, M.H.; Helmer, R.G.; McCullagh, C.M.

    1985-12-01

    A description is given of a computer program, GAUSS VII, which has been written to determine nuclide or isotopic activities from γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers. The preliminary portion of the program can determine the energy- and width-calibration equations, locate individual peaks and define ''peak regions'' that are significantly above the local spectral background. The user may edit these lists of peaks and regions. Each peak region is fitted with one or more components in which the peaks are represented by a Gaussian function or a Gaussian with one or two additive exponential tails on the low-energy side and one on the high-energy side. A step-like background function can be used with each component. The program will automatically recycle to add one or more components to a region if needed to improve the fit. The γ-ray energies and intensities are computed from the resulting Gaussian positions and peak areas. From a comparison of these peak energies and the γ-ray energies for various nuclides in a nuclide library, the nuclides that may be present are identified. The user may edit this nuclide list. The program identifies secondary γ rays that should be present for these nuclides and obtains peak areas for them, if the areas are not already available. All of the peak areas are then analyzed to obtain the best nuclidic activities. The peak areas for any one nuclide and those for nuclides that have interfering lines are analyzed in one least-squares ft. Nuclides whose activities are essentially 0, and peaks which cannot be accounted for are removed from the analysis. Besides the nuclidic activities, a peak-by-peak summary is provided. This program is intended to analyze large groups of spectra as well as an individual spectrum

  2. Analytic models of nuclide transport in saturated geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Treadway, A.H.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Garner, J.W.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes the TRION Series of computer programs which consists of two major programs, the core program TRION and the performance assessment program SEDTRN, and several special application programs. The results presented in the Derivations and Solutions to the Diffusion Equations section are used in TRION and SEDTRAN and are the basis for some of the special application programs. The solutions are for two-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion with point and line sources, instantaneous and pulse release, sorbtion, a zero-concentration upper sediment boundary simulating the ocean, and either an impermeable lower boundary or an infinitely thick sediment. An array of canisters can be simulated with an impermeable cylindrical boundary around the source

  3. Programme of research into the management and storage of radioactive waste, nuclide migration studies, and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The progress of the work is reported under the headings: nuclide migration studies (nuclide-rock interactions; physico-chemical effects; field experiments; groundwater dating); mathematical modelling (calculation of steady groundwater flow using NAMMU; comparison of thermally and naturally driven flows near a radioactive waste repository; diffusion of radionuclides into a rock matrix; radionuclide migration). (U.K.)

  4. Chemical cycles and health risks of some crustal nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes and utilizes an approach for assessing long term health risks due to dispersion of naturally occurring radionuclide series and chemical toxins by normal and altered landscape chemical cycles. In particular, the health risks resulting from geochemical mobilizations of arsenic, lead, uranium and radium are considered. Based on a review of toxic waste hazard-measures and risk assessment studies, a general expression is developed for quantifying health risks imposed by the introduction of toxic materials to components of the total environment. This general measure deals with long term interactions within and between the internal human environment and the external biogeochemical environment. Health hazards are expressed as dose factors which convert environmental concentrations into a corresponding dose field (organ doses in rad for radionuclides; daily intake for toxic elements). The dose field is translated into population health risk expressed as lifetime cancer risk for carcinogens and average blood levels for other toxins. The landscape cell (or prism) is presented as a tool for visualizing and mapping toxic material cycles near the crustal surface. The overall process is incorporated in the GEOTOX code which is a geochemical systems model for describing the dynamics of crustal toxins within a landscape and the resulting health risks. GEOTOX is used to investigate the response of regional landscapes to increased soil and rock inventories of 238 U, 226 Ra, arsenic and lead. It is found that each decay series of element imposes a hazard by its behavior in the total environment that can not be quantified by a similar measure of toxicity

  5. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  6. Mutagenic effects induced by accumulating rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius in fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Cao Genfa; Sun Baofu

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the correlation between the different ionic radius of rare earths nuclides such as 170 Tm, 152 Eu, 147 Pm and its accumulation peculiarity as well as induction of mutagenic effect on bone marrow cells. The study showed that the accumulation peculiarity of rare earths nuclides will vary with the ionic radius. The results indicated that large ionic radius of 147 Pm was selectively localized in liver in early stage, while small ionic radius of 170 Tm and 152 Eu were deposited in bone predominantly. There was a positive relationship between the incidence of chromosome aberration rates and the absorption dose in skeleton by 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm. Studies indicated that the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the absorption dose in skeleton was increased. Among the type of chromosome aberrations induced by rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius, chromatid breakage was predominant, accompanied with a few chromosome breakage and translocation. At the same time mitosis index of metaphase cells was depressed. Internal contamination of 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm can be induced by some aberrations in one cell. This phenomenon might be due in part to nonuniform irradiation of bone marrow cell with local deposition of these rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius

  7. The role of marine zooplankton in the vertical oceanic transport of alpha-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    This project aims at studying, in quantitative detail, the role played by marine plankton in the vertical oceanic transport of alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyotiphanes norvegica, for which the necessary quantitative biological data are available as a result of previous work in the Monaco Laboratory, has been selected as the typical macrozooplanktonic species which is the focus of this work

  8. Impact of burnable absorber Gd on nuclide composition for VVER-440 fuel (Gd-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Chrapciak, V.

    2010-01-01

    The latest version of Russian fuel VVER-440 includes burnable absorber in 6 pins. In this article is impact of burnable absorber on nuclide composition and criticality analyzed. In part 1 was analyzed whole burnup interval 0-50 MWd/kgU. In present part 2 are detailed analysis only for first cycle (burnup 0-10 MWd/kgU). (Authors)

  9. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelet, C.

    2004-12-01

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li 11 , a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be 11 was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be 14 , an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  10. Stable evaluation methods of neutron-physical characteristics of nuclides on the basis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.G.; Kryanev, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for obtaining estimations of neutron-physical characteristics of nuclides on the basis of stable estimation methods is set forth. The technique presupposes correction of incorrectly determined errors of measurements and disclosure of systematic errors with their succeeding accountancy. A system of orthogonal polynomials is used as approximating functional dependence. The technique is also generalized at the presence of correlation between measurements

  11. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.

    1970-01-01

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ( 238 U and 232 Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10 25 neutrons /cm 2 . Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10 10 atoms of 257Fm, which is 10 2 times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., : 254 Cf, 251 Cf, 255 -Es, and 250 Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of 298 114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  12. WebCN: A web-based computation tool for in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiuzeng [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)]. E-mail: hongju@purdue.edu; Li Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bourgeois, Mike [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Caffee, Marc [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Elmore, David [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Granger, Darryl [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Muzikar, Paul [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Smith, Preston [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cosmogenic nuclide techniques are increasingly being utilized in geoscience research. For this it is critical to establish an effective, easily accessible and well defined tool for cosmogenic nuclide computations. We have been developing a web-based tool (WebCN) to calculate surface exposure ages and erosion rates based on the nuclide concentrations measured by the accelerator mass spectrometry. WebCN for {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al has been finished and published at http://www.physics.purdue.edu/primelab/for{sub u}sers/rockage.html. WebCN for {sup 36}Cl is under construction. WebCN is designed as a three-tier client/server model and uses the open source PostgreSQL for the database management and PHP for the interface design and calculations. On the client side, an internet browser and Microsoft Access are used as application interfaces to access the system. Open Database Connectivity is used to link PostgreSQL and Microsoft Access. WebCN accounts for both spatial and temporal distributions of the cosmic ray flux to calculate the production rates of in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides at the Earth's surface.

  13. Production and Separation of T = 1/2 Nuclides for {beta}--{nu} angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P.; Bajeat, O.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Stora, T. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Collaboration: GANISOL Group

    2011-11-30

    The SPIRAL facility at GANIL, which uses the so-called ISOL method to produce radioactive ion beams, is being upgraded to extend its production capabilities to the metallic beams of neutron deficient isotopes. We discuss here the potentialities offered by this upgrade for the measurement of the {beta}--{nu} angular correlation in the {beta}--decay of mirror nuclides.

  14. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  15. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232 Th, 238 U, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238 U, and stable isotope ( 133 Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes ( 137 Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium ( 88 Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232 Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238 U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88 Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137 Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  16. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  17. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Sert, G.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. Additionally, the total fissile nuclide mass per consignment of excepted packages was limited in the 1996 edition of the regulations (a conveyance limit is preliminary supported in the 2003 revision). The proposed changes of the rules have to take this new control into account. The European Community (DGTREN) decided to fund a project related to this subject. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the authors of the study decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL, SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, JENDL, etc.). This article presents the work achieved and gives propositions of modification for the IAEA requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, and secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials. The participants acknowledge the DGTREN who made this work possible due to its support. (author)

  18. Method of estimating the sensitivity of a calculated nuclide vector to deviations in initial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1998-12-01

    The application of perturbation theory algorithms in modelling of nuclides transmutation is considered. The perturbation theory is used to construct the analytical technique of sensitivity analysis. It is shown that such algorithms have to be used in modelling of lifetime performance of nuclear power installations with the Monte Carlo method. The present approach differs from others by consistent use of analytical methods. (author)

  19. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  20. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, R W; Hulet, E K [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10{sup 25} neutrons /cm{sup 2}. Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10{sup 10} atoms of 257Fm, which is 10{sup 2} times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., :{sup 254}Cf, {sup 251}Cf, {sup 255}-Es, and {sup 250}Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of {sup 298}114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  1. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  2. A new estimation method for nuclide number densities in equilibrium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshihira.

    1997-01-01

    A new method is proposed for estimating nuclide number densities of LWR equilibrium cycle by multi-recycling calculation. Conventionally, it is necessary to spend a large computation time for attaining the ultimate equilibrium state. Hence, the cycle in nearly constant fuel composition has been considered as an equilibrium state which can be achieved by a few of recycling calculations on a simulated cycle operation under a specific fuel core design. The present method uses steady state fuel nuclide number densities as the initial guess for multi-recycling burnup calculation obtained by a continuously fuel supplied core model. The number densities are modified to be the initial number densities for nuclides of a batch supplied fuel. It was found that the calculated number densities could attain to more precise equilibrium state than that of a conventional multi-recycling calculation with a small number of recyclings. In particular, the present method could give the ultimate equilibrium number densities of the nuclides with the higher mass number than 245 Cm and 244 Pu which were not able to attain to the ultimate equilibrium state within a reasonable number of iterations using a conventional method. (author)

  3. Nuclide migration and the environmental radiochemistry of Florida phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Elzerman, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum, a waste by-product derived from the wet process production of phosphoric acid, represents one of the most serious problems facing the phosphate industry today. This by-product gypsum precipitates during the reaction of sulfuric acid with phosphate rock and is stored at a rate of about 40 million tons per year on several stacks in central and northern Florida. The main problem associated with this material concerns the relatively high levels of natural uranium-series radionuclides and other impurities which could impact the environment and which makes its commercial use impossible. We have studied the potential release of radionuclides from phosphogypsum by: (i) analysis of stack fluids, groundwaters, and soils associated with gypsum stacks; and (ii) geochemical modeling via MINTEQA2. Stack fluids were observed to be very high in dissolved uranium and 210 Pb with only moderate concentrations of 226 Ra. Underlying soils tend to be enriched in U and 210 Pb indicating precipitation when acidic stack fluids enter a buffered environment. Modeling results showed significant increases in radionuclide complexes with sulfate and phosphate, resulting in relatively mobile uncharged or negatively charged solution species within the stacks. On the other hand, precipitation of multicomponent solids would be expected with increasing pH below the stack. Our evidence thus suggests that while phosphogypsum stacks do contain significant quantities of dissolved radionuclides, removal mechanisms appear to prevent large scale migration of radionuclides to the underlying aquifer. (author)

  4. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  5. Infinite series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a rigorous approach that also emphasizes applications. Encompassing more than the usual amount of material on the problems of computation with series, the treatment offers many applications, including those related to the theory of special functions. Numerous problems appear throughout the book.The first chapter introduces the elementary theory of infinite series, followed by a relatively complete exposition of the basic properties of Taylor series and Fourier series. Additional subjects include series of functions and the app

  6. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  7. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  8. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an insignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Parameters for several plutonium nuclides and 252Cf of safeguards interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Holden, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sets of the neutron emission multiplicity distribution gleaned from the literature for plutonium nuclides and 252 Cf are considered. A methodology for rendering the different sets comparable is presented and used to convert the sets to a common basis such that the differences can be evaluated objectively and that allows realistic estimate of the uncertainties. This in turn permits development of a canonical consensus set in certain instances. Evaluated data on the average neutron multiplicity, the total half-lives, and the half-lives for spontaneous fission are also given. A careful search of the literature reveals that the data on neutron multiplicity distributions for many nuclides is surprisingly sparse, considering that almost thirty years has elapsed since the original pioneering work, which in some cases, yield the only reported value. 93 references, 26 tables

  12. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  13. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, V.S. E-mail: vlkondra@cdrewu.edu; Rothenberg, S.J.; Petersone, I

    2001-09-11

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP.

  14. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  15. A rational approximation to Reich-Moore collision matrix of non-fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The cross sections of many important nuclides are represented in Reich-Moore (RM) formalism in the recent American Evaluated Nuclear Data file, ENDF/B-VI. Processing of cross sections with RM resonance parameters is much more difficult than the other multilevel formalisms such as MLBW and Adler-Adler. In this paper, we derive a rational approximation to the RM collision matrix in the vicinity of a resonance. This simplifies the cross section processing. The energy range of the validity of this approximation in the vicinity of a resonance is also derived. Choosing Ni 58 as an example, results of our approximation for a non-fissile nuclide are given for two typical s-wave resonances. Our rational approximation method is found to work with good accuracies in the vicinity of resonances

  16. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  17. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  18. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  19. An Ilustrative Nuclide Release Behavior from an HLW Repository due to an Earthquake Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Program for the evaluation of a high-level waste repository which is conceptually modeled. During the last few years, programs developed with the aid of AMBER and GoldSim by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios could be modeled and evaluated, have been continuously demonstrated. To show its usability, as similarly done for the natural groundwater flow scheme, influence of a possible disruptive event on a nuclide release behavior from an HLW repository system caused naturally due to an earthquake has been investigated and illustrated with the newly developed GoldSim program

  20. Light nuclides observed in the fission and fragmentation of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Benlliure, J.

    2001-05-01

    Light nuclides produced in collisions of 1 A.GeV 238 U with protons and titanium have been fully identified with a high-resolution forward magnetic spectrometer, the fragment separator (FRS), at GSI, and for each nuclide an extremely precise determination of the velocity has been performed. The so-obtained information on the velocity shows that the very asymmetric fission of uranium, in the 238 U + p reaction, produces neutron-rich isotopes of elements down to around charge 10. New important features of the fragmentation of 238 U, concerning the velocity and the N/Z-ratio of these light fragments, and a peculiar even-odd structure in N=Z nuclei, have also been observed. (orig.)

  1. Estimating cumulative soil accumulation rates with in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical model relating spatially averaged rates of cumulative soil accumulation and hillslope erosion to cosmogenic nuclide distribution in depth profiles is presented. Model predictions are compared with cosmogenic 21 Ne and AMS radiocarbon data from soils of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Rates of soil accumulation and hillslope erosion estimated by cosmogenic 21 Ne are significantly lower than rates indicated by radiocarbon and regional soil-geomorphic studies. The low apparent cosmogenic erosion rates are artifacts of high nuclide inheritance in cumulative soil parent material produced from erosion of old soils on hillslopes. In addition, 21 Ne profiles produced under conditions of rapid accumulation (>0.1 cm/a) are difficult to distinguish from bioturbated soil profiles. Modeling indicates that while 10 Be profiles will share this problem, both bioturbation and anomalous inheritance can be identified with measurement of in situ-produced 14 C

  2. The production of residual nuclides in Pb irradiated by 400 MeV/u carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, H.L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, F., E-mail: mf@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Ju, Y.Q.; Zhang, H.B.; Chen, L.; Luo, P. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Y.B.; Li, J.Y.; Xu, J.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, T.J. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Y.W.; Yang, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The experiment was performed by irradiating a Pb foil with 400 MeV/u carbon beam at the HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, China. The experimental data was acquired by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. 32 radioactive residual nuclides had been observed and their cross sections were determined. The measured results were compared with the results simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.7.0. The comparison shows that the simulated cross sections were underestimated for the fragments from A = 20 to 41 and A = 110 to 175. By fitting the measured and simulated cross sections to Rudstams semi-empirical formula, it was found that the charge distribution of products was asymmetric for the residual nuclides with a high mass number.

  3. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field

  4. Analysis of nuclide transport under natural convection and time dependent boundary condition using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    After implementation of TOUGH2 at GRS in summer 91, it was first used to analyse the gas transport in a repository for the nuclear waste with negligible heat generation and to verify the results obtained with ECLIPSE/JAV 92/. Since the original version of TOUGH2 does not directly simulate the decay of radionuclide and the time dependent boundary conditions, it is not a appropriate tool to study the nuclide transport in a porous medium/PRU 87, PRU 91/. Hence, in this paper some modifications are proposed to study the nuclide transport under combined influence of natural convection diffusion, dispersion and time dependent boundary condition. Here, a single phase fluid with two liquid components is considered as in equation of state model for water and brine/PRU 91A/.

  5. Determination and declaration of critical nuclide inventories in Belgian NPP radwaste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, A.; Centner, B.; Beguin, P.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear power plants (NPPs) managed by ELECTRABEL are located at the Doel (4 units) and the Tihange (3 units) sites and have a total capacity of 5700 MW(e). All the units are of the PWR type. Taking into account the need for retrievability and reliability of all requested waste data, the operator ELECTRABEL has subcontracted a complete study to the engineering company TRACTEBEL ENERGY ENGINEERING (TEE) in order to elaborate a computer code for the determination of critical nuclides in the different waste streams. This program should guarantee retrievability and reliability of all information related to the waste packages produced at the NPP. Two computer codes, LLWAA and DECL, have therefore been developed by TEE. The first code (LLWAA: low level waste activity assessment code), enables to predict the global inventories and/or the scaling factors of the critical nuclides in the conditioned and in the non-conditioned waste generated by the operation of a PWR. This code is site-specific as it takes into account the plant design characteristics and operating conditions. A version for BWR plants is under development. The second code 'DECL', deals mainly with the complete database management of each waste package produced in order to guarantee full retrievability. LLWAA and DECL are implemented as an integrated software package called 'DECLARE' at the sites of Doel and Tihange. Furthermore, the LLWAA-code has been extended for the determination of the critical nuclides activities in ashes produced by incineration (LLWAA-Ashes) and for the assessment of the critical nuclides activities deposited on equipment of the nuclear auxiliary systems (LLWAA-Decom). (author)

  6. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  7. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A.; Manturov, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  8. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  9. Importance of individual fission nuclide to incontainment radioactive reading during PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Shi Zhongqi

    2004-01-01

    Containment radiation level is one of the most important base for core damage assessment and protective actions recommendation during accidents. Incontainment radioactive reading calculations is the precondition of using this kind of method. Importance of individual nuclides were compared during normal coolant release, gap release and core melt. Conclusions are deduced that when the spray is off, the radioactive reading in containment is mainly from iodine and noble gas, and the spray is on, the radioactive reading is mainly from noble gas. (authors)

  10. Details of modelling HTR core physics: the use of pseudo nuclide traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Da Cruz, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    At present most combined neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of reactors, and the HTR is no exception, are being performed by codes employing few-group (typically 2-group) neutronics on the basis of parametrized few-group macroscopic (and microscopic) cross sections for homogenized areas, depending on quantities like irradiation (fuel only), 135 Xe concentration, temperature, etc. The irradiation parameter (time-integrated power per unit initial heavy metal mass) is sufficient for keeping track of the evolution of areas containing fuel. However, the use of the same parameter in areas without fuel, e.g. containing burnable poison, requires some special provisions. This can be met by the introduction of pseudo nuclides, with very specific cross sections and reaction chains, in the procedure to generate the parametrized few-group cross sections. It is shown that the time-evolution of a non-fuelled burnable poison area, as calculated by the 2-group (HTR) reactor code PANTHERMIX employing pseudo nuclides, compares well to the time-evolution obtained from an explicit burnup calculation by the WIMS8A/SNAP code. Examples are also shown using the pseudo nuclide method to keep track of the fast fluence (time-integrated flux above 0.1 MeV) in a continuous reload pebble-bed HTR reactor calculation by PANTHERMIX. Although the present implementation of the pseudo nuclide method exhibits some peculiarities connected to the specific codes in use (WIMS8A and PANTHERMIX) it is considered to be sufficiently general to be applicable in other code suites, requiring only limited modifications. (authors)

  11. Details of modelling HTR core physics: the use of pseudo nuclide traces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    At present most combined neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of reactors, and the HTR is no exception, are being performed by codes employing few-group (typically 2-group) neutronics on the basis of parametrized few-group macroscopic (and microscopic) cross sections for homogenized areas, depending on quantities like irradiation (fuel only), {sup 135}Xe concentration, temperature, etc. The irradiation parameter (time-integrated power per unit initial heavy metal mass) is sufficient for keeping track of the evolution of areas containing fuel. However, the use of the same parameter in areas without fuel, e.g. containing burnable poison, requires some special provisions. This can be met by the introduction of pseudo nuclides, with very specific cross sections and reaction chains, in the procedure to generate the parametrized few-group cross sections. It is shown that the time-evolution of a non-fuelled burnable poison area, as calculated by the 2-group (HTR) reactor code PANTHERMIX employing pseudo nuclides, compares well to the time-evolution obtained from an explicit burnup calculation by the WIMS8A/SNAP code. Examples are also shown using the pseudo nuclide method to keep track of the fast fluence (time-integrated flux above 0.1 MeV) in a continuous reload pebble-bed HTR reactor calculation by PANTHERMIX. Although the present implementation of the pseudo nuclide method exhibits some peculiarities connected to the specific codes in use (WIMS8A and PANTHERMIX) it is considered to be sufficiently general to be applicable in other code suites, requiring only limited modifications. (authors)

  12. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons.

  13. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Galiano, G.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  14. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Fernandez Martinez, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs

  15. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin

    2013-01-01

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H 2 O 2 and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons

  16. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Recommended values are presented for 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 243 Am, 242 Cm, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 247 Cm, 248 Cm, and 250 Cm. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values

  17. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  18. Nuclide transport models for HLW repository safety assessment in Finland, Japan, Sweden, and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Gi; Koh, Won Il

    1997-10-01

    Disposal and design concepts in such countries as Sweden, Finland, Canada and Japan which have already published safety assessment reports for the HLW repositories have been reviewed mainly in view of nuclide transport models used in their assessment. This kind of review would be very helpful in doing similar research in Korea where research program regarding HLW has been just started. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs

  19. Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs

  20. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  1. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  2. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  3. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  4. Modeling the nuclide migration and dose estimating using GoldSim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Nuclide migration of the high-level waste (HLW) repository in the near-and far-field as well as a transport through a biosphere under reference scenario has been modeled by utilizing GoldSim. The concept design of engineered barrier system (EBS), geosphere and biosphere characteristics are derived from H12 in Japan. The calculated results are consistent with H12 report, which can be considered as technical basis for the safety assessment of China HLW disposal. (authors)

  5. Effect of local burn-up variation on computed mean nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1982-01-01

    Mean concentrations of U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 in some volume areas of WWER-440 fuel assemblies have been calculated from corresponding burn-up microdistribution data and compared with those calculated from burn-up mean values. Differences occurring were below 3% for the uranium nuclides but, at low burn-ups, considerable for Pu-241 and Pu-242. (author)

  6. Neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in JENDL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Igarasi, Sin-iti; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Iijima, Shungo.

    1981-02-01

    This is the final report concerning the evaluated neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in the first version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-1). These 28 nuclides were selected as being most important for fast reactor calculations, and are 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 95 Mo, 97 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 102 Ru, 103 Rh, 104 Ru, 105 Pd, 106 Ru, 107 Pd, 109 Ag, 129 I, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 143 Nd, 144 Ce, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 147 Pm, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 151 Sm, 153 Eu and 155 Eu. The status of the experimental data was reviewed over the whole energy range. The present evaluation was performed on the basis of the measured data with the aid of theoretical calculations. The optical and statical models were used for evaluation of the smooth cross sections. An improved method was developed in treating the multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the resonance region. Various physical parameters and the level schemes, adopted in the present work are discussed by comparing with those used in the other evaluations such as ENDF/B-IV, CEA, CNEN-2 and RCN-2. Furthermore, the evaluation method and results are described in detail for each nuclide. The evaluated total, capture and inelastic scattering cross sections are compared with the other evaluated data and some recent measured data. Some problems of the present work are pointed out and ways of their improvement are suggested. (author)

  7. Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Resarch and Utilization Division (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Condensed Matter Science Division, Sector of Nuclear Science Research (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 40}K, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 174}Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three nuclides, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 61}Ni, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 119}Sn, {sup 125}Te, {sup 127}I, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 189}Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available nuclides and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.

  8. Lake-0: A model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to enter the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to outflow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the bottom sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree 21 minute N, 03 degree 00 minute W at 65 m. asl.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (54 degree 21 minute 5'N, 03 degree, 18 minute W at 230 m. asl.)

  9. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs.

  10. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs

  11. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-01-01

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy

  13. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  14. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  15. Development and application of the generator for the short-living nuclides production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsejner, A.

    1979-01-01

    The results are stated of investigations by means of radioisotopes on the substance transfer in technological equipment. For these purposes, in most cases, nuclides with high gamma-activity are used and, if possible, having short half-life because the short half-life gives certain advantages in the cases when it is impossible to store radioactive substances in the technological equipment for a long time. It is noted that in connection with short half-life of the nucludes used for labelling and for the economic and radiation safety reasons, activity of these nuclides can not be high. It has been established that the most suitable nuclide for the labelling purpose is lanthanum-140 produced either in a nuclear reactor, or by means of separation from barium=-140 transforming into lanthanum-140 in an isotopic generator. Some methods of lanthanum separation from barium are described, in particular, in the isotopic generator described, barium is adsorbed on the cation-exchanger KPS-200 having high enough stability with respect to the ionozing radiations. As an eluent the 10 -2 M solution of the complexone (Na 2 - EDTA) was used. The complexone solution can be easely obtained and, because of the hydrolysis, it serves as a buffer solution. The data are given for radiation purity and yield of lanthanum-=140 [ru

  16. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  17. Geochemistry of plutonium and of uranium and thorium series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico. Summary of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A summary outline of research on plutonium and naturally occurring radionuclides in the Gulf of Mexico and its contributing rivers is presented. Analytical procedures have been established; river sediments, river water, and marine sediments have been extensively sampled and analyzed for radionuclides and geochemically significant stable elements

  18. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Y.; Sato, J. [Meiji Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Radiation Safety Research Center

    2011-07-01

    Activity ratios among {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan, were observed in order to estimate the time scale of magmatic processes and the magma generation for Izu arc volcanism. Activity ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the basaltic and andesitic products from Izu arc volcanoes were greater than unity, being enriched in {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra relative to {sup 230}Th. The {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th activity ratio versus {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th activity ratio diagram for these products showed positive correlation, suggesting that the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra disequilibria occurred during the magma genesis by the additions of U- and Ra-rich fluids derived from the subducting slab by dehydration to the mantle wedge. The {sup 230}Th-{sup 226226}Ra radioactive disequilibria observed in the basaltic and andesitic products imply a short period of time (<8000 years) between the magma genesis and the eruption. The majority of rhyolitic products was considered to be almost in equilibrium of {sup 238}U={sup 230}Th={sup 226}Ra. The observation that {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra for the rhyolite are in radioactive equilibrium suggested that the rhyolitic magma from Izu arc was generated in the partial melting of the earth crust heated by the basaltic magma of high temperature. (orig.)

  19. Analogue studies in the alligator rivers region. In-situ measurement of uranium series nuclides with SHRIMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sato, Tsutomu; Isobe, Hiroshi; Williams, I.S.; Zaw, M.; Payne, T.E.; Airey, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    The SHRIMP analyses have been conducted for rock samples from the Koongarra secondary ore deposit to obtain activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and isotopic ratios of {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 204}Pb/{sup 206}Pb. Target minerals for the analyses were iron minerals and kaolinite, which are the main weathering products in this area. The activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U were obtained based on counts at masses of uranium metal. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios based on counts of uranium oxides were not appropriate, because count rates of {sup 234}U{sup 16}O were interfered by those of {sup 238}U{sup 12}C molecule. The activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U were approximately unity for crystalline iron nodules. This fact suggested that the mean residence time of uranium within the iron nodules was at least 1 million years. On the other hand, slightly higher values than unity were obtained for kaolinite. Lead isotopes were investigated and a positive relationship was recognized between {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 204}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios. (author)

  20. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  1. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (ES)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases. (orig.)

  2. Nuclide transport of decay chain in the fractured rock medium: a model using continuous time Markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younmyoung Lee; Kunjai Lee

    1995-01-01

    A model using continuous time Markov process for nuclide transport of decay chain of arbitrary length in the fractured rock medium has been developed. Considering the fracture in the rock matrix as a finite number of compartments, the transition probability for nuclide from the transition intensity between and out of the compartments is represented utilizing Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, with which the expectation and the variance of nuclide distribution for the fractured rock medium could be obtained. A comparison between continuous time Markov process model and available analytical solutions for the nuclide transport of three decay chains without rock matrix diffusion has been made showing comparatively good agreement. Fittings with experimental breakthrough curves obtained with nonsorbing materials such as NaLS and uranine in the artificial fractured rock are also made. (author)

  3. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  4. Role of Core-collapse Supernovae in Explaining Solar System Abundances of p Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglio, C.; Rauscher, T.; Heger, A.; Pignatari, M.; West, C.

    2018-02-01

    The production of the heavy stable proton-rich isotopes between 74Se and 196Hg—the p nuclides—is due to the contribution from different nucleosynthesis processes, activated in different types of stars. Whereas these processes have been subject to various studies, their relative contributions to Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) are still a matter of debate. Here we investigate for the first time the nucleosynthesis of p nuclides in GCE by including metallicity and progenitor mass-dependent yields of core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) into a chemical evolution model. We used a grid of metallicities and progenitor masses from two different sets of stellar yields and followed the contribution of ccSNe to the Galactic abundances as a function of time. In combination with previous studies on p-nucleus production in thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa), and using the same GCE description, this allows us to compare the respective roles of SNeIa and ccSNe in the production of p-nuclei in the Galaxy. The γ process in ccSN is very efficient for a wide range of progenitor masses (13 M ⊙–25 M ⊙) at solar metallicity. Since it is a secondary process with its efficiency depending on the initial abundance of heavy elements, its contribution is strongly reduced below solar metallicity. This makes it challenging to explain the inventory of the p nuclides in the solar system by the contribution from ccSNe alone. In particular, we find that ccSNe contribute less than 10% of the solar p nuclide abundances, with only a few exceptions. Due to the uncertain contribution from other nucleosynthesis sites in ccSNe, such as neutrino winds or α-rich freeze out, we conclude that the light p-nuclides 74Se, 78Kr, 84Sr, and 92Mo may either still be completely or only partially produced in ccSNe. The γ-process accounts for up to twice the relative solar abundances for 74Se in one set of stellar models and 196Hg in the other set. The solar abundance of the heaviest p nucleus 196Hg is

  5. An accuracy estimation on neutron penetration calculation through concrete shield with PALLAS codes using bunched component nuclides of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Nobuo; Kotegawa, Hiroshi

    1984-11-01

    In order to improve computational efficiency of PALLAS code, an accuracy is estimated on the neutron penetration calculation through a concrete shield, using bunched component nuclides of concrete. The calculated fast neutron flux is observed to depend weakly on how the nuclides are bunched. Contrary to this, the calculated thermal neutron fluxes are strongly dependent on the manner of bunching, mainly due to the fact that iron cross section has exceptionally large negative sensitivity to thermal neutron flux. (author)

  6. Quantifying Quaternary Deformation in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes Using Cosmogenic Nuclide Geochronology and Fluvial Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, E.; Taylor, M. H.; Veloza-fajardo, G.; Mora, A.

    2014-12-01

    Northwest South America is actively deforming through the interaction between the Nazca, South American, and Caribbean plates. Though the Colombian Andes are well studied, much uncertainty remains in the rate of Quaternary deformation along the east directed frontal thrust faults hundreds of kilometers in board from the subduction zones. The eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera (EC) preserve deformed landforms, allowing us to quantify incision rates. Using 10Be in-situ terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) geochronology, we dated 2 deformed fluvial terraces in the hanging wall of the Guaicaramo thrust fault. From the 10Be concentration and terrace profile relative to local base level, we calculated incision rates. We present a reconstructed slip history of the Guaicaramo thrust fault and its Quaternary slip rate. Furthermore, to quantify the regional Quaternary deformation, we look at the fluvial response to tectonic uplift. Approximately 20 streams along the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera (EC) were studied using a digital elevation model (DEM). From the DEM, longitudinal profiles were created and normalized channel steepness (Ksn) values calculated from plots of drainage area vs. slope. Knickpoints in the longitudinal profiles can record transient perturbations or differential uplift. Calculated Ksn values indicate that the EC is experiencing high rates of uplift, with the highest mean Ksn values occurring in the Cocuy region. Mean channel steepness values along strike of the foothills are related to increasing uplift rates from south to north. In contrast, we suggest that high channel steepness values in the south appear to be controlled by high rates of annual precipitation.

  7. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The numerical values of the authorised limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of BPM. As a 'back-stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population -the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. During 1989 some small changes took place in our discharge patterns, our environmental monitoring and in the assessment of critical group doses. These changes are discussed in the introductions to the two parts of this report where the relevant Authorisations are also discussed. This report, the fifth of our annual series, has as its aim the provision, to the general public, of full information on discharges from the SGHWR reactor and other smaller sources at Winfrith and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Some improvements in presentation have been made. The data, mainly provided graphically in the main text, are still compared with authorised limits or derived levels, but numerical values are now given. The graphs refer to specifically authorised radio-nuclides e.g. tritium, rather than to gross activity. Previous reports were restricted to monitoring at the site boundary and to off-site monitoring. Some data are now given in the report for on-site monitoring. (author)

  8. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  9. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  10. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  11. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  12. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  13. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  14. Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A high-accuracy analytical method for solving the depletion equations for chains of radioactive nuclides is based on the formulation of depletion functions. When all the arguments of the depletion function are too close to each other, series expansions of the depletion function have to be used. However, the high-accuracy series expressions for the depletion functions of high index become too complicated. Recursion relations are derived which enable an efficient high-accuracy evaluation of the depletion functions with high indices. (orig.) [de

  15. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  16. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  17. Transfer of nuclides from the water phase to the sediments during normal and extraordinary hydrological cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Atucha I and Atucha II nuclear power plants are located on the right margin of the Parana de las Palmas river. This river belongs to the Cuenca del Plata, whose 1982-1983 hydrologic cycle registered the greatest freshets of the century. Works and studies previously fixed had to be altered and investigations were adapted to the possibilities and the particular hydric conditions verified. Considerations on the transfer of nuclides between water and sediments are presented. The floods reduce the water-sediments contact time on the bed of the river. In outer areas, the waters labelled by the nuclear power plant effluent discharge favor the infiltration in alluvial soils, as well as the exchange with the sediments. The investigations carried out for the phase near to the discharge of liquid effluents (related to the critical group) made possible to prove the characteristics of the path of the liquid wastes released, the distribution coefficient and the fixation or penetrability of some nuclides in soils of the floody valley. In this manner, a balance of radioactive nuclides incorporated to soils and sediments from the neighbourhood of Atucha and the water-course of Parana de las Palmas river is obtained. The presence of 60 Co and 137 Cs in the floody soils on the right margin of this river was detected and measured during the greatest flood of the century. On the other hand, 144 Ce, 51 Cr, 106 Ru and 90 Sr have not been detected. The detection of artificial radioisotopes turns out to be impossible in normal hydrological years, even in the sorroundings of the nuclear power plant or the critical group (from the point of view of the surface waters, The Fishing Club, 3 km down stream). (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K A; Hagsgaard, S [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  19. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S.; Swensson, A.

    1966-11-01

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the β γ-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other β γ-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier

  20. Statistical effects in beta-delayed neutron emission from fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The delayed neutron spectra for the precursors Rb-93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and Cs-145 were measured by use of the on-line isotope separator facility TRISTAN and a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. Flight paths were used that provided, for energies below 70 keV, a FWHM energy resolution between 2 and 4 percent. Each spectrum showed discrete neutron peaks below 156 keV, with as many as 26 in the Rb-95 spectra. Level densities near the neutron binding energy in the neutron-emitting nuclide were deduced using a missing-level indicator based on a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron peak intensities. The resulting level density data were compared to the predictions of the Gilbert and Cameron formulism and to those of Dilg, Schantl, Vonach and Uhl. Comparisons were made between the empirically-based level parameter a and the values predicted by each model for Sr-93, 94, 95, 97 and Ba-145. The two models appear, within the uncertainties, to be equally capable of describing these neutron-rich nuclides and equally as capable for them as they are for nuclides in the valley of beta stability. Measurements of the neutron strength function are sometimes possible with the present TOF system for neutron decays with competing neutron branches to levels in the grandchild nucleus. A value for the d-wave strength function of Sr-96 is found to be (4.2 +- 1.1)/10 4 . Improvements in the TOF system, allowing the measurement of the neutron strength function for the more general case, are discussed. 72 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclides in thermonuclear supernovae determined by Monte Carlo variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Rauscher, T.; Hirschi, R.; Murphy, A. St J.; Cescutti, G.; Travaglio, C.

    2018-03-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae originating from the explosion of a white dwarf accreting mass from a companion star have been suggested as a site for the production of p nuclides. Such nuclei are produced during the explosion, in layers enriched with seed nuclei coming from prior strong s processing. These seeds are transformed into proton-richer isotopes mainly by photodisintegration reactions. Several thousand trajectories from a 2D explosion model were used in a Monte Carlo approach. Temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned individually to thousands of rates varied simultaneously in post-processing in an extended nuclear reaction network. The uncertainties in the final nuclear abundances originating from uncertainties in the astrophysical reaction rates were determined. In addition to the 35 classical p nuclides, abundance uncertainties were also determined for the radioactive nuclides 92Nb, 97, 98Tc, 146Sm, and for the abundance ratios Y(92Mo)/Y(94Mo), Y(92Nb)/Y(92Mo), Y(97Tc)/Y(98Ru), Y(98Tc)/Y(98Ru), and Y(146Sm)/Y(144Sm), important for Galactic Chemical Evolution studies. Uncertainties found were generally lower than a factor of 2, although most nucleosynthesis flows mainly involve predicted rates with larger uncertainties. The main contribution to the total uncertainties comes from a group of trajectories with high peak density originating from the interior of the exploding white dwarf. The distinction between low-density and high-density trajectories allows more general conclusions to be drawn, also applicable to other simulations of white dwarf explosions.

  2. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, 233 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs

  3. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  4. ENDF/B-IV fission-product files: summary of major nuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    The major fission-product parameters [sigma/sub th/, RI, tau/sub 1/2/, E-bar/sub β/, E-bar/sub γ/, E-bar/sub α/, decay and (n,γ) branching, Q, and AWR] abstracted from ENDF/B-IV files for 824 nuclides are summarized. These data are most often requested by users concerned with reactor design, reactor safety, dose, and other sundry studies. The few known file errors are corrected to date. Tabular data are listed by increasing mass number

  5. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  6. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13 C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  7. The preparation and application of carbon-11 nuclide and its PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-11 is a valuable positron nuclide, for it can be used to replace carbon atom at specific position inside the organic molecules and not change the molecular biochemistry character. Carbon-11 has wide application in the labeling of amino acids, fatty acids, receptor-ligand and neurotransmitter molecular etc, which are used for detecting the blood flow, metabolism, the synthesis of protein and the neurotransmitter function in brain by PET imaging. It is very important in basic science and clinical research to understand and master the preparation of carbon-11 and its labeled compounds

  8. Calculation of nuclide inventory, decay power, activity and dose rates for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakansson, Rune

    2000-03-01

    The nuclide inventory was calculated for a BWR and a PWR fuel element, with burnups of 38 and 55 MWd/kg uranium for the BWR fuel, and 42 and 60 MWd/kg uranium for the PWR fuel. The calculations were performed for decay times of up to 300,000 years. Gamma and neutron dose rates have been calculated at a distance of 1 m from a bare fuel element and outside the spent fuel canister. The calculations were performed using the CASMO-4 code

  9. Progress of nuclide tracing technique in the study of soil erosion in recent decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Yang Mingyi; Liu Puling; Tian Junliang

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade nuclide tracing technique has been widely employed in the investigation of soil erosion, which makes the studies of soil erosion into a new and rapid development period. This paper tried to review the recent progress of using 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex , 7 Be, composite tracers and REE-INAA in soil erosion rate, sedimentation rate, sediment source and soil erosion processes study, and also the existing research results. The trends for future development and questions are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  11. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Application and evolution of several therapy nuclides labelled antibody in tumour therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Guanquan

    2004-12-01

    Radiolabeled Monoclonal antibody had a lot of merits, such as decreasing the lesion because of the external exposure to normal tissue and the whole body, destroying cancer cells which McAb could not reach, and little ornamentation effect by Antigen. Therefor, it gradually became a kind of guiding therapy method which endowed with practical value. Up to now, the radionuclides which be used for tumour radioimmunotherapy included mostly 131 I, 90 Y, 188 Re, 186 Re, 153 Sm, 211 At, et al. The application and evolution of several therapy nuclides labelled antibody in tumour therapy are in troduced. (authors)

  13. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liao Haitao; Wang Chunhong; Chen Ling; Liu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  14. Hazards of radioactive nuclide and their migration and repair research status in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuting

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic and comprehensive introduction of the source of the radionuclides in the environment and the harm it brings to human and ecological environment. Furthermore, It summarizes the basic nature and environmental characteristics of three typical nuclides, which are 235 U, 131 I, 90 Sr respectively. In the end, a review of the migration and repairmen of the radionuclides in the environment is given. This paper provides a reference for further study of the radionuclide migration and the phytoremediation of low level radionuclide contamination. (author)

  15. Radon and its short-lived decay nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro

    1988-01-01

    The problem about radon and its shortlived decay nuclides in the living environment has been frequently closed-up. The problem is focused on the exposure of human being due to radon and its progeny. This paper reports the reason to the occurrence of the problem. Radon source as well as its pathway into our rooms are outlined here. The behavior of radon and its progeny indoors is also shown in this paper in comparison with outdoor situation and from the persons' activity's point of view. (author)

  16. Radioactivity of fishes contaminated by nuclear-bomb test explosions with special reference to the nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T; Saiki, M

    1957-01-01

    The nuclides formerly found in contaminated fish are /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 90/Y, /sup 32/P, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 106/Ru in bones and scales and /sup 137/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 95/Nb in viscera and muscles. Moreover the following were found newly by M. and S.: /sup 65/Zn, /sup 113m, 115/Cd, /sup 55/ /sup 59/Fe, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 140/La in viscera and muscles.

  17. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K; Yuhara, J; Ishigami, R [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  18. Tantalum-178 - a short-lived nuclide for nuclear medicine: development of a potential generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirinckx, R.D.; Jones, A.G.; Davis, M.A.; Harris, G.I.; Holman, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a chemical separation that may form the basis of a generator system for the short-lived radionuclide Ta-178 (T/sub 1/2/ = 9 min). The parent nuclide W-178 (T/sub 1/2/ = 21.7 days) is loaded on an anion-exchange column and the daughter eluted with a mixture of dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The yields of tantalum and the breakthrough of the tungsten parent as a function of the eluting conditions are discussed, and preliminary animal distribution data are presented for various treatments of the eluant solution

  19. Settling fluxes of U- and Th-series nuclides in the Bay of Bengal: Results from time-series sediment trap studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarin, M.M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Dalai, T.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Ittekkot, V.

    their production. Enhanced particle aggregation in the intermediate waters, resuspension of "nascent" sedimentary material and focussing of particles in the region of the deep traps can all account for these observations. The particulate flux in the deep trap...

  20. A compartment model for nuclide release calculation in the near-and far-field of a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997, from which a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel is to be introduced by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as spent fuel and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near - and far - field components of the repository, even though sufficient information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a appropriate methodology by which both a generic and site - specific safety assessment could be performed for further in - depth development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study for various nuclide release cases is mandatory. To this end a similar study done and yet limited for the near - field release case has been extended to the case including far - field system by introducing some more geosphere compartments. Advective and longitudinal dispersive nuclide transports along the fracture with matrix diffusion as well as several retention mechanisms and nuclide ingrowth has been added

  1. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and γ ray spectrum. FPGS90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting γ ray and β ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted γ ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library 'JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -', which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author)

  2. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  3. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Gounelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53 days), 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.74 Ma), 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.3 Ma), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 0.1 Ma), 53 Mn (T 1/2 = 3.7 Ma) and 60 Fe (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely 7 Be, 10 Be and 36 Cl for irradiation scenario and 60 Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  4. Neogene basin infilling from cosmogenic nuclides (10Be and 21Ne) in Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Caroline; Regard, Vincent; Carretier, Sébastien; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Campos, Eduardo; Brichau, Stéphanie; Lupker, Marteen; Hérail, Gérard

    2017-04-01

    In the hyperarid Atacama Desert, northern Chile, Neogene sediments host copper rich layers (exotic supergene mineralization). Current mines are excavated into relatively thin (production (quickly decreasing with depth) and disintegration (not for 21Ne). Sampling depths are at ˜100 m and at ˜50 m below the desert surface. First, 21Ne gives lower boundaries for upstream erosion rates or local sedimentation rate. These bounds are between 2 and 10 m/Ma, which is quite important for the area. The ratio between the two cosmogenic nuclides indicate a maximum burial age of 12 Ma (minimal erosion rate of 15 m/Ma) and is surprisingly similar from bottom to top, indicating a probable rapid infilling. We finally processed a Monte-Carlo inversion. This inversion helps taking into account the post-deposition muonic production of cosmogenic nuclides. Inversion results is dependent on the muonic production scheme. Interestingly, the similarity in concentrations from bottom to top pleads for quite low production at depth. Our data finally indicates a quick infilling between 12.5 and 10 Ma BP accounting for ˜100 m of deposition (minimum sedimentation rate of 40 m/Ma).

  5. Determination of the nuclide vector for decommissioning projects at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, Maya; Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Labor fuer Radioanalytik; Ehrlicher, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Sektion Rueckbau und Entsorgung

    2012-06-15

    In the context of two reactor decommissioning projects, radioactive slurry from concrete cutting was collected in the retention pond (RHB) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, along with radioactive drain outlets. Additionally, there are active residues from former operations. The task was to determine the nuclide vector of the radioactive slurry before final disposal. Due to the slurry from neutron-activated concrete, activation products, like {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu can be expected. Accumulated drain outlets from laboratories, where work with radioactive substances is being done, were expected to contain {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 90}Sr. For further clarification, {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in the water and in the organic phase had to be measured as well. This work gives an overview about the slurry dissolution techniques, the radiochemical separation methods and activity concentrations of the nuclide vector. Further processing of the slurry is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Study on fitness functions of genetic algorithm for dynamically correcting nuclide atmospheric diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhilong; Ma Yuanwei; Wang Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: In radioactive nuclides atmospheric diffusion models, the empirical dispersion coefficients were deduced under certain experiment conditions, whose difference with nuclear accident conditions is a source of deviation. A better estimation of the radioactive nuclide's actual dispersion process could be done by correcting dispersion coefficients with observation data, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an appropriate method for this correction procedure. Purpose: This study is to analyze the fitness functions' influence on the correction procedure and the forecast ability of diffusion model. Methods: GA, coupled with Lagrange dispersion model, was used in a numerical simulation to compare 4 fitness functions' impact on the correction result. Results: In the numerical simulation, the fitness function with observation deviation taken into consideration stands out when significant deviation exists in the observed data. After performing the correction procedure on the Kincaid experiment data, a significant boost was observed in the diffusion model's forecast ability. Conclusion: As the result shows, in order to improve dispersion models' forecast ability using GA, observation data should be given different weight in the fitness function corresponding to their error. (authors)

  7. Effect of error propagation of nuclide number densities on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohjoh, Masayuki; Endo, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yamamoto, Akio

    2006-01-01

    As a result of improvements in computer technology, the continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation has received attention as a good candidate for an assembly calculation method. However, the results of Monte Carlo calculations contain the statistical errors. The results of Monte Carlo burn-up calculations, in particular, include propagated statistical errors through the variance of the nuclide number densities. Therefore, if statistical error alone is evaluated, the errors in Monte Carlo burn-up calculations may be underestimated. To make clear this effect of error propagation on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations, we here proposed an equation that can predict the variance of nuclide number densities after burn-up calculations, and we verified this equation using enormous numbers of the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations by changing only the initial random numbers. We also verified the effect of the number of burn-up calculation points on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations. From these verifications, we estimated the errors in Monte Carlo burn-up calculations including both statistical and propagated errors. Finally, we made clear the effects of error propagation on Monte Carlo burn-up calculations by comparing statistical errors alone versus both statistical and propagated errors. The results revealed that the effects of error propagation on the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations of 8 x 8 BWR fuel assembly are low up to 60 GWd/t

  8. Isomers in neutron-rich A ∼ 190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Caamano, M.; Banu, A.; Walker, P.M.; Morton, N.H.; Regan, P. H.; Regan, Patrick H; Pfutzner, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gerl, J.; Hellstrom, M.; Mayet, P.; Miernik, K.; Mineva, M.N.; Aprahamian, A.; Benlliure, J.; Bruce, A.M.; Butler, P.A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Cullen, D.M.; Doring, J.; Enqvist, T.; Fox, C.; Garces Narro, J.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinbohl, A.; Korten, W.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O'Leary, C.D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C.J.; Rejmund, F.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208 Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A ∼ 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188 Ta, 190 W, 192 Re, 193 Re, 195 Os, 197 Ir, 198 Ir, 200 Pt, 201 Pt, 202 Pt and 203 Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174 Er, 175 Er, 185 Hf, 191 Re, 194 Re and 199 Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200 Pt and 201 Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics

  9. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  10. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Demonstration of nuclide migration phenomena in rock on high level irradiation waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Okuyama, Yasuko; Takahashi, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    We have studied on main three theme. From study of material movement in rock-groundwater system in the area of high concentration of irradiative elements, the results proved that minerals with Fe 3+ and clay mineral were very important as mineral held nuclide, the existence of pyrite suggested uranium nuclei enrichment and the latter reduced circumstances, and nuclei movement and accumulation could be estimated from oxidation-reduction potential, kinds of dissolved ions and activity ratio. By study of evaluation of permeability in deep rock fissure system, each measurement method of transmissivity in the Transient Pulse method, the Oscillation test and the Flow Pump method was established. The effect of principle stress, confining pressure, pore water pressure and axial pressure on transmissivity could be determined in the limited level of stress. By study of nuclide migration phenomena and change of rock depend on fissure system, the relation between the degree of change and fissure system was investigated and alternation mineral was identified and it's formation conditions estimated. (S.Y.)

  12. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  13. Nuclide release calculation in the near-field of a reference HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997 in order to develop a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as waste and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003 focusing on the near-field components of the repository system. According to above basic repository concept, which is similar to that of Swedish KBS-3 repository, the spent fuel is first encapsulated in corrosion resistant canisters, even though the material has not yet been determined, and then emplaced into the deposition holes surrounded by high density bentonite clay in tunnels constructed at a depth of about 500 m in a stable plutonic rock body. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near-field components of the repository, even though enough information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a methodology by which a generic safety assessment could be performed for further development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study strongly seems to be necessary

  14. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki; Hanaki, Tatsumi

    2015-10-01

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 (14C) mainly for 14C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA's research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of 14C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 (10Be) and aluminum-26 (26Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The 10Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the 26Al-AMS system.

  15. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko, E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Matsubara, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Hanaki, Tatsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) mainly for {sup 14}C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA’s research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of {sup 14}C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 ({sup 10}Be) and aluminum-26 ({sup 26}Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The {sup 10}Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the {sup 26}Al-AMS system.

  16. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author)

  17. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs

  18. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A; Aguero, A; Pinedo, P

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  19. Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calciphylaxis is prevention through rigorous control of phosphate and calcium balance. We here present two ... The authors declared no conflict of interest. Introduction. Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious disorder .... were reported to resolve the calciphylaxis lesions in a chronic renal failure patient [20]. In a series of five.

  20. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomials are dense in the class of continuous functions! The body of literature dealing with Fourier series has reached epic proportions over the last two centuries. We have only given the readers an outline of the topic in this article. For the full length episode we refer the reader to the monumental treatise of. A Zygmund.

  1. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    13 oct. 2017 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ... Bifocal leg fractures pose many challenges for the surgeon due to .... Dans notre serie, le taux d'infection est reste dans un.

  2. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theory of Fourier series deals with periodic functions. By a periodic ..... including Dirichlet, Riemann and Cantor occupied themselves with the problem of ... to converge only on a set which is negligible in a certain sense (Le. of measure ...

  3. case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Case report, case series, concept analysis, research design. African Health Sciences 2012; (4): 557 - 562 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v12i4.25. PO Box 17666 .... According to the latest version of the Dictionary of. Epidemiology ...

  4. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  5. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  7. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  8. Proceedings of 26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society--modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society was held in Tianjing, 13-16 July, 2008. This proceedings is about modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, the contents include: new elements and new nuclides; advanced nuclear chemistry; radiochemistry and national security; new radiopharmaceutical chemistry; modern radiological analytical chemistry and large scientific facilities; radiological environmental chemistry and nuclear radioactive waste; actinide chemistry and transactinide chemistry; radiochemistry and cross discipline, etc.

  9. Production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on target W at the energy of 72 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Moazzem Hossain [Univ. of Chittagong, Dept. of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Herpers, Ulrich [Univ. of Cologne, Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Cologne (Germany); Michel, Rolf [University of Hannover, Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (Germany); Kubik, Peter [Paul Scherrer Inst., c/o Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Investigations of cross-sections for residual nuclide production on the target element W by proton-induced reactions were performed by irradiating the target with 72 MeV protons using the cyclotron facilities at Paul-Scherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland. Residual nuclides were measured by gamma-spectrometry of HpGe detectors calibrated with standard gamma sources. The measured data contains 104 individual cross-sections for 20 identified nuclides in the proton energies between 52.5 - 68.9 MeV. These nuclear data is important in the study of spallation neutron source and in accelerator driven technologies such as waste transmutation and energy amplification. The present data are compared with the shape of the excitation functions of earlier only one measurement at higher energies and they are in good agreement to each other. (author)

  10. Decay Study for the very Neutron-Rich Sn Nuclides, $^{135-140}$Sn Separated by Selective Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS378 %title\\\\ \\\\ In this investigation, we wish to take advantage of chemically selective laser ionization to separate the very-neutron-rich Sn nuclides and determine their half-lives and delayed-neutron branches (P$_{n}$) using the Mainz $^{3}$He-delayed neutron spectrometer and close-geometry $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy system. The $\\beta$-decay rates are dependent on a number of nuclear structure factors that may not be well described by models of nuclear structure developed for nuclides near stability. Determination of these decay properties will provide direct experimental data for r-process calculations and test the large number of models of nuclear structure for very-neutron rich Sn nuclides now in print.

  11. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  12. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives; Akceleratorska proizvodnja fisibilnih nuklida, granicna cijena urana i perspektive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, D [INIS-Inzenjering, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia); Knapp, V [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  13. Characterization of calculation of in-situ retardation factors of contaminant transport using naturally-radionuclides and rock/water interaction occurring U-Series disequilibria timescales. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.; Murrel, M.; Roback, R.

    1997-01-01

    'The research is directed toward a quantitative assessment of contaminant transport rates in fracture-rock systems using uranium-series radionuclides. Naturally occurring uranium-and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria will provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved characterization of preferential flow and contaminant transport at the Idaho Environmental and Engineering Lab. (INEEL) site. To a lesser extent, the study will include rocks in the unsaturated zone. The authors will produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration under unsaturated and saturated field conditions at the INEEL site, taking into account the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in rock minerals. sorbed phases on the rocks, and in fluids from both saturated and unsaturated zones at the site, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis-based model for the Geologic heterogeneity plays an important role in transporting contaminants in fractured rocks. Preferential flow paths in the fractured rocks act as a major pathway for transport of radioactive contaminants in groundwaters. The weathering/dissolution of rock by groundwater also influences contaminant mobility. Thus, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. In this regard, quantification of the rock weathering/dissolution rate and fluid residence time from the observed decay-series disequilibria will be valuable. By mapping the spatial distribution of the residence time of groundwater in fractured rocks, the subsurface preferential flow paths (with high rock permeability and short fluid residence

  14. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  15. Heavy nuclide synthesis by neutrons in astrophysics and by screened protons in host metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    The similarity of the abundance of heavy nuclei in the Universe with that of the nuclei produced in the fully reproducible reactions of protons in host metals like palladium, nickel or others is evident and can be described by the same exponential function of the distribution probability N(Z) depending on the proton number Z of the nuclides. This agrees with the earlier derived consequence of a 3 n relation for magic numbers and an alternative foundation of the nuclear shell model. Compared to femtometer-attosecond reactions in the big bang, the low energy nuclear reactions in the host metals have picometer distances and megasecond duration. For this picometer distance, a combination of the swimming electron layer and Debye screening model with a metal-plasma dielectric model is presented. (author)

  16. Calculations of thermal-reactor spent-fuel nuclide inventories and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.; England, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons with integral measurements have demonstrated the accuracy of CINDER codes and libraries in calculating aggregate fission-product properties, including neutron absorption, decay power, and decay spectra. CINDER calculations have, alternatively, been used to supplement measured integral data describing fission-product decay power and decay spectra. Because of the incorporation of the extensive actinide library and the use of ENDF/B-V data, it is desirable to compare the inventory of individual nuclides obtained from tandem EPRI-CELL/CINDER-2 calculations with those determined in documented benchmark inventory measurements of spent reactor fuel. The development of the popular 148 Nd burnup measurement procedure is outlined, and areas of uncertainty in it and lack of clarity in its interpretation are indicated. Six inventory samples of varying quality and completeness are examined. The power histories used in the calculations have been listed for other users

  17. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  18. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides in the fuel cycle of Brest-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived nuclides produced as a result of nuclear generation, should be set up proceeding from the principle of reasonable sufficiency, expressed as radiation equivalence between the radwaste sent to disposal and source natural uranium. In this case, introduction of fast reactors of new generation (such as BREST or other reactors based on similar philosophy) will resolve transmutation problems even with the thermal-to-fast reactor capacity ratio of 2:1. The authors of the 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia' foresee, and substantiate their prediction, that fast reactors of the new generation will account for no less than 2/3 of nuclear capacity in future large-scale nuclear power sector. Fast reactors will be the basis of a transmutation fuel cycle, which will remove the need of creating additional transmutation facilities. (author)

  19. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  20. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  1. Radioactive nuclide production and isomeric state branching ratios in P + W reactions to 200 mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of nuclide yields from spallation reactions usually assume that the products are formed in their ground states. We are performing calculations of product yields from proton reactions on tungsten isotopes that explicitly account for formation of the residual nuclei in excited states. The Hauser-Feshbach statistical/preequilibrium code GNASH, with full accounting for angular momentum conservation and electromagnetic transitions, is utilized in the calculations. We present preliminary results for isomer branching ratios for proton reactions to 200 MeV for several products including the 31-y, 16+ state in l78 Hf and the 25-d, 25/2- state in 179 Hf. Knowledge of such branching ratios, might be important for concepts such as accelerator production of tritium that utilize intermediate-energy proton reactions on tungsten

  2. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  3. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  4. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code

  5. The review of separation technology for fission nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaming; Li Xingliang; Luo Shunzhong; Peng Shuming; Lei Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    The progress of separation technologies for fission nuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs, including precipitation method, liquid-liquid extraction process and ion exchanging operation, are mainly reviewed. Crown ether (DtBuCH18C6) and calixarene-crown ether (BOBCalixC6) can be highly selective for 90 Sr and 137 Cs respectively in acidic waste; Ionic liquids extraction and supercritical fluid extraction can be applied for separation 90 Sr and 137 Cs from high level waste. Crystalline silicotitiate (CST) and metal sulfide (KMS-1) have highly selectivity for 90 Sr and 137 Cs separately in basic condition. The prospects of disposal technology for high level waste are also discussed in this review. (authors)

  6. Current status of system development to provide databases of nuclides migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasushi; Isogai, Takeshi; Suyama, Tadahiro; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu; Jintoku, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    JNC has developed databases of nuclides migration for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, and they have been used in the second progress report to present the technical reliability of HLW geological disposal system in Japan. The technical level and applicability of databases have been highly evaluated even overseas. To provide the databases broadly over the world and to promote the use of the databases, we have performed the followings: 1) development of tools to convert the database format from geochemical code PHREEQE to PHREEQC, GWB and EQ3/6 and 2) set up a web site (http://migrationdb.jnc.go.jp) which enables the public to access to the databases. As a result, the number of database users has significantly increased. Additionally, a number of useful comments from the users can be applied to modification and/or update of databases. (author)

  7. Prototype of an expert system to help nuclide identification in gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, Kasi Annapurna; Corcuera, Raquel Paviotti; Oliveira, Gina Maira B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development and use of IDENT, prototype of an expert system that helps the researcher to identify radionuclides in gamma-ray spectroscopy. Normally the method adopted by the researcher is iterative, time consuming and becomes complicated in the analysis of large and complex gamma-ray spectra. The present expert system is based on the knowledge transmitted by expert and specialists in this area and the results show that it is helpful for researches who perform nuclide identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy. The gamma-ray spectrum of a material sample with about 140 peaks would take about a week or two be analysed by a specialist. The same task can be done in a few minutes using this expert system. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  8. Transuranium and other alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Marine environment contains naturally occurring alpha-emitting transuranium nuclides which are discharged from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants into the marine environment. Calculation of their potential of both the inhalation pathway and ingestion pathway to man, their residence time in the oceans, their loss to sediments, the chemical state in which they exist in sea water, their oxidation states in sea water, and their biological availability to sea organisms are discussed. The areas where data are lacking are indicated. Studies on the Windscale Site (U.K.) are extensively referred to in the discussion of above-mentioned aspects. It is brought out that the study of the naturally occurring actinides can be useful in the understanding of behaviour of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, because many of the former are good analogues of the latter. (M.G.B.)

  9. Potential of monitoring nuclides with the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides: Uptake and localization of 133Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zheng, Guiling; Chen, Xuan; Pemberton, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Epiphytic Tillandsia plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors and traditionally used to monitor atmospheric heavy metal pollution, but rarely nuclides monitoring. Here we evaluated the potential of Tillandsia usneoides for monitoring (133)Cs and investigated if Cs was trapped by the plant external surface structures. The results showed that T. usneoides was able to survive relatively high Cs stress. With the increase of Cs solution concentration, the total of Cs in plants increased significantly, which suggests that the plants could accumulate Cs quickly and effectively. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Cs polluted environments. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that Cs was detected in each type of cells in foliar trichomes, and the ratio of Cs in the internal disc cell was higher than that in ring cell and wing cell, which indicates that the mechanism of adsorption Cs in Tillandsia has an active component. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Level of natural radiation nuclides in food and water in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keling; Sun Bangyin; Zhang Xiaozhen; Li Guangming

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the level of natural radiation nuclides in Hubei Province, China. 10 spots were selected in Wuhan, Jiangling etc., 171 samples in 14 kinds of food such as rice, cabbage and tap water, water in Yangtze River and other rivers were analysed.The results show that the values of U, Th, 226 Ra were n x 10 -2 Bq.kg -1 and that of 40 K was n x 10 Bq.kg -1 in food. The values of U, Th, 226 Ra, 40 K were n x 10 -2 Bq.L -1 , and that of 3 H was nBq.L -1 in drinking water. The data investigated indicates that Hubei Province belongs to the region of normal natural radiation. It is found that 226 Ra value in food is higher in general in the county of Tongcheng, and this problem needs further study

  11. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  12. Using Multiple Cosmogenic Nuclides to Investigate Ice Elevation Changes in the Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Shasta; Hein, Andy; Sugden, David; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart; Freeman, Stewart; Shanks, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Well-dated geologic data points provide important indicators that can be used for the reconstruction of ice sheet dynamics and as constraints in ice sheet models predicting future change. Cosmogenic nuclides, which accumulate in rocks exposed at the earth's surface, can be used to directly date the exposure age of the rock surfaces that have been created through glacial erosion or deposition. The technique requires a detailed understanding of the local geomorphology as well as awareness of the post-depositional processes that may affect the interpretation of exposure ages. Surface exposure ages (10Be, 26Al, 21Ne, and 36Cl) from local limestone bedrock and other glacially deposited exotic lithologies provide a history spanning from 0 to more than 1 million years in the Patriot, Independence, and Marble Hills in the southern Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica. Using the new surface exposure ages combined with geomorphological mapping, we will discuss the implications for the glacial history of the southern Ellsworth Mountains.

  13. Ice Elevation Changes in the Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica Using Multiple Cosmogenic Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, S.; Hein, A.; Sugden, D.; Woodward, J.; Dunning, S.; Reid, K.

    2014-12-01

    Well-dated geologic data points provide important indicators that can be used for the reconstruction of ice sheet dynamics and as constraints in ice sheet models predicting future change. Cosmogenic nuclides, which accumulate in rocks exposed at the earth's surface, can be used to directly date the exposure age of the rock surfaces that have been created through glacial erosion or deposition. The technique requires a detailed understanding of the local geomorphology as well as awareness of the post-depositional processes that may affect the interpretation of exposure ages. Initial surface exposure ages (10Be, 26Al, 21Ne, and 36Cl ) from local limestone bedrock and other glacially deposited exotic lithologies provide a history spanning from 0 to 1.1 Ma in the Patriot, Independence, and Marble Hills in the southern Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica. Using the new surface exposure ages combined with geomorphological mapping, we will discuss the implications for the glacial history of the southern Ellsworth Mountains.

  14. A Nuclide Release Model for a Deep Well Scenario near a Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    Recently several template programs ready for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository (HLW) and a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository (LILW) systems, that are conceptually modeled, have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. During the last few years, such template programs have been utilized for the evaluation of nuclide transports in the nearand far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios with assumed data. The GoldSim program, another template program by which influence due to a well located very near to the repository has been modeled and evaluated for an assumed case in order to simulate the worst exposure scenario. This seems very useful to evaluate an accidental event a long time after closure of the repository has been developed and illustrated

  15. Effects of nonequilibrium adsorption on nuclide transport in a porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi-Ping Teng; Ching-Hor Lee

    1994-01-01

    An analytical solution covering the entire range of adsorption properties of rock has been derived for the migration of radionuclide in a porous rock matrix. The analysis takes into account the advective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, adsorption between solid phase and liquid phase, and the radioactive decay. For adsorption of nuclide within the rock, the effects of no adsorption, linear nonequilibrium adsorption, and linear equilibrium adsorption are integrated into a generic transient analytical solution. The results indicate that the assumption of equilibrium adsorption can result in underestimation of the concentration profile in the early stages of migration. However, both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium profiles eventually approach the same value. It is also noted that for the case of nonequilibrium adsorption, plateaus appear in the concentration profile of the breakthrough curves. The effects of different adsorption rates are also analyzed

  16. Elastic removal self-shielding factors for light and medium nuclides with strong-resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tokuno, Yukio.

    1978-01-01

    The self-shielding factors for elastic removal cross sections of light and medium weight nuclides were calculated for the parameter, σ 0 within the conventional concept of the group constant sets. The numerical study were performed for obtaining a simple and accurate method. The present results were compared with the exact values and the conventional ones, and shown to be remarkably improved. It became apparent that the anisotropy of the elastic scattering did not affect to the self-shielding factors though it did to the infinite dilution cross sections. With use of the present revised set, the neutron flux were calculated in an iron medium and in a prototype FBR and compared with those by the fine spectrum calculations and the conventional set. The present set showed the considerable improvement in the vicinity of the large resonance regions of sodium, iron and oxygen. (auth.)

  17. Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60 Co, 22 Na, 47 Ca and 148 Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Decay of neutron-rich Mn nuclides and deformation of heavy Fe isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hannawald, M; Wöhr, A; Walters, W B; Kratz, K L; Fedosseev, V; Mishin, V I; Böhmer, W; Pfeiffer, B; Sebastian, V; Jading, Y; Köster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Ravn, H L

    1999-01-01

    The use of chemically selective laser ionization combined with beta-delayed neutron counting at CERN/ISOLDE has permitted identification and half-life measurements for 623-ms Mn-61 up through 14-ms Mn-69. The measured half-lives are found to be significantly longer near N=40 than the values calculated with a QRPA shell model using ground-state deformations from the FRDM and ETFSI models. Gamma-ray singles and coincidence spectroscopy has been performed for Mn-64 and Mn-66 decays to levels of Fe-64 and Fe-66, revealing a significant drop in the energy of the first 2+ state in these nuclides that suggests an unanticipated increase in collectivity near N=40.

  19. Database for radionuclide transport in the biosphere: nuclide specific and geographic data for northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiskra, J.

    1985-01-01

    The biosphere model is the final link in the chain of radionuclide transport models, used for radiation dose calculations from high-level waste repositories. This report presents the data needed for biosphere calculations and discusses them where necessary. The first part is dedicated to the nuclide specific parameters like distribution coefficients (water -soil), concentration ratios (soil - plant) and distribution factors (for milk, meat, etc.) which are reported in the literature. The second part contains the choice of regions, their division into compartments and the discussion of nutritional habits for man and animals. At the end a theoretical human population for each region is estimated based on the consumption rates and on the yield of agricultural products, assuming an autonomous nutrition. (author)

  20. On scaling cosmogenic nuclide production rates for altitude and latitude using cosmic-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek

    2001-11-01

    The wide use of cosmogenic nuclides for dating terrestrial landforms has prompted a renewed interest in characterizing the spatial distribution of terrestrial cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray measurements from neutron monitors, nuclear emulsions and cloud chambers have played an important role in developing new models for scaling cosmic-ray neutron intensities and, indirectly, cosmogenic production rates. Unfortunately, current scaling models overlook or misinterpret many of these data. In this paper, we describe factors that must be considered when using neutron measurements to determine scaling formulations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides. Over the past 50 years, the overwhelming majority of nucleon flux measurements have been taken with neutron monitors. However, in order to use these data for scaling spallation reactions, the following factors must be considered: (1) sensitivity of instruments to muons and to background, (2) instrumental biases in energy sensitivity, (3) solar activity, and (4) the way of ordering cosmic-ray data in the geomagnetic field. Failure to account for these factors can result in discrepancies of as much as 7% in neutron attenuation lengths measured at the same location. This magnitude of deviation can result in an error on the order of 20% in cosmogenic production rates scaled from 4300 m to sea level. The shapes of latitude curves of nucleon flux also depend on these factors to a measurable extent, thereby causing additional uncertainties in cosmogenic production rates. The corrections proposed herein significantly improve our ability to transfer scaling formulations based on neutron measurements to scaling formulations applicable to spallation reactions, and, therefore, constitute an important advance in cosmogenic dating methodology.

  1. Early Acheulean technology in the Rietputs Formation, South Africa, dated with cosmogenic nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Ryan J; Granger, Darryl E; Kuman, Kathleen; Partridge, Timothy C

    2009-02-01

    An absolute dating technique based on the build-up and decay of (26)Al and (10)Be in the mineral quartz provides crucial evidence regarding early Acheulean hominid distribution in South Africa. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of an ancient alluvial deposit of the Vaal River (Rietputs Formation) in the western interior of South Africa shows that coarse gravel and sand aggradation there occurred ca 1.57+/-0.22Ma, with individual ages of samples ranging from 1.89+/-0.19 to 1.34+/-0.22Ma. This was followed by aggradation of laminated and cross-bedded fine alluvium at ca 1.26+/-0.10Ma. The Rietputs Formation provides an ideal situation for the use of the cosmogenic nuclide burial dating method, as samples could be obtained from deep mining pits at depths ranging from 7 to 16 meters. Individual dates provide only a minimum age for the stone tool technology preserved within the deposits. Each assemblage represents a time averaged collection. Bifacial tools distributed throughout the coarse gravel and sand unit can be assigned to an early phase of the Acheulean. This is the first absolute radiometric dated evidence for early Acheulean artefacts in South Africa that have been found outside of the early hominid sites of the Gauteng Province. These absolute dates also indicate that handaxe-using hominids inhabited southern Africa as early as their counterparts in East Africa. The simultaneous appearance of the Acheulean in different parts of the continent implies relatively rapid technology development and the widespread use of large cutting tools in the African continent by ca 1.6Ma.

  2. Analytical basis for neutron-activation analysis measuring nuclides with a half-life of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-01-01

    An analytical basis for a neutron-activation analysis (NAA) for measuring nuclides of second-order half-lives produced by the (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron-activation analysis facility (PN-3) of JRR-3M. The NAA facility, comprising a fast pneumatic irradiation system and a high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometer, is able to automatically conduct NAA with short-lived nuclides. Basic experimental conditions, such as a high count-rate gamma-ray measurement, the effects of irradiation-capsule material and the stability of the neutron flux, were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclide having half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, In, Dy and Hf were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, which is difficult to determine by other methods, can be detected at above 530 ng. Analytical applications of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been carried out for F, Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials. The accuracy, precision and detection limits of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been evaluated. (author)

  3. [Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment--distribution and behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb originated from fallout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, A; Miyagawa, N; Miyanaga, N

    1984-07-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95Zr and 95Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis.

  4. Requests from use experience of ORIGEN code. Activity of the working group on evaluation of nuclide generation and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out through the committee members of the working group on evaluation of nuclide generation and depletion about the demand accuracy of the ORIGEN code which is used widely in various fields of design analysis and evaluation. WG committee asked each organization's ORIGEN user, and obtained the replay from various fields. (author)

  5. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  6. Development of a new nuclide generation and depletion code using a topological solver based on graph theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasselmann, S.; Scholthaus, S.; Rössel, C.; Allelein, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of calculating the amounts of a coupled nuclide system varying with time especially when exposed to a neutron flux is a well-known problem and has been addressed by a number of computer codes. These codes cover a broad spectrum of applications, are based on comprehensive validation work and are therefore justifiably renowned among their users. However, due to their long development history, they are lacking a modern interface, which impedes a fast and robust internal coupling to other codes applied in the field of nuclear reactor physics. Therefore a project has been initiated to develop a new object-oriented nuclide transmutation code. It comprises an innovative solver based on graph theory, which exploits the topology of nuclide chains. This allows to always deal with the smallest nuclide system for the problem of interest. Highest priority has been given to the existence of a generic software interfaces well as an easy handling by making use of XML files for input and output. In this paper we report on the status of the code development and present first benchmark results, which prove the applicability of the selected approach. (author)

  7. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs (Zwicky Consulting GmbH, Remigen (Switzerland)); Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  8. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs; Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella

    2011-03-01

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  9. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment.

  10. Annual energy review 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  11. SKB annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1988. Lectures and publications during 1988 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 3. Part 4 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1988. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development program on geological disposal of nuclear waste. The total cost for R and D during 1988 was 123.4 MSEK of which 19.3 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden

  12. SKB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management contains in part I an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part II gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1987. Lectures and publications during 1987 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part III. Part IV contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1987. At Forsmark the first construction phase for the final repository for radioactive waste - SFR - is now completed. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. The first construction phase includes rock caverns for 60 000 m 3 of waste. A second phase for additional 30 000 m 3 is planned to be built and commissioned around the year 2000. (orig./DG)

  13. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  14. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  15. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  16. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  17. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  18. Constraining Quaternary ice covers and erosion rates using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2018-02-01

    Paired cosmogenic nuclides are often used to constrain the exposure/burial history of landforms repeatedly covered by ice during the Quaternary, including tors, high-elevation surfaces, and steep alpine summits in the circum-Arctic regions. The approach generally exploits the different production rates and half-lives of 10Be and 26Al to infer past exposure/burial histories. However, the two-stage minimum-limiting exposure and burial model regularly used to interpret the nuclides ignores the effect of variable erosion rates, which potentially may bias the interpretation. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo model approach to investigate systematically how the exposure/burial and erosion history, including variable erosion and the timing of erosion events, influence concentrations of 10Be and 26Al. The results show that low 26Al/10Be ratios are not uniquely associated with prolonged burial under ice, but may as well reflect ice covers that were limited to the coldest part of the late Pleistocene combined with recent exhumation of the sample, e.g. due to glacial plucking during the last glacial period. As an example, we simulate published 26Al/10Be data from Svalbard and show that it is possible that the steep alpine summits experienced ice-free conditions during large parts of the late Pleistocene and varying amounts of glacial erosion. This scenario, which contrasts with the original interpretation of more-or-less continuous burial under non-erosive ice over the last ∼1 Myr, thus challenge the conventional interpretation of such data. On the other hand, high 26Al/10Be ratios do not necessarily reflect limited burial under ice, which is the common interpretation of high ratios. In fact, high 26Al/10Be ratios may also reflect extensive burial under ice, combined with a change from burial under erosive ice, which brought the sample close to the surface, to burial under non-erosive ice at some point during the mid-Pleistocene. Importantly, by allowing for variable

  19. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  20. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  1. Annual Energy Review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  2. Derivation of ingestion dose conversion factors for the U-238 decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.H.; Nicoll, R.M.; Doty, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Dose conversion factors (DCF's) for the U-238 decay series were derived for use in the assessment of potential doses to man, through several ingestion pathways, by radionuclide deposition from radioactive airborne effluents. The methodology used, although similar to that outlined in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.109, is complicated by consideration of the ingrowth of decay products. Eight ingestion pathways were considered: (1) fresh vegetables, (2) stored vegetables, (3) milk from cows that eat pasture grass, (4) milk from cows that eat stored feed, (5) goat milk - pasture grass, (6) goat milk - stored feed, (7) beef - pasture grass, and (8) beef - stored feed. Radionuclide deposition was assumed to occur for the entire operational lifetime of the facility. Because the expected operational lifetime may vary from facility to facility, DCF's were calculated for six lifetimes: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years. DCF's were calculated for each of 13 'parent' nuclides in the decay series, with each DCF considering the ingrowth of all subsequent nuclides in the series. The methodology used to derive the DCF's is detailed, and DCF's normalized to a deposition rate of the parent nuclide of 1 μCi m -2 s -1 are reported. (author)

  3. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  4. New approaches investigating production rates of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Braucher, Regis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have proved to be valuable tools for environmental and Earth sciences. However, accurate application of this method is only possible, if terrestrial production rates in a certain environment over a certain time period and their depth-dependence within the exposed material are exactly known. Unfortunately, the existing data and models differ up to several tens of percent. Thus, one of the European project CRONUS-EU goals is the high quality calibration of the {sup 36}Cl production rate by spallation at independently dated surfaces. As part of fulfilling this task we have investigated calcite-rich samples from four medieval landslide areas in the Alps: Mont Granier, Le Claps, Dobratsch, and Veliki Vrh (330-1620 m, 1248-1442 AD). For investigating the depth-dependence of the different nuclear reactions, especially, the muon- and thermal neutron-induced contributions, we have analysed mixtures of carbonates and siliceous conglomerate samples - for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl - exposed at different shielding depths and taken from a core drilled in 2005 at La Ciotat, France (from surface to 11 m shielding). AMS of {sup 36}Cl was performed at LLNL and ETH, {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at ASTER.

  5. Survey of reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Bel-Amakeletch, T.; Zeisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has recently prepared a survey on internationally available analytical reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic contaminants in biological, environmental and related matrices. The purpose is to help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be measured. The present version of the survey, which is available in the form of two cost-free printed volumes [1], contains over 10,000 certified and information values in 650 reference materials from 27 different producers. The 455 measurands listed include trace elements, major and minor elements, organic contaminants, organometallic compounds, radionuclides and stable isotopes. Currently, the database from which the survey has been produced is being modified and extended so as to make the data available in electronic form via the Internet. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of radioactivity of β-nuclides by CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Fujun; Zhang Shengdong; Ding Youqian; Sun Hongqing; Tang Peijia

    2010-01-01

    CIEMAT/NIST method for calculating radioactivity of β-nuclides was introduced in this paper. The influences of KB value and quenching parameter on the radioactivity computation of 241 Pu, 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, 63 Ni, 151 Sm and 14 C were studied by CIEMAT/NIST method with 3 H tracing. It is shown that the effect of KB value can be ignored if it varies in a proper range; Except for 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, the discrepancy between prediction and actual activity is lower than 2% in low quenching extent. However, it increases with quenching extent, and the largest discrepancy soars to nearly 13%. In addition, the reason for bad agreement of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh between prediction and actual activity was discussed. Efficiency calibration curves of 79 Se, 93 Zr and 107 Pd were also computed by CIEMAT/NIST method, compared with approximate replacement method or fitting and interpolation method. It is shown that CIEMAT/NIST method is no more accurate and suitable than the other two techniques. (authors)

  7. A new approach to estimate nuclide ratios from measurements with activities close to background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.; Steiner, M.; Zaehringer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of low-level radioactivity often give results of the order of the detection limit. For many applications, interest is not only in estimating activity concentrations of a single radioactive isotope, but focuses on multi-isotope analyses, which often enable inference on the source of the activity detected (e.g. from activity ratios). Obviously, such conclusions become questionable if the measurement merely gives a detection limit for a specific isotope. This is particularly relevant if the presence of an isotope, which shows a low signal only (e.g. due to a short half-life or a small transition probability), is crucial for gaining the information of interest. This paper discusses a new approach which has the potential to solve these problems. Using Bayesian statistics, a method is presented which allows statistical inference on nuclide ratios taking into account both prior knowledge and all information collected from the measurements. It is shown that our method allows quantitative conclusion to be drawn if counts of single isotopes are low or become even negative after background subtraction. Differences to the traditional statistical approach of specifying decision thresholds or detection limits are highlighted. Application of this new approach is illustrated by a number of examples of environmental low-level radioactivity measurements. The capabilities of our approach for spectrum interpretation and source identification are demonstrated with real spectra from air filters, sewage sludge and soil samples.

  8. High Accuracy Mass Measurement of the Dripline Nuclides $^{12,14}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    State-of-the art, three-body nuclear models that describe halo nuclides require the binding energy of the halo neutron(s) as a critical input parameter. In the case of $^{14}$Be, the uncertainty of this quantity is currently far too large (130 keV), inhibiting efforts at detailed theoretical description. A high accuracy, direct mass deterlnination of $^{14}$Be (as well as $^{12}$Be to obtain the two-neutron separation energy) is therefore required. The measurement can be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer, which is presently the only possible solution due to required accuracy (10 keV) and short half-life (4.5 ms). Having achieved a 5 keV uncertainty for the mass of $^{11}$Li (8.6 ms), MISTRAL has proved the feasibility of such measurements. Since the current ISOLDE production rate of $^{14}$Be is only about 10/s, the installation of a beam cooler is underway in order to improve MISTRAL transmission. The projected improvement of an order of magnitude (in each transverse direction) will make this measureme...

  9. Comparative uptake of gamma-emitting fission product nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative uptake of long-lived gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, present in global fallout from nuclear explosions, by maize (Zea mays L) plants was examined in water culture experiments. Over identical duration of plant growth, the extent of accumulation of the radionuclides in aerial tissues was in the following decreasing order: 137 Cs >, 125 Sb >, 106 Ru > and 144 Ce. In roots, however, the retention of 144 Ce and 106 Ru was greater than that of 137 Cs and 125 Sb. Complementary studies with maize and rice (Oryza sativa L) grown on two contrasting soil types, namely, laterite and black clay loam indicated that 137 Cs uptake by plants was markedly greater than that of the other radionuclides in both soil types. Plant uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb was significantly higher than that of 144 Ce in the black soil. In the laterite, however, 144 Ce uptake far exceeded that of 106 Ru and 125 Sb. In general, maize removed higher amounts of the radionuclides than rice from both soil types. (author)

  10. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-03-01

    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Equivalency relations for mixtures of nuclides in shipping casks 9972-9975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.; Williamson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogenous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included

  12. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-01-01

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range

  13. The terrestrial environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Research into environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident, especially radiocesium 137 Cs (half-life, 30.1 years), is highly focused especially on diffusion processes of radiocesium into ecosystems, which is high-priority knowledge. Because of relatively sparse knowledge about the reallocation of radiocesium contained in organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of diffused rediocesium into ecosystem cannot be accurately estimated. In this article, the terrestrial environmental dynamics of radiocesium mainly in the processes of plant uptake and the possibility of release from plants will be discussed. Plants uptake minerals from soil and these minerals are likewise ingested by animals that feed on plants, including humans. Therefore one of the main gateways of radiocesium into ecosystem is via plants. From the viewpoint of human dietary consumption, rice contamination with radiocesium has been energetically investigated and useful data are accumulating. Processes of radiocesium uptake mechanisms by plants are being researched using legumes, e.g. soybean. Speculation on the possibility of radiocesium release into forest atmosphere via plant activity will be introduced. (author)

  14. SKB annual report 1993. Including summaries of technical reports issued during 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear and Waste Management Co., SKB. It contains in part I an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part II gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1993. Lectures and publications during 1993 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical series are listed in part III. Part IV contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1993. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1993 in total 1 885 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) have been received. Transportation from the nuclear sites to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste - SFR - was taken into operation in April 1988. The repository is situated in crystalline rock under the Baltic Sea. At the end of 1993 a total of 13 000 m 3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development programme on geological disposal of nuclear waste. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: Groundwater movements; Bedrock stability; Groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration; Methods and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock; Characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel; Properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing; Radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations; Development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models; Construction of an underground research laboratory

  15. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data set represents a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  16. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data sets represent a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  17. Cross Sections for the Production of Residual Nuclides by Proton-Induced Reactions with Uranium at Medium Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Michel, R.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Issa, S.A.M.; Flamentc, J.L.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.

    2009-01-01

    The production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on uranium is investigated using activated targets from irradiation experiments at Saturne II synchrocyclotron at the Laboratory National Saturne/Saclay. These investigations contribute to the European research project NUDATRA within the IP EUROTRANS in which the feasibility of accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste is evaluated. Experimental cross sections are derived from gamma-spectrometric measurements. A total of 1894 cross-section was deter-mined covering 44 residual nuclides in the energy range from 211 MeV to 2530 MeV. The experimental data together with those of earlier work of our group are discussed in the context of theoretical excitation functions calculated by the newly developed INCL4 + ABLA and the TALYS codes

  18. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2015-01-01

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum

  19. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  20. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.