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Sample records for serial visual distraction

  1. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  2. VISUAL DISTRACTION WHILE DRIVING

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    Hajime ITO

    2001-01-01

    The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.

  3. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

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    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

  4. Perpendicular serial maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients.

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    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K; Harila, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients often have a retruded maxilla with a severely narrowed deficient maxillary arch. This report aims to describe the management of severe maxillary retrusion and constriction in cleft lip and palate patients using distraction osteogenesis applied in serial sequence in two directions perpendicular to each other. Two adult male cleft lip and palate patients were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two stages. In the first stage, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with a tooth-borne device was performed to significantly expand the maxillary arch in the transverse dimension. After the teeth were orthodontically aligned, the horizontal distraction of the maxilla was made by two internal maxillary distraction devices. In the first patient, the maxilla was initially widened by 11 mm and then distracted forward by 20 mm. Despite the breakage of the shaft of one of the two distractors at the end of distraction, a satisfactory occlusion was found at the time of distractor device removal. The maxillary position has remained stable through 8 years of follow-up. In the second patient, the palate was widened by 14 mm and the maxilla was distracted forward by 22 mm. The maxillary position has remained stable through 3 years of follow-up. Sequential serial distraction of maxilla in two planes perpendicular to each other is a safe and stable approach for the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients with severe transverse and anteroposterior discrepancies.

  5. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

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    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  6. Visual Distraction: An Altered Aiming Spatial Response in Dementia

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    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Healthy individuals demonstrate leftward bias on visuospatial tasks such as line bisection, which has been attributed to right brain dominance. We investigated whether this asymmetry occurred in patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (pAD which is associated with neurodegenerative changes affecting temporoparietal regions. Methods: Subjects with pAD and matched controls performed a line bisection task in near and far space under conditions of no distraction, left-sided visual distraction and right-sided visual distraction. Results: Participants with pAD manifested different motor-preparatory ‘aiming’ spatial bias than matched controls. There were significantly greater rightward ‘aiming’ motor-intentional errors both without distraction and with right-sided distraction. Conclusion: ‘Aiming’ motor-preparatory brain activity may be induced by distraction in pAD subjects as compared to typical visual-motor function in controls.

  7. Distracted driving due to visual working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the : specific mechanism by which distractions (such as cell : - : phone use) can interfere with : driving, this work tested the idea that driving performance depends on available space within visual short : - : term memor...

  8. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms

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    Alberto Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage. Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  9. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms.

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    Fernández, Alberto; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Carús, Juan Luis; Casado, Rubén

    2016-10-28

    Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information) or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage). Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  10. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

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    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  11. Executive and Perceptual Distraction in Visual Working Memory

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    2017-01-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. PMID:28414499

  12. Executive and perceptual distraction in visual working memory.

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    Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2017-09-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

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    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

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    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

  15. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

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    Jocelyn L Sy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively spills-over to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, fMRI, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated by a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean BOLD responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information.

  16. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...-0053] Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY... proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices. The agency... Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The proposed NHTSA...

  17. S3-1: The Serial Dependence of Visual Perception

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    David Whitney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In our moment-to-moment perceptual experience, visual scenes can change, but objects rarely spontaneously come into or out of existence. The visual system may therefore delicately balance the need to optimize sensitivity to image changes (e.g., by adapting to changes in color, orientation, object identity, etc with the desire to represent the temporal continuity of objects—the likelihood that objects perceived at this moment tend to exist in subsequent moments. One way that the visual system may promote such stability is through the introduction of serial dependence to visual perception: by biasing the current percept toward what was seen at previous moments, the brain could compensate for variability in visual input that might otherwise disrupt perceptual continuity. Here, in two sets of experiments, we tested for serial dependence in visual perception of orientation and facial expression. We found that on a given trial, a subject's perception of the orientation of a grating reflected not only the currently viewed stimulus, but also a systematic attraction toward the orientations of the previously viewed stimuli. We found the same serial dependence in the perception of facial expression. This perceptual attraction extended over several trials and seconds, and displayed clear tuning to the difference (in orientation or facial expression between the sequential stimuli. Furthermore, serial dependence in object perception was spatially specific and selective to the attended object within a scene. Several control experiments showed that the perceptual serial dependence we report cannot be explained by effects of priming, known hysteresis effects, visual short-term memory, or expectation. Our results reveal a systematic influence of recent visual experiences on perception at any given moment: visual percepts, even of unambiguous stimuli, are attracted toward what was previously seen. We propose that such serial dependence helps to maintain

  18. Distraction by deviance: comparing the effects of auditory and visual deviant stimuli on auditory and visual target processing.

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    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of oddball experiments in which an irrelevant stimulus (standard, deviant) was presented before a target stimulus and the modality of these stimuli was manipulated orthogonally (visual/auditory). Experiment 1 showed that auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality while visual deviants did not impact on performance. When participants were forced to attend the distractors in order to detect a rare target ("target-distractor"), auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality and visual deviants yielded a small distraction effect when targets were auditory (Experiments 2 & 3). Visual deviants only produced distraction for visual targets when deviant stimuli were not visually distinct from the other distractors (Experiment 4). Our results indicate that while auditory deviants yield distraction irrespective of the targets' modality, visual deviants only do so when attended and under selective conditions, at least when irrelevant and target stimuli are temporally and perceptually decoupled.

  19. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Auditory and visual distraction

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    Korte, E. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual

  20. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

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    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  1. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

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    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  2. Serial functional imaging poststroke reveals visual cortex reorganization.

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    Brodtmann, Amy; Puce, Aina; Darby, David; Donnan, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Visual cortical reorganization following injury remains poorly understood. The authors performed serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on patients with visual cortex infarction to evaluate early and late striate, ventral, and dorsal extrastriate cortical activation. Patients were studied with fMRI within 10 days and at 6 months. The authors used a high-level visual activation task designed to activate the ventral extrastriate cortex. These data were compared to those of age-appropriate healthy control participants. The results from 24 healthy control individuals (mean age 65.7 +/- SE 3.6 years, range 32-89) were compared to those from 5 stroke patients (mean age 73.8 +/- SE 7 years, range 49-86). Patients had infarcts involving the striate and ventral extrastriate cortex. Patient activation patterns were markedly different to controls. Bilateral striate and ventral extrastriate activation was reduced at both sessions, but dorsal extrastriate activated voxel counts remained comparable to controls. Conversely, mean percent magnetic resonance signal change increased in dorsal sites. These data provide strong evidence of bilateral poststroke functional depression of striate and ventral extrastriate cortices. Possible utilization or surrogacy of the dorsal visual system was demonstrated following stroke. This activity could provide a target for novel visual rehabilitation therapies.

  3. Aging increases distraction by auditory oddballs in visual, but not auditory tasks.

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    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    Aging is typically considered to bring a reduction of the ability to resist distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli. Yet recent work suggests that this conclusion must be qualified and that the effect of aging is mitigated by whether irrelevant and target stimuli emanate from the same modalities or from distinct ones. Some studies suggest that aging is especially sensitive to distraction within-modality while others suggest it is greater across modalities. Here we report the first study to measure the effect of aging on deviance distraction in cross-modal (auditory-visual) and uni-modal (auditory-auditory) oddball tasks. Young and older adults were asked to judge the parity of target digits (auditory or visual in distinct blocks of trials), each preceded by a task-irrelevant sound (the same tone on most trials-the standard sound-or, on rare and unpredictable trials, a burst of white noise-the deviant sound). Deviant sounds yielded distraction (longer response times relative to standard sounds) in both tasks and age groups. However, an age-related increase in distraction was observed in the cross-modal task and not in the uni-modal task. We argue that aging might affect processes involved in the switching of attention across modalities and speculate that this may due to the slowing of this type of attentional shift or a reduction in cognitive control required to re-orient attention toward the target's modality.

  4. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

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    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  5. Light Video Game Play is Associated with Enhanced Visual Processing of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Targets.

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    Howard, Christina J; Wilding, Robert; Guest, Duncan

    2017-02-01

    There is mixed evidence that video game players (VGPs) may demonstrate better performance in perceptual and attentional tasks than non-VGPs (NVGPs). The rapid serial visual presentation task is one such case, where observers respond to two successive targets embedded within a stream of serially presented items. We tested light VGPs (LVGPs) and NVGPs on this task. LVGPs were better at correct identification of second targets whether they were also attempting to respond to the first target. This performance benefit seen for LVGPs suggests enhanced visual processing for briefly presented stimuli even with only very moderate game play. Observers were less accurate at discriminating the orientation of a second target within the stream if it occurred shortly after presentation of the first target, that is to say, they were subject to the attentional blink (AB). We find no evidence for any reduction in AB in LVGPs compared with NVGPs.

  6. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use

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    Nils eHolmberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9-year-old and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ATTENTION THRESHOLD IN RATS BY TITRATION OF VISUAL CUE DURATION DURING THE FIVE CHOICE SERIAL REACTION TIME TASK

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    Martin, Thomas J.; Grigg, Amanda; Kim, Susy A.; Ririe, Douglas G.; Eisenach, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 5 choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) is commonly used to assess attention in rodents. We sought to develop a variant of the 5CSRTT that would speed training to objective success criteria, and to test whether this variant could determine attention capability in each subject. New Method Fisher 344 rats were trained to perform a variant of the 5CSRTT in which the duration of visual cue presentation (cue duration) was titrated between trials based upon performance. The cue duration was decreased when the subject made a correct response, or increased with incorrect responses or omissions. Additionally, test day challenges were provided consisting of lengthening the intertrial interval and inclusion of a visual distracting stimulus. Results Rats readily titrated the cue duration to less than 1 sec in 25 training sessions or less (mean ± SEM, 22.9 ± 0.7), and the median cue duration (MCD) was calculated as a measure of attention threshold. Increasing the intertrial interval increased premature responses, decreased the number of trials completed, and increased the MCD. Decreasing the intertrial interval and time allotted for consuming the food reward demonstrated that a minimum of 3.5 sec is required for rats to consume two food pellets and successfully attend to the next trial. Visual distraction in the form of a 3 Hz flashing light increased the MCD and both premature and time out responses. Comparison with existing method The titration variant of the 5CSRTT is a useful method that dynamically measures attention threshold across a wide range of subject performance, and significantly decreases the time required for training. Task challenges produce similar effects in the titration method as reported for the classical procedure. Conclusions The titration 5CSRTT method is an efficient training procedure for assessing attention and can be utilized to assess the limit in performance ability across subjects and various schedule manipulations. PMID

  8. Identification of real-time diagnostic measures of visual distraction with an automatic eye-tracking system.

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    Zhang, Harry; Smith, Matthew R H; Witt, Gerald J

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s) on peripheral displays (with diagonal eccentricities of 24 degrees, 43 degrees, and 75 degrees). As the number of words and display eccentricity increased, total glance duration and reaction time increased and driving performance suffered. Correlation coefficients between several glance measures and reaction time or performance variables were reliably high, indicating that these glance measures are diagnostic of visual distraction. It is predicted that for every 25% increase in total glance duration, reaction time is increased by 0.39 s and standard deviation of lane position is increased by 0.06 m. Potential applications of this research include assessing visual distraction in real time, delivering advisories to distracted drivers to reorient their attention to driving, and using distraction information to adapt forward collision and lane departure warning systems to enhance system effectiveness.

  9. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory: no evidence for a finite cognitive resource theory

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    Pamela Jayne Louise Rae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glenberg, Schroeder and Robertson (1998 reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N=37 replicated their study, and found no overall effect of distraction on recall for the entire lists. However it did replicate the impairment for mid-list recall. Experiment 2 (N=64 explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N=36 also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2 and interference (Experiments 2 and 3. Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists, contrary to the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding.

  10. Rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information: evidence from eye movements.

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    Tremblay, Sébastien; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Jalbert, Annie

    2006-06-01

    It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task--a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial recall task--with delayed recall, performance and eyetracking data were recorded in order to establish whether visual-spatial rehearsal could be evidenced by eye movement. The use of eye movement as a form of rehearsal is detectable (Experiment 1), and it seems to contribute to serial memory performance over and above rehearsal based on shifts of spatial attention (Experiments 1 and 2).

  11. Effects of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians' crossing behavior and visual attention allocation at a signalized intersection: An outdoor experimental study.

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    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Ma, Changxi; Kumfer, Wesley; Shao, Chen; Wang, Kun

    2018-06-01

    With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation. The results of the research showed that the three mobile phone distractions cause different levels of impairment to pedestrians' crossing performance, with the greatest effect from text distraction, followed by phone conversation distraction and music distraction. Pedestrians distracted by music initiate crossing later, have increased pupil diameter, and reduce their scanning frequency, fixation points and fixation times toward traffic signal area priorities. In addition to the above effects, pedestrians distracted by phone conversation cross the street more slowly, direct fewer fixation points to the right traffic area, and spend less fixation time and lower average fixation duration on the left traffic area. Moreover, pedestrians distracted by texting look left and right less often and switch, distribute and maintain less visual attention on the traffic environment. These findings may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new 2-dimensional method for constructing visualized treatment objectives for distraction osteogenesis of the short mandible.

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    van Beek, H

    2010-01-01

    Open bite development during distraction of the mandible is common and partly due to inaccurate planning of the treatment. Conflicting guidelines exist in the literature. A method for Visualized Treatment Objective (VTO) construction is presented as an aid for determining the correct orientation of monodirectional and multidirectional distractors. Distraction on the left and on the right side of the mandible takes place in a parallel manner in order to maintain intercondylar width. It follows that in the absence of marked asymmetry, the amount of mandibular body distraction, the amount of ramus distraction and (should it apply), the amount of closure of the gonial angle, can be derived from a simple 2-dimensional plan. After presurgical orthodontic treatment, a cephalogram is taken and a VTO is constructed, that aims at a good occlusion with the enhanced mandible in centric relation, with little or no change of the original position of the rami.

  13. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, Riccardo; Milot, Marie-Helene; Rosati, Giulio; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-04-23

    Practicing arm and gait movements with robotic assistance after neurologic injury can help patients improve their movement ability, but patients sometimes reduce their effort during training in response to the assistance. Reduced effort has been hypothesized to diminish clinical outcomes of robotic training. To better understand patient slacking, we studied the role of visual distraction and auditory feedback in modulating patient effort during a common robot-assisted tracking task. Fourteen participants with chronic left hemiparesis from stroke, five control participants with chronic right hemiparesis and fourteen non-impaired healthy control participants, tracked a visual target with their arms while receiving adaptive assistance from a robotic arm exoskeleton. We compared four practice conditions: the baseline tracking task alone; tracking while also performing a visual distracter task; tracking with the visual distracter and sound feedback; and tracking with sound feedback. For the distracter task, symbols were randomly displayed in the corners of the computer screen, and the participants were instructed to click a mouse button when a target symbol appeared. The sound feedback consisted of a repeating beep, with the frequency of repetition made to increase with increasing tracking error. Participants with stroke halved their effort and doubled their tracking error when performing the visual distracter task with their left hemiparetic arm. With sound feedback, however, these participants increased their effort and decreased their tracking error close to their baseline levels, while also performing the distracter task successfully. These effects were significantly smaller for the participants who used their non-paretic arm and for the participants without stroke. Visual distraction decreased participants effort during a standard robot-assisted movement training task. This effect was greater for the hemiparetic arm, suggesting that the increased demands associated

  14. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer David J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practicing arm and gait movements with robotic assistance after neurologic injury can help patients improve their movement ability, but patients sometimes reduce their effort during training in response to the assistance. Reduced effort has been hypothesized to diminish clinical outcomes of robotic training. To better understand patient slacking, we studied the role of visual distraction and auditory feedback in modulating patient effort during a common robot-assisted tracking task. Methods Fourteen participants with chronic left hemiparesis from stroke, five control participants with chronic right hemiparesis and fourteen non-impaired healthy control participants, tracked a visual target with their arms while receiving adaptive assistance from a robotic arm exoskeleton. We compared four practice conditions: the baseline tracking task alone; tracking while also performing a visual distracter task; tracking with the visual distracter and sound feedback; and tracking with sound feedback. For the distracter task, symbols were randomly displayed in the corners of the computer screen, and the participants were instructed to click a mouse button when a target symbol appeared. The sound feedback consisted of a repeating beep, with the frequency of repetition made to increase with increasing tracking error. Results Participants with stroke halved their effort and doubled their tracking error when performing the visual distracter task with their left hemiparetic arm. With sound feedback, however, these participants increased their effort and decreased their tracking error close to their baseline levels, while also performing the distracter task successfully. These effects were significantly smaller for the participants who used their non-paretic arm and for the participants without stroke. Conclusions Visual distraction decreased participants effort during a standard robot-assisted movement training task. This effect was greater for

  15. Parallel and serial grouping of image elements in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, R.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that

  16. Parallel and Serial Grouping of Image Elements in Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkamp, Roos; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that Gestalt grouping can indeed occur in parallel in some…

  17. The effects of distraction and a brief intervention on auditory and visual-spatial working memory in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Kercood, Suneeta; O'Keeffe, Nicole B; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Massey, Eric J; Campbell, Samantha J; Pierce, Jenna N

    2012-01-01

    Two studies addressed how young adult college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 44) compare to their nonaffected peers (n = 42) on tests of auditory and visual-spatial working memory (WM), are vulnerable to auditory and visual distractions, and are affected by a simple intervention. Students with ADHD demonstrated worse auditory WM than did controls. A near significant trend indicated that auditory distractions interfered with the visual WM of both groups and that, whereas controls were also vulnerable to visual distractions, visual distractions improved visual WM in the ADHD group. The intervention was ineffective. Limited correlations emerged between self-reported ADHD symptoms and objective test performances; students with ADHD who perceived themselves as more symptomatic often had better WM and were less vulnerable to distractions than their ADHD peers.

  18. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal.

  19. A new 2-dimensional method for constructing visualized treatment objectives for distraction osteogenesis of the short mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, H.

    2010-01-01

    Open bite development during distraction of the mandible is common and partly due to inaccurate planning of the treatment. Conflicting guidelines exist in the literature. A method for Visualized Treatment Objective (VTO) construction is presented as an aid for determining the correct orientation of

  20. Detecting and Remembering Simultaneous Pictures in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C.; Fox, Laura F.

    2009-01-01

    Viewers can easily spot a target picture in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), but can they do so if more than 1 picture is presented simultaneously? Up to 4 pictures were presented on each RSVP frame, for 240 to 720 ms/frame. In a detection task, the target was verbally specified before each trial (e.g., "man with violin"); in a…

  1. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  2. How Is the Serial Order of a Visual Sequence Represented? Insights from Transposition Latencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J.; Hitch, Graham J.

    2018-01-01

    A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past 2 decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has…

  3. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses being reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but robust multivariate decoding being reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was substantially modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, our results indicate that superior IPS, but not occipital cortex, has a central role in VSTM storage.

  4. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C.; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) but robust multivariate decoding reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was significantly modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, these results show that superior IPS, not occipital cortex, plays a central role in VSTM storage. PMID:26595654

  5. Working memory load and distraction: dissociable effects of visual maintenance and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Beal, Eleanor; King, Jean-Remi; Lavie, Nilli

    2014-10-01

    We establish a new dissociation between the roles of working memory (WM) cognitive control and visual maintenance in selective attention as measured by the efficiency of distractor rejection. The extent to which focused selective attention can prevent distraction has been shown to critically depend on the level and type of load involved in the task. High perceptual load that consumes perceptual capacity leads to reduced distractor processing, whereas high WM load that reduces WM ability to exert priority-based executive cognitive control over the task results in increased distractor processing (e.g., Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 75-82, 2005). WM also serves to maintain task-relevant visual representations, and such visual maintenance is known to recruit the same sensory cortices as those involved in perception (e.g., Pasternak & Greenlee, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(2), 97-107, 2005). These findings led us to hypothesize that loading WM with visual maintenance would reduce visual capacity involved in perception, thus resulting in reduced distractor processing-similar to perceptual load and opposite to WM cognitive control load. Distractor processing was assessed in a response competition task, presented during the memory interval (or during encoding; Experiment 1a) of a WM task. Loading visual maintenance or encoding by increased set size for a memory sample of shapes, colors, and locations led to reduced distractor response competition effects. In contrast, loading WM cognitive control with verbal rehearsal of a random letter set led to increased distractor effects. These findings confirm load theory predictions and provide a novel functional distinction between the roles of WM maintenance and cognitive control in selective attention.

  6. Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) applied to mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, C. M.; Caballero-Puntiverio, M.; Gether, U.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds...... on an individual level. Scopolamine HBr dose-dependently reduced 5-CSRTT attentional performance while also increasing reward collection latency at the highest dose. Upon TVA modelling, scopolamine HBr significantly reduced visual processing speed at both doses, while having less pronounced effects on visual...... modelled using a new three-parameter version of TVA to obtain estimates of visual processing speeds, visual thresholds and motor response baselines in each mouse. Results The parameter estimates for each animal were reliable across sessions, showing that the data were stable enough to support analysis...

  7. ‘Distracters’ do not always distract: Visual working memory for angry faces is enhanced by incidental emotional words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Cecilia Jackson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are often required to filter out distraction in order to focus on a primary task during which working memory (WM is engaged. Previous research has shown that negative versus neutral distracters presented during a visual WM maintenance period significantly impair memory for neutral information. However, the contents of WM are often also emotional in nature. The question we address here is how incidental information might impact upon visual WM when both this and the memory items contain emotional information. We presented emotional versus neutral words during the maintenance interval of an emotional visual WM faces task. Participants encoded two angry or happy faces into WM, and several seconds into a 9 second maintenance period a negative, positive, or neutral word was flashed on the screen three times. A single neutral test face was presented for retrieval with a face identity that was either present or absent in the preceding study array. WM for angry face identities was significantly better when an emotional (negative or positive versus neutral (or no word was presented. In contrast, WM for happy face identities was not significantly affected by word valence. These findings suggest that the presence of emotion within an intervening stimulus boosts the emotional value of threat-related information maintained in visual WM and thus improves performance. In addition, we show that incidental events that are emotional in nature do not always distract from an ongoing WM task.

  8. 77 FR 12907 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... require accommodations such as a sign language interpreter or translator. For technical issues concerning... Transportation's Web site on distracted driving, Distraction.gov , NHTSA's Web site, www.nhtsa.gov , or by... available on the Web pages listed above under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT and also in the rulemaking...

  9. A novel brain-computer interface based on the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Schreuder, Martijn; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Most present-day visual brain computer interfaces (BCIs) suffer from the fact that they rely on eye movements, are slow-paced, or feature a small vocabulary. As a potential remedy, we explored a novel BCI paradigm consisting of a central rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of the stimuli. It has a large vocabulary and realizes a BCI system based on covert non-spatial selective visual attention. In an offline study, eight participants were presented sequences of rapid bursts of symbols. Two different speeds and two different color conditions were investigated. Robust early visual and P300 components were elicited time-locked to the presentation of the target. Offline classification revealed a mean accuracy of up to 90% for selecting the correct symbol out of 30 possibilities. The results suggest that RSVP-BCI is a promising new paradigm, also for patients with oculomotor impairments.

  10. Effects of Temporal Congruity Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli Using Rapid Audio-Visual Serial Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xingwei; Tang, Jiabei; Liu, Shuang; He, Feng; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Combining visual and auditory stimuli in event-related potential (ERP)-based spellers gained more attention in recent years. Few of these studies notice the difference of ERP components and system efficiency caused by the shifting of visual and auditory onset. Here, we aim to study the effect of temporal congruity of auditory and visual stimuli onset on bimodal brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. We designed five visual and auditory combined paradigms with different visual-to-auditory delays (-33 to +100 ms). Eleven participants attended in this study. ERPs were acquired and aligned according to visual and auditory stimuli onset, respectively. ERPs of Fz, Cz, and PO7 channels were studied through the statistical analysis of different conditions both from visual-aligned ERPs and audio-aligned ERPs. Based on the visual-aligned ERPs, classification accuracy was also analyzed to seek the effects of visual-to-auditory delays. The latencies of ERP components depended mainly on the visual stimuli onset. Auditory stimuli onsets influenced mainly on early component accuracies, whereas visual stimuli onset determined later component accuracies. The latter, however, played a dominate role in overall classification. This study is important for further studies to achieve better explanations and ultimately determine the way to optimize the bimodal BCI application.

  11. Serial consolidation of orientation information into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Becker, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a limit to the rate at which items can be consolidated in visual short-term memory (VSTM). This limit could be due to either a serial or a limited-capacity parallel process. Historically, it has proven difficult to distinguish between these two types of processes. In the present experiment, we took a novel approach that allowed us to do so. Participants viewed two oriented gratings either sequentially or simultaneously and reported one of the gratings' orientation via method of adjustment. Performance was worse for the simultaneous than for the sequential condition. We fit the data with a mixture model that assumes performance is limited by a noisy memory representation plus random guessing. Critically, the serial and limited-capacity parallel processes made distinct predictions regarding the model's guessing and memory-precision parameters. We found strong support for a serial process, which implies that one can consolidate only a single orientation into VSTM at a time.

  12. Visual analysis of serial T2-weighted MRI in multiple sclerosis: intra- and interobserver reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneux, P.D.; Miller, D.H.; Filippi, M.; Yousry, T.A.; Radue, E.W.; Ader, H.J.; Barkhof, F.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of consensus formation and training on the agreement between observers in scoring the number of new and enlarging multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on serial T2-weighted MRI studies. The baseline and month 9 MRI studies of 16 patients with a range of MRI activity were used (dual-echo conventional spin-echo sequence, TR 2000, TE 34 and 90 ms, 5 mm contiguous slices, in-plane resolution 1 mm). First, the serial studies were visually analysed for the presence of new and enlarging lesions, on two occasions, by five experienced observers, without adopting any consensus strategy and in isolation. Next, the observers met to identify the common sources of inconsistencies in reporting between observers and formulate consensus rules. Finally, a further independent reading session was performed on the same MRI dataset, this time applying the consensus rules. Agreement between observers was assessed using kappa scores. Without the consensus rules, interobserver kappa scores for the first and second reading sessions for new lesions were only 0.51 and 0.39 respectively; agreement for enlarging lesions was even worse. The mean intraobserver kappa score for new lesions was higher at 0.72, reflecting the fact that the observers were consistently applying their individual assessment strategies. Application of the consensus rules did not lead to a significant improvement in inter observer kappas; the kappa scores adopting the guidelines were 0.46 and 0.21 for new and enlarging lesions respectively. Consensus guidelines thus did not improve the reproducibility of visual analysis of serial T2-weighted MRI, and the level of agreement between observers remained only moderate. Suboptimal repositioning is likely to be a major source of residual variability and this suggests a future role for image registration strategies; until then, a single observer, or pair of observers working in consensus, should be used in MS studies. (orig.)

  13. Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) applied to mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C M; Caballero-Puntiverio, M; Gether, U; Habekost, T; Bundesen, C; Vangkilde, S; Woldbye, D P D; Andreasen, J T; Petersen, A

    2017-03-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds and other parameters of attentional capacity. We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures. C57BL/6 mice were tested in two 1-h sessions on consecutive days with a version of the 5-CSRTT where stimulus duration (SD) probe length was varied based on information from previous TVA studies. Thereafter, a scopolamine hydrobromide (HBr; 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg) pharmacological challenge was undertaken, using a Latin square design. Mean score values were modelled using a new three-parameter version of TVA to obtain estimates of visual processing speeds, visual thresholds and motor response baselines in each mouse. The parameter estimates for each animal were reliable across sessions, showing that the data were stable enough to support analysis on an individual level. Scopolamine HBr dose-dependently reduced 5-CSRTT attentional performance while also increasing reward collection latency at the highest dose. Upon TVA modelling, scopolamine HBr significantly reduced visual processing speed at both doses, while having less pronounced effects on visual thresholds and motor response baselines. This study shows for the first time how 5-CSRTT performance in mice can be mathematically modelled to yield estimates of attentional capacity that are directly comparable to estimates from human studies.

  14. The role of visual representations within working memory for paired-associate and serial order of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru

    2013-09-01

    Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall.

  15. Human Embryonic and Hepatic Stem Cell Differentiation Visualized in Two and Three Dimensions Based on Serial Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter S.; Brøchner, Christian B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ESC colony, and prepare 3-5 μm thick serial sections. Immunohistochemistry applied to individual sections produces a 2-dimensional survey of the developing hESC colony. Based on serial paraffin sections of the 2D-expression pattern, a new and useful 3D-visualization can be modeled. The actual 3D rendering...... visualization of hESC colonies and stem cells in organs, which leads to new insights into and information about the interaction of stem cells with their surroundings....

  16. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilinear common spatial pattern for single-trial ERP-based rapid serial visual presentation triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Shen, K.; Shao, S.; Ng, W. C.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) analysis is a useful tool for the feature extraction of event-related potentials (ERP). However, CSP is essentially time invariant, and thus unable to exploit the temporal information of ERP. This paper proposes a variant of CSP, namely bilinear common spatial pattern (BCSP), which is capable of accommodating both spatial and temporal information. BCSP generalizes CSP through iteratively optimizing bilinear filters. These bilinear filters constitute a spatio-temporal subspace in which the separation between two conditions is maximized. The method is unique in the sense that it is mathematically intuitive and simple, as all the bilinear filters are obtained by maximizing the power ratio as CSP does. The proposed method was evaluated on 20 subjects’ ERP data collected in rapid serial visual presentation triage experiments. The results show that BCSP achieved significantly higher average test accuracy (12.3% higher, p < 0.001).

  18. [Allocation of attentional resource and monitoring processes under rapid serial visual presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, K

    1998-08-01

    With the use of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the present study investigated the cause of target intrusion errors and functioning of monitoring processes. Eighteen students participated in Experiment 1, and 24 in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, different target intrusion errors were found depending on different kinds of letters --romaji, hiragana, and kanji. In Experiment 2, stimulus set size and context information were manipulated in an attempt to explore the cause of post-target intrusion errors. Results showed that as stimulus set size increased, the post-target intrusion errors also increased, but contextual information did not affect the errors. Results concerning mean report probability indicated that increased allocation of attentional resource to response-defining dimension was the cause of the errors. In addition, results concerning confidence rating showed that monitoring of temporal and contextual information was extremely accurate, but it was not so for stimulus information. These results suggest that attentional resource is different from monitoring resource.

  19. Gaze-independent BCI-spelling using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) speller is a communication device, which can be used by patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases to select symbols in a computer application. For patients unable to overtly fixate the target symbol, it is crucial to develop a speller independent of gaze shifts. In the present online study, we investigated rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) as a paradigm for mental typewriting. We investigated the RSVP speller in three conditions, regarding the Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) and the use of color features. A vocabulary of 30 symbols was presented one-by-one in a pseudo random sequence at the same location of display. All twelve participants were able to successfully operate the RSVP speller. The results show a mean online spelling rate of 1.43 symb/min and a mean symbol selection accuracy of 94.8% in the best condition. We conclude that the RSVP is a promising paradigm for BCI spelling and its performance is competitive with the fastest gaze-independent spellers in literature. The RSVP speller does not require gaze shifts towards different target locations and can be operated by non-spatial visual attention, therefore it can be considered as a valid paradigm in applications with patients for impaired oculo-motor control. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Images from the Mind: BCI image reconstruction based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentations of polygon primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F Seoane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide a proof of concept for an EEG-based reconstruction of a visual image which is on a user's mind. Our approach is based on the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP of polygon primitives and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology. In an experimental setup, subjects were presented bursts of polygons: some of them contributed to building a target image (because they matched the shape and/or color of the target while some of them did not. The presentation of the contributing polygons triggered attention-related EEG patterns. These Event Related Potentials (ERPs could be determined using BCI classification and could be matched to the stimuli that elicited them. These stimuli (i.e. the ERP-correlated polygons were accumulated in the display until a satisfactory reconstruction of the target image was reached. As more polygons were accumulated, finer visual details were attained resulting in more challenging classification tasks. In our experiments, we observe an average classification accuracy of around 75%. An in-depth investigation suggests that many of the misclassifications were not misinterpretations of the BCI concerning the users' intent, but rather caused by ambiguous polygons that could contribute to reconstruct several different images. When we put our BCI-image reconstruction in perspective with other RSVP BCI paradigms, there is large room for improvement both in speed and accuracy. These results invite us to be optimistic. They open a plethora of possibilities to explore non-invasive BCIs for image reconstruction both in healthy and impaired subjects and, accordingly, suggest interesting recreational and clinical applications.

  1. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  2. Prioritized Identification of Attractive and Romantic Partner Faces in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Arai, Shihoko; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2017-11-01

    People are sensitive to facial attractiveness because it is an important biological and social signal. As such, our perceptual and attentional system seems biased toward attractive faces. We tested whether attractive faces capture attention and enhance memory access in an involuntary manner using a dual-task rapid serial visual presentation (dtRSVP) paradigm, wherein multiple faces were successively presented for 120 ms. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 26) were required to identify two female faces embedded in a stream of animal faces as distractors. The results revealed that identification of the second female target (T2) was better when it was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether perceived attractiveness affects T2 identification (N = 27). To this end, we performed another dtRSVP task involving participants in a romantic partnership with the opposite sex, wherein T2 was their romantic partner's face. The results demonstrated that a romantic partner's face was correctly identified more often than was the face of a friend or unknown person. Furthermore, the greater the intensity of passionate love participants felt for their partner (as measured by the Passionate Love Scale), the more often they correctly identified their partner's face. Our experiments indicate that attractive and romantic partners' faces facilitate the identification of the faces in an involuntary manner.

  3. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  4. Multirapid Serial Visual Presentation Framework for EEG-Based Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target image detection based on a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm is a typical brain-computer interface system with various applications, such as image retrieval. In an RSVP paradigm, a P300 component is detected to determine target images. This strategy requires high-precision single-trial P300 detection methods. However, the performance of single-trial detection methods is relatively lower than that of multitrial P300 detection methods. Image retrieval based on multitrial P300 is a new research direction. In this paper, we propose a triple-RSVP paradigm with three images being presented simultaneously and a target image appearing three times. Thus, multitrial P300 classification methods can be used to improve detection accuracy. In this study, these mechanisms were extended and validated, and the characteristics of the multi-RSVP framework were further explored. Two different P300 detection algorithms were also utilized in multi-RSVP to demonstrate that the scheme is universally applicable. Results revealed that the detection accuracy of the multi-RSVP paradigm was higher than that of the standard RSVP paradigm. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and this method can provide a whole new idea in the field of EEG-based target detection.

  5. Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Category Rapid Serial Visual Presentation BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eManor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces rely on machine learning algorithms to decode the brain's electrical activity into decisions. For example, in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks, the subject is presented with a continuous stream of images containing rare target images among standard images, while the algorithm has to detect brain activity associated with target images. Here, we continue our previous work, presenting a deep neural network model for the use of single trial EEG classification in RSVP tasks. Deep neural networks have shown state of the art performance in computer vision and speech recognition and thus have great promise for other learning tasks, like classification of EEG samples. In our model, we introduce a novel spatio-temporal regularization for EEG data to reduce overfitting. We show improved classification performance compared to our earlier work on a five categories RSVP experiment. In addition, we compare performance on data from different sessions and validate the model on a public benchmark data set of a P300 speller task. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using neural network models compared to manually designing feature extraction algorithms.

  6. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  7. The Windows serial port programming handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of serial port communications. Serial port programming in ANSI C and Assembly languages for MS-DOS. Serial ports interface developed in VC++ 6.0. Serial port programming in Visual Basic. Serial port programming in LabVIEW. Serial port programming in MATLAB. Serial port programming in Smalltalk. Serial port programming in Java.

  8. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  9. Eye movements and serial memory for visual-spatial information: does time spent fixating contribute to recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tremblay, Sébastien; Jalbert, Annie

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the nature of encoding and its contribution to serial recall for visual-spatial information. In order to do so, we examined the relationship between fixation duration and recall performance. Using the dot task--a series of seven dots spatially distributed on a monitor screen is presented sequentially for immediate recall--performance and eye-tracking data were recorded during the presentation of the to-be-remembered items. When participants were free to move their eyes at their will, both fixation durations and probability of correct recall decreased as a function of serial position. Furthermore, imposing constant durations of fixation across all serial positions had a beneficial impact (though relatively small) on item but not order recall. Great care was taken to isolate the effect of fixation duration from that of presentation duration. Although eye movement at encoding contributes to immediate memory, it is not decisive in shaping serial recall performance. Our results also provide further evidence that the distinction between item and order information, well-established in the verbal domain, extends to visual-spatial information.

  10. Use of Silodosin to Visualize the Posterior Urethra in Pelvic Floor Urethral Distraction Defect Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan; Singh; Ahmed; Kumar; Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrogram are used to define length and location of urethral stricture prior to surgery. We used a single dose of silodosin prior to VCUG to relax the bladder neck and achieve visualization of posterior urethra. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of silodosin in visualization of posterior urethra during VCUG, and to compare the findings with a control group. ...

  11. "Hot" Facilitation of "Cool" Processing: Emotional Distraction Can Enhance Priming of Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Arni; Oladottir, Berglind; Most, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli often capture attention and disrupt effortful cognitive processing. However, cognitive processes vary in the degree to which they require effort. We investigated the impact of emotional pictures on visual search and on automatic priming of search. Observers performed visual search after task-irrelevant neutral or emotionally…

  12. Neural Correlates of Word Recognition: A Systematic Comparison of Natural Reading and Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornrumpf, Benthe; Niefind, Florian; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Neural correlates of word recognition are commonly studied with (rapid) serial visual presentation (RSVP), a condition that eliminates three fundamental properties of natural reading: parafoveal preprocessing, saccade execution, and the fast changes in attentional processing load occurring from fixation to fixation. We combined eye-tracking and EEG to systematically investigate the impact of all three factors on brain-electric activity during reading. Participants read lists of words either actively with eye movements (eliciting fixation-related potentials) or maintained fixation while the text moved passively through foveal vision at a matched pace (RSVP-with-flankers paradigm, eliciting ERPs). The preview of the upcoming word was manipulated by changing the number of parafoveally visible letters. Processing load was varied by presenting words of varying lexical frequency. We found that all three factors have strong interactive effects on the brain's responses to words: Once a word was fixated, occipitotemporal N1 amplitude decreased monotonically with the amount of parafoveal information available during the preceding fixation; hence, the N1 component was markedly attenuated under reading conditions with preview. Importantly, this preview effect was substantially larger during active reading (with saccades) than during passive RSVP with flankers, suggesting that the execution of eye movements facilitates word recognition by increasing parafoveal preprocessing. Lastly, we found that the N1 component elicited by a word also reflects the lexical processing load imposed by the previously inspected word. Together, these results demonstrate that, under more natural conditions, words are recognized in a spatiotemporally distributed and interdependent manner across multiple eye fixations, a process that is mediated by active motor behavior.

  13. Improved Neural Signal Classification in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task Using Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Wu, Dongrui; Slayback, David; Lance, Brent J

    2016-03-01

    The application space for brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies is rapidly expanding with improvements in technology. However, most real-time BCIs require extensive individualized calibration prior to use, and systems often have to be recalibrated to account for changes in the neural signals due to a variety of factors including changes in human state, the surrounding environment, and task conditions. Novel approaches to reduce calibration time or effort will dramatically improve the usability of BCI systems. Active Learning (AL) is an iterative semi-supervised learning technique for learning in situations in which data may be abundant, but labels for the data are difficult or expensive to obtain. In this paper, we apply AL to a simulated BCI system for target identification using data from a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to minimize the amount of training samples needed to initially calibrate a neural classifier. Our results show AL can produce similar overall classification accuracy with significantly less labeled data (in some cases less than 20%) when compared to alternative calibration approaches. In fact, AL classification performance matches performance of 10-fold cross-validation (CV) in over 70% of subjects when training with less than 50% of the data. To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the use of AL for offline electroencephalography (EEG) calibration in a simulated BCI paradigm. While AL itself is not often amenable for use in real-time systems, this work opens the door to alternative AL-like systems that are more amenable for BCI applications and thus enables future efforts for developing highly adaptive BCI systems.

  14. Distraction in Verbal Short-Term Memory: Insights from Developmental Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Emily; Hughes, Robert W.; Briganti, A; Joseph, Tanya Nicolette; Marsh, John Everett; Macken, William J.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of two mechanisms of auditory distraction in verbal serial short-term memory-interference with the serial rehearsal processes used to support short-term recall and general attentional diversion-was investigated by exploiting differences in auditory distraction in children and adults. Experiment 1 showed that serial rehearsal plays a role in children's as well as adults' distractibility: Auditory distraction from irrelevant speech was greater for both children and adults as th...

  15. Use of Silodosin to Visualize the Posterior Urethra in Pelvic Floor Urethral Distraction Defect Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Ahmed, Ahsan; Kumar, Vijoy; Singh, Mahendra

    2015-09-01

    Retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrogram are used to define length and location of urethral stricture prior to surgery. We used a single dose of silodosin prior to VCUG to relax the bladder neck and achieve visualization of posterior urethra. To evaluate the efficacy of silodosin in visualization of posterior urethra during VCUG, and to compare the findings with a control group. Patients were divided into two groups A and B containing 20 and 15 patients, respectively. Patients in group A were given a single dose of silodosin prior to radiological studies. In group A 19 out of 20 patients were able to achieve satisfactory bladder neck opening while in group B 10 out of 15 patients were able to achieve bladder neck opening. Silodosin use prior to VCUG confers a statistically significant increase in bladder neck opening and visualization of posterior urethra.

  16. 77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., and Japan have all conducted valuable research that has increased the available knowledge regarding... browsing, or visual-manual social media browsing while driving. The recommendation is not intended to... Partnership CANbus Controller Area Network bus CD Compact Disc CDS Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) DFD...

  17. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured.

  18. Blue colour preference in honeybees distracts visual attention for learning closed shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Linde; Svoboda, Alexander; Spaethe, Johannes; Dyer, Adrian G

    2013-10-01

    Spatial vision is an important cue for how honeybees (Apis mellifera) find flowers, and previous work has suggested that spatial learning in free-flying bees is exclusively mediated by achromatic input to the green photoreceptor channel. However, some data suggested that bees may be able to use alternative channels for shape processing, and recent work shows conditioning type and training length can significantly influence bee learning and cue use. We thus tested the honeybees' ability to discriminate between two closed shapes considering either absolute or differential conditioning, and using eight stimuli differing in their spectral characteristics. Consistent with previous work, green contrast enabled reliable shape learning for both types of conditioning, but surprisingly, we found that bees trained with appetitive-aversive differential conditioning could additionally use colour and/or UV contrast to enable shape discrimination. Interestingly, we found that a high blue contrast initially interferes with bee shape learning, probably due to the bees innate preference for blue colours, but with increasing experience bees can learn a variety of spectral and/or colour cues to facilitate spatial learning. Thus, the relationship between bee pollinators and the spatial and spectral cues that they use to find rewarding flowers appears to be a more rich visual environment than previously thought.

  19. Temporal limits of selection and memory encoding: A comparison of whole versus partial report in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R; Potter, Mary C

    2006-06-01

    People often fail to recall the second of two visual targets presented within 500 ms in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). This effect is called the attentional blink. One explanation of the attentional blink is that processes involved in encoding the first target into memory are slow and capacity limited. Here, however, we show that the attentional blink should be ascribed to attentional selection, not consolidation of the first target. Rapid sequences of six letters were presented, and observers had to report either all the letters (whole-report condition) or a subset of the letters (partial-report condition). Selection in partial report was based on color (e.g., report the two red letters) or identity (i.e., report all letters from a particular letter onward). In both cases, recall of letters presented shortly after the first selected letter was impaired, whereas recall of the corresponding letters was relatively accurate with whole report.

  20. Effects of Distracting Task with Different Mental Workload on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain Computer Interfaces—an Offline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, independent of the brain's normal output pathways, are attracting an increasing amount of attention as devices that extract neural information. As a typical type of BCI system, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-based BCIs possess a high signal-to-noise ratio and information transfer rate. However, the current high speed SSVEP-BCIs were implemented with subjects concentrating on stimuli, and intentionally avoided additional tasks as distractors. This paper aimed to investigate how a distracting simultaneous task, a verbal n-back task with different mental workload, would affect the performance of SSVEP-BCI. The results from fifteen subjects revealed that the recognition accuracy of SSVEP-BCI was significantly impaired by the distracting task, especially under a high mental workload. The average classification accuracy across all subjects dropped by 8.67% at most from 1- to 4-back, and there was a significant negative correlation (maximum r = −0.48, p < 0.001 between accuracy and subjective mental workload evaluation of the distracting task. This study suggests a potential hindrance for the SSVEP-BCI daily use, and then improvements should be investigated in the future studies.

  1. Serial automated quantitative CT analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Functional correlations and comparison with changes in visual CT scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Kokosi, Maria; Wells, Athol U.; Egashira, Ryoko; Brun, Anne Laure; Nair, Arjun; Walsh, Simon L.F.; Karwoski, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF. Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only. Relationships between changes in CT features and forced vital capacity (FVC) were examined using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. On univariate analysis, changes in computer variables demonstrated stronger linkages to FVC change than changes in visual scores (CALIPER ILD:R 2 =0.53, p<0.0001; Visual ILD:R 2 =0.16, p=0.001). PVV increase correlated most strongly with relative FVC change (R 2 =0.57). When PVV constituents (vessel size and location) were examined, an increase in middle zone vessels linked most strongly to FVC decline (R 2 =0.57) and was independent of baseline disease severity (characterised by CT fibrosis extent, FVC, or DLco). An increase in PVV, specifically an increase in middle zone lung vessels, was the strongest CT determinant of FVC decline in IPF and was independent of baseline disease severity. (orig.)

  2. Serial automated quantitative CT analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Functional correlations and comparison with changes in visual CT scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Division of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Kokosi, Maria; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Egashira, Ryoko [Saga Daigaku, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Brun, Anne Laure [Whittington Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Nair, Arjun [Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Walsh, Simon L.F. [Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Karwoski, Ronald [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF. Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only. Relationships between changes in CT features and forced vital capacity (FVC) were examined using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. On univariate analysis, changes in computer variables demonstrated stronger linkages to FVC change than changes in visual scores (CALIPER ILD:R{sup 2}=0.53, p<0.0001; Visual ILD:R{sup 2}=0.16, p=0.001). PVV increase correlated most strongly with relative FVC change (R{sup 2}=0.57). When PVV constituents (vessel size and location) were examined, an increase in middle zone vessels linked most strongly to FVC decline (R{sup 2}=0.57) and was independent of baseline disease severity (characterised by CT fibrosis extent, FVC, or DLco). An increase in PVV, specifically an increase in middle zone lung vessels, was the strongest CT determinant of FVC decline in IPF and was independent of baseline disease severity. (orig.)

  3. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Driving while using a smartphone-based mobility application: Evaluating the impact of three multi-choice user interfaces on visual-manual distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveton, N; McCall, R; Koenig, V; Avanesov, T; Engel, T

    2016-05-01

    Innovative in-car applications provided on smartphones can deliver real-time alternative mobility choices and subsequently generate visual-manual demand. Prior studies have found that multi-touch gestures such as kinetic scrolling are problematic in this respect. In this study we evaluate three prototype tasks which can be found in common mobile interaction use-cases. In a repeated-measures design, 29 participants interacted with the prototypes in a car-following task within a driving simulator environment. Task completion, driving performance and eye gaze have been analysed. We found that the slider widget used in the filtering task was too demanding and led to poor performance, while kinetic scrolling generated a comparable amount of visual distraction despite it requiring a lower degree of finger pointing accuracy. We discuss how to improve continuous list browsing in a dual-task context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  6. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems.

  7. Long-term effects of serial anodal tDCS on motion perception in subjects with occipital stroke measured in the unaffected visual hemifield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C Olma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a novel neuromodulatory tool that has seen early transition to clinical trials, although the high variability of these findings necessitates further studies in clincally-relevant populations. The majority of evidence into effects of repeated tDCS is based on research in the human motor system, but it is unclear whether the long-term effects of serial tDCS are motor-specific or transferable to other brain areas. This study aimed to examine whether serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex can exogenously induce long-term neuroplastic changes in the visual cortex. However, when the visual cortex is affected by a cortical lesion, up-regulated endogenous neuroplastic adaptation processes may alter the susceptibility to tDCS. To this end, motion perception was investigated in the unaffected hemifield of subjects with unilateral visual cortex lesions. Twelve subjects with occipital ischaemic lesions participated in a within-subject, sham-controlled, double-blind study. MRI-registered sham or anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 20 minutes was applied on five consecutive days over the visual cortex. Motion perception was tested before and after stimulation sessions and at 14- and 28-day follow-up. After a 16-day interval an identical study block with the other stimulation condition (anodal or sham tDCS followed. Serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex resulted in an improvement in motion perception, a function attributed to MT/V5. This effect was still measurable at 14- and 28-day follow-up measurements. Thus, this may represent evidence for long-term tDCS-induced plasticity and has implications for the design of studies examining the time course of tDCS effects in both the visual and motor systems.

  8. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus I. M Craik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by domain-general suppression of distracting information and the domain-specific competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman’s (1964 model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  9. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by "domain-general" suppression of distracting information and the "domain-specific" competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman's (1964) model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  10. Reducing the Effects of Auditory and Visual Distraction on the Math Performances of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2010-01-01

    Two exploratory studies assessed the effects of an intervention on the math problem solving of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the first study, students were assessed on a visual task in a high stimulation classroom analog setting with and without the use of a fine motor activity. Results showed that the fine…

  11. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  12. Effects of rivastigmine on visual attention in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A serial functional MRI activation pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokde, Arun L W; Cavedo, Enrica; Lopez-Bayo, Patricia; Lista, Simone; Meindl, Thomas; Born, Christine; Galluzzi, Samantha; Faltraco, Frank; Dubois, Bruno; Teipel, Stefan J; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

    2016-03-30

    A pilot study to investigate the effects of rivastigmine on the brain activation pattern due to visual attention tasks in a group of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired patients (aMCI). The design was an initial three-month double blind period with a rivastigmine and placebo arms, followed by a nine-month open-label period. All patients underwent serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline, and after three and six months of follow-up. Primary endpoint was the effect of rivastigmine on functional brain changes during visual attention (face and location matching) tasks. There were five in the rivastigmine arm and two in the placebo arm. The face matching task showed higher activation of visual areas after three months of treatment but no differences compared to baseline at six months. The location matching task showed a higher activation along the dorsal visual pathway at both three and six months follow ups. Treatment with rivastigmine demonstrates a significant effect on brain activation of the dorsal visual pathway during a location matching task in patients with aMCI. Our data support the potential use of task fMRI to map specific treatment effects of cholinergic drugs during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in tests of visual attention and distractibility in rats and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Risbrough, V B; Buccafusco, J J; Menzaghi, F

    2002-04-01

    Nicotine, a nonselective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), has been shown to improve attention and reduce distractibility in humans. Although the numerous side effects induced by nicotine prevent its use as a therapeutic agent, it is hypothesized that subtype-selective nAChR ligands may offer a potential therapeutic benefit to humans with attention deficits. In this study, we evaluated the attention-enhancing properties of (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a ligand selective for neuronal nAChRs with predominant activity at the human beta 4 subtype. SIB-1553A was evaluated in a test of attention (i.e., five-choice serial reaction time task or SRTT) and distractibility (i.e., delayed matching to sample task with distractor or DMTS-D) in adult rats and monkeys, respectively. SIB-1553A did not improve SRTT performance in normal rats, but reversed deficits induced by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine. In the DMTS-D, SIB-1553A improved accuracy across several doses at the short delay intervals, which were affected most by distracting stimuli in adult monkeys. Subsequent testing with optimal doses for each monkey was also associated with significant improvements in DMTS-D accuracy at short delays, indicating the reproducibility of the drug effect. In both species, SIB-1553A had no significant effects on latencies for sample or choice selection and was not associated with adverse effects at efficacious doses. Although it remains to be further demonstrated, SIB-1553A may act through combined nicotinic and non-nicotinic mechanisms. Collectively, the present data suggest that in specific conditions SIB-1553A may improve certain aspects of attentional function in young adult rats and nonhuman primates without adverse side effects.

  14. Driven to Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M

    2015-12-01

    We address several themes that emerged in the commentaries related to our target article. First, we consider the relationship between cognitive distraction and crash risk. Second, we discuss the development of our cognitive distraction scale. Third, we weigh issues of self-regulation, appropriate baselines, and satisficing. Finally, we identify several areas where additional research is needed to refine our understanding of driver distraction and crash risk. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  16. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  17. Taking Action on Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Insights → We identify a significant increase in digital distractions and the rise of what we call Do Not Disturb software designed to decrease, delimit, or discard these digital distractions. → Our basic typology and framework can help us understand how Do Not Disturb software is, ironically, de...

  18. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Visual pattern and serial quantitation of {sup 18}F-sodium fluoride PET/CT in asymptomatic patients after hip and knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Joo; Jeong, Young Jin; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Wang, Lih; Kim, Hyeon Jun; Kang, Do Young [Dong-A University Medical Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hwan [Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We investigated the visual tracer distribution pattern and serial changes in uptake ratio in different anatomical zones during the natural postoperative course in order to establish a reference for evaluation of patients with complications. A total of 36 patients without symptoms after hip or knee arthroplasty were grouped according to the interval between surgery and the scan. The serial changes in SUVmean in each periprosthetic zone were quantified using the volume of interest isocontour method. Images were classified according to the uptake distribution pattern. The uptake ratios in the postoperative period groups were then compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The correlation between uptake ratio and postoperative period was then determined. Tracer distribution patterns in hip prostheses were classified into three types and the patterns in knee prostheses into five types. In hip prostheses, intense osteoblastic activity was observed during 3-6 months and then declined in most patients, but showed a slight increase over 15-25 months in 5-10 % of patients. The correlation coefficients varied among the zones. Significant differences in uptake ratios among the period groups was found for all zones, except zone 8. Porous coated areas showed higher uptake than uncoated areas only for the period the 3-6 months. In knee prostheses, uptake ratios showed a curvilinear pattern, increasing from 3-6 to 8-15 months and declining later. The uptake ratios were different among the period groups. Every zone showed a positive correlation from 3-6 to 8-15 months, and negative correlations from 8-15 to 22-25 months. This is the first {sup 18}F-sodium fluoride PET/CT study investigating the stability of implants and sets a reference for evaluation of patients with complications.

  20. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Distraction of the alveolar crest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RBS; Schoen, PJ; Vissink, A; Arnaud, E; Diner, PA

    2001-01-01

    The surgical procedure and clinical results of the Groningen Distraction Device (GDD) to augment the severely resorbed edentulous mandible are described. The GGD is non-voluminous, and consists of 2 distraction screws and I guide screw. Two months after the last day of distraction, both distraction

  2. Anti-deception: reliable EEG-based biometrics with real-time capability from the neural response of face rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qunjian; Yan, Bin; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li

    2018-05-03

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost. Channel selection was applied to select specific channels for each user to enhance system portability and improve discriminability between users and imposters. Two different imposter scenarios were designed to test system security, which demonstrate the capability of anti-deception. Fifteen users and thirty imposters participated in the experiment. The mean authentication accuracy values for the two scenarios were 91.31 and 91.61%, with 6 s time cost, which illustrated the precision and real-time capability of the system. Furthermore, in order to estimate the repeatability and stability of our paradigm, another data acquisition session is conducted for each user. Using the classification models generated from the previous sessions, a mean false rejected rate of 7.27% has been achieved, which demonstrates the robustness of our paradigm. Experimental results reveal that the proposed paradigm and methods are effective for EEG-based identity authentication.

  3. Reward-prospect interacts with trial-by-trial preparation for potential distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; van den Berg, Berry; Woldorff, Marty G

    2015-02-01

    When attending for impending visual stimuli, cognitive systems prepare to identify relevant information while ignoring irrelevant, potentially distracting input. Recent work (Marini et al., 2013) showed that a supramodal distracter-filtering mechanism is invoked in blocked designs involving expectation of possible distracter stimuli, although this entails a cost ( distraction-filtering cost ) on speeded performance when distracters are expected but not presented. Here we used an arrow-flanker task to study whether an analogous cost, potentially reflecting the recruitment of a specific distraction-filtering mechanism, occurs dynamically when potential distraction is cued trial-to-trial ( cued distracter-expectation cost ). In order to promote the maximal utilization of cue information by participants, in some experimental conditions the cue also signaled the possibility of earning a monetary reward for fast and accurate performance. This design also allowed us to investigate the interplay between anticipation for distracters and anticipation of reward, which is known to engender attentional preparation. Only in reward contexts did participants show a cued distracter-expectation cost, which was larger with higher reward prospect and when anticipation for both distracters and reward were manipulated trial-to-trial. Thus, these results indicate that reward prospect interacts with the distracter expectation during trial-by-trial preparatory processes for potential distraction. These findings highlight how reward guides cue-driven attentional preparation.

  4. Electronic Gaming as Pain Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants’ experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system and passive (television distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants’ expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control.

  5. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  7. Distracted shareholders and corporate actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver

    Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce

  8. A shield against distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Halin, N.; Marsh, J.E.; Hellman, A.; Hellstrom, I.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background sp...

  9. Short-term retention of pictures and words as a function of type of distraction and length of delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1976-01-01

    Picture and word triads were tested in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task at varying delay intervals (3, 10, or 30 sec) and under acoustic and simultaneous acoustic and visual distraction. Pictures were superior to words at all delay intervals under single acoustic distraction. Dual distraction consistently reduced picture retention while simultaneously facilitating word retention. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis with modality-specific interference effects in the visual and acoustic processing systems. The differential effects of dual distraction were related to the introduction of visual interference and differential levels of functional acoustic interference across dual and single distraction tasks. The latter was supported by a constant 2/1 ratio in the backward counting rates of the acoustic vs. dual distraction tasks. The results further suggest that retention may not depend on total processing load of the distraction task, per se, but rather that processing load operates within modalities.

  10. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

  12. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  13. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  14. Using naturalistic driving study data to investigate the impact of driver distraction on driver's brake reaction time in freeway rear-end events in car-following situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingru; Davis, Gary A

    2017-12-01

    The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations. A statistical analysis, exploring the causal model structure regarding drivers' distraction impacts on reaction times, was conducted. Distraction duration, distraction scenario, and secondary task type were chosen as distraction-related factors. Besides, exogenous factors including weather, visual obstruction, lighting condition, traffic density, and intersection presence and endogenous factors including driver age and gender were considered. There was an association between driver distraction and reaction time in the sample freeway rear-end events from SHRP 2 NDS database. Distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and secondary task type were related to reaction time, while all other factors showed no significant effect on reaction time. The analysis showed that driver distraction duration is the primary direct cause of the increase in reaction time, with other factors having indirect effects mediated by distraction duration. Longer distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and engaging in auditory-visual-manual secondary task tended to result in longer reaction times. Given drivers will be distracted occasionally, countermeasures which shorten distraction duration or avoid distraction presence while a leader vehicle brakes are worth considering. This study helps better understand the mechanism of freeway rear-end events in car-following situations, and

  15. Developments in Serials: 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  16. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  17. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  18. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimise our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM. We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analysed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering.

  19. Pleasures of distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Actor-network theory, post-ANT material semiotic approaches, and related philosophical perspectives provide a way of conceptualizing visitor experiences which highlights shifting engagements and where interruption, shift and distraction form the course and content of a visit. Interruption, shift...... each other. This insight about the museum visit, which is generated during ethnographic fieldwork and is inspired by ANT and post-ANT approaches, relates to Serres’ philosophy, which in central ways has been foundational to ANT and post-ANT. Conceptualizing the museum visits in terms of shift...

  20. Exploring BOLD changes during spatial attention in non-stimulated visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Heinemann

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured in parts of primary visual cortex that represented unstimulated visual field regions at different distances from a stimulated central target location. The composition of the visual scene varied by the presence or absence of additional peripheral distracter stimuli. Bottom-up effects were assessed by comparing peripheral activity during central stimulation vs. no stimulation. Top-down effects were assessed by comparing active vs. passive conditions. In passive conditions subjects simply watched the central letter stimuli and in active conditions they had to report occurrence of pre-defined targets in a rapid serial letter stream. Onset of the central letter stream enhanced activity in V1 representations of the stimulated region. Within representations of the periphery activation decreased and finally turned into deactivation with increasing distance from the stimulated location. This pattern was most pronounced in the active conditions and during the presence of peripheral stimuli. Active search for a target did not lead to additional enhancement at areas representing the attentional focus but to a stronger deactivation in the vicinity. Suppressed neuronal activity was also found in the non distracter condition suggesting a top-down attention driven effect. Our observations suggest that BOLD signal decreases in primary visual cortex are modulated by bottom-up sensory-driven factors such as the presence of distracters in the visual field as well as by top-down attentional processes.

  1. Examining drivers' eye glance patterns during distracted driving: Insights from scanning randomness and glance transition matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i.e., forward on-road, phone, mirrors and others). All measurements were calculated within a 5s time window under both cell phone and non-cell phone use conditions. Results of the glance data analyses showed different patterns between distracted and non-distracted driving, featured by a higher entropy rate value and highly biased attention transferring between forward and phone locations during distracted driving. Drivers in general had higher number of glance transitions, and their on-road glance duration was significantly shorter during distracted driving when compared to non-distracted driving. Results suggest that drivers have a higher scanning randomness/disorder level and shift their main attention from surrounding areas towards phone area when engaging in visual-manual tasks. Drivers' visual search patterns during visual-manual distraction with a high scanning randomness and a high proportion of eye glance transitions towards the location of the phone provide insight into driver distraction detection. This will help to inform the design of in-vehicle human-machine interface/systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during shockwave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsdin, Emma; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2012-05-01

    Lithotripsy is an established method to fragment kidney stones that can be performed without general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. Discomfort and/or noise, however, may deter some patients. It has been demonstrated that audiovisual distraction (AV) can reduce sedoanalgesic requirements and improve patient satisfaction in nonurologic settings, but to our knowledge, this has not been investigated with lithotripsy. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the hypothesis that AV distraction can reduce perceived pain during lithotripsy. All patients in the study received identical analgesia before a complete session of lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter. Patients were randomized to two groups: One group (n=61) received AV distraction via a wall-mounted 32″ (82 cm) television with wireless headphones; the other group (n=57) received no AV distraction. The mean intensity of treatment was comparable in both groups. Patients used a visual analogue scale (0-10) to record independent pain and distress scores and a nonverbal pain score was documented by the radiographer during the procedure (0-4). In the group that received AV distraction, all measures of pain perception were statistically lower. The patient-reported pain score was reduced from a mean of 6.1 to 2.4 (P<0.0001), and the distress score was reduced from a mean of 4.4 to 1.0 (P=0.0001). The mean nonverbal score recorded by the radiographer was reduced from 1.5 to 0.5 (<0.0001). AV distraction significantly lowered patients' reported pain and distress scores. This correlated with the nonverbal scores reported by the radiographer. We conclude that AV distraction is a simple method of improving acceptance of lithotripsy and optimizing treatment.

  3. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  4. Memory as discrimination: what distraction reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Hodgetts, Helen M; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2013-11-01

    Recalling information involves the process of discriminating between relevant and irrelevant information stored in memory. Not infrequently, the relevant information needs to be selected from among a series of related possibilities. This is likely to be particularly problematic when the irrelevant possibilities not only are temporally or contextually appropriate, but also overlap semantically with the target or targets. Here, we investigate the extent to which purely perceptual features that discriminate between irrelevant and target material can be used to overcome the negative impact of contextual and semantic relatedness. Adopting a distraction paradigm, it is demonstrated that when distractors are interleaved with targets presented either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2), a within-modality semantic distraction effect occurs; semantically related distractors impact upon recall more than do unrelated distractors. In the semantically related condition, the number of intrusions in recall is reduced, while the number of correctly recalled targets is simultaneously increased by the presence of perceptual cues to relevance (color features in Experiment 1 or speaker's gender in Experiment 2). However, as is demonstrated in Experiment 3, even presenting semantically related distractors in a language and a sensory modality (spoken Welsh) distinct from that of the targets (visual English) is insufficient to eliminate false recalls completely or to restore correct recall to levels seen with unrelated distractors . Together, the study shows how semantic and nonsemantic discriminability shape patterns of both erroneous and correct recall.

  5. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  6. Improvements and important considerations for the 5-choice serial reaction time task-An effective measurement of visual attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jayant; Daya, Ritesh; Mishra, Ram K

    2016-09-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is an automated operant conditioning task that measures rodent attention. The task allows the measurement of several parameters such as response accuracy, speed of processing, motivation, and impulsivity. The task has been widely used to investigate attentional processes in rodents for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and has expanded to other illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. The 5-CSRTT is accompanied with two significant caveats: a time intensive training period and largely varied individual rat capability to learn and perform the task. Here we provide a regimented acquisition protocol to enhance training for the 5-CSRTT and discuss important considerations for researchers using the 5-CSRTT. We offer guidelines to ensure that inferences on performance in the 5-CSRTT are in fact a result of experimental manipulation rather than training differences, or individual animal capability. According to our findings only rats that have been trained successfully within a limited time frame should be used for the remainder of the study. Currently the 5-CSRTT employs a training period of variable duration and procedure, and its inferences on attention must overcome heterogeneous innate animal differences. The 5-CSRTT offers valuable and valid insights on various rodent attentional processes and their translation to the underpinnings of illnesses such as schizophrenia. The recommendations made here provide important criteria to ensure inferences made from this task are in fact relevant to the attentional processes being measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Audiovisual distraction for pain relief in paediatric inpatients: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N C A C; Santos, J L F; Linhares, M B M

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a stressful experience that can have a negative impact on child development. The aim of this crossover study was to examine the efficacy of audiovisual distraction for acute pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The sample comprised 40 inpatients (6-11 years) who underwent painful puncture procedures. The participants were randomized into two groups, and all children received the intervention and served as their own controls. Stress and pain-catastrophizing assessments were initially performed using the Child Stress Scale and Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, with the aim of controlling these variables. The pain assessment was performed using a Visual Analog Scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised after the painful procedures. Group 1 received audiovisual distraction before and during the puncture procedure, which was performed again without intervention on another day. The procedure was reversed in Group 2. Audiovisual distraction used animated short films. A 2 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance for 2 × 2 crossover study was performed, with a 5% level of statistical significance. The two groups had similar baseline measures of stress and pain catastrophizing. A significant difference was found between periods with and without distraction in both groups, in which scores on both pain scales were lower during distraction compared with no intervention. The sequence of exposure to the distraction intervention in both groups and first versus second painful procedure during which the distraction was performed also significantly influenced the efficacy of the distraction intervention. Audiovisual distraction effectively reduced the intensity of pain perception in paediatric inpatients. The crossover study design provides a better understanding of the power effects of distraction for acute pain management. Audiovisual distraction was a powerful and effective non-pharmacological intervention for pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The effects were

  8. Investigating the role of visual and auditory search in reading and developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLallier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that auditory and visual sequential processing deficits contribute to phonological disorders in developmental dyslexia. As an alternative explanation to a phonological deficit as the proximal cause for reading disorders, the visual attention span hypothesis (VA Span suggests that difficulties in processing visual elements simultaneously lead to dyslexia, regardless of the presence of a phonological disorder. In this study, we assessed whether deficits in processing simultaneously displayed visual or auditory elements is linked to dyslexia associated with a VA Span impairment. Sixteen children with developmental dyslexia and 16 age-matched skilled readers were assessed on visual and auditory search tasks. Participants were asked to detect a target presented simultaneously with 3, 9 or 15 distracters. In the visual modality, target detection was slower in the dyslexic children than in the control group on a serial search condition only: the intercepts (but not the slopes of the search functions were higher in the dyslexic group than in the control group. In the auditory modality, although no group difference was observed, search performance was influenced by the number of distracters in the control group only. Within the dyslexic group, not only poor visual search (high reaction times and intercepts but also low auditory search performance (d´ strongly correlated with poor irregular word reading accuracy. Moreover, both visual and auditory search performance was associated with the VA Span abilities of dyslexic participants but not with their phonological skills. The present data suggests that some visual mechanisms engaged in serial search contribute to reading and orthographic knowledge via VA Span skills regardless of phonological skills. The present results further open the question of the role of auditory simultaneous processing in reading as well as its link with VA Span skills.

  9. Investigating the role of visual and auditory search in reading and developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that auditory and visual sequential processing deficits contribute to phonological disorders in developmental dyslexia. As an alternative explanation to a phonological deficit as the proximal cause for reading disorders, the visual attention span hypothesis (VA Span) suggests that difficulties in processing visual elements simultaneously lead to dyslexia, regardless of the presence of a phonological disorder. In this study, we assessed whether deficits in processing simultaneously displayed visual or auditory elements is linked to dyslexia associated with a VA Span impairment. Sixteen children with developmental dyslexia and 16 age-matched skilled readers were assessed on visual and auditory search tasks. Participants were asked to detect a target presented simultaneously with 3, 9, or 15 distracters. In the visual modality, target detection was slower in the dyslexic children than in the control group on a "serial" search condition only: the intercepts (but not the slopes) of the search functions were higher in the dyslexic group than in the control group. In the auditory modality, although no group difference was observed, search performance was influenced by the number of distracters in the control group only. Within the dyslexic group, not only poor visual search (high reaction times and intercepts) but also low auditory search performance (d') strongly correlated with poor irregular word reading accuracy. Moreover, both visual and auditory search performance was associated with the VA Span abilities of dyslexic participants but not with their phonological skills. The present data suggests that some visual mechanisms engaged in "serial" search contribute to reading and orthographic knowledge via VA Span skills regardless of phonological skills. The present results further open the question of the role of auditory simultaneous processing in reading as well as its link with VA Span skills.

  10. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  11. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  12. Classifying serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-08

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  13. Investigating saccade programming in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia using distracter interference paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the saccadic system in the mantis, I applied distracter interference paradigms. These involved presenting the mantis with a fixation target and one or several distracters supposed to affect saccades towards the target. When a single target was presented, a medium-sized target located in its lower visual field elicited higher rates of saccade response. This preference for target size and position was also observed when a target and a distracter were presented simultaneously. That is, the mantis chose and fixated the target rather than a distracter that was much smaller or larger than the target, or was located above the target. Furthermore, the mantis' preference was not affected by increasing the number of distracters. However, the presence of the distracter decreased the occurrence rate of saccade and increased the response time to saccade. I conclude that distracter interference paradigms are an effective way of investigating the visual processing underlying saccade generation in the mantis. Possible mechanisms of saccade generation in the mantis are discussed.

  14. Multi-modal distraction: insights from children's limited attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Broadbent, Hannah; Ferrari, Jessica; Forrest, Benjamin; Merkley, Rebecca; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-03-01

    How does the multi-sensory nature of stimuli influence information processing? Cognitive systems with limited selective attention can elucidate these processes. Six-year-olds, 11-year-olds and 20-year-olds engaged in a visual search task that required them to detect a pre-defined coloured shape under conditions of low or high visual perceptual load. On each trial, a peripheral distractor that could be either compatible or incompatible with the current target colour was presented either visually, auditorily or audiovisually. Unlike unimodal distractors, audiovisual distractors elicited reliable compatibility effects across the two levels of load in adults and in the older children, but high visual load significantly reduced distraction for all children, especially the youngest participants. This study provides the first demonstration that multi-sensory distraction has powerful effects on selective attention: Adults and older children alike allocate attention to potentially relevant information across multiple senses. However, poorer attentional resources can, paradoxically, shield the youngest children from the deleterious effects of multi-sensory distraction. Furthermore, we highlight how developmental research can enrich the understanding of distinct mechanisms controlling adult selective attention in multi-sensory environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  16. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  17. Changes in nasorespiratory function in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kiyo; Ono, Takashi; Mochida, Masumi; Ohyama, Kimie

    2006-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine how nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO). Furthermore, with regard to impaired nasorespiratory function, the possibility of a relationship between the cleft side and laterality and any effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis was investigated. In this descriptive, prospective clinical report, subjective and objective data regarding nasorespiratory function before and after maxillary distraction osteogenesis were compared. Data from 13 subjects with cleft lip and palate were used. Subjects had a severe maxillary deficiency and underwent distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external device system. The subjective measure was the score on a questionnaire regarding nasorespiratory function using a visual analog scale. The objective measure was nasal resistance. The visual analog scale score for two items significantly decreased just after distraction osteogenesis. Nasal resistance also significantly decreased 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, nasal resistance on the cleft side was significantly greater than that on the noncleft side just before and 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. There was a significant positive correlation between changes in the visual analog scale score and nasal resistance. These results suggest that nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate. Moreover, it appears that nasal obstruction on the cleft side does not change in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  18. Vector alignment in maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckan, Sina; Arman, Ayca; Bayram, Burak; Celik, Erkan

    2006-09-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment of cleft patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia. The aim of this paper is to present the combined surgical/orthodontic treatment of a cleft lip and palate patient and to evaluate the maxillary distraction procedure and the distraction vector in high Le Fort I osteotomy.

  19. Increased distractibility in schizotypy: Independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E; Vachon, François; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility, and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span, OSPAN), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

  20. Distraction as a measure of presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Korsgaard, Dannie

    2010-01-01

    ) to determine presence as immersion (Lombard and Ditton in At the heart of it all: the concept of presence, Department of Broadcasting, Telecommunications and Mass Media, Temple University, 1997) at selectable events (approximated real-time). Two experiments were conducted to investigate its applicability......To assess and improve the user experience in entertainment products, developers need results of evaluation methods, which in detail measure the relationship between the mediated content and the resulting media experience. This paper proposes a method applying adjustable distraction (AD...... in computer games and movies with respectively visual and tactile AD. The first experiment examined whether the experienced intensity in a survival-shooter game, measured through questionnaires, was proportional to results from the AD method. The intrusiveness of the AD method was also addressed...

  1. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  2. Impaired working memory for visual motion direction in schizophrenia: Absence of recency effects and association with psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäblein, Michael; Sieprath, Lore; Knöchel, Christian; Landertinger, Axel; Schmied, Claudia; Ghinea, Denisa; Mayer, Jutta S; Bittner, Robert A; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2016-09-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments are a prominent neurocognitive symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and include deficits in memory for serial order and abnormalities in serial position effects (i.e., primacy and recency effects). Former studies predominantly focused on investigating these deficits applying verbal or static visual stimuli, but little is known about WM processes that involve dynamic visual movements. We examined WM for visual motion directions, its susceptibility to distraction and the effect of serial positioning. Twenty-three patients with paranoid SZ and 23 healthy control subjects (HC) took part in the study. We conducted an adapted Sternberg-type recognition paradigm: three random dot kinematograms (RDKs) that depicted coherent visual motion were used as stimuli and a distractor stimulus was incorporated into the task. SZ patients performed significantly worse in the WM visual motion task, when a distractor stimulus was presented. While HC showed a recency effect for later RDKs, the effect was absent in SZ patients. WM deficits were associated with more severe psychopathological symptoms, poor visual and verbal learning, and a longer duration of illness. Furthermore, SZ patients showed impairments in several other neurocognitive domains. Findings suggest that early WM processing of visual motion is susceptible to interruption and that WM impairments are associated with clinical symptoms in SZ. The absence of a recency effect is discussed in respect of 3 theoretical approaches-impaired WM for serial order information, abnormalities in early visual representations (i.e., masking effects), and deficits in later visual processing (i.e., attentional blink effect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Percutaneous distraction lengthening in brachymetacarpia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Alexander D; Fragomen, Austin T

    2011-08-08

    Brachymetacarpia is a condition manifesting a shortened metacarpal that is caused by early closure of the epiphyseal plate and believed to arise idiopathically. The correction for brachymetacarpia is usually for cosmetic reasons as brachymetacarpia does not impair function. The literature indicates several different approaches to lengthening digits, including single-stage lengthening and rapid distraction lengthening with a bone graft. However, gradual distraction is the preferred method due to excellent cosmetic outcomes and few postoperative complications. This article reports a case of brachymetacarpia treated with distraction lengthening using a minimally invasive, percutaneous approach. A 16-year-old girl presented with a shortened left ring finger and underwent surgery to correct the deformity. The left ring finger measured 12 mm shorter than her right ring finger; however, there was normal mobility at the joints. In the operating room, an external fixator was attached using 4 self-drilling, self-tapping pins through several 3-mm skin incisions. The total fixation time was 14 weeks; however, the achieved length of 12 mm was achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. The healing index of the fixation period was 81 days/cm. The postoperative course and fixation period were uneventful, with no complications except for 2 pin infections that were treated with oral antibiotics. The method of gradual distraction lengthening in this case successfully achieved the desired length and yielded an excellent cosmetic result. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Social Media Interruption Affects the Acquisition of Visually, Not Aurally, Acquired Information during a Pathophysiology Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Jane R.; Thakkar, Shivam C.; Suliman, Neveen; O'Neill, Shannon I.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2018-01-01

    Poor academic performance from extensive social media usage appears to be due to students' inability to multitask between distractions and academic work. However, the degree to which visually distracted students can acquire lecture information presented aurally is unknown. This study examined the ability of students visually distracted by social…

  5. Useful field of view predicts driving in the presence of distracters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Chaparro, Alex; Lacherez, Philippe; Hickson, Louise

    2012-04-01

    The Useful Field of View (UFOV) test has been shown to be highly effective in predicting crash risk among older adults. An important question which we examined in this study is whether this association is due to the ability of the UFOV to predict difficulties in attention-demanding driving situations that involve either visual or auditory distracters. Participants included 92 community-living adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.4 years; range 65-88 years) who completed all three subtests of the UFOV involving assessment of visual processing speed (subtest 1), divided attention (subtest 2), and selective attention (subtest 3); driving safety risk was also classified using the UFOV scoring system. Driving performance was assessed separately on a closed-road circuit while driving under three conditions: no distracters, visual distracters, and auditory distracters. Driving outcome measures included road sign recognition, hazard detection, gap perception, time to complete the course, and performance on the distracter tasks. Those rated as safe on the UFOV (safety rating categories 1 and 2), as well as those responding faster than the recommended cut-off on the selective attention subtest (350 msec), performed significantly better in terms of overall driving performance and also experienced less interference from distracters. Of the three UFOV subtests, the selective attention subtest best predicted overall driving performance in the presence of distracters. Older adults who were rated as higher risk on the UFOV, particularly on the selective attention subtest, demonstrated poorest driving performance in the presence of distracters. This finding suggests that the selective attention subtest of the UFOV may be differentially more effective in predicting driving difficulties in situations of divided attention which are commonly associated with crashes.

  6. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  7. The impact of distracter-target similarity on contextual cueing effects of children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2014-05-01

    Contextual cueing reflects a memory-based attentional guidance process that develops through repeated exposure to displays in which a target location has been consistently paired with a specific context. In two experiments, we compared 20 younger children's (6-7 years old), 20 older children's (9-10 years old), and 20 young adults' (18-21 years old) abilities to acquire contextual cueing effects from displays in which half of the distracters predicted the location of the target and half did not. Across experiments, we varied the similarity between the predictive and nonpredictive distracters and the target. In Experiment 1, the predictive distracters were visually similar to the target and dissimilar from the nonpredictive distracters. In Experiment 2, the nonpredictive distracters were also similar to the target and predictive distracters. All three age groups exhibited contextual cueing in Experiment 1, although the effect was not as strong for the younger children relative to older children and adults. All participants exhibited weaker contextual cueing effects in Experiment 2, with the younger children not exhibiting significant contextual cueing at all. Apparently, when search processes could not be guided to the predictive distracters on the basis of salient stimulus features, younger children in particular experienced difficulty in implicitly identifying and using aspects of the context to facilitate with the acquisition of contextual cueing effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced Distractibility in a Remote Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.; Davidoff, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Background In visual processing, there are marked cultural differences in the tendency to adopt either a global or local processing style. A remote culture (the Himba) has recently been reported to have a greater local bias in visual processing than Westerners. Here we give the first evidence that a greater, and remarkable, attentional selectivity provides the basis for this local bias. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, Eriksen-type flanker interference was measured in the Himba and in Western controls. In both groups, responses to the direction of a task-relevant target arrow were affected by the compatibility of task-irrelevant distractor arrows. However, the Himba showed a marked reduction in overall flanker interference compared to Westerners. The smaller interference effect in the Himba occurred despite their overall slower performance than Westerners, and was evident even at a low level of perceptual load of the displays. In Experiment 2, the attentional selectivity of the Himba was further demonstrated by showing that their attention was not even captured by a moving singleton distractor. Conclusions/Significance We argue that the reduced distractibility in the Himba is clearly consistent with their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing. PMID:22046275

  9. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  10. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  11. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  12. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  13. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  14. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  15. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices for maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus: complications and their prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kaneshige; Morishita, Tadashi

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, advancement has been made in distraction osteogenesis in the facial area. It has been applied actively to treat maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices does not lead to disability in daily living, including during the retention period, and has low surgical invasiveness, facile management, and superior aesthetics. Thus, there have been occasional reports on this procedure in recent years. Because an internal device is unidirectional, the greatest disadvantage is the inability to adjust the direction of distraction after its placement. However, past reports have emphasized its advantages, and its complications have rarely been discussed. We performed Le Fort I distraction using internal devices on 15 young patients. Our results showed notable complications in a few cases. When serial cephalometric analysis was performed after maxillary distraction, it demonstrated that the maxilla assumes various three-dimensional distraction morphologies. In particular, cases with insufficient bone grafting of alveolar clefts developed collapse mainly in the alveolar cleft region during postoperative distraction. Mobility and deviation of the maxillary bone fragment occurred. We implemented preventative measures against complications such as using modifications to place the devices parallel on the left and right sides and using a bite splint for distraction. These measures produced improved outcomes, and we describe here the details.

  16. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  17. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  18. Visual Processing Speeds in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Croker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate visual processing speeds in children. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task with schematic faces as stimuli was given to ninety-nine 6–10-year-old children as well as a short form of the WISC-III. Participants were asked to determine whether a happy face stimulus was embedded in a stream of distracter stimuli. Presentation time was gradually reduced from 500 ms per stimulus to 100 ms per stimulus, in 50 ms steps. The data revealed that (i RSVP speed increases with age, (ii children aged 8 years and over can discriminate stimuli presented every 100 ms—the speed typically used with RSVP procedures in adult and adolescent populations, and (iii RSVP speed is significantly correlated with digit span and object assembly. In consequence, the RSVP paradigm presented here is appropriate for use in further investigations of processes of temporal attention within this cohort.

  19. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed mandible - The Groningen Distraction Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Heydenrijk, K; Vissink, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, both the surgical procedure and the clinical results of a novel distraction device to augment a severely resorbed anterior edentulous mandible are described. The distraction device is non-voluminous, and consists of two distraction screws and one guide screw. Two months after the last

  20. Attractive Serial Dependence in the Absence of an Explicit Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Park, Joonkoo

    2018-03-01

    Attractive serial dependence refers to an adaptive change in the representation of sensory information, whereby a current stimulus appears to be similar to a previous one. The nature of this phenomenon is controversial, however, as serial dependence could arise from biased perceptual representations or from biased traces of working memory representation at a decisional stage. Here, we demonstrated a neural signature of serial dependence in numerosity perception emerging early in the visual processing stream even in the absence of an explicit task. Furthermore, a psychophysical experiment revealed that numerosity perception is biased by a previously presented stimulus in an attractive way, not by repulsive adaptation. These results suggest that serial dependence is a perceptual phenomenon starting from early levels of visual processing and occurring independently from a decision process, which is consistent with the view that these biases smooth out noise from neural signals to establish perceptual continuity.

  1. Under-reactive but easily distracted: An fMRI investigation of attentional capture in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Keehn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, salient behaviorally-relevant information often fails to capture attention, while subtle behaviorally-irrelevant details commonly induce a state of distraction. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neurocognitive networks underlying attentional capture in sixteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-one typically developing (TD individuals. Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm designed to investigate activation of attentional networks to behaviorally-relevant targets and contingent attention capture by task-irrelevant distractors. In individuals with ASD, target stimuli failed to trigger bottom-up activation of the ventral attentional network and the cerebellum. Additionally, the ASD group showed no differences in behavior or occipital activation associated with contingent attentional capture. Rather, results suggest that to-be-ignored distractors that shared either task-relevant or irrelevant features captured attention in ASD. Results indicate that individuals with ASD may be under-reactive to behaviorally-relevant stimuli, unable to filter irrelevant information, and that both top-down and bottom-up attention networks function atypically in ASD. Lastly, deficits in target-related processing were associated with autism symptomatology, providing further support for the hypothesis that non-social attentional processes and their neurofunctional underpinnings may play a significant role in the development of sociocommunicative impairments in ASD.

  2. Designing feedback to mitigate teen distracted driving: A social norms approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikhpour, Maryam; Donmez, Birsen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens. Forty teens completed a driving simulator experiment while performing a self-paced visual-manual secondary task in four between-subject conditions: a) social norms feedback that provided a report at the end of each drive on teens' distracted driving behavior, comparing their distraction engagement to their parent's, b) post-drive feedback that provided just the report on teens' distracted driving behavior without information on their parents, c) real-time feedback in the form of auditory warnings based on eyes of road-time, and d) no feedback as control. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on these teens' and their parents' self-reported engagement in driver distractions and the associated social norms. Social norms and real-time feedback conditions resulted in significantly smaller average off-road glance duration, rate of long (>2s) off-road glances, and standard deviation of lane position compared to no feedback. Further, social norms feedback decreased brake response time and percentage of time not looking at the road compared to no feedback. No major effect was observed for post-drive feedback. Questionnaire results suggest that teens appeared to overestimate parental norms, but no effect of feedback was found on their perceptions. Feedback systems that leverage social norms can help mitigate driver distraction among teens. Overall, both social norms and real-time feedback induced

  3. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  4. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  5. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  6. The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, working memory and distraction--a behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia do Vale

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load or 1-back (working memory load task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level.

  7. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  8. Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hodgetts, Helen M.; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC)…

  9. Eye Closure Reduces the Cross-Modal Memory Impairment Caused by Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy J.; Andrade, Jackie; Eagan, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses instructed to close their eyes during retrieval recall more correct and fewer incorrect visual and auditory details. This study tested whether eye closure causes these effects through a reduction in environmental distraction. Sixty participants watched a staged event before verbally answering questions about it in the presence of…

  10. Distraction and workload : Driving on the A10 ring road around Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Hogema, J.H.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A simulator study was performed to establish the effects of motorway environment complexity on driver distraction and workload. In this study environment complexity refers to the visual complexity of static objects on or next to the road and in its vicinity (e.g. traffic signs, buildings,

  11. The Functional Determinants of Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Perceptual-Motor Interference in Verbal Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.

    2017-01-01

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity…

  12. Cleft maxillary distraction versus orthognathic surgery--which one is more stable in 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hannah Daile P; Hägg, Margareta Bendeus; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the long-term stability of distraction osteogenesis (DO) and conventional orthognathic surgery (CO) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). CLP patients requiring maxillary advancement of 4 to 10 mm were randomized and assigned to either CO or DO. In the CO group, the maxilla was fully mobilized to the preplanned position and fixed using titanium miniplates. In the DO group, the maxilla was mobilized to a limited extent and distractors were fixed on each side of the maxilla. Serial lateral cephalographs were taken for the assessment of stability at different postoperative periods up to 5 years. In the CO group, the maxilla relapsed backward and upward, whereas in the DO group, it advanced more forward and downward over 5 years. Distraction of the cleft maxilla can achieve better long-term skeletal stability in maintaining its advanced position than CO. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  14. Sound localization in the presence of one or two distracters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, E.H.A.; Kistler, D.J.; Wightman, F.L

    2001-01-01

    Localizing a target sound can be a challenge when one or more distracter sounds are present at the same time. This study measured the effect of distracter position on target localization for one distracter (17 positions) and two distracters (21 combinations of 17 positions). Listeners were

  15. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  16. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiju J. Babu

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter in the environment.

  17. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  18. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Leat, Susan J; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Nine young adult (25±6 years) and 9 older participants (72±4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05±0.02; younger: 0.48±0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ∼104±150ms and ∼124±122ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ∼68±35ms). Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  20. Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Dahlström, Örjan; Karlsson, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Whether cognitive load-and other aspects of task difficulty-increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal-task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information-which decreases distractibility-as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

  1. Low-Cost Intra-Articular Distraction Technique Using Kirschner Wires and a Toothed Lamina Spreader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas Gregory

    We describe a low-cost (instrument cost) technique for joint distraction using 2 Kirschner wires and a toothed lamina spreader in lieu of a Hintermann distractor. The described technique allows for temporary intra-articular distraction and visualization and preservation of the articular surface with extra-articular instrumentation. The technique can also allow for closed reduction and percutaneous treatment in cases of soft tissue compromise. Additionally, the technique uses common orthopedic surgical instruments, leading to a minimal learning curve for novice surgeons. We have found this distraction technique to be most effective for intra-articular preparation of hindfoot and midfoot arthrodeses and for navicular fracture reduction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  3. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  4. Distraction: heroic attitude before the metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zacca Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering distraction as the heroic ethos of  modernity, I intend to analyze the perceptive changes brought about by the advance of the productive forces under capitalism; and the subsequent apprehension  of this change by four contemporary poets, namely Liv Lagerblad, Heyk Pimenta, Alberto Pucheu and Eucanaã Ferraz. Each of these poets brings distraction as what Walter Benjamin classified as inner form. In all cases, distraction appears as a poetic force before the danger of annihilation in big cities. This reflection is the basis for another, another, yet concerning the relations between poetry and politics, thinking with Jacques Rancière its position on the "distribution of the sensible". Finally, a resumption of Baudelaire, a master of distraction, seems to be inevitable.

  5. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  6. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, where...

  7. A new noninvasive controlled intra-articular ankle distraction technique on a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ahmet T; Ozcanli, Haluk; Soyuncu, Yetkin; Dabak, Tayyar K

    2006-08-01

    Effective joint distraction is crucial in arthroscopic ankle surgery. We describe an effective and controlled intra-articular ankle distraction technique that we have studied by means of a fresh-frozen cadaver model. Using a kyphoplasty balloon, which is currently used in spine surgery, we tried to achieve a controlled distraction. After the fixation of the cadaver model, standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals were used for ankle arthroscopy. From the same portals, the kyphoplasty balloon was inserted and placed in an appropriate position intra-articularly. The necessary amount of distraction was achieved by inflating the kyphoplasty balloon with a pressure regulation pump. All anatomic sites of the ankle joint were easily visualized with the arthroscope during surgery by changing the pressure and the intra-articular position of the kyphoplasty balloon. Ankle distraction was clearly seen on the arthroscopic and image intensifier view. The kyphoplasty balloon is simple to place through the standard portals and the advantage is that it allows easy manipulation of the arthroscopic instruments from the same portal.

  8. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  9. Changes in speech following maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, T W; Polley, J W; Figueroa, A; Smith, B E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in articulation and velopharyngeal function following maxillary distraction osteogenesis. This is a descriptive, post hoc clinical report comparing the performance of patients before and after maxillary distraction. The independent variable was maxillary distraction while the dependent variables were resonance, articulation errors, and velopharyngeal function. The data were collected at a tertiary health care center in Chicago. The data from pre- and postoperative evaluations of 18 maxillary distraction patients were used. The outcome measures were severity of hypernasality and hyponasality, velopharyngeal orifice size as estimated using the pressure-flow technique, and number and type of articulation errors. At the long-term follow-up, 16.7% exhibited a significant increase in hypernasality. Seventy-five percent of patients with preoperative hyponasality experienced improved nasal resonance. Articulation improved in 67% of patients by the 1-year follow-up. In a predominately cleft palate population, the risk for velopharyngeal insufficiency following maxillary distraction is similar to the risk observed in Le Fort I maxillary advancement. Patients being considered for maxillary distraction surgery should receive pre- and postoperative speech evaluations and be counseled about risks for changes in their speech.

  10. Distraction and mind-wandering under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  11. Distraction and mind-wandering under load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eForster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  12. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  13. Effect of police mobile computer terminal interface design on officer driving distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Kaber, David

    2018-02-01

    Several crash reports have identified in-vehicle distraction to be a primary cause of emergency vehicle crashes especially in law enforcement. Furthermore, studies have found that mobile computer terminals (MCTs) are the most frequently used in-vehicle technology for police officers. Twenty police officers participated in a driving simulator-based assessment of visual behavior, performance, workload and situation awareness with current and enhanced MCT interface designs. In general, results revealed MCT use while driving to decrease officer visual attention to the roadway, but usability improvements can reduce the level of visual distraction and secondary-task completion time. Results also suggest that use of MCTs while driving significantly reduces perceived level of driving environment awareness for police officers and increases cognitive workload. These findings may be useful for MCT manufacturers in improving interface designs to increase police officer and civilian safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B

    2010-11-01

    To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of virtual reality distraction on pain among patients with hand injury undergoing dressing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunlan; Deng, Hongyan; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of virtual reality distraction on pain among patients with a hand injury undergoing a dressing change. Virtual reality distraction can effectively alleviate pain among patients undergoing a dressing change. Clinical research has not addressed pain control during a dressing change. A randomised controlled trial was performed. In the first dressing change sequence, 98 patients were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group, with 49 cases in each group. Pain levels were compared between the two groups before and after the dressing change using a visual analog scale. The sense of involvement in virtual environments was measured using the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, which determined the relationship between the sense of involvement and pain level. The difference in visual analog scale scores between the two groups before the dressing change was not statistically significant (t = 0·196, p > 0·05), but the scores became statistically significant after the dressing change (t = -30·792, p virtual environment and pain level during the dressing was statistically significant (R(2) = 0·5538, p Virtual reality distraction can effectively alleviate pain among patients with a hand injury undergoing a dressing change. Better results can be obtained by increasing the sense of involvement in a virtual environment. Virtual reality distraction can effectively relieve pain without side effects and is not reliant on a doctor's prescription. This tool is convenient for nurses to use, especially when analgesics are unavailable. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A spectral power analysis of driving behavior changes during the transition from nondistraction to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-11-17

    This article investigated and compared frequency domain and time domain characteristics of drivers' behaviors before and after the start of distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied for the frequency domain analysis to explore drivers' behavior pattern changes between nondistracted (prestarting of visual-manual task) and distracted (poststarting of visual-manual task) driving periods. Average relative spectral power in a low frequency range (0-0.5 Hz) and the standard deviation in a 10-s time window of vehicle control variables (i.e., lane offset, yaw rate, and acceleration) were calculated and further compared. Sensitivity analyses were also applied to examine the reliability of the time and frequency domain analyses. Results of the mixed model analyses from the time and frequency domain analyses all showed significant degradation in lateral control performance after engaging in visual-manual tasks while driving. Results of the sensitivity analyses suggested that the frequency domain analysis was less sensitive to the frequency bandwidth, whereas the time domain analysis was more sensitive to the time intervals selected for variation calculations. Different time interval selections can result in significantly different standard deviation values, whereas average spectral power analysis on yaw rate in both low and high frequency bandwidths showed consistent results, that higher variation values were observed during distracted driving when compared to nondistracted driving. This study suggests that driver state detection needs to consider the behavior changes during the prestarting periods, instead of only focusing on periods with physical presence of distraction, such as cell phone use. Lateral control measures can be a better indicator of distraction detection than longitudinal controls. In addition, frequency domain analyses proved to be a more robust and consistent method in assessing

  17. [Three-dimensional modeling of mandibular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, L A; Trunde, F; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2003-12-01

    Facial hemi-atrophy affects 1 in 4000 or 5000 children. We propose treating this deformation of the 1st branchial arch with the "bone distraction" lengthening technique first described by Ilizarov in the 1950s, which has already been employed with the mandible. We have modelled mandibular distraction in facial hemi-atrophy patients and discuss the benefits of such pre-surgical planning encompassing the assistance of pre- and post-operative as well as surgically coordinated orthodontic therapy. Using X scanner views of a 5 year-old girl patient, we have developed a distraction-simulation software, which makes the pathological side harmonious with the healthy side along the medial sagittal plane. In order to obtain facial symmetry, put bones in balance, and orient the occlusal plane horizontally, essential requisites of occlusal stability, it is necessary: to employ a 2 or 3-dimensional distractor, to pre-plan the distraction and screw positioning, to set up a fixed orthodontic treatment plan prior to beginning distraction therapy.

  18. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Distraction rate and latency: factors in the outcome of paediatric maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Stephen; Cole, Patrick; Stephenson, J B; Hollier, Larry

    2009-12-01

    Over 50 years ago, current tenets of distraction osteogenesis were developed through work on the lower extremity; however, the application of these tenets in the paediatric craniofacial skeleton remains questionable. Prompted by recent concern that traditional aspects of distraction may be either outdated or wholly inapplicable to the paediatric maxilla, we retrospectively evaluated maxillary distraction protocol using a 24-h latency period in conjunction with a distraction rate of 2mm/day. Following maxillary advancement via a distraction protocol consisting of a 24-h latency period and a distraction rate of 2mm/day, seven consecutive paediatric cases were evaluated. Standard profile photos and cephalometric films taken preoperatively, at device removal and at 1-year follow-up were compared. With the sella as the point of registration, pre- and post-distraction films were superimposed on the sella-nasion plane. Sella-nasion-subspinale, the angle of convexity, the distance from incisal edges to the y-axis, and angulation of the upper incisor to the sella-nasion plane were analysed to evaluate hard-tissue changes. Patient age ranged from 3 to 14 years (mean=7.43 years). Maxillary distraction length averaged 11 mm (range=10-12 mm). Interval from device application to removal averaged 98 days (range=75-180 days). The interval of the active distraction ranged from 11 to 65 days (mean=24 days). From distraction completion to device removal averaged 85 days (range=60-150). Follow-up intervals ranged from 52 to 24 months (mean=34 months). All patients demonstrated substantial clinical advancement of the maxilla with correction of midfacial deficiencies. A single patient developed mild cellulitis at one skin-device interface; no other complications were noted. Cephalometric and clinical evaluations at 1 year post-distraction demonstrated stable results, and parental satisfaction was qualitatively high. The surgical dogma of lower-extremity distraction osteogenesis is not

  20. The Effect of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain Relief During Dressing Changes in Children with Chronic Wounds on Lower Limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Qiu, Rong; Yao, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients with chronic wounds experience the most pain during dressing changes. Currently, researchers focus mostly on analgesics and appropriate dressing materials to relieve pain during dressing changes of chronic wounds. However, the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions, such as virtual reality distraction, on pain management during dressing changes of pediatric chronic wounds remains poorly understood. To investigate the effect of virtual reality distraction on alleviating pain during dressing changes in children with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. A prospective randomized study. A pediatric center in a tertiary hospital. Sixty-five children, aged from 4 to 16 years, with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. Pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes were recorded by using the Wong-Baker Faces picture scale, visual analogue scale, and pain behavior scale, as well as physiological measurements including pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Time length of dressing change was recorded. Virtual reality distraction significantly relieved pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes and reduced the time length for dressing changes as compared to standard distraction methods. The use of virtual reality as a distraction tool in a pediatric ward offered superior pain reduction to children as compared to standard distractions. This device can potentially improve clinical efficiency by reducing length time for dressing changes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Union Listing via OCLC's Serials Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…

  2. [Multimodal distraction to relieve pain in children undergoing acute medical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate; Rodger, Sylvia; Bucolo, Sam; Wang, Xue-Qing; Kimble, Roy M

    2009-10-01

    Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management have been used by therapists for decades to reduce the anxiety and pain experienced by children during burn care procedures. With a greater understanding of pain and the principles behind what causes a child to be distracted, combined with access to state of the art technology, we have developed an easy to use, hand held multimodal distraction device (MMD). MMD is an interactive device that prepares the child for a procedure and uses developmentally appropriate distraction stories and games during the procedures to alleviate anxiety and pain. This paper summarizes the results of three randomized control trials. The trials aimed to understand the effectiveness of MMD as a distraction and preparation tool in reducing anxiety and pain in children undergoing burns and non-burns medical procedures compared to pure pharmacological approaches Standard Distraction (SD) and off the shelf video games (VG). Three separate prospective randomized control trials involving 182 children having 354 dressing changes were conducted in the burns and orthopedic departments at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, to address the above aims. Pain and anxiety scores were completed for the child, caregiver and nursing staff according to the Modified Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Visual Analogue Scale and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Procedural length was recorded. MMD as a preparation and distraction tool were shown to have a significant impact on child, parent and nursing staff reported anxiety and pain during procedures compared to standard care and video games (P positive effect on clinical time and was shown to sustain its impact on pain and time with further dressing changes. MMD is more effective in reducing the pain and anxiety experienced by children in acute medical procedures as compared with SD and VG. MMD is continuing to be trialed and is continuing to show

  3. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  4. Control of impact loading during distracted running before and after gait retraining in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; An, Winko W; Au, Ivan P H; Zhang, Janet H; Chan, Zoe Y S; MacPhail, Aislinn J

    2018-07-01

    Gait retraining using visual biofeedback has been reported to reduce impact loading in runners. However, most of the previous studies did not adequately examine the level of motor learning after training, as the modified gait pattern was not tested in a dual-task condition. Hence, this study sought to compare the landing peak positive acceleration (PPA) and vertical loading rates during distracted running before and after gait retraining. Sixteen recreational runners underwent a two-week visual biofeedback gait retraining program for impact loading reduction, with feedback on the PPA measured at heel. In the evaluation of PPA and vertical loading rates before and after the retraining, the participants performed a cognitive and verbal counting task while running. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between feedback and training on PPA (F = 4.642; P = 0.048) but not vertical loading rates (F > 1.953; P > 0.067). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significantly lower PPA and vertical loading rates after gait retraining (P  0.68). Visual feedback after gait retraining reduced PPA and vertical loading rates during distracted running (P  0.36). Gait retraining is effective in lowering impact loading even when the runners are distracted. In dual-task situation, visual biofeedback provided beneficial influence on kinetics control after gait retraining.

  5. National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...

  6. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.

  7. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  8. An evidence-based review: distracted driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  9. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature.

  10. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  11. A Source of Distractions in the Classroom: The Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lily Y. S.

    This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal…

  12. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  13. Heightened attentional capture by visual food stimuli in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeijer, Renate A M; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent generation of craving, which might enable AN patients to maintain their strict diet. Participants were 66 restrictive AN spectrum patients and 55 healthy controls. A single-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used with food and disorder-neutral cues as critical distracter stimuli and disorder-neutral pictures as target stimuli. AN spectrum patients showed diminished task performance when visual food cues were presented in close temporal proximity of the to-be-identified target. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicate that food cues automatically capture AN spectrum patients' attention. One explanation could be that the enhanced attentional capture of food cues in AN is driven by the relatively high threat value of food items in AN. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Emotional prosody of task-irrelevant speech interferes with the retention of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2018-04-09

    Task-irrelevant speech and other temporally changing sounds are known to interfere with the short-term memorization of ordered verbal materials, as compared to silence or stationary sounds. It has been argued that this disruption of short-term memory (STM) may be due to (a) interference of automatically encoded acoustical fluctuations with the process of serial rehearsal or (b) attentional capture by salient task-irrelevant information. To disentangle the contributions of these 2 processes, the authors investigated whether the disruption of serial recall is due to the semantic or acoustical properties of task-irrelevant speech (Experiment 1). They found that performance was affected by the prosody (emotional intonation), but not by the semantics (word meaning), of irrelevant speech, suggesting that the disruption of serial recall is due to interference of precategorically encoded changing-state sound (with higher fluctuation strength of emotionally intonated speech). The authors further demonstrated a functional distinction between this form of distraction and attentional capture by contrasting the effect of (a) speech prosody and (b) sudden prosody deviations on both serial and nonserial STM tasks (Experiment 2). Although serial recall was again sensitive to the emotional prosody of irrelevant speech, performance on a nonserial missing-item task was unaffected by the presence of neutral or emotionally intonated speech sounds. In contrast, sudden prosody changes tended to impair performance on both tasks, suggesting an independent effect of attentional capture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Serial murder: An unusual stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Mandar R; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M; Janagond, Anand B; Mishra, Pradeep K

    2017-12-01

    Serial murders attract attention from the media, mental health experts, academia, and the general public. We present a case of serial murders that took place in a limited area and which caused public anxiety and anguish in central India. All the victims were homeless beggars, who were bludgeoned to death (crush injury). Individual murders were initially investigated by different police stations; fortunately, since they sent all the bodies to a common autopsy centre, a forensic pathologist was able to link all the cases, the first person to do so. This emphasises the need for sharing information among police stations and autopsy centres.

  17. Distractibility during Retrieval of Long-Term Memory: Domain-General Interference, Neural Networks and Increased Susceptibility in Normal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Edward Wais

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mere presence of irrelevant external stimuli results in interference with the fidelity of details retrieved from long-term memory (LTM. Recent studies suggest that distractibility during LTM retrieval occurs when the focus of resource-limited, top-down mechanisms that guide the selection of relevant mnemonic details is disrupted by representations of external distractors. We review findings from four studies that reveal distractibility during episodic retrieval. The approach cued participants to recall previously studied visual details when their eyes were closed, or were open and irrelevant visual information was present. The results showed a negative impact of the distractors on the fidelity of details retrieved from LTM. An fMRI experiment using the same paradigm replicated the behavioral results and found that diminished episodic memory was associated with the disruption of functional connectivity in whole-brain networks. Specifically, network connectivity supported recollection of details based on visual imagery when eyes were closed, but connectivity declined in the presence of visual distractors. Another experiment using auditory distractors found equivalent effects for auditory and visual distraction during cued recall, suggesting that the negative impact of distractibility is a domain-general phenomenon in LTM. Comparisons between older and younger adults revealed an aging-related increase in the negative impact of distractibility on retrieval of LTM. Finally, a new study that compared categorization abilities between younger and older adults suggests a cause underlying age-related decline of visual details in LTM. The sum of our findings suggests that cognitive control resources, although limited, have the capability to resolve interference from distractors during tasks of moderate effort, but these resources are overwhelmed when additional processes associated with episodic retrieval, or categorization of complex prototypes, are

  18. The Role of Age, Working Memory, and Response Inhibition in Deviance Distraction: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Alicia; Andrés, Pilar; Servera, Mateu; Verbruggen, Frederick; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.

    2016-01-01

    Sounds deviating from an otherwise repeated or structured sequence capture attention and affect performance in an ongoing visual task negatively, testament to the balance between selective attention and change detection. Although deviance distraction has been the object of much research, its modulation across the life span has been more scarcely…

  19. Cognitive Control of Auditory Distraction: Impact of Task Difficulty, Foreknowledge, and Working Memory Capacity Supports Duplex-Mechanism Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Hurlstone, Mark J.; Marsh, John E.; Vachon, Francois; Jones, Dylan M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of top-down cognitive control on 2 putatively distinct forms of distraction was investigated. Attentional capture by a task-irrelevant auditory deviation (e.g., a female-spoken token following a sequence of male-spoken tokens)--as indexed by its disruption of a visually presented recall task--was abolished when focal-task engagement…

  20. Maxillary Tuberosity Reconstruction with Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ugurlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe bone loss due to pathology in the maxillary tuberosity region is a challenging problem both surgically and prosthetically. Large bone grafts have a poor survival rate due to the delicate bony architecture in this area and presence of the maxillary sinus. Our case presentation describes a new technique for reconstructing severe bony defect in the maxillary tuberosity with horizontal distraction osteogenesis in a 45-year-old man. A 4×6×3cm cyst was discovered in the left maxillary molar region and enucleated. Three months postoperatively, the area had a severe bone defect extending to the zygomatic buttress superiorly and hamular notch posteriorly. Three months later, a bone segment including the right upper second premolar was osteotomised and distracted horizontally. The bone segment was distracted 15 mm distally. After consolidation, implants were placed when the distractor was removed. A fixed denture was loaded over the implants after 3 months. Complete alveolar bone loss extending to the cranial base can be reconstructed with transport distraction osteogenesis. Distalisation of the alveolar bone segment adjacent to the bony defect is an easy method for reconstructing such severe defects.

  1. Experiences in Performing Posterior Calvarial Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kevin; Lloyd, Mark; Evans, Martin; White, Nicholas; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Desiderio; Sharp, Melanie; Noons, Pete; Solanki, Guirish; Dover, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The use of posterior calvarial distraction (PCD) for the management of craniosynostosis is well recognized. The advantages of using this technique include increased cranial volume, decreased intracranial pressure, relief of posterior fossa crowding, improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation at the cranio-cervical junction with cessation, and possible resolution of syrinx.The authors retrospectively review their first 50 patients who have undergone PCD under the senior author's care in our unit.The demographics, diagnoses, intraoperative approach with techniques in distractor placement and outcomes of each patient were obtained through an electronic craniofacial database and written patient records. Analysis of complication rates (bleeding, distraction problems, CSF leaks, and infection) was included.A total of 31 boys and 19 girls underwent the procedure between October 2006 and September 2015 with a median age was 17.7 months (range 4 months to 19 years). Of those 50 children, 34 of the cohort were proven to be syndromic by genetic testing.The median length of inpatient stay was 9.4 days (range 3-43 days). Average distraction distance was 24 mm.Complications including CSF leaks, bleeding, distractor problems, and severe complications (recorded in 3 patients) are discussed. Our overall complication rate was 50%.Favorable outcomes included resolution of Chiari, syrinx, and raised intracranial pressure in the majority of patients where distraction was successful.The authors recommend that PCD should be considered the primary treatment for increasing calvarial volume. The authors discuss our experiences and technical innovations over the past decade.

  2. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving. The State statute must-- (a) Prohibit a driver... of texting or using a cell phone while driving; (2) for traffic signs that notify drivers about the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving...

  3. Mandibular Deformity Correction by Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asaduzzaman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a biological process of new bone formation. It could be used as an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplastic deformity. Modern distraction osteogenesis evolved primarily from the work of Gavriel llizarov. DO has been first applied to craniofacial region since McCarthy et al. In this case report, the patient was 17 years old male with bird face deformity due to hypoplasia of mandible resulted from bilateral TMJ ankylosis due to the fracture of both condyle at the age of 4 years. Patient’s intraincisal opening was absent 1 year back. He underwent condylectomy in both sides to release the ankylosis and to increase intraincisal opening. His mandibular length was markedly short. To increase his mandibular antero-posterior length, mandibular body distraction was done in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, BSMMU. Through this procedure length of the body of mandibule was increased by 10 mm, occlusion was edge to edge and his lower facial appearance increased markedly. Mandibular body distraction osteogenesis was considerably effective when performed in a hypoplastic mandible to facilitate post-operative functional and esthetic restoration. Long term follow-up is necessary to evaluate relapse and complications. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7061BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 103-106

  4. Rehabilitation of recurrent unicystic ameloblastoma using distraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method of providing additional bone and soft tissue for implant placement is becoming more common. This clinical report describes the use of distraction osteogenesis and fixed implant supported prosthesis to treat a postsurgical alveolar defect as a result of the resection of a unicystic ameloblastoma in the anterior ...

  5. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  6. Neural correlates of distraction and conflict resolution for nonverbal auditory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal; Alain, Claude

    2017-05-09

    In everyday situations auditory selective attention requires listeners to suppress task-irrelevant stimuli and to resolve conflicting information in order to make appropriate goal-directed decisions. Traditionally, these two processes (i.e. distractor suppression and conflict resolution) have been studied separately. In the present study we measured neuroelectric activity while participants performed a new paradigm in which both processes are quantified. In separate block of trials, participants indicate whether two sequential tones share the same pitch or location depending on the block's instruction. For the distraction measure, a positive component peaking at ~250 ms was found - a distraction positivity. Brain electrical source analysis of this component suggests different generators when listeners attended to frequency and location, with the distraction by location more posterior than the distraction by frequency, providing support for the dual-pathway theory. For the conflict resolution measure, a negative frontocentral component (270-450 ms) was found, which showed similarities with that of prior studies on auditory and visual conflict resolution tasks. The timing and distribution are consistent with two distinct neural processes with suppression of task-irrelevant information occurring before conflict resolution. This new paradigm may prove useful in clinical populations to assess impairments in filtering out task-irrelevant information and/or resolving conflicting information.

  7. Development and evolution of distraction devices: Use of indigenous appliances for Distraction Osteogenesis-An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Neelam; Gandhewar, Trupti; Kalra, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review various devices as well as the outstanding studies done in the past for understanding the methodology of distraction for regeneration of bone. Lengthening of underdeveloped bones inclusive of the maxillofacial complex has been obtained by distraction osteogenesis by many authors. This could be achieved by the use of various extraoral or intraoral devices. Devices used for distraction osteogenesis must have a minimum of 2 important characteristics – they should be able to transfer distraction forces directly to the bone and secondly, should offer adequate rigidity for osseous consolidation to occur. With advanced technology and biomechanical engineering, preformed intraoral distraction devices are now available worldwide. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, pin tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance. The design of completely internalized custom made appliance has opened new vistas in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available. PMID:23482829

  8. Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Marta; Nunnink, Sarah E

    2006-02-01

    This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self-reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance- and appearance-based. Affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function were assessed with the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between-gender analyses revealed that women reported higher levels of overall and appearance-based distraction than did men, but similar levels of performance-based distraction. Within-gender analyses revealed that women reported as much of one type of distraction as the other, while men reported more performance- than appearance-based distraction. In women, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and sexual dissatisfaction. In men, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, sexual dissatisfaction and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image and sexual dissatisfaction. Investigating the content of cognitive distraction may be useful in understanding gender differences in sexual experience and in refining cognitive components of sex therapy.

  9. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  10. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maxillary distraction in patients with cleft deformity using a rigid external distraction device: a pilot study on the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ratio between actual maxillary distraction and the distraction of the rigid external distraction device (Rigid external distraction (RED) system) used for maxillary distraction in patients with a cleft deformity. Twelve patients were examined. The amount of maxillary advancement was measured on lateral cephalograms and divided by the activation amount on the RED system. The value obtained was represented as the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the system. The mean ratio in 10 patients with complete cleft lip, palate, and alveolus (complete cleft) was 0.24. However, the ratios in two patients with cleft lip and alveolus or soft cleft palate (incomplete cleft) were considerably higher than the mean ratios in patients with complete cleft. When the maxilla is distracted in patients with complete cleft using the RED system, the amount of activation on the system needs to be about four times the amount of planned maxillary distraction. However, the distraction ratio may be affected by the type of cleft.

  12. Minimum distraction gap: how much ankle joint space is enough in ankle distraction arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, Austin T; McCoy, Thomas H; Meyers, Kathleen N; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2014-02-01

    The success of ankle distraction arthroplasty relies on the separation of the tibiotalar articular surfaces. The purpose of this study was to find the minimum distraction gap needed to ensure that the tibiotalar joint surfaces would not contact each other with full weight-bearing while under distraction. Circular external fixators were mounted to nine cadaver ankle specimens. Each specimen was then placed into a custom-designed load chamber. Loads of 0, 350, and 700N were applied to the specimen. Radiographic joint space was measured and joint contact pressure was monitored under each load. The external fixator was then sequentially distracted, and the radiographic joint space was measured under the three different loads. The experiment was stopped when there was no joint contact under 700N of load. The radiographic joint space was measured and the initial (undistracted) radiographic joint space was subtracted from it yielding the distraction gap. The minimum distraction gap (mDG) that would provide total unloading was calculated. The average mDG was 2.4 mm (range, 1.6 to 4.0 mm) at 700N of load, 4.4 mm (range, 3.7 to 5.8 mm) at 350N of load, and 4.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 7.0 mm) at 0N of load. These results suggest that if the radiographic joint space of on a standing X-ray of an ankle undergoing distraction arthroplasty shows a minimum of 5.8 mm of DG, then there will be no contact between joint surfaces during full weight-bearing. Therefore, 5 mm of radiographic joint space, as recommended historically, may not be adequate to prevent contact of the articular surfaces during weight-bearing.

  13. Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2010-06-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients need maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated in our surgery unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented with a bilateral CLP, two with a unilateral CLP, and one with a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years. All underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. An external distractor was used for the first two patients and an internal distractor for the six following patients. After a seven-day latency, activation was implemented at a rate of 1mm twice a day. The average period of consolidation was four months. Maxillary advancement ranged between 7 and 19mm, with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. Complications were noted in seven patients: one intra-operative hemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth anchored at the pterygoid process during osteotomy, three cases of device dysfunction, two cases of significant pain during activation, one loosening of the orthodontic arch in an external system, two cases of labial ulceration, and one maxillary sinusitis due to migration of a wisdom tooth. Complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients were very frequent. Most were related to the device and did not interfere with the final result. This must be taken into account when indicating distraction and choosing the device. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the device. The complications related to the osteotomy are linked to the cicatricial ground of previous

  14. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  15. Distracted Walking, Bicycling, and Driving: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Technology and Youth Crash Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Pope, Caitlin N; Shen, Jiabin; Schwebel, David C

    2018-01-01

    This article examined the impact of mobile technology on young pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. A systematic search yielded 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published before February 1, 2016, behavioral outcome related to pedestrian, bicycling, or driving in the presence of mobile technology use, youth sample. Eleven studies were meta-analyzed to evaluate increased risk for crash/near-crash while distracted. Risk of bias and quality of research were assessed. Across methodologies, developmental stages, and type of distracting task, mobile technology use impairs youth safety on the road. Quality of evidence was low (pedestrian) to moderate (driving). Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive and visual distractions. Policy and behavioral efforts should continue to reduce mobile technology use in transportation settings. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Cultural differences in visual attention: Implications for distraction processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek; Ngo, K W Joan; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences between participants of East Asian and Western descent in attention to and implicit memory for irrelevant words which participants were instructed to ignore while completing a target task (a Stroop Task in Experiment 1 and a 1-back task on pictures in Experiment 2). Implicit memory was measured using two conceptual priming tasks (category generation in Experiment 1 and general knowledge in Experiment 2). Participants of East Asian descent showed reliable implicit memory for previous distractors relative to those of Western descent with no evidence of differences on target task performance. We also found differences in a Corsi Block spatial memory task in both studies, with superior performance by the East Asian group. Our findings suggest that cultural differences in attention extend to task-irrelevant background information, and demonstrate for the first time that such information can boost performance when it becomes relevant on a subsequent task. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Assessing the impact of age on cognitively induced visual tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive distractions have been shown to affect drivers adversely and are a leading cause of : accidents. Research indicates that drivers alter how they allocate their visual attention while engaging in : secondary cognitive tasks. To evaluate the p...

  18. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  19. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Alonso-Mori, Roberto [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schafer, Donald W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sellberg, Jonas [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); McQueen, Trevor A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zwart, Petrus H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glatzel, Pieter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zouni, Athina [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Messinger, Johannes [Umeå Universitet, Umeå (Sweden); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogan, Michael J., E-mail: mbogan@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  20. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min −1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min −1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption

  1. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  2. Serial Austen. Mashingups with Zombies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jane Austen sells. She sells in all possible ways, her novels have been adapted for the cinema and the stage, they have been rewritten as comics and graphic novels. Jane austen is a cultural icon. The interest in her life is so strong that many biographies have been written in order to recover new facts and details. The places where she has lived and the places depicted in her novels have become tourist sites for literary pilgrims. Austen is a cross-over phenomenon, with regency costume balls recreated in her name and an endless proliferation of her works in all media. My essay will investigate Jane Austen and Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009, a mash-up novel which has become a real cultural phenomenon of the last decade and will demonstrate how it can be considered a serial narrative. If as Henry Jenkins asserts, seriality implies the unfolding of a story over time through a process of “chunking” (that is creating meaningful parts of the same story and of “dispersal” (that is breaking the story into more parts and in more genres and media, mash-ups seems to do this.  Austen’s story remains as a “story hook” which pushes the reader to come back to different products for a continuation of the same story. So, if on the one hand, seriality occurs within the same text, the story-telling of Austen’s stories across genres and media is part of a seriality process.

  3. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  4. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  5. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  6. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  7. Rapid maxillary distraction protocol utilizing the halo distraction system and rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen B; Reid, Russell R; Burkey, Brooke; Bartlett, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    To shorten head frame wear time associated with external halo distraction (HD), we have adapted a protocol for maxillary distraction with the halo system that integrates plate fixation. All patients had a history of cleft lip and/or palate and maxillary retrusion > or = 8 mm. Five patients treated with this protocol and followed for at least 1 year were included in this study. The protocol included a 3-day latency period, variable maxillary distraction, and removal of the halo device with simultaneous rigid internal fixation. Two patients had a variable period of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), which maintained the maxillary advancement and idealized intercuspal position while permitting further callus maturation. Cephalographs were obtained preoperatively, immediately following distractor removal, and 1 year after rigid internal fixation. The mean age at time of surgery was 18.7 years. The maxillary deficiency ranged from 8 to 15 mm (mean = 10.6 mm). All five patients demonstrated excellent occlusion. Cephalometric analysis 1-year post rigid internal fixation revealed minimal (maxillary distraction followed by MMF to maintain maxillary advancement may reduce halo device wear to 1 to 2 weeks. MMF optimizes occlusion by forcing the maxillary teeth into maximal intercuspal position. Rigid fixation is not only associated with less long-term relapse compared to nonrigid forms of fixation, but also minimizes the incidence of nonunion. This treatment protocol provides the advancement possible with distraction osteogenesis and the accuracy of orthognathic surgery, thereby minimizing external head frame wear.

  8. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  10. [Stimulation and evaluation on maxillary distraction osteogenesis using CASSOS 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Qiu, Wei-liu; Tang, You-sheng; Li, Qing-yun

    2002-09-01

    To simulate maxillary distraction osteogenesis and evaluate the change of soft and hard tissue before and after treatment, using Computer-Assisted Simulation System for Orthognathic Surgery( CASSOS 2001). A fourteen-year-old boy with severe maxillary hypoplasia, due to unilateral cleft lip and palate, was analysed by cephalometric analysis. The simulations of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (Le Fort I osteotomy and Le Fort II osteotomy) were re-analysed. After the treatment, cephalometric analysis was preformed again. The data were compared. The maxillary hypoplasia was well treated using maxillary distraction osteogenesis; Compared with Le fort I osteotomy, more satisfactory results can be obtained by Le fort I distraction osteogenesis. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a better way to treat severe maxillary hypoplasia with operated CLP than maxillary osteotomy. CASSOS 2001 can help surgeons and patients on simulation and evaluation of maxillary distraction osteogenesis, and on decision of treatment plan.

  11. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2008-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients require a maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of the maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated at our Surgery Unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented a bilateral CLP, two a unilateral CLP and one a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years old. All had a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. The first two patients had external distractors and the six following internal ones. After a seven-day latency, activation was led to the rate of 1mm per day twice. The period of consolidation was four months on average. The maxillary advancement varied between 7 and 19 mm with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. We encountered difficulties and/or complications in seven patients: one intraoperatively haemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth fixed at the pterygoid process during the osteotomy, three device failures, two cases of significant pains during activation, one dissociation of the dental anchorage of an external system, two labial ulcerations and one maxillary sinusitis by migration of the 18. Difficulties of maxillary distraction in CLP patients are very frequent. The majority is related to the distractors and did not interfere with the final result. But this frequency must be taken into account in the indication and in the choice of the material. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the material. The complications related to the osteotomy are in connection with the cicatricial ground of the CLP. They are

  13. Effect of Ankle Position and Noninvasive Distraction on Arthroscopic Accessibility of the Distal Tibial Plafond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Craig C; Dibbern, Kevin; Amendola, Annuziato; Sittapairoj, Tinnart; Anderson, Donald D; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2017-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond (OLTPs) can lead to chronic ankle pain and disability. It is not known how limited ankle motion or joint distraction affects arthroscopic accessibility of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different fixed flexion angles and distraction on accessibility of the distal tibial articular surface during anterior and posterior arthroscopy. Fourteen below-knee cadaver specimens underwent anterior and posterior ankle arthroscopy using a 30-degree 2.7-mm arthroscopic camera. Intra-articular working space was measured with a precision of 1 mm using sizing rods. The accessible areas at the plafond were marked under direct visualization at varying fixed ankle flexion positions. Arthroscopic accessibilities were normalized as percent area using a surface laser scan. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the relationship between preoperative ankle range of motion, amount of distraction, arthroscopic approach, and arthroscopic plafond visualization. There was significantly greater accessibility during posterior arthroscopy (73.5%) compared with anterior arthroscopy (51.2%) in the neutral ankle position ( P = .007). There was no difference in accessibility for anterior arthroscopy with increasing level of plantarflexion ( P > .05). Increasing dorsiflexion during posterior arthroscopy significantly reduced ankle accessibility ( P = .028). There was a significant increase in accessibility through the anterior and posterior approach with increasing amount of intra-articular working space (parameter estimates ± SE): anterior = 14.2 ± 3.34 ( P articular working space and arthroscopic accessibility were greater during posterior arthroscopy compared with anterior arthroscopy. Improved accessibility of OLTPs may be achieved from posterior arthroscopy. Arthroscopic accessibility was heavily dependent on the amount of intraoperative joint working space achieved and not on ankle position. OLTPs are

  14. Hard and Soft Tissue Changes Following Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis and Mandibular Setback with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawane, Shilpa S; Andrade, Neelam N

    2016-12-01

    (1) To highlight the role of intraoral submerged device in distraction osteogenesis (DO) of patients requiring two jaw surgeries for the correction of severe developmental maxillary hypoplasia (MH) and mandibular prognathism (MP) (2) To analyse the hard and soft tissue changes following maxillary DO and mandibular setback with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in patients with severe MH and MP requiring two jaw surgeries. During the period Jan 2004 to Dec 2006, five patients with severe developmental MH along with MP were treated. In 1st stage maxillary distraction was done. Distraction started on 6th postoperative day, 1 mm distraction was carried out for 10-15 days on either side. Serial radiographs were taken immediate postoperative period for baseline comparison, post-distraction and at the end of distraction. After a period of 3-4 months of distraction 2nd stage was done. In 2nd stage, mandibular setback was done with BSSO and distractors were removed under general anesthesia. Radiographs were taken immediately and at 4 months post-operatively. Cephalometric tracings were carried out preoperatively, post DO and finally after mandibular setback with BSSO. The mean horizontal movement of maxilla was 11.4 mm at ANS and 9.6 mm at A point. Upper incisor edge was advanced by 8.8 mms. SNA increased by 8.4° and SNB decreased by 4.6°. Nasal projection advanced by 4°. Nasolabial angle normalized in all patients, mean change achieved was 10.8°. Upper lip moved forward by 5.4 mm. Lower lip moved backward by 5.4 mm. Mandible positioned backward by 4 mm at B point. No vertical change occurred in the position of A, ANS and upper incisor edges. Mean increase in skeletal angle of convexity was 26.4°. Concave profile was significantly changed to convex in all patients. Maxillary DO and mandibular setback with BSSO was associated with improved facial balance and esthetics.

  15. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  16. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  18. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  19. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  20. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min−1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min−1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption. PMID:23090408

  1. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with Rigid External Distraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Shadi; Waite, Peter D; Davis, Matthew B; Lamani, Ejvis; Kau, Chung How

    2017-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for patients with maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate (CLP). The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary DO using Le Fort I osteotomy with rigid external distraction (RED) system. The patient presented in this paper was an Asian female with CLP aged 13 years and 6 months. She presented with severe midfacial deficiency with a Class III dental malocclusion with a negative overjet and concave facial profile. Cone-beam computed tomography images were recorded preoperatively and the operation performed involved a high Le Fort I osteotomy. The appliance fabricated was banded to upper first molars used for anchorage of the RED system. Distraction of the maxilla was initiated after 7-day latency period. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed maxillary advancement anteriorly and superiorly, the total distraction treatment period was 10 days. The maxillary advancement was 10.5 mm and the SNA angle increased from 67.5° to 77.9°. Furthermore, the ANB angle changed from -9.8° to 1.6° and the occlusion changed from Class III to Class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex and a much better esthetic result was achieved. The study suggests RED system to be a reliable alternative procedure for the treatment of midfacial hypoplasia with or without cleft. Furthermore, it minimizes the risk of the surgical procedure and shortens the operating time.

  3. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  4. SMALL SERIAL AND SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN UNSTABLE DEMAND ENVIROUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsomaeva I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the methodological approach to production program of the enterprise serial engineering for the current period in the conditions of uncertainty of demand. Here are two problems with this. The first is connected with the formation of the production program of the next quarter, year. Objective could be to stochastic programming, but this task is difficult. Therefore, in this paper we proposed a simple solution. On the basis of statistical historical information about the deviation of actual sales data products from predicted by Monte Carlo generated a lot of production programs. Fixed worst key performance (sales, profit etc. The difference between the values of the planned target and the settlement defines stochastic reserve, to be established at the expense of additional innovations. The second problem is connected with the formation of the production program production in the planned month, taking into account the creation of stocks of production in the conditions when for a short period of time is difficult to build a pattern of change in the quantity demanded by month for serial production, as in some months of the year the products are not produced nor sold. To justify the level of inventories of finished products is information on deviations from the fact plan for past periods. Built function of frequency distribution of the values of deviations. This allows you to further build the methodology for determining the level of production (taking into account the reserves and sales of products that deliver maximum economic effect from the sales in the conditions of a random process of realization of production.

  5. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  6. Prediction of cartilaginous tissue repair after knee joint distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, J A D; Welsing, P M; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; Kuchuk, N O; Lafeber, F P J G G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For young patients (<65years), knee joint distraction (KJD) may be a joint-saving treatment option for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Distracting the femur from the tibia by five millimeters for six to eight weeks using an external fixation frame results in cartilaginous tissue repair,

  7. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for... a period of 3 months from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our...

  8. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to compare the treatment modality of distraction osteogenesis (DO) with the gold standard for mandibular advancement surgery. In fact we compare distraction osteogenesis with the standard of care, which is a conventional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy as described by

  9. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distraction-related road traffic collisions | Eid | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 ...

  11. Distractibility in Attention/Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the virtual reality classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca; Finn, Paul; Moes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Kathleen; Rizzo, Albert Skip

    2009-03-01

    Nineteen boys aged 8 to 14 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 16 age-matched controls were compared in a virtual reality (VR) classroom version of a continuous performance task (CPT), with a second standard CPT presentation using the same projection display dome system. The Virtual Classroom included simulated "real-world" auditory and visual distracters. Parent ratings of attention, hyperactivity, internalizing problems, and adaptive skills on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Monitor for ADHD confirmed that the ADHD children had more problems in these areas than controls. The difference between the ADHD group (who performed worse) and the control group approached significance (p = .05; adjusted p = .02) in the Virtual Classroom presentation, and the classification rate of the Virtual Classroom was better than when the standard CPT was used (87.5% versus 68.8%). Children with ADHD were more affected by distractions in the VR classroom than those without ADHD. Results are discussed in relation to distractibility in ADHD.

  12. Treatment efficacy of virtual reality distraction in the reduction of pain and anxiety during cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marc R; Kallingal, George J S; Musser, John E; Folen, Raymond; Stetz, Melba C; Clark, Joseph Y

    2014-08-01

    Assessment of virtual reality (VR) distraction for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a common ambulatory procedure performed in Urology and can be associated with moderate pain and anxiety. Sophisticated distraction techniques are not used with cystoscopy and VR has not been studied for this procedure. We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial assessing the efficacy of VR for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Adult men referred for cystoscopy were randomized into a control or VR group. Subjects were given preprocedure and postprocedure questionnaires addressing anxiety, pain, and time spent thinking about pain. Vitals signs and galvanic skin monitors were used as objective measures. The control group underwent routine cystoscopy and the VR group underwent cystoscopy with VR. Physicians answered a postprocedure questionnaire assessing the difficulty of the exam. All questionnaires used a visual analog score for assessment. 23 patients enrolled in the control group and 22 in the VR group. Mean scores and Student's t-test were employed to analyze the data. No data endpoints showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. We concluded no benefit to VR distraction mitigating pain in male patients during cystoscopy. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBerti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  14. Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    2000-01-17

    Entering a new millennium seems a good time to challenge some old ideas, which in our view are implausible, have little supportive evidence, and might best be left behind. In this essay, we summarize a decade of work, raising four issues that involve toxicology, nutrition, public health, and government regulatory policy. (a) Paracelsus or parascience: the dose (trace) makes the poison. Half of all chemicals, whether natural or synthetic, are positive in high-dose rodent cancer tests. These results are unlikely to be relevant at the low doses of human exposure. (b) Even Rachel Carson was made of chemicals: natural vs. synthetic chemicals. Human exposure to naturally occurring rodent carcinogens is ubiquitous, and dwarfs the general public's exposure to synthetic rodent carcinogens. (c) Errors of omission: micronutrient inadequacy is genotoxic. The major causes of cancer (other than smoking) do not involve exogenous carcinogenic chemicals: dietary imbalances, hormonal factors, infection and inflammation, and genetic factors. Insufficiency of many micronutrients, which appears to mimic radiation, is a preventable source of DNA damage. (d) Damage by distraction: regulating low hypothetical risks. Putting huge amounts of money into minuscule hypothetical risks damages public health by diverting resources and distracting the public from major risks.

  15. Comparison of patellar distraction with patellar glides in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Chaudhary, M.A.; Noor, R.; Bashir, M.S.; Manzoor, B.

    2017-01-01

    To analyse effectiveness of patellar glides and patellar distraction in the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methodology: This longitudinal interventional comparative study was conducted at Physiotherapy Department, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from September 2015 to March 2016. A total of 70 patients were divided into 2 groups randomly; group A received hot pack, quadriceps strengthening exercises and patellar distraction whereas group B received hot pack, quadriceps strengthening exercises and patellar glides. Age of the female patients was 18-40 years. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Knee Injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) questionnaire were used to compare the effectiveness of both treatments. The data were analysed using SPSS v. 21.0. Results: There was reduction in pain at VAS and KOOS showed improvement in function as well as the range of motion also increased in both groups. Both treatment techniques were effective in reducing pain in PFPS (P <0.005). Pre-treatment KOOS score in patellar glides group was 34.77+10.84 and post-treatment KOOS score was 62.155+15.75 and for patellar distraction group pre-treatment KOOS score was 35.42+10.07 that increased to 55.77+14.66 after treatment which showed that patellar glides had better effect on PFPS. Conclusion: Both treatments were effective in managing PFPS in terms of decreasing pain and increasing ROM as there was no significant difference between two techniques, however patellar glides were superior as compared to patellar distraction in decreasing pain and increasing ROM. (author)

  16. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  17. Measurement of Distraction Force in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients During Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement With Rigid External Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Keiichi; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a mainstream surgical technique for patients who have severe maxillary hypoplasia associated with craniofacial syndromes and cleft-related deformities. However, limited information about the biomechanical aspects of maxillary DO is available limiting broad utilization and improvements to the procedure. The objective of this study was to analyze force levels during the active distraction process and to investigate the relationship between distraction force and maxillary movement during Le Fort I maxillary DO using a rigid external distraction (RED) system. Microtension gauges were integrated into the distraction wires on each side of the RED system. Six patients with cleft lip and palate aged 12.8 to 23.5 years underwent strain gauge measurements during maxillary advancement with DO using an RED system. Lateral cephalograms were taken to measure maxillary horizontal, vertical, and linear movements after DO. The average linear maxillary movement was 11.2 mm (range 8.5-15.9 mm). The applied forces ranged from 13.4 to 26.8 N. The distance of maxillary movement was proportional to the distraction force. The measurement of distraction forces during DO provides important information with which to establish appropriate protocols. Patients requiring more advancement may require more distraction force. However, other factors such as scarring, patient anatomy, surgical freedom of the osteotomized maxilla, and the like, may affect the required force during DO with the RED system.

  18. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  19. 99mTechnetium-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: promotion of bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuxiang; Li, Guoquan; Ao, Jianhua; Zhou, Libin; Ma, Qin; Liu, Yanpu

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of (99m)technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone imaging in the use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound to promote bony formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs. The body of the mandibles in 7 dogs were cut between the first and the second premolar and were lengthened at the rate of 1mm/day, twice a day, for 20 days. During the period of distraction one lateral distraction gap was irradiated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for 10min twice a day, and the other side was used as control. Serial radiographic inspections were made at different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks) during the consolidation phase, followed by a plain radiograph and histological examination. The (99m)Tc-MDP imaging showed that the ratio of bone formation on the LIPUS-treated side was significantly higher than that on the control side during the early period of consolidation (before the 4th week), but later this was reversed and there were no significant differences between the two sides by the 12th week. Plain radiographs and histological examination showed that the new bone on the experimental side had matured earlier than that on the control side. Radionuclide bone imaging is a good way to assess the formation of bone after distraction osteogenesis.

  20. Alur Kerja Tahap Produksi Karakter Animasi Serial 3D Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak Maxon Cinema 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyan Ardiyan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D Animation serial for television needs have been showed in the national television program, especially fantasy theme and educational program for children. There are so many and sequential needs which tricked by instant and high quality production so the work flow in creating 3D animation serial are facilitating the producers. The article will explain specifically how the software of Maxon Cinema 4D in process production in 3D animation serial. The article will also clarify and focus on how the work flow of Maxon Cinema 4D software in processing production and post-production stages. The writer does research including audio visual tutorial, end-result comparison and rendering time between some software, self-observation of work flow in creating 3D animation serial using Maxon Cinema 4D software and digital literature study (e-book.  

  1. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  2. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  3. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  4. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  6. A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Küseler, Annelise; Jensen, John; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2012-01-01

    To compare cleft lip and palate patients' satisfaction with aesthetics and functional parameters after conventional advancement of the maxilla or by the use of distraction osteogenesis. Case series observational study. Group of distraction osteogenesis (DO) consisted of 15 patients treated with distraction osteogenesis while group conventional (CONV) included 10 patients treated with traditional advancement of the maxilla. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their subjective evaluation of satisfaction with facial aesthetics and functional parameters on a continuous visual analog-scale (VAS) when the treatment was finished. The total response rate was 76%. Preoperatively the two groups did not differ significantly according to group characteristics. At follow-up both groups were satisfied with aesthetics and functional parameters. The DO group was less satisfied with the duration of the treatment than the CONV group. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding functional parameters or facial aesthetics. Cleft lip and palate patients experienced a high level of satisfaction with functional parameters and aesthetics as a result of surgical maxillary advancement. The patients treated with distraction osteogenesis were less satisfied with the duration of the treatment. Further studies are needed.

  7. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  8. Technical Modifications of Tooth-borne Distraction Device for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in Cleft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivakar Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tooth-borne distractor gained popularity for anterior maxillary distraction because of the effective treatment outcome, no need for external fixation, noninvasive, less chewing difficulty, social tolerance and economical. Tooth-borne distractor device needs modification in terms of maxillary deficiency, tooth position, retained deciduous tooth, and fistula. Hence, we recommend the following modifications in certain circumstances for the successful treatment outcome.

  9. [An adjustable distractor for transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyder, P; Wycisk, G; Quilichini, J

    2013-06-01

    The posterior skeletal widening in conventional distractions (Surgical Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) is often modest, in contrast with a predominant anterior expansion. Until recently, it was not possible to consider transverse palatal distraction osteogenesis and Le Fort I impaction or advancement in the same procedure, as the osteosynthesis plates impeded maxillary anterior opening. We developed new sliding osteosynthesis plates allowing to perform an advancement or impaction Le Fort I osteotomy associated with a low-resistance bipartite palatal distraction osteogenesis. We had for aim to describe the device and to determine its clinical applications. This new palatal distractor is made up of two independent stainless steel jacks allowing for an adjustable distraction in the anterior or posterior area as needed. Bone-borne and tooth-borne versions are available. This new distractor can be adjusted sagittally. The distraction can be angular or parallel, and the distraction mode can be modified during post-operative distraction. This device should be adapted to all clinical presentations. It can be used in combination with sliding osteosynthesis to perform a Le Fort 1 osteotomy and at the same time a complete correction of vertical, horizontal, and sagittal deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes.

  11. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  12. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Koteswara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction.

  13. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  14. Internal maxillary distraction with a new bimalar device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David M; Broujerdi, Joseph; Schendel, Stephen A

    2008-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the Le Fort I segment is advocated for patients who require significant advancement of the maxilla or who have a soft tissue envelope compromised by scar tissue. We present a technique for maxillary distraction using an interconnecting intraoral device anchored to the malar prominences above the osteotomy and either the maxilla and/or the dentition below the level of the osteotomy. Ten patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate, mean age of 18, underwent Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis for management of maxillary hypoplasia. A Le Fort I osteotomy is performed and a Spectrum Intraoral Midface Multi-Vector Distractor (OsteoMed, Addison, TX) is placed leaving a 1 mm to 2 mm distraction gap. After a 2 to 4 day latency period, distraction begins at a rate of 1 mm a day. Once the desired occlusion is achieved the device is left in place for a minimum of 2 months for consolidation. Preoperative Sella-Nasion-A point measurements from lateral cephalograms averaged 74 degrees (range, 70-76 degrees). Postoperative Sella-Nasion-A point averaged 81 degrees (range, 75-89 degrees). Preoperative overjet averaged -7.4 mm (range, -3 to -13 mm). Postoperative overjet averaged 2.6 mm (range, 1-3 mm). Average distraction was 9 mm (range, 6-16 mm). The average vertical movement was 7.2 mm in an inferior direction (range, 0-15 mm). The results remained stable at a follow-up of 30 months. We report on distraction of the Le Fort I segment using an internal device. The device design allows the forces of distraction to be shared across a larger surface area delivering a uniform and reliable vector of distraction with increased stability.

  15. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  16. Distraction osteogenesis after irradiation in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Kenji; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Watanabe, Koji; Matsubara, Hidenori; Tomita, Katsuro

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of preoperative irradiation on distraction osteogenesis, as little is known about how preoperative irradiation delays distraction osteogenesis. A single dose of irradiation was applied to the right rear legs of rabbits. This was followed by tibial lengthening at a rate of 0.5 mm/day, which was continued for 4 weeks. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically and histologically. In the irradiation group, the radiographs showed little regeneration during the elongation phase. During the maturation phase, the callus appeared slowly, and its formation was spotty. Furthermore, regeneration was not completed until the fourth week of the maturation period. Histological examination at the end of distraction showed a gap in the distraction consisting of loose connective tissue, with part of the fibrous tissue oriented longitudinally. Four weeks after completion of distraction, the major part of the radiolucent region consisted of cartilage. The spotty osteogenesis was identified as enchondral ossification. Immunohistochemical examination of the regeneration area revealed that the blood vessels were extremely localized, and that the level of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the osteoblasts was high. Microangiography showed that vascularization at the distracted sites was poor. Distraction osteogenesis was decreased markedly by preoperative irradiation in terms of both rate and process. The results suggested that most of the osteoprogenitor cells were damaged immediately after irradiation. The high level of VEGF in the osteoblasts and the enchondral ossification also suggested a hypoxic state in the distracted region. Preoperative irradiation interferes with distraction osteogenesis by inducing a state of poor angiogenesis. (author)

  17. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  18. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  19. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction...... changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position...

  20. Maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis with intraoral device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Yoko; Uematsu, Setsuko; Takada, Kenji

    2010-11-01

    This article describes the surgical orthodontic treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in a patient with cleft lip and palate using maxillary distraction osteogenesis with internal maxillary distractors. Maxillary advancement was performed to correct the retrusive maxillary facial profile and Class III malocclusion. Rotational movement of the distraction segment was made to correct the upper dental midline. Although maxillary advancement was insufficient because of unexpected breakage of the intraoral distractor after completion of the distraction, skeletal traction with a face mask compensated for the shortage. Successful esthetic improvement and posttreatment occlusal stability were achieved with no discernible relapse after 2 years of retention.

  1. Influences shaping nurses' use of distraction for children's procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Deborah L; Scott, Shannon D; Mayan, Maria; Koop, Priscilla M; Reid, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    This study explored pediatric nurses' choices to use distraction for managing painful procedures. Using interpretive description approaches, interviews with pediatric nurses provided descriptions of choices to manage procedural pain. Nurses' distress influenced distraction use to mitigate the suffering of children and themselves. Newer nurses described task mastery as influencing distraction choices. Nurses' accounts of performing painful procedures on children mirrored children's descriptions of pain from the literature. Nurses' distress and competency performing painful procedures on children influenced practice. Future qualitative studies could extend understanding of pain management choices by pediatric nurses and the impact on undermanaged pain. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stimulus-dependent modulation of visual neglect in a touch-screen cancellation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ingo; Volkening, Katharina; Garbacenkaite, Ruta

    2015-05-01

    Patients with left-sided neglect frequently show omissions and repetitive behavior on cancellation tests. Using a touch-screen-based cancellation task, we tested how visual feedback and distracters influence the number of omissions and perseverations. Eighteen patients with left-sided visual neglect and 18 healthy controls performed four different cancellation tasks on an iPad touch screen: no feedback (the display did not change during the task), visual feedback (touched targets changed their color from black to green), visual feedback with distracters (20 distracters were evenly embedded in the display; detected targets changed their color from black to green), vanishing targets (touched targets disappeared from the screen). Except for the condition with vanishing targets, neglect patients had significantly more omissions and perseverations than healthy controls in the remaining three subtests. Both conditions providing feedback by changing the target color showed the highest number of omissions. Erasure of targets nearly diminished omissions completely. The highest rate of perseverations was observed in the no-feedback condition. The implementation of distracters led to a moderate number of perseverations. Visual feedback without distracters and vanishing targets abolished perseverations nearly completely. Visual feedback and the presence of distracters aggravated hemispatial neglect. This finding is compatible with impaired disengagement from the ipsilesional side as an important factor of visual neglect. Improvement of cancellation behavior with vanishing targets could have therapeutic implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Kathryn L.; Sørensen, Anders

    Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novice......, but also opens firms that are larger in terms of the initial capital and labor, and thus is 39% more productive. There are subsets of firms that perform especially well – serial entrepreneurs that hold a portfolio of overlapping ongoing firms perform the best, as do those that open as limited liability...

  4. The American Serialization of Lord Jim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the discovery of the American serialization of Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim in New York’s Evening Telegram in 1903. This ‘lost’ serialization, it argues, invites a new perspective on Conrad’s early career by foregrounding the role of newspaper serialization and syndication in establishing his literary standing. After surveying the principal differences in the respective reading experiences of the periodical versus the book, it concludes by proposing that the prominence of women among Conrad’s first audiences requires us to reassess the basis for his success in North America and elsewhere.

  5. Common Modality Effects in Immediate Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  7. Auditory Attentional Capture during Serial Recall: Violations at Encoding of an Algorithm-Based Neural Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Vachon, Francois; Jones, Dylan M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel attentional capture effect is reported in which visual-verbal serial recall was disrupted if a single deviation in the interstimulus interval occurred within otherwise regularly presented task-irrelevant spoken items. The degree of disruption was the same whether the temporal deviant was embedded in a sequence made up of a repeating item…

  8. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    The authors discuss their successful preliminary experience with 36 cases of cervical spondylotic disease by performing facetal distraction using specially designed Goel cervical facet spacers. The clinical and radiological results of treatment are analyzed. The mechanism of action of the proposed spacers and the rationale for their use are evaluated. Between 2006 and February 2010, 36 patients were treated using the proposed technique. Of these patients, 18 had multilevel and 18 had single-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. The average follow-up period was 17 months with a minimum of 6 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association classification system, visual analog scale (neck pain and radiculopathy), and Odom criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patient. The patients were prospectively analyzed. The technique of surgery involved wide opening of the facet joints, denuding of articular cartilage, distraction of facets, and forced impaction of Goel cervical facet spacers into the articular cavity. Additionally, the interspinous process ligaments were resected, and corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest was placed and was stabilized over the adjoining laminae and facets after adequately preparing the host bone. Eighteen patients underwent single-level, 6 patients underwent 2-level, and 12 patients underwent 3-level treatment. The alterations in the physical architecture of spine and canal dimensions were evaluated before and after the placement of intrafacet joint spacers and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Analysis of radiological features suggested that the distraction of facets with the spacers resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal dimension (mean 2.2 mm), an increase in the height of the intervertebral disc space (range 0.4-1.2 mm), and an increase in the interspinous distance (mean 2

  9. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

  10. Distraction osteogenesis of radiation-induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ramon; Murray, Dylan; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    In the last decade, the application of distraction osteogenesis to the craniofacial skeleton has grown to include not only deformities of the mandible, but of the midface, palate, dentoalveolar region, and calvarium. A major advantage of distraction osteogenesis lies in the simultaneous soft tissue histogenesis that accompanies the bony distraction process, allowing for potentially lower relapse rates and improved cosmesis. Although this may seem appropriately suited to irradiation-induced deformities of both hard and soft tissues, there is little in the literature as to the efficacy of this technique in patients who have received radiotherapy. To introduce an effective application of this technology, and highlight some advantages and disadvantages of its application in the irradiated craniofacial skeleton, we present a case of distraction osteogenesis of the orbitozygomatic complex in a patient with radiation induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

  11. Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploumis Avraam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP. Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment.

  12. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    OpenAIRE

    Edell, Aim?e R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cel...

  13. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  14. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  15. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6-16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients.

  16. Treatment of maxillary cleft palate: Distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Even-Almos, Michal; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the treatment of hypoplastic, retruded maxillary cleft palate using distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery in terms of stability and relapse, growth after distraction and soft tissue profile changes. Materials and Methods: The cleft patients showed anteroposterior maxillary hypoplasia with class III malocclusion and negative overjet resulting in a concave profile according to preoperative cephalometric measurements, dental relationship, and soft tissue analysis. The patients were divided in two groups of treatment : S0 eventeen were treated by orthognathic Le Fort I osteotomy fixed with four mini plates and 2 mm screws, and 19 were treated by maxillary distraction osteogenesis with rigid extraoral devices (RED) connected after a Le Fort I osteotomy. The rate of distraction was 1 mm per day to achieve Class I occlusion with slight overcorrection and to create facial profile convexity. Following a 10 week latency period the distraction devices were removed. Results: In the RED group the maxilla was advanced an average of 15.80 mm. The occlusion changed from class III to class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex. At a 1-year follow up the results were stable. The mean orthognathic movement was 8.4 mm. Conclusion: In mild maxillary deficiency a one stage orthognathic surgery is preferable. However, in patients requiring moderate to large advancements with significant structural deficiencies of the maxilla or in growing patients the distraction technique is preferred. PMID:23483803

  17. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6–16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  18. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  19. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional consequences of social distraction: Attention and memory for complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brianna Ruth; Patai, Eva Zita; Duta, Mihaela; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long proposed that social stimuli attract visual attention even when task irrelevant, but the consequences of this privileged status for memory are unknown. To address this, we combined computational approaches, eye-tracking methodology, and individual-differences measures. Participants searched for targets in scenes containing social or non-social distractors equated for low-level visual salience. Subsequent memory precision for target locations was tested. Individual differences in autistic traits and social anxiety were also measured. Eye-tracking revealed significantly more attentional capture to social compared to non-social distractors. Critically, memory precision for target locations was poorer for social scenes. This effect was moderated by social anxiety, with anxious individuals remembering target locations better under conditions of social distraction. These findings shed further light onto the privileged attentional status of social stimuli and its functional consequences on memory across individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Synchronization with competing visual and auditory rhythms: bouncing ball meets metronome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Iversen, John R; Zhang, Allen; Repp, Bruno H

    2013-07-01

    Synchronization of finger taps with periodically flashing visual stimuli is known to be much more variable than synchronization with an auditory metronome. When one of these rhythms is the synchronization target and the other serves as a distracter at various temporal offsets, strong auditory dominance is observed. However, it has recently been shown that visuomotor synchronization improves substantially with moving stimuli such as a continuously bouncing ball. The present study pitted a bouncing ball against an auditory metronome in a target-distracter synchronization paradigm, with the participants being auditory experts (musicians) and visual experts (video gamers and ball players). Synchronization was still less variable with auditory than with visual target stimuli in both groups. For musicians, auditory stimuli tended to be more distracting than visual stimuli, whereas the opposite was the case for the visual experts. Overall, there was no main effect of distracter modality. Thus, a distracting spatiotemporal visual rhythm can be as effective as a distracting auditory rhythm in its capacity to perturb synchronous movement, but its effectiveness also depends on modality-specific expertise.

  2. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  3. Quantitative assessment of mineralization in distraction osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Sunit; Biswal, Sandeep; Jang, Ki-Mo; Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Seok Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The most important decision in distraction osteogenesis is the timing of fixator removal. Various methods have been tried, such as radiographic appearance of callus and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment, but none has acquired gold standard status. The purpose of this study was to develop another objective method of assessment of callus stiffness to help clinicians in taking the most important decision of when to remove the fixator. We made a retrospective study of 70 patients to compare the BMD ratio and pixel value ratio. These ratios were calculated at the time of fixator removal, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to show the comparability. Inter- and intra-observer variability of the new method was also tested. Good correlation was found between BMD ratio and pixel value ratio, with a Pearson's coefficient of correlation of 0.79. The interobserver variability was also low, with high intra-observer reproducibility, suggesting that this test was simple to perform. Pixel value ratio is a good method for assessing callus stiffness, and it can be used to judge the timing of fixator removal. (orig.)

  4. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  5. Condylar cartilaginous changes after mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sin-Young; Kim, Su-Gwan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologic and immunohistochemical changes in the condylar articular surface in response to distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular body in rabbits. A unilateral osteotomy of the mandible at the premolar area was performed in 16 rabbits. The animals were divided into 4 groups based on different distraction parameters (rate and rhythm). After a 5-day latency, the mandible was lengthened by 0.5 mm daily for 6 days (group 1); 0.5 mm twice daily for 3 days (group 2); 0.5 mm once daily for 10 days (group 3); or 0.5 mm twice daily for 5 days (group 4). All 4 groups underwent a 14-day consolidation period. Four rabbits were included in the control group. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic examination. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of growth factors. None of the groups demonstrated any degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). On the distraction side in all groups, the histopathological examination revealed a hypertrophic thickening of the cartilage zone. Prominent endochondral ossification and high active osteoblasts were observed in groups 3 and 4. On the nondistraction side, no major changes were observed excluding the appearance of osteoclasts in groups 3 and 4. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed tenascin immunoreactivity in bone marrow mesenchymal cells on the distraction side in group 4. Connexin immunoreactivity did not display a marked change in any of the groups. Osteocalcin was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which suggested that bone formation is increased. Nitric oxide synthase 2 immunoreactivity was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which is associated with stress and inflammation. The results indicated that the hypertrophy of the cartilage zone and endochondral ossification became more pronounced as the extent and rate of distraction increased. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  7. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  8. The roles of non-retinotopic motions in visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei eNakayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In visual search, a moving target among stationary distracters is detected more rapidly and more efficiently than a static target among moving distracters. Here we examined how this search asymmetry depends on motion signals from three distinct coordinate system – retinal, relative, and spatiotopic (head/body-centered. Our search display consisted of a target element, distracters elements, and a fixation point tracked by observers. Each element was composed of a spatial carrier grating windowed by a Gaussian envelope, and the motions of carriers, windows, and fixation were manipulated independently and used in various combinations to decouple the respective effects of motion coordinates systems on visual search asymmetry. We found that retinal motion hardly contributes to reaction times and search slopes but that relative and spatiotopic motions contribute to them substantially. Results highlight the important roles of non-retinotopic motions for guiding observer attention in visual search.

  9. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  10. Identification of Bodies by Unique Serial Numbers on Implanted Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Melissa M; Lin, Peter T

    2018-05-01

    Visual identification is the most common identification method used by medical examiners but is not always possible. Alternative methods include X-ray, fingerprint, or DNA comparison, but these methods require additional resources. Comparison of serial numbers on implanted medical devices is a rapid and definitive method of identification. To assess the practicality of using this method, we reviewed 608 consecutive forensic autopsies performed at a regional medical examiner office. Of these, 56 cases required an alternative method of identification due to decomposition (n = 35), gunshot wound (n = 9), blunt trauma (n = 6), or charring (n = 6). Of these 56 cases, eight (14.3%) were known to have an implanted medical device. Of these eight cases, five (63%) could be positively identified by comparing serial numbers. If an implanted medical device is known to be present, and medical records are available, identification by medical device serial number should be a first-line method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using locking attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used in the rigid external distraction (RED) system for maxillary distraction osteogenesis interfere with the surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative splint fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with Locking Attachments and evaluate their advantages, such as reduction of operating time compared with the traditional intraoral splint method. Retrospective comparison of operative times of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy procedures was carried out with the traditional protocol using the intraoral splint cemented to the maxillary dentition (n = 14), and a removable intraoral splint that is inserted postsurgically (n = 14). Operative procedure times were compared and analyzed statistically using the data extracted from the surgical records. There were no complications inserting the removable splint postsurgically, including pain, discomfort, or time-consuming procedure. Stable and secure splint fixation was obtained before the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were obtained in all patients. The total operative procedure times were significantly reduced in the Locking Attachments group by 24% to 41% (approximately 65 minutes) compared with earlier operations involving the conventional splints (P Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the Locking Attachments is a highly effective fixation approach to manage severe hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. The use of the Locking Attachments is reliable in craniofacial surgery and has proved to be advantageous in the reduction of the operating time and surgical risks.

  13. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  14. Figurativeness in the Sense of Distraction (Studies by Lithuanian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Monginaitė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sense of distraction and the feature of figurativeness in it are analysed with the help of phenomenological description, the concept of sense of Juozas Mureika and the conception of imagination of Kristupas Sabolius. The position is followed that the acts of sense and the being of those existing found in them cannot be known in a purely rational way. Knowing is reached with intuitive insights. The experiencing of distraction is approached as one of the norms or intentions of consciousness. The sense of distraction is acknowledged to be a basic value becoming more and more important in a modern stressful life. The article indicates that the intentional beings of the sense of distraction are expressed in really various human activities and are distinguished with mono-subjectivity and unrepeatable feeling. Figurativeness is perceived as the result of imaginary, creative activity of the imagination and aesthetical quality. The peculiarities of the formation of figurativeness are revealed through the phenomenological description of imagination by Sabolius. Four features of the act of visualisation, determining the quality of figurativeness, are emphasized: intentionality, power of transformation, relation with emotions and the symbolism of the image. The conclusion is made that figurativeness, being the result of the creative act (visualisation of imagination, appears as aesthetical quality or the ensemble of qualities. Figurativeness sharpens the sense of distraction and calls the wave of new experiences.

  15. Social media interruption affects the acquisition of visually, not aurally, acquired information during a pathophysiology lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Jane R; Thakkar, Shivam C; Suliman, Neveen; O'Neill, Shannon I; Doubleday, Alison F

    2018-06-01

    Poor academic performance from extensive social media usage appears to be due to students' inability to multitask between distractions and academic work. However, the degree to which visually distracted students can acquire lecture information presented aurally is unknown. This study examined the ability of students visually distracted by social media to acquire information presented during a voice-over PowerPoint lecture, and to compare performance on examination questions derived from information presented aurally vs. that presented visually. Students ( n = 20) listened to a 42-min cardiovascular pathophysiology lecture containing embedded cartoons while taking notes. The experimental group ( n = 10) was visually, but not aurally, distracted by social media during times when cartoon information was presented, ~40% of total lecture time. Overall performance among distracted students on a follow-up, open-note quiz was 30% poorer than that for controls ( P < 0.001). When the modality of presentation (visual vs. aural) was compared, performance decreased on examination questions from information presented visually. However, performance on questions from information presented aurally was similar to that of controls. Our findings suggest the ability to acquire information during lecture may vary, depending on the degree of competition between the modalities of the distraction and the lecture presentation. Within the context of current literature, our findings also suggest that timing of the distraction relative to delivery of material examined affects performance more than total distraction time. Therefore, when delivering lectures, instructors should incorporate organizational cues and active learning strategies that assist students in maintaining focus and acquiring relevant information.

  16. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Converting serial networks to Ethernet communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2008-07-01

    Many oil and gas producers and pipeline companies find themselves in an awkward position. They have invested millions of dollars in legacy serial communications systems and in most cases, millions more in older SCADA remote terminal units and electronic flow meters. There is a desire throughout most of the industry to convert these systems to Ethernet. This presentation will explore how Ethernet protocol offers advantages over the older serial communications in terms of peer to peer communication, faster polling cycles, and the ability to poll multiple devices at the same time. (author)

  18. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  19. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  20. Driver distraction by smartphone use (WhatsApp) in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Ortiz-Peregrina, S; Castro, J J; Casares-López, M; Salas, C

    2018-08-01

    This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality. Simulated driving performance was assessed under a baseline driving condition (without distraction) as well as a texting condition (WhatsApp messages) while driving. The participants used their own mobile phone. Lastly, objective results of driving performance were compared with subjective self-report data from the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The analysis indicated that functional changes occurring with age, such as a lower contrast sensitivity and greater retinal straylight, were correlated with a higher number of collisions, longer distances driven outside the lane, and greater standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The results showed a significant main effect of age for the driving-performance parameters. Also, compared to the baseline, texting WhatsApp messages while driving worsens driving performance for all age groups, most notably among older participants. Thus, the older drivers' SDLP was ∼14% higher than that for the baseline average of all the other drivers and rose to 29% under distraction, reflecting the impact of secondary tasks. The negative effect of the use of the smartphone during driving was also reflected in the number of collisions, with a greater risk of accidents in all the groups of drivers (by 8.3% for young adults, 25.0% for adults, 80.5% for middle-aged adults, and 134.5% for older

  1. Testing a decades’ old assumption : Are individuals with lower sensory gating indeed more easily distracted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Nikolaj; Mann, J.J.; Fagerlund, B.; Glenthøj, Birte Y.; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Oranje, B.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia have been theorized to associate with increased distractibility. We explore the potential associations between sensory and sensorimotor gating and subjective and objective indices of distraction in healthy subjects. Forty healthy males were assessed with

  2. Complications of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for developmental deformities: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C. R. A.; van de Vijfeijken, S. E. C. M.; Tuinzing, D. B.; Jansma, E. P.; Becking, A. G.; Swennen, G. R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of English and non-English articles on the complications of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) for patients with developmental deformities was performed, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Search terms expressing distraction osteogenesis were used in 'AND'

  3. Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A F; Georgopoulos, A P; Pellizzer, G

    1999-03-12

    The neural encoding of serial order was studied in the motor cortex of monkeys performing a context-recall memory scanning task. Up to five visual stimuli were presented successively on a circle (list presentation phase), and then one of them (test stimulus) changed color; the monkeys had to make a single motor response toward the stimulus that immediately followed the test stimulus in the list. Correct performance in this task depends on memorization of the serial order of the stimuli during their presentation. It was found that changes in neural activity during the list presentation phase reflected the serial order of the stimuli; the effect on cell activity of the serial order of stimuli during their presentation was at least as strong as the effect of motor direction on cell activity during the execution of the motor response. This establishes the serial order of stimuli in a motor task as an important determinant of motor cortical activity during stimulus presentation and in the absence of changes in peripheral motor events, in contrast to the commonly held view of the motor cortex as just an "upper motor neuron."

  4. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft, syndromic, and noncleft patients. In this article, the authors provide a review of current data and recommendations concerning Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis. In addition, they outline their technique for treating severe maxillary hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis using internal devices. PMID:25383054

  5. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  6. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  7. Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunos Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of the world population have affected the demand for public transport especially in larger cities. Intrastate buses are chosen as the main public transport by many people due to its affordable fares. Therefore, a better performance of the intrastate bus drivers would be significant to cater the high demand. Nevertheless, distraction among the intrastate bus drivers have been found as one of the major factors that could affect the performance of the drivers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding on the factors of distraction among intrastate bus drivers. This paper refers to findings from previous researches which are related to this field of study. In conclusion, this paper will provide a list of factors of distraction among the intrastate bus drivers which may degrade their performance.

  8. Rotational Distraction for the Treatment of Severe Mandibular Retrognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Osamu; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Alcalde, Rafael E; Yano, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Noriko; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2015-07-01

    The main problem with intraoral distraction of the mandible is the inability to achieve the three-dimensional mandibular correction as planned preoperatively. We developed a technique that allows spontaneous changes in the direction of mandibular elongation using an intraoral distractor. After mandibular osteotomy, the distractor is fixed to the distal segment of the mandible using a single bicortical screw, allowing anterior-posterior, vertical and limited lateromedial changes in the vector of distraction. Mandibular lengthening is performed while keeping the maxilla and mandible in class I occlusion with intermaxillary fixation. As the distraction device is activated allowing mandibular elongation, the proximal segment, guided by the surrounding soft tissues, moves and rotates posterosuperiorly. Mandibular lengthening is continued until the condylar head reaches an adequate position in the mandibular fossa as confirmed clinically and radiographically. Thirty-three patients with mandibular retrognathia received this treatment and good results were obtained.

  9. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages.

  11. Preventing distracted driving among college students: Addressing smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial cultivation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the serial cultivation of adult human hair follicle keratinocytes. Plucked scalp hair follicles, placed on bovine eye lens capsules as a growth substrate, give rise to quickly expanding colonies within a few days. After trypsinization, the cells are replated with irradiated 3T3 cells as 'feeders'. Using this combination of techniques the keratinocytes can be subcultured up to four times. In this way about 10(7) keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. Moreover, the technique enables cryogenic storage of the cells, allowing for instance, convenient transportation. Subcultured hair follicle keratinocytes can be plated on glass coverslips. This allows immunofluorescence studies. The keratin cytoskeletons visualized using an antiserum against human keratin.

  13. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma.

  14. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  15. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  16. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  17. Transpalatal distraction for the management of maxillary constriction in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Context: The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. Aims: To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients. Settings ...

  18. The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Brooke L.; Stookey, Joseph M.; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

    2013-01-01

    An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

  19. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  20. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: For each increase in pedicle distraction the area of the spinal and vertebral foramen increases. Pedicle distraction could potentially be used to alleviate spinal stenosis and root impingement. A potential osteotomy plane could be at the midpoint of the pedicle with minimal risk to nerve roots and soft tissue restrictions to prevent distraction.

  1. Does linear separability really matter? Complex visual search is explained by simple search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighneshvel, T.; Arun, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Visual search in real life involves complex displays with a target among multiple types of distracters, but in the laboratory, it is often tested using simple displays with identical distracters. Can complex search be understood in terms of simple searches? This link may not be straightforward if complex search has emergent properties. One such property is linear separability, whereby search is hard when a target cannot be separated from its distracters using a single linear boundary. However, evidence in favor of linear separability is based on testing stimulus configurations in an external parametric space that need not be related to their true perceptual representation. We therefore set out to assess whether linear separability influences complex search at all. Our null hypothesis was that complex search performance depends only on classical factors such as target-distracter similarity and distracter homogeneity, which we measured using simple searches. Across three experiments involving a variety of artificial and natural objects, differences between linearly separable and nonseparable searches were explained using target-distracter similarity and distracter heterogeneity. Further, simple searches accurately predicted complex search regardless of linear separability (r = 0.91). Our results show that complex search is explained by simple search, refuting the widely held belief that linear separability influences visual search. PMID:24029822

  2. Determination of motive of serial invaders as a stage of serial murders investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov A.B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the existing classification of motives of serial murderers. The author provides the classification, which is based on the technique of extreme meanings offered by D.A. Leontyev.

  3. Treatment of the Moderate Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with an Intespinous Distraction Device IMPALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haso Sefo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was the evaluation of symptom improvements in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis, who consecutively underwent placement of interspinous distraction deviceIMPALA®.Methods: This study included a total of 11 adult patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis. Clinical evaluations were performed preoperatively and 3-months after surgery using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Results: The mean preoperative VAS was 7.09 and fell to 2.27 a 3-months after surgery. The mean preoperative ODI was 59.45 fell to 20.72 a 3-months after surgery.Conclusions: Using the IMPALA® device in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis is a minimal invasive, effective and safe procedure. Clinical symptoms were improved 3 months after surgery.

  4. When increasing distraction helps learning: Distractor number and content interact in their effects on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima; Markant, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory. Specifically, while increasing the number of distractors present in a search array made target detection more effortful, it did not impair learning and memory for target content. Instead, when the distractors contained category information that conflicted with the target, increasing the number of distractors from one to three actually benefitted learning and memory. These data suggest that increasing numbers of distractors may reduce interference from conflicting conceptual information during encoding.

  5. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  6. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  7. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  8. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  9. Complications in transpalatal distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Gooris, P.G.; Becking, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to

  10. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  11. Complications in Transpalatal Distraction Osteogenesis: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Gooris, P.G.; Becking, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to

  12. Complications in transpalatal distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Charlotte R. A.; Gooris, Peter G.; Becking, Alfred G.

    2011-01-01

    Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate and

  13. National Phone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    As more drivers take their cell phones into their vehicles, distracted driving continues to grow as a traffic safety issue. Most U.S. States : responded by enacting some sort of cell phone or texting ban. In November and December 2010, NHTSA conducte...

  14. Zika, public health, and the distraction of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2017-09-01

    This paper suggests that the focus on abortion legalization in the aftermath of the Zika outbreak is distracting for policy and lawmakers from what needs to be done to address the outbreak effectively. Meeting basic health needs (i.e. preventive measures), together with research and development conducive to a vaccine or treatment for the Zika virus should be priorities.

  15. Modeling mind-wandering: a tool to better understand distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke; Taatgen, Niels; Sackur, Jerome; Bastian, Mikael; Taatgen, Niels; van Vugt, Marieke; Borst, Jelmer; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2015-01-01

    When we get distracted, we may engage in mind-wandering, or task-unrelated thinking, which impairs performance on cognitive tasks. Yet, we do not have cognitive models that make this process explicit. On the basis of both recent experiments that have started to investigate mind-wandering and

  16. The Effects of Distraction on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aynur; Doru, Özlem; Kucukoglu, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distraction on the preoperative anxiety levels of pediatric patients. A prospective, two-group experimental design was used. This study was conducted in the clinic of pediatric surgery of a university hospital in Turkey between November 20, 2013 and January 25, 2014. The population of the study was composed of a total of 83 children (40 in the study group and 43 in the control group) who met the inclusion. The data were collected using the "Personal Information Form," "Separation Scoring," and "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State Form." Distraction was performed on the children in the study group during the preoperative period. No intervention was applied to the children in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated that the separation scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State scores of the children in the study group, on whom distraction was applied, were lower than those of the control group. Distraction applied to children in the preoperative period significantly reduced anxiety and separation anxiety. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Google glass: a driver distraction cause or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben D; Finomore, Victor S; Calvo, Andres A; Hancock, P A

    2014-11-01

    We assess the driving distraction potential of texting with Google Glass (Glass), a mobile wearable platform capable of receiving and sending short-message-service and other messaging formats. A known roadway danger, texting while driving has been targeted by legislation and widely banned. Supporters of Glass claim the head-mounted wearable computer is designed to deliver information without concurrent distraction. Existing literature supports the supposition that design decisions incorporated in Glass might facilitate messaging for drivers. We asked drivers in a simulator to drive and use either Glass or a smartphone-based messaging interface, then interrupted them with an emergency brake event. Both the response event and subsequent recovery were analyzed. Glass-delivered messages served to moderate but did not eliminate distracting cognitive demands. A potential passive cost to drivers merely wearing Glass was also observed. Messaging using either device impaired driving as compared to driving without multitasking. Glass in not a panacea as some supporters claim, but it does point the way to design interventions that effect reduced load in multitasking. Discussions of these identified benefits are framed within the potential of new in-vehicle systems that bring both novel forms of distraction and tools for mitigation into the driver's seat.

  18. Distracting the mind improves performance : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, S.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, N.A.; Martens, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Background: When a second target (T2) is presented in close succession of a first target (T1), people often fail to identify T2, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB). However, the AB can be reduced substantially when participants are distracted during the task, for instance by a

  19. Distraction Arthroplasty of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint Without Trapeziectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Wong

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Our technique (distraction arthroplasty without trapeziectomy preserves bony and adjacent structures. It is easier and quicker than traditional arthroplasties. It serves as another effective and stable method of tendon reconstruction with a less invasive approach. A larger series is needed for further observation of validity of the procedure.

  20. Distraction osteogenesis in the irradiated mandible. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Vissink, A; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Distraction osteogenesis has been suggested as a relatively simple method of mandibular reconstruction following ablative head and neck surgery. Some authors report good results in irradiated patients while other authors report limitations with this group of patients. Patient: In a

  1. A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients´ Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Andersen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare cleft lip and palate patients’ satisfaction with aesthetics and functional parameters after conventional advancement of the maxilla or by the use of distraction osteogenesis.Material and methods: Case series observational study. Group of distraction osteogenesis (DO consisted of 15 patients treated with distraction osteogenesis while group conventional (CONV included 10 patients treated with traditional advancement of the maxilla. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their subjective evaluation of satisfaction with facial aesthetics and functional parameters on a continuous visual analog-scale (VAS when the treatment was finished.Results: The total response rate was 76%. Preoperatively the two groups did not differ significantly according to group characteristics. At follow-up both groups were satisfied with aesthetics and functional parameters. The DO group was less satisfied with the duration of the treatment than the CONV group. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding functional parameters or facial aesthetics.Conclusions: Cleft lip and palate patients experienced a high level of satisfaction with functional parameters and aesthetics as a result of surgical maxillary advancement. The patients treated with distraction osteogenesis were less satisfied with the duration of the treatment. Further studies are needed.

  2. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Starc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences (towards or away from the position of the distractor. Participants (n = 25, 8 men, 19–31 years old were asked to remember the exact position of a target scrambled image and recall it with a joystick after a delay. In some trials an additional distracting image (scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. We measured the spread of responses (standard deviation of angular error and shifts of the average response towards the prototype angles (45° or towards the position of distractors. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership (quadrants and information about the position of the distractor. The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use.

  4. Selective modulation of nociceptive processing due to noise distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Yvonne; El-Deredy, Wael; Martínez Montes, Eduardo; Bentley, Deborah E; Jones, Anthony K P

    2008-09-15

    This study investigates the effects of noise distraction on the different components and sources of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) whilst attending to either the spatial component (localisation performance task) or the affective component (unpleasantness rating task) of pain. LEPs elicited by CO2 laser stimulation of the right forearm were recorded from 64 electrodes in 18 consenting healthy volunteers. Subjects reported either pain location or unpleasantness, in the presence and absence of distraction by continuous 85 dBa white noise. Distributed sources of the LEP peaks were identified using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Pain unpleasantness ratings and P2 (430 ms) peak amplitude were significantly reduced by distraction during the unpleasantness task, whereas the localisation ability and the corresponding N1/N2 (310 ms) peak amplitude remained unchanged. Noise distraction (at 310 ms) reduced activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus during attention to localisation and unpleasantness, respectively. This suggests a complimentary role for these two areas in the control of attention to pain. In contrast, activation of the occipital pole and SII were enhanced by noise during the localisation and unpleasantness task, respectively, suggesting that the presence of noise was associated with increased spatial attentional load. This study has shown selective modulation of affective pain processing by noise distraction, indicated by a reduction in the unpleasantness ratings and P2 peak amplitude and associated activity within the medial pain system. These results show that processing of the affective component of pain can be differentially modulated by top-down processes, providing a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Grunting's competitive advantage: Considerations of force and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Scott; Maglinti, Cj; Kingstone, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism. We first confirmed that kicking force is increased when a grunt is performed (Experiment 1), and then adapted methodology used in the tennis study to mixed martial arts (Experiment 2). Lifting the foot to kick is a silent act, and therefore there is nothing for a grunt to mask, i.e., its effect on an opponent's response time and/or accuracy can likely be attributed to attentional distraction. Participants viewed videos of a trained mixed martial artist kicking that included, or did not include, a simulated grunt. The task was to determine as quickly as possible whether the kick was traveling upward or downward. Overall, and replicating the tennis finding, the present results indicate that a participant's response to a kick was delayed and more error prone when a simulated grunt was present. The present findings indicate that simulated grunting may distract an opponent, leading to slower and more error prone responses. The implications for martial arts in particular, and the broader question of whether grunting should be perceived as 'cheating' in sports, are examined.

  6. Promoted new bone formation in maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a tissue-engineered osteogenic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral maxillary distraction was performed at a higher rate in rabbits to determine whether locally applied tissue-engineered osteogenic material (TEOM) enhances bone regeneration. The material was an injectable gel composed of autologous mesenchymal stem cells, which were cultured then induced to be osteogenic in character, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After a 5-day latency period, distraction devices were activated at a rate of 2.0 mm once daily for 4 days. Twelve rabbits were divided into 2 groups. At the end of distraction, the experimental group of rabbits received an injection of TEOM into the distracted tissue on one side, whereas, saline solution was injected into the distracted tissue on the contralateral side as the internal control. An additional control group received an injection of PRP or saline solution into the distracted tissue in the same way as the experimental group. The distraction regenerates were assessed by radiological and histomorphometric analyses. The radiodensity of the distraction gap injected with TEOM was significantly higher than that injected with PRP or saline solution at 2, 3, and 4 weeks postdistraction. The histomorphometric analysis also showed that both new bone zone and bony content in the distraction gap injected with TEOM were significantly increased when compared with PRP or saline solution. Our results demonstrated that the distraction gap injected with TEOM showed significant new bone formation. Therefore, injections of TEOM may be able to compensate for insufficient distraction gaps.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Selective Attention and Perceptual Load During Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David J.; Langley, Linda K.

    2003-01-01

    Three visual search experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that age differences in selective attention vary as a function of perceptual load (E. A. Maylor & N. Lavie, 1998). Under resource-limited conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), the distraction from irrelevant display items generally decreased as display size (perceptual load) increased. This perceptual load effect was similar for younger and older adults, contrary to the findings of Maylor and Lavie. Distraction at low perceptua...

  8. Divided attention reduces resistance to distraction at encoding but not retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Older adults show implicit memory for previously seen distraction, an effect attributed to poor attentional control. It is unclear whether this effect results from lack of control over encoding during the distraction task, lack of retrieval constraint during the test task, or both. In the present study, we simulated poor distraction control in young adults using divided attention at encoding, at retrieval, at both times, or not at all. The encoding task was a 1-back task on pictures with distracting superimposed letter strings, some of which were words. The retrieval task was a word fragment completion task testing implicit memory for the distracting words. Attention was divided using an auditory odd digit detection task. Dividing attention at encoding, but not at retrieval, resulted in significant priming for distraction, which suggests that control over encoding processes is a primary determinant of distraction transfer in populations with low inhibitory control (e.g. older adults).

  9. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  10. Sensing the Opaque : Seriality and the Aesthetics of Televisual Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.; Kelleter, F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work on TV seriality focuses on the deference of meaning through narrative extension. Contemporary seriality, it has been argued, exploits this expanding textuality to construct complicated narratives that tip the pleasures of seriality toward detecting the meaning of the plot's

  11. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  12. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  13. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  14. Profile Changes and Stability following Distraction Osteogenesis with Rigid External Distraction in Adult Cleft Lip and Palate Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painatt, Jaeson M.; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Puthalath, Ushass; Peter, Sherry; Rao, Latha P.; Kuriakose, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO) using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1), postdistraction (T2), and 1 year after distractor removal (T3). The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2) and the stability (T2 vs. T3) were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3). The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value) of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was seen. This stressed on the need for overcorrection of about 35%–40% for adult CLP patients. PMID:28839409

  15. Velopharyngeal changes after maxillary distraction in cleft patients using a rigid external distraction device: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahasen; Elsheikh, Yasser M

    2016-11-01

     To evaluate early and late velopharyngeal changes in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients after use of the Rigid External Distractor (RED) device and to correlate these changes to the amount of maxillary advancement.  Thirty Class III CLP patients were included in the study. Maxillary advancement was performed using the RED device in combination with titanium miniplates and screws for anchorage. Lateral cephalograms, nasometer, and nasopharyngoscope records were taken before distraction, immediately after distraction, and 1 year after distraction. A paired t-test was used to detect differences at P maxillary distraction (P  =  .0001). Statistically significant increases in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal depths, velar angle, and need ratio were also found (P  =  .0001). Nasalance scores showed a significant increase (P  =  .008 for nasal text and .044 for oral text). A significant positive correlation was observed between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality (P  =  .012 and .026, respectively).  Nasopharyngeal function was deteriorated after maxillary advancement in CLP patients. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality.

  16. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  17. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  19. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  20. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  1. Short-term Memory in Childhood Dyslexia: Deficient Serial Order in Multiple Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Hogan, Tiffany P; Alt, Mary; Green, Samuel; Cabbage, Kathryn L; Brinkley, Shara; Gray, Shelley

    2017-08-01

    In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies. Non-word repetition tests indicated a phonological memory deficit in children with dyslexia alone compared with those with typical development, but this difference vanished when these groups were matched for non-verbal intelligence and language. Theoretically important deficits in serial order memory in dyslexic children, however, persisted relative to matched typically developing children. The deficits were in recall of (1) spoken digits in both standard and running span tasks and (2) spatial locations, in running span only. Children with dyslexia with versus without language impairment, when matched on non-verbal intelligence, had comparable serial order memory, but differed in phonology. Because serial orderings of verbal and spatial elements occur in reading, the careful examination of order memory may allow a deeper understanding of dyslexia and its relation to language impairment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  3. Vertical periodontal ligament distraction--a new method for aligning ankylosed and displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Drescher, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    In the course of a clinical pilot study we tested the vertical periodontal ligament (V-PDL) distraction as a means of aligning ankylosed upper canines. The objective of this study was to analyze the appropriateness und effectiveness of this method. The ankylosed upper canines of five female patients aged between 16 und 19 years were surgically exposed, luxated, and after a latency period of 5 to 7 days, distracted at a rate of 0.5 mm per day. The installed distractors were borne by the periodontal-mucosa, the periodontal-mucosa and the bone, or by the bone exclusively. We evaluated the distraction distance and time and degree of hard and soft tissue generation present in the region surrounding the distracted teeth. All canines were aligned after a mean distraction period of 43.2 days (+/- 3.6 days). The mean distraction distance was 10.8 mm. Three canines had defects at the cemento-enamel junction, and one canine had to be extracted due to a large defect at the root. Vertical PDL distraction is a minimally-invasive therapy to align ankylosed impacted canines. Even if the long-term prognosis of distracted canines with defects is uncertain, the patient benefits from the vertical PDL distraction because both hard and soft tissues are generated in the vicinity of the distracted canine.

  4. Attention and working memory in elderly: the influence of a distracting environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations).

  5. Normalizing memory recall in fibromyalgia with rehearsal: a distraction-counteracting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S

    2009-06-15

    To examine the impact of distraction on the retention of rehearsed information in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Data refer to the neurocognitive examination of 134 patients (91 with FMS and 43 control subjects) presenting with memory loss. Four neurocognitive measures free of distraction, along with 2 measures with added distraction, were completed. Differences in the retention of rehearsed and unrehearsed information with a source of distraction present were calculated. Patients with FMS showed normal cognitive functioning on verbal memory tests free of distraction. Adding a source of distraction caused unrefreshed information to be lost at a disproportionate rate in patients with FMS. Over 87% of patients with FMS scored in the impaired range on a task of unrehearsed verbal memory. Adding a source of distraction to well-rehearsed information produced a normal rate of recall in FMS. Rehearsal mechanisms are intact in patients with FMS and play beneficial roles in managing interference from a source of distraction. In the absence of rehearsal, a source of distraction added to unrefreshed information signals a remarkable level of cognitive deficit in FMS that goes undetected by conventionally relied-upon neurocognitive measures. We present a theory to promote understanding of the cognitive deficit of people with FMS based on reduced speed of lexical activation and poor recall after distraction.

  6. A osteogenesis distraction device enabling control of vertical direction for syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a hybrid facial osteogenesis distraction system that combines the advantages of external and internal distraction devices to enable control of both the distraction distance and vector. However, when the advanced maxilla has excessive clockwise rotation and shifts more downward vertically than planned, it might be impossible to pull it up to correct it. We invented devices attached to external distraction systems that can control the vertical vector of distraction to resolve this problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the result of utilizing the distraction system for syndromic craniosynostosis. In addition to a previously reported hybrid facial distraction system, the devices for controlling the vertical direction of the advanced maxilla were attached to the external distraction device. The vertical direction of the advanced maxilla can be controlled by adjustment of the spindle units. This system was used for 2 patients with Crouzon and Apert syndrome. The system enabled control of the vertical distance, with no complications during the procedures. As a result, the maxilla could be advanced into the planned position including overcorrection without excessive clockwise rotation of distraction. Our system can alter the cases and bring them into the planned position, by controlling the vertical vector of distraction. We believe that this system might be effective in infants with syndromic craniosynostosis as it involves 2 osteotomies and horizontal and vertical direction of elongation can be controlled.

  7. Relationship of distraction rate with inferior alveolar nerve degeneration-regeneration shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is an important technique for the treatment of maxillofacial abnormities and defects. However, distraction osteogenesis may cause the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift remains poorly understood. In this study, 24 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. To establish the rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model, the mandibles of rabbits in distraction osteogenesis groups were subjected to continuous osteogenesis distraction at a rate of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm/d, respectively, by controlling rounds of screwing each day in the distractors. In the sham group, mandible osteotomy was performed without distraction. Pin-prick test with a 10 g blunt pin on the labium, histological and histomorphometric analyses with methylene blue staining, Bodian's silver staining, transmission electron microscopy and myelinated fiber density of inferior alveolar nerve cross-sections were performed to assess inferior alveolar nerve conditions. At 28 days after model establishment, in the pin-prick test, the inferior alveolar nerve showed no response in the labium to a pin pricks in the 2 mm/d group, indicating a severe dysfunction. Histological and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the inferior alveolar nerve suffered more degeneration and injuries at a high distraction rate (2 mm/d. Importantly, the nerve regeneration, indicated by newborn Schwann cells and axons, was more abundant in 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d groups than in 2.0 mm/d group. We concluded that the distraction rate was strongly associated with the inferior alveolar nerve function, and the distraction rates of 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d had regenerative effects on the inferior alveolar nerve. This study provides an experimental basis for the relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift during distraction osteogenesis, and may facilitate reducing nerve

  8. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  9. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: revive and restore the native bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Sumedha; Jagtap, Amit

    2009-12-01

    In prosthodontics, knife-edge bony alveolar ridges can cause a problem in their rehabilitation. The distraction osteogenesis process raises the medullary component of the alveolus, allowing the labial plate of the existing natural bone to be displaced. This process involves mobilization, transport, and fixation of a healthy segment of bone adjacent to the deficient site. It entails use of the gradual controlled displacement of surgically created fractures, which results in simultaneous expansion of soft tissue and bone volume. A mechanical device, the alveolar distraction device, is used for this purpose. This modality of treatment can be used in implant dentistry cases for rehabilitation of resorbed ridges. The objective of this overview is to explain this procedure wherein the alveolar housing, including the osseous and soft-tissue components, is enlarged in a single, simultaneous process, which makes creation of an appropriate alveolar morphology possible.

  10. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    OpenAIRE

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6?1...

  11. Rate of retraction of anterior teeth after canine distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litesh Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orthodontists have always strived to develop a new technique to reduce the treatment time with minimal patient cooperation. Canine distraction was introduced as an alternative technique for canine retraction in a minimum possible period of 3 weeks, thus avoiding taxing the anchorage by molars since the canines are retracted within the lag phase of molars. It has been proved by numerous studies that the bone mesial to canine after rapid canine distraction through the extraction socket is a new and immature. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of retraction of anterior teeth, the time taken, and anchorage loss during the retraction of anterior teeth into this newly organized bone. Methods: Six orthodontic patients who required first premolar extractions were selected. Undermining of the interseptal bone distal to the canine was done, and canines were retracted into the extraction space of the first premolar, using a custom-made tooth borne intraoral distraction screw, following which the incisors were retracted into the newly formed bone using closing loops. The patients were called at weekly intervals to measure the amount of space left between canine and lateral incisor, and the rate of retraction was calculated after space was closed. Results: The present study showed that the rate of retraction of mandibular and maxillary teeth was 0.74 ± 0.39 mm and 0.73 ± 0.15 mm/week, respectively. The anchorage loss was found to be 1.83 ± 0.29 mm and 2.08 ± 0.38 mm in mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. The time taken to retract the incisors was found to be 40.3 ± 1.5 and 41.7 ± 0.6 days for mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: Retraction of incisors is faster in both maxillary and mandibular arches when the incisors are retracted immediately into the immature bone created after canine distraction.

  12. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hyp...

  13. Stability of orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis: options and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Bethany; Perciaccante, Vincent J; Cunningham, Larry L

    2007-08-01

    Relapse in orthognathic surgery is multifactorial and can be attributed to posttreatment growth, condylar changes, lack of rigid fixation, and muscle pull and function. Consideration of these factors can aide the surgeon in the decision-making process with regards to treatment options and alternatives. This article reviews the stability of various orthognathic movements using traditional osteotomies and fixation, and compares them to what is currently in the literature regarding distraction osteogenesis.

  14. Perception urbaine, distraction et stratification chez Benjamin, Eisenstein et Vertov

    OpenAIRE

    Rousse, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    La ville à l’écran est le substrat imaginaire et historique du cinéma. Mais le cinéma, burlesque et soviétique, transforme ce contexte tout en constituant sa mémoire. Walter Benjamin inaugura cette problématique avec la notion de « distraction », liant architecture et cinéma sur le fond du paradigme de la stratification de l’appareil psychique chez Freud.

  15. Complications associated with distraction plate fixation of wrist fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Douglas P; Ruhlman, Scott David; Katolik, Leo I; Allan, Christopher H

    2010-05-01

    This article discusses the major and minor complications of distal plating in the light of a cohort study carried out by the authors, who reviewed all patients undergoing bridge distraction plate fixation of distal radius fractures by three surgeons in a single level I trauma center. The article discusses the effectiveness and the complication rates associated with the technique. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Taming Distraction: The Second Screen Assemblage, Television and the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that television's resilience in the current media landscape can best be understood by analyzing its role in a broader quest to organize attention across different media. For quite a while, the mobile phone was considered to be a disturbance both for watching television and for classroom teaching. In recent years, however, strategies have been developed to turn the second screen's distractive potential into a source for intensified, personalized and social attention. This h...

  17. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  18. Serials collection management in recessionary times

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning, collaboration, continual stewardship, best practices, and re-engineering can provide librarians with a toolkit of innovative strategies that meets the worst of economic times with bold, persistent experimentation. This book covers the implications for libraries of a broad range of technological and economic challenges. These challenges include the fallout from the global economic crisis, the positioning of usage statistics, the advent of open access scholarship, database management, responding to budgetary constrictions and general access to serials. Taken as a whole, this

  19. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  20. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  1. Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    OpenAIRE

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo...

  2. Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: the role of cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Sil, Soumitri; Weiss, Karen E; Herbert, Linda Jones; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan Berrin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether increasing the demand for central cognitive processing involved in a distraction task, by involving the child in ongoing, effortful interaction with the distraction stimulus, would increase children's tolerance for cold pressor pain. Seventy-nine children ages 6-15 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which they received interactive distraction (i.e., used voice commands to play a videogame) or passive distraction (in which they merely watched the output from the same videogame segment) in counterbalanced order. Both distraction conditions were presented via a virtual reality-type helmet. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during distraction relative to baseline. Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task. The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing.

  3. Interactive versus passive distraction for acute pain management in young children: the role of selective attention and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlheiter, Karen A; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2013-03-01

    To examine whether age and developmental differences in selective attention influence young children's differential responses to interactive and passive distraction. 65 3- to 6-year-old children underwent three cold-pressor trials while receiving no intervention, playing a video game (interactive distraction), or watching a video game (passive distraction). In addition, children completed a test of selective attention, and parents completed ratings of attention. Consistent with neurocognitive models of pain, children benefited more from interactive distraction than from passive distraction. Although older children demonstrated superior pain tolerance overall, age and selective attention skills did not moderate children's responses to the distraction intervention. These findings suggest that younger preschoolers can benefit from interactive distraction to manage acute pain, provided that the distraction activity is developmentally appropriate. Research is needed to determine whether developmental issues are more important moderators of children's responses to distraction when faced with more challenging task demands.

  4. Prevalence of and attitudes about distracted driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara; Fram, Ethan; Merchant, Gina; Eastman, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    To identify current distracted driving (DD) behaviors among college students, primarily those involving cell phone use, and elucidate the opinions of the students on the most effective deterrent or intervention for reducing cell phone use. Students enrolled at 12 colleges and universities were recruited to participate in an online, anonymous survey. Recruitment was done via school-based list-serves and posters. School sizes ranged from 476 to over 30,000. The validated survey included 38 questions; 17 were specifically related to distracted driving. Four thousand nine hundred sixty-four participants completed the surveys; the average age was 21.8, 66% were female, 82.7% were undergraduates, and 47% were white/non-Hispanic. Additionally, 4,517 (91%) reported phoning and/or texting while driving; 4,467 (90%) of drivers said they talk on the phone while driving; 1,241 (25%) reported using a hands-free device "most of the time"; 4,467 (90%) of drivers reported texting while driving; 2,488 (50%) reported sending texts while driving on the freeway; 2,978 (60%) while in stop-and-go traffic or on city streets; and 4,319 (87%) at traffic lights. Those who drove more often were more likely to drive distracted. When asked about their capability to drive distracted, 46% said they were capable or very capable of talking on a cell phone and driving, but they felt that only 8.5% of other drivers were capable. In a multivariate model, 9 predictors explained 44% of the variance in DD, which was statistically significant, F (17, 4945) = 224.31; P driving frequency) were self-efficacy (i.e., confidence) in driving while multitasking (β = 0.37), perception of safety of multitasking while driving (β = 0.19), social norms (i.e., observing others multitasking while driving; β = 0.29), and having a history of crashing due to multitasking while driving (β = 0.11). Distracted driving is a highly prevalent behavior among college students who have higher confidence in their own driving

  5. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  6. Spatial serial order processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Park, Sohee; Clark, Gina; Yohanna, Daniel; Houk, James C

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine serial order processing deficits in 21 schizophrenia patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy controls. In a spatial serial order working memory task, one to four spatial targets were presented in a randomized sequence. Subjects were required to remember the locations and the order in which the targets were presented. Patients showed a marked deficit in ability to remember the sequences compared with controls. Increasing the number of targets within a sequence resulted in poorer memory performance for both control and schizophrenia subjects, but the effect was much more pronounced in the patients. Targets presented at the end of a long sequence were more vulnerable to memory error in schizophrenia patients. Performance deficits were not attributable to motor errors, but to errors in target choice. The results support the idea that the memory errors seen in schizophrenia patients may be due to saturating the working memory network at relatively low levels of memory load.

  7. Serial position curves in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  8. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  9. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. A simple mechanism for measuring and adjusting distraction forces during maxillary advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of distraction forces on the craniofacial skeleton has never been reported. The present report describes the development of a method of assessing and adjusting traction forces applied through maxillary distraction osteogenesis. A simple mechanism to measure and adjust tension force during maxillary distraction osteogenesis was developed and connected bilaterally to the traction screws of a rigid external distraction device. Measurements were carried out before and after activation using a Shimpo (Nidec-Shimpo America Corporation, Itasca, IL) force gauge in 4 patients (2 with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 1 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 1 with noncleft) during the distraction process. Activation was performed twice a day at a rate of 1 mm/day. The average maximum force applied throughout the distraction period was 42.5 N (range 16.4 to 65.3 N), with increments, after activation, averaging 10.5 N (range 7.9 to 15.7 N). In patients with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, distraction forces on the larger segment were 65.1% higher than on the lesser segment. A differential pattern of forces was also observed in the patients with asymmetric noncleft. However, the differential forces between lateral segments were not observed in the patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. During the activation period, distraction forces progressively increased, whereas the amount of maxillary movement decreased. Pain and discomfort were reported with high forces. Through this mechanism, direct measurement and adjustment of distraction forces during maxillary advancement was possible. The unbalanced pattern of forces observed in patients with cleft suggests the necessity of individual adjustments for controlling pain and clinical symptoms. Accordingly, assessment of distraction forces during maxillary distraction osteogenesis is extremely helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the distraction process.

  11. Perception of alcohol strength impaired by low and high volume distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo; Agobiani, E.; Fernandes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated impaired discrimination of alcohol strength under distracting conditions. The present study aimed to extend this by examining the effects of distraction volume on alcohol perception. In the study here (between subjects design, 34 females/20 males), participants completed standardized taste and olfactory tests, followed by a taste test of alcoholic beverages (0, 1.9, 3.9, 5.6 and 7.5pct abv) in a randomly allocated distractive or control condition [Control, Shadow ...

  12. Texting while driving: A study of 1211 U.S. adults with the Distracted Driving Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gliklich, Emily; Guo, Rong; Bergmark, Regan W.

    2016-01-01

    Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS), an 11-ite...

  13. Do absorption and realistic distraction influence performance of component task surgical procedure?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluyter, J.R.; Buzink, S.N.; Rutkowski, A.F.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological distracting conditions may influence surgical performance. Methods. Twelve medical interns performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy task with the Xitact LC 3.0 virtual reality simulator under distracting con...

  14. Aging and goal-directed emotional attention: distraction reverses emotional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Seymour, Travis L; Gaunt, Joshua T; Baker, Christopher; Nesmith, Kathryn; Mather, Mara

    2007-11-01

    Previous findings reveal that older adults favor positive over negative stimuli in both memory and attention (for a review, see Mather & Carstensen, 2005). This study used eye tracking to investigate the role of cognitive control in older adults' selective visual attention. Younger and older adults viewed emotional-neutral and emotional-emotional pairs of faces and pictures while their gaze patterns were recorded under full or divided attention conditions. Replicating previous eye-tracking findings, older adults allocated less of their visual attention to negative stimuli in negative-neutral stimulus pairings in the full attention condition than younger adults did. However, as predicted by a cognitive-control-based account of the positivity effect in older adults' information processing tendencies (Mather & Knight, 2005), older adults' tendency to avoid negative stimuli was reversed in the divided attention condition. Compared with younger adults, older adults' limited attentional resources were more likely to be drawn to negative stimuli when they were distracted. These findings indicate that emotional goals can have unintended consequences when cognitive control mechanisms are not fully available.

  15. Eye-closure increases children’s memory accuracy for visual material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that closing the eyes during retrieval can help both adults and children to remember more about witnessed events. In this study, we investigated whether the eye-closure effect in children is explained by general cognitive load, modality-specific interference, or a combination. 120 children (60 female aged between 8 and 11 years viewed a 5-minute clip depicting a theft and were questioned about the event. During the cued-recall interview, children either viewed a blank screen (blank-screen condition, kept their eyes closed (eye-closure condition, were exposed to visual stimuli (visual-distraction condition, or were exposed to auditory stimuli (auditory-distraction condition. Children in the blank-screen and eye-closure conditions provided significantly more correct and fewer incorrect responses about visual details than children in the visual- and auditory-distraction conditions. No advantage was found for auditory details. These results support neither a pure cognitive-load explanation (in which the effect is expected to be observed for recall of both visual and auditory details, nor a pure modality-specific account (in which recall of visual details should only be disrupted by visual distractions. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  17. Transantral distraction devices in correction of severe maxillary deformity in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokirov, Shokhruh; Wangerin, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Maxillary advancement by Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft patients has an average relapse of about 40-60 percent. With extraoral distraction devices it is possible to obtain an almost unlimited advancement of the upper jaw. Due to the social problems the retention period is normally reduced to some monthes. A relapse of 10-25 % can be seen in these cases. Le Fort I internal distraction osteogenesis offers an alternative to one-step orthognathic advancement, with advantages of gradual lengthening through scar and earlier treatment in growing patients. The objective of this study was to present our experience in the treatment of maxillary deficiency in cleft patients using transantral internal distraction devices. The distraction procedure was successfully accomplished in seventeen patients. For all the seventeen patients maxillary distraction device designed by Konrad Wangerin was used. The distraction distances were 8 to 24 mm. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up (12 and 24 months) lateral cephalogram measurements were compared including angular and linear changes. A good new bone was found that was formed in distraction pitch between lines of osteotomy. After distraction of median facial zone, occlusion and profile of soft tissues were considerably improved. All patients after postoperative time required final orthodontic treatment and their final occlusal relationships were satisfactory. The transantral distraction device is a new option for the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft patients.

  18. Management of Cleft Maxillary Hypoplasia with Anterior Maxillary Distraction: Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Tojan; Vinod, Sankar; Mani, Varghese; George, Arun; Sivaprasad, K K

    2014-12-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia is a common developmental problem in cleft lip and palate deformities. Since 1970s these deformities have traditionally been corrected by means of orthognathic surgery. Management of skeletal deformities in the maxillofacial region has been an important challenge for maxillofacial surgeons and orthodontists. Distraction osteogenesis is a surgical technique that uses body's own repairing mechanisms for optimal reconstruction of the tissues. We present four cases of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis with tooth borne distraction device-Hyrax, which were analyzed retrospectively for the efficacy of the tooth borne device-Hyrax and skeletal stability of distracted anterior maxillary segment.

  19. Effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis on velopharyngeal function: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Yoshimasa; Ishii, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Humiko; Mibu, Michiko; Omura, Ken

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preoperative and postoperative changes of velopharyngeal function in cleft patients who underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using the Rigid External Distraction System. Six cleft patients followed for a minimum of 12 months after maxillary distraction were examined. Plain and contrast lateral-cephalograms were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, and speech evaluation was performed by the same authorized speech therapist at the same time points. The mean distraction amount at the anterior nasal spine was 11.7 mm (range, 7.4 mm - 15.0 mm). Both the nasopharyngeal depth and velar length increased after maxillary distraction, but the need ratio (nasopharyngeal depth/velar length) also increased after distraction. Although scores for velopharyngeal closure dropped a few points after maxillary distraction, the rating for hypernasality remained unchanged in all patients but the patient whose distraction amount was 15.0 mm. These results suggest that maxillary distraction of less than 15 mm may not markedly affect velopharyngeal function in cleft patients.

  20. The role of alcohol use on recent trends in distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Tibbits, Melissa K

    2013-11-01

    Distracted driving is now an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. We provide evidence that intoxicated driving is increasingly responsible for recent increases in fatalities from distracted driving crashes. This study describes trends in deaths on U.S. public roads caused by alcohol-involved and distracted drivers using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)-a census of fatal crashes on U.S. public roads. Fatality rates per vehicle-miles traveled are calculated using data from the Federal Highway Administration. Alcohol-involved drivers who are simultaneously distracted were responsible for 1750 deaths in 2009, an increase of more than 63% from 2005 when there were 1072 deaths. Alcohol use while driving is increasingly responsible for a growing number of fatalities from distracted driving, accounting for 32% of deaths from distracted driving in 2009 versus 24% in 2005. The fatality rate from these crashes increased from 35.9 to 59.2 deaths per 100 billion vehicle-miles traveled after 2005. Alcohol use is quickly increasing as an important factor behind distracted driving fatalities. This has implications for policies combating distracted driving that do not address the role of alcohol use in distracted driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. METHODS Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius ...

  2. Le Fort III Distraction With Internal vs External Distractors: A Cephalometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin J; Mendez, Bernardino M; Bruce, William J; McDonnell, Brendan D; Chiodo, Michael V; Patel, Parit A

    2018-05-01

    This study compares the change in midface position following Le Fort III advancement using either rigid external distraction (group 1) or internal distraction (group 2). We hypothesized that, with reference to right-facing cephalometry, internal distraction would result in increased clockwise rotation and inferior displacement of the midface. Le Fort III osteotomies and standardized distraction protocols were performed on 10 cadaveric specimens per group. Right-facing lateral cephalograms were traced and compared across time points to determine change in position at points orbitale, anterior nasal spine (ANS), A-point, and angle ANB. Institutional. Twenty cadaveric head specimens. Standard subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies were performed from a coronal approach and adequately mobilized. The specified distraction mechanism was applied and advanced by 15 mm. Changes of position were calculated at various skeletal landmarks: orbitale, ANS, A-point, and ANB. Group 1 demonstrated relatively uniform x-axis advancement with minimal inferior repositioning at the A-point, ANS, and orbitale. Group 2 demonstrated marked variation in x-axis advancement among the 3 points, along with a significant inferior repositioning and clockwise rotation of the midface ( P External distraction resulted in more uniform advancement of the midface, whereas internal distraction resulted in greater clockwise rotation and inferior displacement. External distraction appears to provide increased vector control of the midface, which is important in creating a customized distraction plan based on the patient's individual occlusal and skeletal needs.

  3. Controlling the vector of distraction osteogenesis in the management of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Dekel; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals with craniofacial anomalies can compromise airway and is a serious life-threatening condition. In many cases, tracheostomy is carried out as the treatment of choice. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible as a treatment modality for OSA is very useful and may spare the need for tracheostomy or allow decannulation, yet controlling the vector of distraction is still a major challenge. We present a method for controlling the vector of distraction. Eight patients with severe respiratory distress secondary to a micrognathic mandible were treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis using either external or internal devices. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and orthodontic elastics were used to control the vector of distraction. Cephalometric X-rays, computed tomography, and polysomnographic sleep studies were used to analyze the results. A mean distraction of 22 mm using the internal devices and a mean of 30 mm using the external devices were achieved. Increase in the pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone advancement was also observed. Anterior-posterior advancement of the mandible was noted with no clockwise rotation. Most importantly, clinical improvement in symptoms of OSA, respiratory distress, and feeding was noted. We describe a method for controlling the vector of distraction used as a treatment for OSA. In these cases, TADs were used as an anchorage unit to control the vector of distraction. Our results show excellent clinical and radiographical results. TADs are a simple and nonexpensive method to control the vector of distraction.

  4. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli, and comparable to the previous validation round (RMSE approximately 10%). The results further confirm that the distraction model can be used as a valuable tool in evaluating and optimizing...

  5. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  7. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  8. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-01-01

    In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1) how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2) how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 epi...

  9. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  11. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  12. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon.

  13. The contributions of visual and central attention to visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Oberauer, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the role of two kinds of attention-visual and central attention-for the maintenance of visual representations in working memory (WM). In Experiment 1 we directed attention to individual items in WM by presenting cues during the retention interval of a continuous delayed-estimation task, and instructing participants to think of the cued items. Attending to items improved recall commensurate with the frequency with which items were attended (0, 1, or 2 times). Experiments 1 and 3 further tested which kind of attention-visual or central-was involved in WM maintenance. We assessed the dual-task costs of two types of distractor tasks, one tapping sustained visual attention and one tapping central attention. Only the central attention task yielded substantial dual-task costs, implying that central attention substantially contributes to maintenance of visual information in WM. Experiment 2 confirmed that the visual-attention distractor task was demanding enough to disrupt performance in a task relying on visual attention. We combined the visual-attention and the central-attention distractor tasks with a multiple object tracking (MOT) task. Distracting visual attention, but not central attention, impaired MOT performance. Jointly, the three experiments provide a double dissociation between visual and central attention, and between visual WM and visual object tracking: Whereas tracking multiple targets across the visual filed depends on visual attention, visual WM depends mostly on central attention.

  14. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  15. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  16. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  17. Embedding, serial sectioning and staining of zebrafish embryos using JB-4 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Bisher, Margaret E; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2011-01-01

    Histological techniques are critical for observing tissue and cellular morphology. In this paper, we outline our protocol for embedding, serial sectioning, staining and visualizing zebrafish embryos embedded in JB-4 plastic resin-a glycol methacrylate-based medium that results in excellent preservation of tissue morphology. In addition, we describe our procedures for staining plastic sections with toluidine blue or hematoxylin and eosin, and show how to couple these stains with whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization. We also describe how to maintain and visualize immunofluorescence and EGFP signals in JB-4 resin. The protocol we outline-from embryo preparation, embedding, sectioning and staining to visualization-can be accomplished in 3 d. Overall, we reinforce that plastic embedding can provide higher resolution of cellular details and is a valuable tool for cellular and morphological studies in zebrafish.

  18. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  19. The functional determinants of short-term memory: Evidence from perceptual-motor interference in verbal serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W; Marsh, John E

    2017-04-01

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity as-but that are order-incongruent with-the to-be-remembered items. We test the view that such interference is because of the obligatory perceptual organization of the spoken stimuli yielding a sequence that competes with a subvocal motor-plan assembled to support the reproduction of the to-be-remembered list. In support of this view, the interference can be eliminated without changing either the identities or objective serial order of the spoken stimuli but merely by promoting a subjective perceptual organization that strips them of their order-incongruent relation to the to-be-remembered list (Experiment 1). The interference is also eliminated if subvocal motor sequence-planning is impeded via articulatory suppression (Experiment 2). The results are in line with the view that performance-limits in verbal serial STM are because of having to exploit perceptual and motor processes for purposes for which they did not evolve, not the inherently limited capacity of structures or mechanisms dedicated to storage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  1. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  2. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  3. A new distraction arthroplasty device using magnetic force; a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Fujimiya, Mineko; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakamae, Atsuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ohkawa, Shingo; Takazawa, Kobun; Eguchi, Akio; Katou, Tomohiro; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Usman, Muhammad Andry

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult for an articular cartilage injury to repair spontaneously. There are many procedures for treating cartilage injury, however there is no standard procedure for middle-aged patients who have diffuse knee osteoarthritis, especially of the lateral compartment. Therefore, Ochi developed a new distraction device that uses magnetic power to enlarge a joint space and promote cartilage regeneration with microfracture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this new distraction arthroplasty system by using the cadaveric knee. This study used ten knees from six cadavers that were embalmed by Thiel's methods. The medial and lateral joint space was measured by AP radiographic view before and after distraction, and after weight-bearing to evaluate the joint distraction. The contact pressure of the medial and lateral compartments at the knee extension position by using a prescale film system was measured before and after weight-bearing with a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load to evaluate the effectiveness of this device. The lateral joint space significantly increased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction; however, it did not change significantly between post-distraction and post-weight-bearing. With a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load, the contact pressure of the lateral compartment significantly decreased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction. The most important advantage of this device is that it maintains a continuous distraction tension and enables almost the full range of motion of the knee. We believe that joint distraction by using magnetic force can be a promising option for cartilage injury in middle-aged patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Handbook of serial communications interfaces a comprehensive compendium of serial digital input/output (I/O) standards

    CERN Document Server

    Frenzel, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This book catalogs the most popular and commonly used serial-port interfaces and provides details on the specifications and the latest standards, enabling you to select an interface for a new design or verify that an interface is working correctly. Each chapter is based on a different interface and is written in an easy to follow, standard format. With this book you will learn: The most widely used serial interfacesHow to select the best serial interface for a specific application or designThe trade-offs between data rate and distance (length or range)The operation and benefits of serial

  5. Memory as embodiment: The case of modality and serial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C; Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-10-01

    Classical explanations for the modality effect-superior short-term serial recall of auditory compared to visual sequences-typically recur to privileged processing of information derived from auditory sources. Here we critically appraise such accounts, and re-evaluate the nature of the canonical empirical phenomena that have motivated them. Three experiments show that the standard account of modality in memory is untenable, since auditory superiority in recency is often accompanied by visual superiority in mid-list serial positions. We explain this simultaneous auditory and visual superiority by reference to the way in which perceptual objects are formed in the two modalities and how those objects are mapped to speech motor forms to support sequence maintenance and reproduction. Specifically, stronger obligatory object formation operating in the standard auditory form of sequence presentation compared to that for visual sequences leads both to enhanced addressability of information at the object boundaries and reduced addressability for that in the interior. Because standard visual presentation does not lead to such object formation, such sequences do not show the boundary advantage observed for auditory presentation, but neither do they suffer loss of addressability associated with object information, thereby affording more ready mapping of that information into a rehearsal cohort to support recall. We show that a range of factors that impede this perceptual-motor mapping eliminate visual superiority while leaving auditory superiority unaffected. We make a general case for viewing short-term memory as an embodied, perceptual-motor process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Three-Dimensional Understanding of Maxillary Cleft Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Stephen Michael; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To set forth a universal standard methodology for quantifying volumetric and linear changes in the craniofacial complex, utilizing three-dimensional data captured from a cleft-lip palate patient who underwent rigid external device (RED) distraction. Cone beam computed tomography images of a 14-year-old patient were captured using a Kodak 9500 (Atlanta, GA) Cone Beam system device and a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) Atlanta, GA). The subject was a nonsyndromic unilateral cleft-lip palate patient who received RED distraction as part of maxillary advancement in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Preop (T1) and postop (T2) images were superimposed using Invivo 5.2.3 (San Jose, CA) software. Volumetric rendering of the airway, bone, and soft tissues, as well as linear measurements were analyzed. Each measurement was captured 10 times to ensure reliability and reproducibility of methodology. Data from T1 to T2 revealed mean differences as follows: airway total volume +5250 mm, minimum cross-sectional area +67.84 mm; bone +1719 mm, soft tissue +44,432 mm. Mean of linear measurements: Pronasale 1.98 mm, Subnasale 3.35 mm, Labial superius 10.79 mm, Labial inferius 4.13 mm, Right alare 5.71 mm, Right cheilion 7.83 mm, Left alare 4.97 mm, Left cheilion 5.50 mm, Pogonion 3.01 mm, B-point 2.49 mm, U1-U1 9.77 mm, and L1-L1 0.00 mm. P values are distractions in a three-dimensional format. A universal standard analysis of the craniofacial complex can be implemented using the techniques and method outlined in this study.

  7. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Jensen, John; Nørholt, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction osteogenesis group (DOG). Seven patients comprised the orthognathic treatment group (CONVG). Skeletal and soft tissue points were traced on lateral cephalograms: T1 (preoperatively), T2 (after surgery), T3 (follow-up). Group differences were analyzed using Students t-test. At T1-T2, advancement of 6.98 mm (P = 0.002) was observed in DOG. Horizontal overjet increased 11.62 mm (P = 0.001). A point-nasion-B point (ANB) angle increased 8.82° (P = 0.001). Aesthetic plane to upper lip was reduced 5.44 mm (P = 0.017) and the naso-labial angle increased 16.6° (P = 0.001). Vertical overbite (VOB) increased 2.27 mm (P = 0.021). In T2-T3, no significant changes were observed in DOG. In T1-T2, horizontal overjet increased 8.45 mm (P = 0.02). The ANB angle, 9.33° (P = 0.009) in CONVG. At T2-T3, VOB increased, 2.35 mm (P = 0.046), and the ANB angle reduced, 3.83° (P = 0.003). In T2-T3, no parameters changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position of the maxilla and movement upwards in vertical plane, however in case of orthognathic treatment sagittal relapse and a continued postoperatively downward movement was registered.

  8. Videogame playing as distraction technique in course of venipuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minute

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: needle-related procedures (venipuncture, intravenous cannulation are the most common source of pain and distress for children. reducing needle related pain and anxiety could be important in order to prevent further distress, especially for children needing multiple hospital admissions. the aim of the present open randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of adding an active distraction strategy (videogame to eMlA premedication in needle-related pain in children. Methods: one-hundred and nine children (4 -10 years of age were prospectively recruited to enter in the study. ninety-seven were randomized in two groups: CC group (conventional care: eMlA only as control group and Ad group (active distraction: eMlA plus videogame as intervention group. outcome measures were: selfreported pain by mean of FPS-r scale (main study outcome, observer-reported pain by FlACC scale, number of attempts for successful procedure. Results: in both groups FPS-r median rate was 0 (interquartile range: 0-2, with significant pain (FPS-r>4 reported by 9% of subjects. FlACC median rate was 1 in both groups (interquartile range 0-3 in CC group; 0-2 in Ad group. the percentage of children with major pain (FlACC>4 was 18% in CC group and 9% in Ad group (p=0.2. the median of necessary attempts to succeed in the procedures was 1 (interquartile range 1-2 in both groups.. Conclusion: Active distraction doesn’t improve eMlA analgesia for iv cannulation and venipuncture. even though, it resulted in an easily applicable strategy appreciated by children. this technique could be usefully investigated in other painful procedures.

  9. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. Material and Methods: Inclusion criteria: 1 cleft lip and palate, 2 advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction osteogenesis group (DOG. Seven patients comprised the orthognathic treatment group (CONVG. Skeletal and soft tissue points were traced on lateral cephalograms: T1 (preoperatively, T2 (after surgery, T3 (follow-up. Group differences were analyzed using Students t-test. Results: At T1-T2, advancement of 6.98 mm (P = 0.002 was observed in DOG. Horizontal overjet increased 11.62 mm (P = 0.001. A point-nasion-B point (ANB angle increased 8.82° (P = 0.001. Aesthetic plane to upper lip was reduced 5.44 mm (P = 0.017 and the naso-labial angle increased 16.6° (P = 0.001. Vertical overbite (VOB increased 2.27 mm (P = 0.021. In T2-T3, no significant changes were observed in DOG. In T1-T2, horizontal overjet increased 8.45 mm (P = 0.02. The ANB angle, 9.33° (P = 0.009 in CONVG. At T2-T3, VOB increased, 2.35 mm (P = 0.046, and the ANB angle reduced, 3.83° (P = 0.003. In T2-T3, no parameters changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3, VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01. Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04. No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. Conclusions: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position of the maxilla and movement upwards in vertical plane, however in case of orthognathic treatment sagittal relapse and a continued postoperatively downward movement was registered.

  10. Videogame playing as distraction technique in course of venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minute, M; Badina, L; Cont, G; Montico, M; Ronfani, L; Barbi, E; Ventura, A

    2012-01-01

    Needle-related procedures (venipuncture, intravenous cannulation) are the most common source of pain and distress for children. Reducing needle related pain and anxiety could be important in order to prevent further distress, especially for children needing multiple hospital admissions. The aim of the present open randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of adding an active distraction strategy (videogame) to EMLA premedication in needle-related pain in children. One-hundred and nine children (4 -10 years of age) were prospectively recruited to enter in the study. Ninety-seven were randomized in two groups: CC group (conventional care: EMLA only) as control group and AD group (active distraction: EMLA plus videogame) as intervention group. Outcome measures were: self-reported pain by mean of FPS-R scale (main study outcome), observer-reported pain by FLACC scale, number of attempts for successful procedure. In both groups FPS-R median rate was 0 (interquartile range: 0-2), with significant pain (FPS-R > 4) reported by 9% of subjects. FLACC median rate was 1 in both groups (interquartile range 0-3 in CC group; 0-2 in AD group). The percentage of children with major pain (FLACC > 4) was 18% in CC group and 9% in AD group (p = 0.2). The median of necessary attempts to succeed in the procedures was 1 (interquartile range 1-2) in both groups.. Active distraction doesn't improve EMLA analgesia for iv cannulation and venipuncture. Even though, it resulted in an easily applicable strategy appreciated by children. This technique could be usefully investigated in other painful procedures.

  11. Navigating our days in a culture of distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade or so, librarians' working lives have been transformed by digitalcommunication and information technologies. This has created an environment wheredistraction has become a normative state. We need to be cognizant of the impacts ofdistraction on our effectiveness. As library professionals working with information for amultiplicity of purposes, how do we adapt in ways that respect our human limitations?What are the implications of working in a state of continual distraction, and whatstrategies can we use to minimize this reality? This article reviews some of our dailydistractions and draws associations from the literature in cognitive psychology andneuroscience to highlight the problems and raise potential solutions.

  12. [Technique and value of direct MR arthrography applying articular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becce, Fabio; Wettstein, Michael; Guntern, Daniel; Mouhsine, Elyazid; Palhais, Nuno; Theumann, Nicolas

    2010-02-24

    Direct MR arthrography has a better diagnostic accuracy than MR imaging alone. However, contrast material is not always homogeneously distributed in the articular space. Lesions of cartilage surfaces or intra-articular soft tissues can thus be misdiagnosed. Concomitant application of axial traction during MR arthrography leads to articular distraction. This enables better distribution of contrast material in the joint and better delineation of intra-articular structures. Therefore, this technique improves detection of cartilage lesions. Moreover, the axial stress applied on articular structures may reveal lesions invisible on MR images without traction. Based on our clinical experience, we believe that this relatively unknown technique is promising and should be further developed.

  13. Distraction of facets with intraarticular spacers as treatment for lumbar canal stenosis: report on a preliminary experience with 21 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Jadhav, Madan; Nama, Santhosh

    2013-12-01

    The authors report their experience in treating 21 patients by using a novel form of treatment of lumbar degenerative disease that leads to canal stenosis. The surgery involved distraction of the facets using specially designed Goel intraarticular spacers and was aimed at arthrodesis of the spinal segment in a distracted position. The operation is based on the premise that subtle and longstanding facet instability, joint space reduction, and subsequent facet override had a profound and primary influence in the pathogenesis of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis. The surgical technique and the rationale for treatment are discussed. Between April 2006 and January 2011, 21 cases of lumbar degenerative disease resulting in characteristic lumbar canal stenosis were treated in the authors' department with the proposed technique. The patients were prospectively analyzed. There were 15 men and 6 women who ranged in age from 48 to 71 years (mean 58 years). Nine patients underwent 1-level and 12 patients underwent 2-level treatment. Surgery involved wide opening of the articular joint, denuding of the articular capsule/endplate cartilage, distraction of the facets, and forced impaction of Goel intraarticular spacers. Bone graft pieces obtained by sectioning the spinous processes were placed within and over the joint and in the midline over the adequately prepared host area of laminae. The Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale were used to clinically assess the patients before and after surgery and at follow-up. The alterations in the physical architecture of spinal canal and intervertebral foramen dimensions were evaluated before and after placement of the intrafacet implant and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of local back pain and radiculopathy. Impaction of spacers within the facet joints resulted in an increase in the spinal canal and intervertebral root canal dimensions (mean 2.33 mm), reduction

  14. A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Küseler, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla......A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla...

  15. The value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gagan K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Lambert, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    To determine the value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children over 6 months of age. Personal photographs from children with unilateral cataracts who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation when > or =6 months of age were reviewed. Photographs were evaluated for changes in the red reflex, which might indicate the presence of a cataract. Twelve children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 37 months. They were followed for a mean of 32 months. Ten children were diagnosed as having an acquired cataract by photographic review documenting a previously normal red reflex. The visual acuity in the affected eye of 4 of these children improved to > or =20/60. Cataracts were visible on photographs prior to clinical diagnosis in 6 patients, from 0.5 to 22 months prior to clinical diagnosis. Visual outcomes did not relate closely to the photographically documented duration of the cataract prior to treatment. Photographs were not helpful in timing the onset of cataract in 2 children due to the poor quality of the images. Serial personal photographs are sometimes helpful in determining whether cataracts are acquired. However, the usefulness of personal photographs alone in predicting the visual outcome after cataract surgery was limited in this small, retrospective study.

  16. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  17. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  18. Utilization of serial resources in libraries of selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... security personnel for adequate monitoring of the serial materials, as well as the need for authors and stakeholders in education to donate more serial materials in order to enrich the collections in the library and enhance academic performance.

  19. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  20. Effects of Serial Rehearsal Training on Memory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Charley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Half the subjects were trained to use a serial rehearsal strategy during target set storage and half were given no strategy training. The results indicate that the rate of memory search is IQ-related, and that serial rehearsal training facilitates memory search when rehearsal is covert. (Author/BW)

  1. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  2. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  3. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  4. Psychometrics of Multiple Choice Questions with Non-Functioning Distracters: Implications to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Kishore K; Al-Umran, Khalid Umran; AI-Sheikh, Mona H; Dkoli, B V; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of distracters in a multiple choice question plays a very important role. We examined the frequency and impact of functioning and non-functioning distracters on psychometric properties of 5-option items in clinical disciplines. We analyzed item statistics of 1115 multiple choice questions from 15 summative assessments of undergraduate medical students and classified the items into five groups by their number of non-functioning distracters. We analyzed the effect of varying degree of non-functionality ranging from 0 to 4, on test reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index and point biserial correlation. The non-functionality of distracters inversely affected the test reliability and quality of items in a predictable manner. The non-functioning distracters made the items easier and lowered the discrimination index significantly. Three non-functional distracters in a 5-option MCQ significantly affected all psychometric properties (p psychometrically as effective as 5-option items. Our study reveals that a multiple choice question with 3 functional options provides lower most limit of item format that has adequate psychometric property. The test containing items with less number of functioning options have significantly lower reliability. The distracter function analysis and revision of nonfunctioning distracters can serve as important methods to improve the psychometrics and reliability of assessment.

  5. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to confirm the utility of a corrected cephalometric analysis to facilitate the planning of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy for syndromic craniosynostosis. Methods: This prospective study involved 4 male and 2 female patients (mean patient age, 8 years 9 months; age range, 4 years 6 months to 13 years 2 months) with Crouzon syndrome who were treated with Le Fort III maxillary distraction using our previously described system of analysis of a corrected cephalogram and who underwent clinical follow-up. Lateral cephalograms were obtained immediately after device removal. Results: Distraction of orbitale moved the vector downward to the adult profile, but there was slightly less elongation than the adult profile for the distraction distance. The desired and real mean angles after distraction of point A were 29.2 ± 7.9° and 6.1 ± 8.5°, respectively, and the desired and the real mean distances after distraction of point A were 30.6 ± 12.7 mm and 29.4 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices. PMID:29062650

  6. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kobayashi, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices.

  7. Comparative study of different osteotomy modalities in maxillary distraction osteogenesis for cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Wang, Xudong; Fang, Bing; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2012-11-01

    Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis and anterior maxillary segmental distraction were applied in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft clip and palate. The aim of the present study was to compare the difference between these 2 osteotomy modalities used for rigid external distraction. Ten patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were enrolled in our study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis was performed in 5 patients and anterior maxillary segmental distraction in 5 patients. The preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalograms were compared, and cephalometric analysis was performed. The independent sample t test was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 groups. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward satisfactorily. The sella-nasion-point A angles, nasion-point A-Frankfort horizontal plane angles, overjets, and 0-meridian to subnasale distances had increased significantly after distraction osteogenesis. Significant differences were found in the changes in palatal length between the 2 groups (P maxillary segmental distraction group. No significant difference in the changes in palatopharyngeal depth or soft palatal length was found. With the ability of increasing the palatal and arch length, avoiding changes in palatopharyngeal depth, and preserving palatopharyngeal closure function, anterior maxillary segmental distraction has great value in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential impact of personality traits on distracted driving behaviors in teens and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Morgan N; Ross, Lesley A; McManus, Benjamin; Bishop, Haley J; Wittig, Shannon M O; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-07-01

    To determine the impact of personality on distracted driving behaviors. Participants included 120 drivers (48 teens, 72 older adults) who completed the 45-item Big Five Personality questionnaire assessing self-reported personality factors and the Questionnaire Assessing Distracted Driving (QUADD) assessing the frequency of distracted driving behaviors. Associations for all five personality traits with each outcome (e.g., number of times texting on the phone, talking on the phone, and interacting with the phone while driving) were analyzed separately for teens and older adults using negative binomial or Poisson regressions that controlled for age, gender and education. In teens, higher levels of openness and conscientiousness were predictive of greater reported texting frequency and interacting with a phone while driving, while lower levels of agreeableness was predictive of fewer reported instances of texting and interacting with a phone while driving. In older adults, greater extraversion was predictive of greater reported talking on and interacting with a phone while driving. Other personality factors were not significantly associated with distracted driving behaviors. Personality traits may be important predictors of distracted driving behaviors, though specific traits associated with distracted driving may vary across age groups. The relationship between personality and distracted driving behaviors provides a unique opportunity to target drivers who are more likely to engage in distracted driving behavior, thereby increasing the effectiveness of educational campaigns and improving driving safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the benefits of distraction on product evaluations : The mindset effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerouge, D.

    2009-01-01

    Past research in consumer behavior typically assumes that distraction during the decision process needs to be avoided. However, a common piece of advice given to consumers who have to make complex decisions is to distract their attention away from the decision problem for some moments. The current

  10. Do as I say, not as I do: Distracted driving behavior of teens and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Bingham, C; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Almani, Farideh; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2015-12-01

    Driver distraction is an important contributor to crash risk. Teenage driver distraction can be influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of parents. This study examined teens' and their parents' engagement in distracting behavior while driving. Survey data were collected from a national sample of 403 parent-teen dyads using random-digit dialing telephone interviews. Results demonstrated few parent or teen sex differences in distracting behavior engagement while driving, or in their perceptions of each others' behavior. Parents and teens' frequencies of distracting behavior engagement were positively correlated. Parents' and teens' perceptions of each others' distracting behavior engagement while driving exceeded their own selfreports. Finally, the likelihood that teens reported engaging in distracting behavior while driving was more strongly associated with their perceptions of their parents' distracting behavior than by parents' self reports of their own behavior. These results suggest that parents' examples of driving behavior are an important influence on teen driving behavior, but potentially more important are teens' perceptions of their parents' behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Imagery-inducing distraction leads to cognitive tunnelling and deteriorated driving performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, G.F. Hole, G.J. & Land, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of imagery-induced distraction on hazard perception and eye movements were investigated in 2 simulated driving experiments. Experiment 1: sixty participants viewed and responded to 2 driving films containing hazards. Group 1 completed the task without distraction; group 2 completed a

  12. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  13. Can Ilizarov joint distraction delay the need for an arthrodesis of the ankle? A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; van Roermund, P. M.; Lammens, J.; van Melkebeek, J.; Verbout, A. J.; Lafeber, E. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    We applied joint distraction using an Ilizarov apparatus in 11 patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the ankle to try to delay the need for an arthrodesis. Distraction for three months resulted in clinical improvement in pain and mobility for a mean of two years, with an increase in the

  14. Exploring Factors That Influence Technology-Based Distractions in Bring Your Own Device Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Benzimra, Daniel; Li, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on distractions and the use of mobile devices (personal digital assistants, tablet personal computers, or laptops) have been conducted almost exclusively in higher education. The purpose of the current study was to examine the frequency and influence of distracting behaviors in Bring Your Own Device secondary school classrooms.…

  15. Circumplex Model of Affect: A Measure of Pleasure and Arousal During Virtual Reality Distraction Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharar, Sam R; Alamdari, Ava; Hoffer, Christine; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

    2016-06-01

    Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction provides clinically effective pain relief and increases subjective reports of "fun" in medical settings of procedural pain. The goal of this study was to better describe the variable of "fun" associated with VR distraction analgesia using the circumplex model (pleasure/arousal) of affect. Seventy-four healthy volunteers (mean age, 29 years; 37 females) received a standardized, 18-minute, multimodal pain sequence (alternating thermal heat and electrical stimulation to distal extremities) while receiving immersive, interactive VR distraction. Subjects rated both their subjective pain intensity and fun using 0-10 Graphic Rating Scales, as well as the pleasantness of their emotional valence and their state of arousal on 9-point scales. Compared with pain stimulation in the control (baseline, no VR) condition, immersive VR distraction significantly reduced subjective pain intensity (P anxiety, greater fun, greater presence in the VR environment, and positive emotional valence-were associated with subjective analgesia during VR distraction. Immersive VR distraction reduces subjective pain intensity induced by multimodal experimental nociception. Subjects who report less anxiety, more fun, more VR presence, and more positive emotional valence during VR distraction are more likely to report subjective pain reduction. These findings indicate VR distraction analgesia may be mediated through anxiolytic, attentional, and/or affective mechanisms.

  16. Indications of high levels of inattentive and distracted driving in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Road Traffic Management Corporation undertook a pilot study to investigate how prevalent driver inattention and distraction is in South Africa. Driver inattention and distraction is the leading factor in near-crashes in for instance...

  17. Validation of a Perceptual Distraction Model in a Complex Personal Sound Zone System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Marsh, Steven; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates a previously proposed perceptual model predicting user’s perceived distraction caused by interfering audio programmes. The distraction model was originally trained using a simple sound reproduction system for music-on-music interference situations and it has not been formally...

  18. Cost, operation and hospitalization times in distraction osteogenesis versus sagittal split osteotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijen, P. J.; Breuning, K. H.; Becking, A. G.; Perdijk, F. B. T.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis in 'common' surgical orthodontics is mentioned as an alternative for conventional sagittal split osteotomy. After a 'learning curve' in the surgical skills of distraction, the two techniques can be compared concerning time and cost aspects. Forty-seven patients (male n=28,

  19. Differences between Students with and without ADHD on Task Vigilance under Conditions of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peter; Randolph, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Distraction is a typical component of any classroom environment. For effective instruction and learning to take place, it is critical for students to eventually return to task and maintain task vigilance (i.e., returning to the task at hand) when a distraction occurs. Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by definition,…

  20. The strength of attentional biases reduces as visual short-term memory load increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, A; Astle, D E

    2013-07-01

    Despite our visual system receiving irrelevant input that competes with task-relevant signals, we are able to pursue our perceptual goals. Attention enhances our visual processing by biasing the processing of the input that is relevant to the task at hand. The top-down signals enabling these biases are therefore important for regulating lower level sensory mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined whether we apply similar biases to successfully maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We presented participants with targets alongside distracters and we graded their perceptual similarity to vary the extent to which they competed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the more items held in VSTM before the onset of the distracters, the more perceptually distinct the distracters needed to be for participants to retain the target accurately. Experiment 3 extended these behavioral findings by demonstrating that the perceptual similarity between target and distracters exerted a significantly greater effect on occipital alpha amplitudes, depending on the number of items already held in VSTM. The trade-off between VSTM load and target-distracter competition suggests that VSTM and perceptual competition share a partially overlapping mechanism, namely top-down inputs into sensory areas.